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10

Three-Phase, Step-Wave Inverter Circuits

**10.1 SKELETON INVERTER CIRCUIT
**

The form of voltage-source inverter (VSI) most commonly used consists of a three-phase, naturally commutated, controlled rectifier providing adjustable direct voltage Vdc as input to a three-phase, force-commutated inverter (Fig. 10.1). The rectifier output–inverter input section is known as the dc link. In addition to a shunt capacitor to aid direct voltage stiffness the link usually contains series inductance to limit any transient current that may arise. Figure 10.2a shows the skeleton inverter in which the semiconductor rectifier devices are shown as generalized switches S. The notation of the switching devices in Fig. 10.2 is exactly the same as for the controlled rectifier in Fig. 7.1 and the naturally commutated inverter of Fig. 9.1. In high-power applications the switches are most likely to be SCRs, in which case they must be switched off by forced quenching of the anode voltages. This adds greatly to the complexity and cost of the inverter design and reduces the reliability of its operation. If the inverter devices are GTOs (Fig. 10.2b), they can be extinguished using negative gate current. Various forms of transistor switches such as BJTs (Fig. 10.2c), and IGBTs (Fig. 10.2d) can be extinguished by control of their base currents, as briefly discussed in Chapter 1. In Fig. 10.2 the commutating circuitry is not shown. It is assumed in the following analysis that each switch can be opened or closed freely.

Copyright

2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 sequentially at intervals of 60 electrical or one-sixth of a period. 10. All Rights Reserved. vBC. An invariable requirement in threephase systems is that the three-phase output voltages be identical in form but phase displaced by 120 electrical from each other. and vCN Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. A voltage source inverter is best suited to loads that have a high impedance to harmonic currents.1 Two Simultaneously Conducting Switches If two switches conduct at any instant. a suitable switching pattern is defined in Fig. 10. in the sinusoidal sense of summing to zero at every instant of the cycle.310 Chapter 10 FIG. 10.The waveforms of the associated circuit currents depend on the load impedances. Phase voltages vAN. The zero point of the dc supply is known as the supply zero pole but is not grounded. . 10. 10. The devices are switched in numerical order. Many different voltage waveforms can be generated by the use of appropriate switching patterns in the circuit of Fig. 1 Basic form of voltage-source inverter (VSI) [20]. 10. but it reduces the possibility of gross voltage unbalance. In each case the frequency of the generated voltages depends on the frequency of gating of the switches and the waveforms of the generated voltages depend on the inverter switching mode.2. From the power circuit point of view all versions of the skeleton inverter of Fig.2. The series inductance of such loads often results in operation at low power factors. The use of a dc supply having equal positive and negative voltage values Vdc is common. such as a series tuned circuit or an induction motor.2 are identical.3 for no-load operation. Inc. and each remains in conduction for 120 electrical. This does not necessarily create a balanced set of load voltages.2 STEP-WAVE INVERTER VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS For the purpose of voltage waveform fabrication it is convenient to switch the devices of Fig.

All Rights Reserved. Inc. . and (d) IGBT switches [20].Three-Phase. Step-Wave Inverter Circuits 311 FIG. 2 Skeleton switching circuit of voltage source inverter: (a) general switches. (c) BJT switches. (b) GTO switches. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.

Inc. . Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.312 Chapter 10 FIG. All Rights Reserved. 3 Load voltage waveforms with two simultaneously conducting switches. No load and resistive load [20].

2) vAN = I L R = +Vdc vBN = I L R = −Vdc vCN = 0 vAB = 2Vdc For each interval it is seen that the load current during conduction is (10. 360° 0°.3.4) are seen to be represented by the waveforms of Fig. (10.1)–(10.3 is given by an expression IL = vAN = (ωt ) = Vdc 240° 120° − Vdc 60° . and C of Fig.5) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Phase voltage waveform vAN in Fig. vAN = − I L R = − vBN = 0 vCN = I L R = v AB = vAN 2Vdc R = −Vdc 2R 2Vdc R = +Vdc 2R + vNB = vAN − vBN = −Vdc t 2 /3. (10. 10. Step-Wave Inverter Circuits 313 consist of rectangular pulses of height Vdc. Inc.4 ensues for the first half period.3) ±2Vdc V = ± dc (10. For this particular mode of switching the load voltage and current waveforms with star-connected resistive load are therefore identical with the pattern of the open-circuit voltages. 10. 10. 10. B. (10.1) In the interval /3 vAN = 0 vBN = I L R = +Vdc vCN = I L R = +Vdc vAB = +Vdc In the interval 2 /3 t . In interval 0 t /3. All Rights Reserved. .2. the conduction pattern of Fig. 300° (10. The potential of load neutral point N is always midway between Vdc and Vdc and therefore coincides with the potential of the supply midpoint 0.4) 2R R The results of Eqs.Three-Phase. If equal resistors R are now connected in star to the load terminals A.

9) ψ1 = tan −1 a1 = tan−1 (−∞) = −90° b1 (10.6) The fundamental Fourier coefficients of waveform vAN ( t) are found to be a1 = b1 = 1 2π 2 3 ∫0 vAN (ωt ) cos ωt dωt = − π Vdc π 1 2π vAN (ωt )sin ωt dωt = 0 π ∫0 2 3 Vdc π (10. 4 Current conduction pattern for the case of two simultaneously conducting switches: (a) 0 t 60 . . This has the rms value VAN = 1 2π 2 v AN (ωt ) dωt = 2π ∫0 2 Vdc = 0.314 Chapter 10 FIG. (b) 60 t 120 .7) (10. and (c) 120 t 180 [20].816Vdc 3 (10.8) 2 2 c1 = a1 + b1 = a1 = − (10. All Rights Reserved.10) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc.

12) This is found to have fundamental frequency Fourier coefficients of value 3 3 Vdc π 3 b1 = + Vdc π 6 Therefore. 10. 10. as in a balanced threephase system. 240° + 2Vdc 180° 120° − 2Vdc 360° 300° (10. 240° 60° .2 Three Simultaneously Conducting Switches A different load voltage waveform is generated if a mode of switching is used whereby three switches conduct at any instant. the pattern of two simultaneously conducting switches has only limited application. the load voltages become irregular with dwell periods that differ with load phase-angle.9) and (10. 10. or 1. The distortion factor of the phase voltage is given by Distortion factor = VAN1 VAN = c1 / 2 VAN = 3 π (10. Once again the switching devices conduct in numerical sequence but now each with a conduction angle of 180 Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. (10.2. Inc. the magnitude |VAB1| is 3 times the magnitude |VAN1|. .Three-Phase.3 that vAB1 ( t) leads vAN1 ( t) by 30 .11) Line voltage vAB ( t) in Fig. 10. This (2 3/ )Vdc fundamental component waveform is sketched in Fig. Because of this. (10. 10.3 is defined by the relation vAB (ωt ) = Vdc 120° .14) It is seen in Fig. Step-Wave Inverter Circuits 315 It is seen from Eqs. With a firing pattern of two simultaneously conducting switches the load voltages of Fig.9) and (10.3. c1 = Vdc ψ1 = − tan−1 3 = −60° π a1 = − The fundamental component of vAB ( t) is therefore given by (10. 300° 0.1Vdc with its origin delayed by 90 . 180° − Vdc 60° .13) vAB1 (ωt ) = 6 Vdc sin(ωt − 60° ) π (10. Instead. and comparing Eqs.10) that the fundamental (supply frequency) component of the phase voltages has a peak value (2 3/ ) Vdc.13).3 are not retained with inductive load. All Rights Reserved.

With equal star-connected resistors the current conduction patterns of Fig. For each interval.5. if the load neutral N is isolated. 10.15) FIG. At any instant of the cycle three switches with consecutive numbering are in conduction simultaneously. Inc. 5 Output voltage waveforms with three simultaneously conducting switches.316 Chapter 10 electrical. . 10. The pattern of waveforms obtained on no load is shown in Fig. I= 2Vdc 4V = dc R+ R/2 3R (10.6 are true for the first three 60 intervals of the cycle. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. No load [20].

Step-Wave Inverter Circuits 317 FIG.Three-Phase.16) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. Inc. 6 Current conduction pattern for the case of three simultaneously conducting switches. and (c) 120 t 180 [20]. vAN = vCN = vBN vAB I 2 R = Vdc 2 3 4 = − IR = − Vdc 3 = vAN − vBN = 2Vdc (10. In the interval 0 t /3. Star-connected R load: (a) 0 t 60 . . (b) 60 t 120 . All Rights Reserved.

360° 4 120° 4 300° 2 vAN (ωt ) = Vdc − Vdc + V − Vdc ° ° .7 that the fundamental frequency component of vAN ( t) is in time phase with it. 10. In Fig. vAN = vBN = vCN vAB 1 2 R = Vdc 2 3 4 = − IR = − Vdc 3 = 2Vdc t . the load currents. Although the no-load phase voltages do not sum to zero. (10.318 Chapter 10 In the interval /3 t . Inc.21) The corresponding fundamental (supply) frequency Fourier coefficients for line voltage vAB ( t) are given by a1 = 2 3 Vdc π 6 b1 = Vdc π Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker. The phase voltages are seen to be different from the corresponding no-load values (shown as dashed lines). 10.7. 300° 3 dc 60° 0. .19) It can be seen by inspection in Fig. with three-wire star connection.18) The load voltage waveforms obtained with star-connected resistive load are plotted in Fig. 180° 2 240° .7 the phase voltage vAN is given by 60° .20) Fundamental frequency Fourier coefficient b1 for the load peak phase voltage is found to be b1 = c1 = 4 Vdc π (10. but the line voltages remain unchanged. must sum to zero at every instant of the cycle. 10. 120 180 240° 3 3 3 (10. so that α1 = 0 ψ1 = tan−1 α1 =0 b1 (10. All Rights Reserved.17) In the interval 2 /3 vAN vCN vAB 1 2 = vBN = R = Vdc 2 3 4 = IR = − Vdc 3 =0 (10.

Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.7. Line voltage component AB ( t) is plotted in Fig. (10. Inc. consistent with Eq. Starconnected R load.Three-Phase. 4 3Vdc = 3 × the phase value π 1 = 30° ψ1 = tan−1 3 c1 = (10. Step-Wave Inverter Circuits 319 FIG. 10. 7 Output voltage waveforms with three simultaneously conducting switches. . 10. isolated neutral.22).22) The positive value 30 for 1 implies that its origin lies to the left of the zero on the scale of Fig.7. All Rights Reserved. No-load waveforms [20].

10.3 obtained with two simultaneously conducting switches.7 show that.943Vdc v AN (ωt ) dωt = π ∫0 3 (10. 10. and of three times the inverter switching frequency. as with a three-phase sinusoidal system. 10.21) and (10.7 that load neutral point N is not at the same potential as the supply neutral point 0. the distortion factor defined by Eq.320 Chapter 10 The fundamental components of the load voltages. All Rights Reserved. An alternative measure of the amount of distortion is by means of a property known as the total harmonic distortion (THD). plotted in Fig. (10. The properties of relevant step waves and square waves are summarized in Table 10. which is defined as THD = 2 2 VAN − VAN1 2 VAN1 = VANh VAN1 (10. a difference voltage VNO exists that is square wave in form. The rms value of phase voltage vAN ( t) is found to be VAN = 1 π 2 2 2 Vdc = 0.7). with amplitude Vdc/3 and of frequency three times the inverter switching frequency. c1 Distortion factor = VAN1 3 = 2 = VAN VAN π (10. was used in connection with the rectifier circuits of Chapters 2–9.7 has a slightly greater fundamental value (4/ )Vdc than the corresponding value (2 3/ )Vdc for AN ( t) of Fig.25) Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker.1. of amplitude Vdc/R. a neutral current will flow that is square wave in form.11) for the phase voltage waveform of Fig. The best known of the these. (10. waveform AN ( t) of Fig.3. While these points remain isolated. 10.23) gives the distortion factor of the phase voltage. 10.24). The switching mode that utilizes three simultaneously conducting switches is therefore potentially more useful for motor speed control applications. Inc.23) Combining Eqs. It can be deduced from the waveforms of Fig.24) This is seen to be identical to the value obtained in Eq. (10. the line voltage leads its corresponding phase voltage by 30 .3 MEASUREMENT OF HARMONIC DISTORTION The extent of waveform distortion for an alternating waveform can be defined in a number of different ways. . If the two neutral points are joined. 10. given by Eq. Although the distortion factors are identical. (10.

We will discuss this model in various circuits in this Chapter. 6. bipolar transistor.1 INTRODUCTION DC/AC inverters are a newly developed group of the power switching circuits applied in industrial applications in comparison with other power switching circuits. most DC/AC inverters are DC/AC PWM inverters in different prototypes. Nowadays. Triac. The corresponding equipment implementing the PWM technique has large range of the output voltage and frequency. Semiconductor manufacture development brought power devices. respectively) and so on. .Chapter 6 Digitally Controlled DC/AC Inverters As described in Chapter 3. High-frequency/high-power devices such as power BTs and IGBTs were produced in the 1980s. Square-waveform DC/AC inverters were used in early ages before 1980s. such as gate turn-off thyristor. Although choppers were popular in DC/AC power supply long time ago. power DC/AC inverters were used in industrial application since later 1980s. IGBT. BT. and low total harmonic distortion (THD). Due to the devices such as thyristor (silicon controlled rectifie . SCR) with low switching frequency. all DC/AC pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverters are treated as a first-orde -hold (FOH) element in digital control systems. MOSFET. in higher switching frequency (say from thousands Hz upon few MHz) into the DC/AC power supply since 1980s. the corresponding equipment is low power rate. Triac. insulated gate bipolar transistor and metal-oxide semiconductor fiel effected transistor (GTO. In those equipment thyristors. GTOs and Triacs could be used in low-frequency switching operation.

4. such as induction motor drives. 2. Voltage compensations. 3. such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs).1. Variable voltage/frequency AC supplies in adjustable speed drives (ASDs). 6. A large number of the DC/AC inverters were in the world market. Constant regulated voltage AC power supplies. 5. Finally. The mathematical modeling for all AC/DC rectifier is well discussed widely in worldwide. The power devices used for ASD can be thyristors. The DC/AC power supply equipment is totally changed. Single-phase half-bridge voltage source inverter (VSI) Single-phase full-bridge VSI Three-phase full-bridge VSI Three-phase full-bridge current source inverter (CSI) Multistage PWM inverters ASD Vi C DC link Rectifier Inverter IM Figure 6. 3. Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTSs). They are generally used in following applications: 1. synchronous machine drives and so on. From this block diagram we can see that the power DC/AC inverter produces variable frequency and voltage to implement the ASD. Active filters 5. 4. The typical block circuit is shown in Figure 6. and greatly changed the manufacturing of DC/AC inverters. These systems requested the DC/AC power supply with variable frequency usually from 0 to 400 Hz in fractional horsepower (HP) to hundreds of HP. Power IGBT was popular in the 1990s.Digitally controlled DC/AC inverters 163 DC/AC inverters are used for inverting DC power source into AC power applications. . Static var compensations. an FOH is generally accepted to be used for simulation of all DC/AC inverters. 2. The generally used DC/AC inverters are introduced below: 1. Triacs and GTOs in the 1970s and early 1980s. The corresponding control circuit is gradually changed from analog control to digital control system since late 1980s.1 A standard ASD scheme. Adjustable speed induction motor drive systems are widely applied in industrial applications.

g. . mf = 9). we list some parameters as follows: • The modulation index ma (also known as the amplitude-modulation ratio in Chapter 3): VC ma = (6.g. Generally. the mf has usually taken large number (e.1. we have shown some typical circuits below.1) V where VC is the amplitude of the control or the preliminary reference signal.1 Single-Phase Half-Bridge VSI A single-phase half-bridge VSI is shown in Figure 6. so that ma is usually smaller than unity (e.3 shows the ideal waveforms associated with the half-bridge VSI. and fC is the frequency of the control signal or the preliminary reference signal. As mentioned in Chapter 3. and V is the amplitude of the triangle signal. Multilevel PWM inverters 7. Generally.2 Single-phase half-bridge VSI. Two switches S+ and S− are switched by the PWM signal. In order to well understand each inverter.2) where f is the frequency of the triangle signal. ii Vi /2 C Vi N Vi /2 C S D a _ VO S D IO Figure 6. each capacitor keep the half of the input DC voltage. therefore. • The normalized carrier frequency index mf (also known as the frequencymodulation ratio in Chapter 3): mf = f fC (6. Soft-switching inverters. Two large capacitors are required to provide a neutral point N. We can fin out the output of the phase delayed between the output current and voltage.164 Digital power electronics and applications 6.8). ma = 0. Figure 6. The carrier-based PWM technique is applied in this single-phase half-bridge VSI. linear-modulation operation is considered.2. in order to obtain low THD. 6.

Digitally controlled DC/AC inverters 165 VC V vt 90 (a) S 180 270 360 on vt (b) 0 S 90 180 270 360 on vt (c) 0 90 180 VO1 VO Vi /2 vt 0 (d) iO 90 180 270 360 270 360 iO1 vt 0 90 180 270 360 (e) Figure 6. Figure 6. therefore. each capacitor keep the half of the input DC voltage. Four switches S1 + and S1 − plus S2 + and S2 − are applied and switched by the PWM signal. mf = 9).3 Ideal waveforms associated with the single-phase half-bridge VSI (ma = 0. (a) Carrier and modulating signals. The carrier-based PWM technique is applied in this single-phase full-bridge VSI. (c) switch S− state.2 Single-Phase Full-Bridge VSI A single-phase full-bridge VSI is shown in Figure 6.1. 6. (b) switch S+ state.8.5 shows the ideal waveforms . (d) AC output voltage and (e) AC output current.4. Two large capacitors may be used to provide a neutral point N.

(c) switch S2 + and S2 − state. (b) switch S1 + and S1 − state. .166 Digital power electronics and applications ii Vi/2 S1 D1 S2 D2 iO Vi N Vi/2 S1 D1 S2 a b D2 VO Figure 6.8. (a) Carrier and modulating signals. mf = 8).4 Single-phase full-bridge VSI. VC V 90 (a) S1 180 270 vt 360 on vt (b) 0 S2 90 180 270 360 on vt (c) 0 90 VO1 VO 180 270 360 Vi vt 0 (d) iO 90 180 270 360 vt 0 (e) 90 180 270 360 Figure 6. (d) AC output voltage and (e) AC output current.5 Ideal waveforms associated with the full-bridge VSI (ma = 0.

Six switches S1 –S6 are applied and switched by the PWM signal.6 Three-phase full-bridge VSI.1. The carrier-based PWM technique is applied in this single-phase full-bridge VSI. We can fin out the output of the phase ahead between the output voltage and current. Figure 6.6. We can fin out the output of the phase delayed between the output current and voltage.8.3 Three-Phase Full-Bridge VSI A three-phase full-bridge VSI is shown in Figure 6. 6. each capacitor keep the half of the input DC voltage. If the .1. We can fin out the output of the phase delayed between the output current and voltage.10. Each cell can be a single.or threephase input plus single-phase output VSI.5 Multistage PWM Inverter Multistage PWM inverter consists of many cells. Two large capacitors may be used to provide a neutral point N.Digitally controlled DC/AC inverters 167 ii Vi /2 Vi N Vi /2 S4 D4 S6 S1 a b c D6 S2 D2 D1 S3 D3 S5 D5 ioa Vab Figure 6. which is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. The carrier-based PWM technique is applied in this single-phase full-bridge CSI. 6.1. associated with the full-bridge VSI. therefore.4 Three-Phase Full-Bridge CSI A three-phase full-bridge CSI is shown in Figure 6. The main objective of these static power converters is to produce AC output current waveforms from a DC current power supply.7 shows the ideal waveforms associated with the full-bridge VSI.9 shows the ideal waveforms associated with the full-bridge CSI. 6. Six switches S1 –S6 are applied and switched by the PWM signal.

mf = 9). . (d) AC output voltage and (e) AC output current. (a) Carrier and modulating signals.7 Ideal waveforms associated with the three-phase full-bridge VSI (ma = 0.168 Vca Vcb Digital power electronics and applications Vcc vt 90 (a) S1 180 V∆ 270 360 on vt (b) 0 S3 90 180 270 360 on vt (c) 0 90 Vab1 180 270 360 Vab Vi vt 0 (d) ioa 90 180 270 360 vt 0 (e) 90 180 270 360 Figure 6.8. (c) switch S3 state.8 Three-phase full-bridge CSI. (b) switch S1 + state. iI S1 D1 a Vi S4 D4 b S6 D6 c S2 D2 C C C S3 D3 S5 D5 ioa Vab Figure 6.

. (d) AC output current and (e) AC output voltage. (a) Carrier and modulating signals. ii L D1 isa D3 D5 Vi /2 N D4 D6 D2 Vi /2 C C a b S1 D1 S2 D2 S1 D1 S2 D2 iO VO Figure 6. mf = 9). (b) switch S1 + state.Digitally controlled DC/AC inverters ica icb icc ωt 169 90 (a) S1 180 i∆ 270 360 on ωt 0 90 180 270 360 on ωt 0 90 ioa1 180 270 360 (b) S3 (c) ioa 0 (d) vab ii ωt 90 180 270 360 vab1 0 90 180 270 360 ωt (e) Figure 6. (c) switch S3 state.8.9 Ideal waveforms associated with the three-phase full-bridge CSI (ma = 0.10 Three-phase input plus single-phase output VSI.

11 Multistage converter based on a multicell arrangement. A three-stage PWM inverter is shown in Figure 6. 6. We can fin out the output of the phase delayed between the output current and voltage. Figure 6. The carrier-based PWM technique is applied in this three-phase multistage PWM inverter.13. Figure 6. We can fin out the output of the phase delayed between the output current and voltage.14 shows the ideal waveforms associated with the multilevel PWM inverter. The carrier-based PWM technique is applied in this multilevel PWM inverter.1. Therefore.170 Digital power electronics and applications Multicell arrangement n 3 C13 C12 C11 isa C23 C22 C21 VO21 VO11 AC mains Multipulse transformer Vsa C33 C32 C31 isa VO31 IM Figure 6. . three-phase AC supply is a secondary winding of a main transformer.6 Multilevel PWM Inverter A three-level PWM inverter is shown in Figure 6. all cells can be linked in series or parallel manner. Each phase consist of three cells with difference phase-angle shift by 20◦ each other. it is floatin and isolated from other cells and common ground point.12 shows the ideal waveforms associated with the full-bridge VSI.11.

(b) cell c11 AC output voltage. mf = 6). (c) cell c21 AC output voltage. . (a) Carrier and modulating signals.8.12 Ideal waveforms associated with the multicell PWM inverter (three stages.Digitally controlled DC/AC inverters Vca V V V Vca 171 1 2 3 vt 0 (a) 90 180 270 360 VO21 VO211 Vi vt 0 (b) 90 180 270 360 VO111 VO11 Vi vt 0 (c) 90 180 270 360 VO311 VO31 Vi vt 0 (d) 90 180 270 360 VaN 3·Vi vt 0 90 180 270 360 (e) Figure 6. (d) cell c31 AC output voltage and (e) phase a load voltage. ma = 0.

172 Digital power electronics and applications ii S1a D1a S3a D3a S5a D5a Vi /2 C Da S1b D1b a Db S3b D3b b Dc S5b D5b ioa Vab N S4a D4a c Da Db S6a D6a Dc S2a D2a Vi /2 C S4b D4b S6b D6b S2b D2b Figure 6.13 Three-phase three-level PWM VSI. = 1/f τ = L/ iO-k = iO-(k−1) (1 ± e−t/ iO-(k− = + .

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