Report on Contemporary issues in management

Topic-: Glass Ceiling Submitted to-: Miss. Silky Sehdev Submitted by-: Varun Kumar Roll no. S1804B47

She motivated me & provided me with his able guidance. .Aknowledgement I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude to our respected sir. I spent lot of time collecting & analyzing information about given topic. I am extremely grateful to my parents who have contributed in numerous ways in development of this report. Miss Silky Sehdev. who is always a source of inspiration for us. I had fruitful discussions with my friends that have helped me a lot in giving the final shape to this report.

The "glass ceiling" is distinguished from formal barriers to advancement. and "glass" (transparent) because the limitation is not immediately apparent and is normally an unwritten and unofficial policy. Mainly this invisible barrier seems to exist in more of the developing countries. even though there are no explicit obstacles keeping minorities from acquiring advanced job positions ± there are no advertisements that specifically say ³no minorities hired at this establishment´. . such as education or experience requirements. This invisible barrier continues to exist.Preface This situation is referred to as a "ceiling" as there is a limitation blocking upward advancement. nor are there any formal orders that say ³minorities are not qualified´ (largely due to the fact that equal employment opportunity laws forbid this kind of discrimination. in whose businesses this effect is highly "visible". and open admittance of it is career suicide) ± but they do lie beneath the surface.

Preface 4.Contents 1. Introduction 7. Objectives 6. Refrences . Acknowlegement 3. Recommendation 10. Review of literature 8. Title page 2. Research and Methodology 9. Need and Scope 5.

Need and Scope Glass ceiling" is the term used to describe barriers that prevent women and minorities from advancing to management positions in corporations and organizations. The failure of more women and minorities to crack the upper levels of corporate management is due to the glass ceiling. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 created a Glass Ceiling Commission to address these inequities. . Statistics provided by the U. had done. created in 1989 by the DOL under the leadership of Secretary Lynn Martin. Department of Labor (DOL) indicated that only 2 percent of top level management jobs and 5 percent of corporate board positions were held by women as of 1987. The phrase was first used about 1985 or 1986. just as the Glass Ceiling Initiative.S.

the percentage of women and minorities participating in the work force has increased. this increase has been confined to entry level positions. while the middle and senior level management positions still reflect a shortfall of women.OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH Over the past 25 years. the objectives in our research are:- y To identify the status of women in the society as well as in the workplace. However. y To find out the measures to overcome with the problem of ³GLASS CEILING´ . So.

but cannot be reached by a section of qualified and deserving employees. thus contributing to gender barriers in the work place. golf). . and the network often tend to exclude women due to the nature of there activities or the perception that these are ³male activities´(e.g. For e. ethnicity.108) in similar settings.INTRODUCTION Invisible but real barrier through which the next stage or level of advancement can be seen.g. in 2002 the median total compensation of male CEOs in non-profit organizations was $ 147. political or religious affiliation.085 approximately 50% higher than the median total of female CEOs ($ 98. It is the accepted domination practiced by stereotypical society that makes a woman weaker not only physically or mentally as well. In general life if we will see then we will find countless studies and reports which have shown huge discrepancies in salary in favor of man even for similar positions in similar organizations. Women may not have full access to informal networks men use to develop work relationship in the company. The Glass ceiling exist when opportunities for promotions often favor men due to development prospects. and/or sex. Such barriers exist due to implicit prejudice on the basis of age. such as mentoring and networks. The term Glass ceiling refers to gender discrimination that limits a woman as inferior and is harassed by the society. This has a subtle effect that blocks her peace of mind.

considerable variations remain between women¶s share in different types of professional jobs. higher unemployment rates and significant pay differences compared to men. women continue to make small inroads into non-traditional fields such as law. Women are mainly concentrated in the ³feminized´ professions such as nursing and teaching (horizontal occupational segregation). although the extent of the problem varies from country to country. and engineering and there is evidence that employers are beginning to promote women more systematically and to introduce family-friendly policies in order to retain them. However.REVIEW OF LITREATURE:- Over the past 25 years. the percentage of women participating in the work force has increased. According to Linda Writh. GENEVA. The ILO¶s Global Employment Trends (2003) reported that women continue to have lower labour market participation rates. ³BREAKING Glass Ceiling through the Women in management Update 2004. where at the same time they remain in lower job categories than men (vertical occupational segregation). and from job to job. Women represent over40 per cent of the global labourforce. However. limited access to mentoring and female role models. information and communication technology (ICT) and computer science. she told that ³the overall employment situation of women has not evolved significantly since 2001. approximately 70 per cent of women in developed countries and 60 per cent in developing countries. There has also been little change in their share of professional jobs in the last few years. Women occupy around 30 to 60 per cent of professional jobs in the sample of countries from which new data were available. . not least of which are isolation. while the middle and senior level management positions still reflect a shortfall of women. this increase has been confined to entry level positions.7 per cent between 1996-99 and 2000-02. women who choose non-traditional jobs can face special constraints in the workplace. Cultural and social attitudes towards what constitutes ³male´ or ³female´ jobs result in occupational segregation1. However. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE. This represents an increase of0. However. and sexual harassment.

In this publication. Men tend to focus on earnings. Men tend to measure success by high salaries and important job titles whereas women place a higher value on their relationships with colleagues and community service. One of the first steps in determining what employees want in the work place is to determine how people define career success. the good old boy network is still pervasive. When deciding who to promote in these organizations. As far as women¶s share of managerial positions is concerned. women are often not even considered. According to Jan Tucker. Women are not given as many opportunities as men to do the more demanding responsible jobs. and telecommuting options for their employees which allows their workers to have a better chance of balancing their home and work lives.does it still exits´ The causes of the glass ceiling are varied. Others suggest that ingrained stereotypes and socialization cause the glass ceiling. Some employees who do not have family obligations may resent their company offering services that do not apply to them. The problem lies in the fact that not all employees want to work in a family-friendly organization. 2003). Women and men tend to use different types of measures when determining what makes a career successful. . promotional opportunities and success while women focus on positive interpersonal relationships and feelings (Powell & Graves. Women also measure success in the workplace differently than men. For example. women may choose to work fewer hours than men in order to spend more time with their families. which would advance their careers. These familyfriendly organizations offer options such as flex-time. women continue to be mainly concentrated in the ³feminized professions´. Despite small roads in non-traditional fields. in the article ³The GLASS CEILING. the ILO updates information on women in management with data available between 2001 and 2003. onsite child care. The overall employment situation of women has not evolved significantly since 2001. employee-assistance programs. Some suggest that the glass ceiling is self-imposed by some women. the rate of progress is slow and uneven. In some organizations. Some companies recognize that employees have a life outside of the office.

The glass ceiling may not be shattered for some time. Fortune magazine recently started publishing "The Fifty Most Powerful Women in American Business. by 2002 there were 6. arguing that they help to construct the glass ceiling. Seemingly supporting this declaration. as women of color hold only 1. This is particularly true in high technology companies where women hold less than 10% of executive positions. This is not surprising since women represent almost half of the workforce but comprise less than a third of the technology sector workforce. Serious . when the numbers are broken down by race it becomes clear that recent gains have primarily advantaged white women.7 percent of all corporate officer positions are now held by women. As women continue to push the corporate boundaries and engage in non-traditional work related activities. Video and teleconferencing has given companies the ability to offer alternatives to extensive travel but they will not replace face to face meetings for relationship building and contract negotiations. recently declared that "there is not a glass ceiling" in today's organizations. this paper examines Fortune's "Power 50" lists. CEOs of Fortune 500 companies in 1962." or the woman who acts too masculine. And while 15. Women comprise almost half of the business travel to the Asia Pacific region. Women have made great strides in knocking on the glass ceiling but have not quite broken through it yet.Extensive travel is another issue that women must face when considering executive jobs within an organization. but the there are more holes in it than ever before. Hewlett-Packard CEO." with Fiorina at the top of the list each year. "Not an iron maiden!" Kanter (1977) notes that one stereotype that working women commonly contend with is the "iron maiden. By positing that popular business magazines are part of the broader discourse in which organizations are situated. the magazine coverage perpetuates familiar stereotypes of women in organizations.6 percent of corporate officer positions. While the increasing number of women executives perhaps demonstrates progress. companies will be forced to recognize the value in securing a diverse work force. It is easy to jump to the conclusion that this is due to discriminatory hiring practices when it fact it may be due to a historically low interest among girls in math and science. Smaller companies are more likely to adapt to alternative methods as a cost saving measure. Women must still find a way to balance family and work life and deal with doing business in countries that might not be as receptive to women in top positions as the United States. According to ³Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling Without Breaking a Nail: Women Executives in Fortune Magazine's "Power 50" List´ by Sherianne Shuler. Carly Fiorina.

but there is no doubt that a greater representation of women at the workplace is vital today. According to Vinita Bhatia. At its third annual IT Women Leadership Summit in Bengaluru in November. Neelam Dhawan first heading the country's biggest software company. 2008 'Transforming Enterprises and Societies' Nasscom representatives stressed on the fact that ³workplace diversity in industry gives it a leading edge in the . ³Women are a key and vital part of our workforce. they would get married.´ he added. In an industry that has been largely male dominated. but not at the same speed as is seen in the rest of corporate India. women have been able to make a mark. The fact is borne by some numbers as well. which prevents them from reaching the top level. Women get so accustomed to their existing job role. is of the belief that gender inclusivity is a must for the long term success of the IT industry. in the article ³Breaking the Glass Ceiling´. on the other hand. In India. In China. Since our standard for what it means to be "professional" is a masculine standard. ³India will play a key role in future transformation.´ he claimed. Moreover the organization also has a feeling that it is not worth investing in because. The challenges might continue to exist. women comprise nearly 60 percent of the business leadership. she said that While corporate India Inc is increasing looking at having diversity in their workforce by placing women employees at key decision making positions. women who try to adhere to it risk being disciplined for going against gender norms. Som Mittal. the channel community has a lot of catching up to do. have a baby and quit. Microsoft and then moving on to be at the helm of affairs at Hewlett Packard. and the industry will continue to work towards creating a conducive environment and attract more women employees and leaders. Barring a few there are hardly any women who are in the key decision making positions in most big channel companies. Nasscom. Dhawan is just one of the many women who have become synonymous with the companies they work for. only about 25 percent of the business leadership comprises women. But sadly the same can't be said of the Indian IT channel companies in the country.businesswomen are caught in a double-bind. President.

Currently. and that. . when the data are controlled for relevant variables. In general.marketplace. The National Organization for Women (NOW). for example. it virtually disappears. a concerted effort will be made to convince women that they are victims of job discrimination. indeed. and (2) The so-called glass ceiling is more a product of relative ages and qualifications of men and women than of explicit discrimination. a constitutional initiative in California. and is therefore of even greater importance in these times of economic recession and slowdown. ³What Glass Ceiling? ± gender based employment discrimination by Michael Lynch that as the debate over affirmative action heats up. has made defeating the California Civil Rights Initiative (CCRI) its number one priority for 1996. and. Gender inclusivity is no longer corporate social responsibility but a business imperative. headed for the November 1996 ballot. The findings which are consistent in this article are: (1) The wage gap has been closing in recent years. threatens to abolish public-sector preference programs. we found that women's current economic position relative to men is more a product of individual choices than of third-party discrimination.´ According to the article. opponents of the initiative are appealing to women to oppose it. and such formerly non-political groups as the YWCA have joined the charge to defeat it.

nytimes.forbes.suit101. I have taken secondry www. SECONDARY DATA In the secondary research we had consider few articles which have describe the problem of the glass www.wikipedia. We have taken total 6-7 articles for our secondary research from the various websites: ANDMETHODOLGY In the research which i have done on GLASS . and the problems to overcome with the same.

7) Crack the Glass Ceiling: A new course is helping women overcome barriers to. 4) Breaking the Glass Ceiling. we had proceeded with our research. 6) Are women happy under the Glass ceiling. . With the help of above secondary details hub we have taken the concept of glass ceiling and the solutions to overcome with the problems of glass ceiling. 5) Shattering the glass ceiling: A strategy for survival.The articles which we had taken from the above websites are as follows: 1) Breaking through the Glass Ceiling without breaking through the nail: women executives from the Fortune magazine¶s´ power 50´ list. 2) The Glass ceiling: does it still exist? 3) What Glass ceiling? Gender based employment discrimination. Therefore with the help of both the data primary as well as secondary.

RECOMMENDATION As per the research we have done. They are becoming the competitors of men. And the result is that they are lacking behind in comparison with male society. The reason behind this problem can be a stereo type which was created traditionally in the mind of the people. For the improvement of the sector of women various researchers are working but as per our research we sort that there is also a need to look upon the following points that we are recommending: 1) Women have a right to come forward and take additional responsibility and prove themselves to be strong in every context along with the men. Traditionally it is being said that women are born for the welfare of the family. . this we have already discussed in the findings. to look after the children and their in-laws. that they will not be allowed to progress further. We are living in the modern world but then also we may found that many of the organizations are following the concept of glass ceiling. Men are categorized in the section of good capabilities and skills which are better then the women working in the organization. we had come out with many solutions to break the glass ceiling in the organization. Many women those who are good in their capabilities and skills are sealed in the glass. that the particular section of women cannot be develop. In this research we had recommend that there is a long way to go for the development of the women society. As per our research we had found that the area for women is also developing but not as compared to the men. It has become a prejudice against the women that they are not equivalent to the men. But the current situation is being changed.

4) Government should also take few measures to overcome with this problem. they have given some quota in different sectors like private and public as well) . 8) By providing more opportunity to the female section (govt. 6) Gender biasness should be eradicate and everyone should be aware about the consequences of the particular problem. 3) Management should support to the section of women in there development at the work place. had already taken the action regarding this. 7) More education programs must be their along with the women empowerment. and maintain the balance between there professional life and personal life.2) There is need to be more dedicated towards their work. 5) Government should start some awareness programs about the problem of glass ceiling.

written by µSherianne Shuler¶.suit101. on February 13.dqchannels.From American communication journal. By Hannah Clerk. winter 2003.based employment discrimination´ from Public By Mauricio Velasquez. Katherine´ website: on August 19. summer 1996 By ³Michael Lynch. written by µJan trucker¶. volume 6.from By Paul Gosling. ³Are women happy under the Glass ceiling´ from www.REFRENCES: ARTICLES: ³Breaking through the glass ceiling without breaking the nail: Women executives in fortune magazines ³power 50´.google.independent. ³Shattering the glass ceiling: A strategy for survival´ from www. .stopharass. issue 2. ³What Glass Ceiling? By Vinita ³The Glass Ceiling: Does it still exist´. ³Crack the Glass Ceiling: A new course is helping women overcome barriers to´ From ³Breaking the Glass ceiling´ from www. 2009.forbes.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful