!

L~17E IUA7~ U,,-~g,

P,jIGF·2

P.KA ,ri-5'UCUnU P,KiC"!iC.
F\K;C'f' p.Je~Qlbr'op"IFI

\.

\..

---

BrooW,se oUir w~ sil~ewith OVer t3/0i[) p'lioleins, ~nclud~ng rOO!Olrilflibinallllt oytQ.Ik~nes, glr'Owruh faclows. chemolkines ,and trleurotr,oiph~irls. Dail~ shlippi ngand competi~livep'r;fclr!g are oHered. BILlIIIk: quantitie!5 of ma.ny p:roteins Ollvailabl!e. IBiW.IElNS
.M~J:ll.
4·~eB: l!it_pt'ilf S,Ckloo' A.cAD~

!!V2Jl'
IL·21 IL·:22 IL.:31 Insulin

F'U::!F·1
Pol)!l1Wl!in P,HlAS40! B {f!iMB}

C[l95/.~lFa$ OMiFf
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~<in(j]

'Glf!lec~iI\i.s
l12i"'5Irol)1~$U!il<i1 CA

ODli0J3/IEndllg!irl CH!PS

113,01"'-2 ,G'OF·;S,
'G'DF·!9' 'G'DF'·1'I 'G'DNIF ,(j'LP·1

IP·H~ .DE .Dt'lJK8'.al .)Ir,!,Ilil::?.a2 KG! C:XCILJ ~G!f ~"a~af<'il91 f'!<l!l~ !!.AJGi"'11 lA.1Lf FleptKt-e'
lA.1R·PTP lIBP

PRl-1 P,Al-2~ P,Al-3
P.I\O'li:iiIil~tJcli'H;'! P~(:lin Pr(i1ir.e~ii'i

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PTp·.Ji!'!2:

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-

A A~n~
1\.0"11"1 AIDAn

MiI:I~l'!ec'ilTl AOAF>
AiIJRI!. AI!ct1
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Di$iliIM.e O~IJ!iloo:ldUJOt:ilisa ~"i~iI;!""liiI

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e

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EM~·II EN..I!oo·7·e.rCXOLS
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t

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I!-!OG·1 I!-!G,I"
Hlstd'i'~tAINA HIS1ir911n HRGll'i111 syIlIl1'iutaso

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M'cP·S M Q!C f6"lIill,a.} M nc ~!39lUI.)

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!\.y!Qf"aA

Eo!axin I CCU 1 Eio!a!!dn.,::l! Eataxin-3 (IiSCI
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11-1300

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AluItli1!. EI

Ei#F BNF Ifle~pt~J ec.M !BlICl C):)CU3 OClrM
Eill)·t

Ep~rDiim:!e
Erk,2

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MBk·l
MJA Mjd~linEI

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E)tOd!u~ Fa5iL!giiiild Fa~,FIJ~p~r FGF·1 l(ilc:J)dIIe'J FGf'·2 (ba !!i~)

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11"!'Ii,Omil!g8

MIG ICXCL9 MIP"1~fCOl.J

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M!P,3'CC~3 M IP·3!:!, J CQ!..20' MIP.3~! OOILtEi M 11"·4 ~PA!RC) J CCIL:~a: MIP ..S I CCIL15 MMP-3 M1II'IP·7 MMP·13, Myost:lUn

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TfII,JJ1".,r:c

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l3!o'NF
Jr,~I~Ii~ifil!
8lvalffu,;;jilil

~!MP·11 8!MP4
6!MP.e

FGF'·4 F'GF·!i FiGf'·(l

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I:Gf'BM I:GfBp..,a 1:Gf'BIl4

BMF'·7 EliMP-13
5leMP!R'1IA eaI!~n Ne_'.!'~!.IJ'a'iK; Pir,g~!'lln 81RAK B:r.ms'! T!lIf1Ilo~AntigllJl C5a 0!:!1Jl: lPl3pnlde

FX$f'.';j!' f 1m1F' FiliiF·e FOiF'9 FlG~"1'O

TIr!JF·~ 8,m F·r~09,f}'tOr Typg I si"Ii11IJF-ra~ l'yp! II

tGFB~·5 r:G;f' Bi?·7 11."~f,l ~1.·1 p, iLc2: IloS: 511.-4 Rllctlplm' l'lA'~
sl b·iI~1 gcepa R .ll·1 I.L~~{12 ~,;;IJ tL.J;Ii (77 £lI,.a,)

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!;!FGFA·' ~[jj~} I f",·Q!1i!!l!~1i! 5!FilSFA·2 ~llIc) I FeCllimera 'iiFiI3f·R·3/1)',,", Glllf1lltirtl, sl'(3FR·4·IIF~ ChJliflora sF~·1i (~Il¥lI~ sFg~·" (D3}

FGF·19 1"<31"·20

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u-e

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\!'.I~jG'F~.21 \I'I~G'P~4i5, V.~I3!Pi'a5, Vl~)G'F·!C V,El!!i'F·!C U25 VIElG'F-E H,&VEQiF·E

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Oii!!i;lii1odit! !l)~9~ Oi!I!mot!ulln oal"~oninAOOlBiOO

sFi~' (04)
sFar·ll (OS) sFWl (07)

u-s

IL·W
JL·11

Oiirbgnl~M~rase 11111 Carcln1P8 m bt)lOO~ Aoo'g~ n Cml:iilolroplillln·'t
O;;!S:p€IiSlI3-:8

FUt.9 • .JLjg~n.~

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F:S~'

:;;Rl"~ I Fe Clf!rmara
FQ!!~tM Frat;:18lk[M' , CX3C

11.-1:11 LI.·~;;J 11.·1 S ~D1!E!!09 HAS
IL·1 12'~IlJ,I!.l' IL.·'~6, ~100 ,a,d.l' 1L-17 1l.-17B

C:lis"pa'SOll.;i3: OD4

e~

0014 aD2~
OD40 ~andll

('J·GS!" ~·Glllkl.~tm:ld~' iMIF'
S:akidln·~

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mOR O~eii'l ,pSa'a PAII~~ P,lll"Uil.yroid lHI~rIDOf1l'~ POO,F~AtI POO'F·AB P[)G,F~B~ PDG;IF~Ci(; P'~r5eplf!!n
PF,,~, PIGF·1

~V,EG'rn·1
$iViE'Gi'ffi'2

sMEQ'FR-3
\I\1sfatllil

Wd!S~"11 WilS~";I! W~SF'-3
WiNH

11...170

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1 I

IEMAIL lin~o@ooIlSQ1Elm:;es.Gom

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Gil: l-iIedtlilcore 6 itl-..5de!lCe_!;; AB.. I;! IGenergl E!eWi~ i(gm,p~:y, ejCH'~,911U11'I 3,0. 751 Bl'l I!ppsEII'!l], s.wedE'f1' !O 2007 GeAefll1 Eleari~C~.rr1pooy - A!~ri~m.r~dl

GU~ -4)17. st. ~mn<.ed1(Ji7l.NJ01, fir

!DEIPA.R:TM~ENTS
Red l!i:d@, lllu~ moL@(ular
[O~

of a 'ffami~ly

of red tide toxins can be syn~hes:izOOIby hea~illg a precursor of linked ri:ngs
~@po:ddes:)n wate~ which prmnot~s. i
a Giscading lrallwfornlatnon that prodUl'~S the rha ract~rfi5tl:c ~;:IiJd@r~slhaed motif. p These results ~1 hili 9ht water's dramatic ig eff,'ect$ on re,Q,(tivi[y and selecUvity iln

11 39 SciMIC1f 'Online 111411 TMsweek lin 5d-encl? 11,47E.dli~Oii'5' Cliloi<ce:
1150Co.l1Iltacl Srie.iiJre 11' 5" Rtliltil.dlom Samples; 11 53: ~\h;WS!fflaker5 1184AAAS N'eW5 & Notes 1237 N'e~y I~'ro(h.!cts 1238 Sdeil'!c~ [afieer'S

organic reactions" See page 1189"
'ha/a:Pet,e Atkim!l)nlG;fl'tlyrmillgi~J:

EDIITOIR~AL
11 45 Mi~d GrillI.
by fJ(j(wM Kel1l1edy

NIEWS OIF TIIHIEWEEK
T~'xa5 Vio<tf2,rs A5~ed to. .Approve Calli (lew initiativE'

:53 BiilHorn

1154 1155 1157

illhl@

fermllab

IPmpo.seso Wav Stat.]'QiJ1<m the ROad

to the~IK
SYflt~~E!:\lns. Ml.rnks, ~alhual. Cralft~ma rI'!ijh~p ;.... R'esffirrh Mr,k p. lJ89

IRislks:a n d Ad v',] nlt,a'ges, o,'f IFm l!'IIif~li'IgSdel1i Oil! ,E.,M. H()ll~mJ; A. Pleasant; S. Qvotrof10; It ,Gerst lRe5pcml~e M. C. N~'sbef and C. M'ooney lJItndewgrad'~late Edll.!(attkl!1 ]11]orrda!]1 R. Dojo,nl Il[)ilIta·Dr~veirl! Mu:caition Resealf(j] ,It'll, ,I\'ll,. (ooper
CORRE[TIIOlrl!.lS AII1\IIIlCILA.RIIFH::AnONlS1170

11 68

SC lileN Cf!:SCOP E Wmate Change: ] udgle Orders MariE! Tinne~.y U.S. Itepor~s U,.s". Al'nllllOlJll1lfdElSecQV'f!lry R
~t3111'1 fOlr

1157
1158

a Gllmst Bi'~d1

1158
115~

'fh'e' Origlmf!5 of Genome Ar(rnnli~ec~~re1172 1iW" lym:/~ feW ewe'll by M'.,. Pi,g.riucd

Nel1'IIMi5('Ofldu:c~ Ru~e5 ,Ajm to Minfritertoan Ai~i119System

American Hegemo:~ and the' Postwalr
j", Krige,. revlew,ed b yl.. -P: G(JutJilti€r€
1~e,CIOIiIIS:tructi:o:l Ol~Sd~n(t! in Eur,ope

1173

NEWS IFOCUS
]neir IPrdme, and Dyil1g of Cal1cer Asia IfI IPQ.\'i'e,rs· heetfe rthe Moon 'W'Vt~ OrbUi,rIl,g S R~s e.al rch Missio IfIIS
h'l Murilelr in M~soPQtam~a?
:>-~

1160 1163
1164

11172
IEng~f1:ee!l']n,gIIEdliiC,Djtiol'n R~s!@ar(hAidsln~tmdioJ:lI

N. L FlDnefiberry et

at.

1175:

~revio p. 1.188

PERSP'E:CTIVIES
M,app~l"IgrlheItuth's Engll'ile W. ,F, McDonough Il?tij:\I'alc~by l[liesign G.{jIj(Jcan mi RNIAs, in INeurodegeneraHon S. 5. #ibert (wa S. Df! 5fto oper » Report reo U 20 Gettingl IION!A.oo Um'JIi r:lld lil, ,f; G"eQtgr5Ct.i end M, O'i)'01Jneil
» R~porr~flfJ. l'?':W:'fillHi
1213

lD:o<ili'1UJBattle

\Mth lhe 'Green MOll1lster of Iaihu Lake

1166
1167

1177 1178

S!ientlS ts Seeki ng ~e'llj,f:rlll:l<mes·for 0 rb~ti Illig (lfm(ljh~' emolrs. S

1181

follymer Their.] pe'u~i('s K. L Kiick

1182

C.QNTENJrT5

00 ntii"llJed

»

1133

What makes a first-class
news story?

CoWlstalrll(JeH!o'~den
lO(Dil! Naltiol"la~ Me~tal~ HelOlllitli'l.sscda1iOllll: Medii!. A:.nrlmj

Richard I:<e:~r
A~rd,

GoUin :Norman
Sd~'lI'GermaglOlzillle
N!ews IEditoir~

,oM.mll:i[·tcl'lI: Piil'titic Se:wiCie

2!OO6 Goo'logiC(ll~ S oci~ly

,~E!'IilrnwferGo ul:drn
Ar!Jd.es

i~I The Be~t AmeritCa IiII Sdeliloo W'~rl:ill1!g :2.00,,. and :m05, 2003: Evert C!~amk/Se~~ IPaYl1e, A1;!taifd fQrYo'i:n!li1g Sdenc:e!
jioIWllrnal~i~ts .

s,etl!!Cl:ed 'for i~ncl,!!!lisiuon

A first-dsss editorial, teem. Jl;,ward·wirming
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Science
DEVIELOPM E NIAL
"JI.!'WW,SC!

CONTENTS

BIOLOGY

en cexp !'ass. org

'[arge~ Pretectors .Rev-edit[)ampenfng

snd Bahn(,inQI of Nlodall Agon~ls:t

ATiMOSIPHEAIC SCIIEN!CE 'm'l1)~vaud lDired. Me';\}suw~ment of A'tnmQsphernc[1iJlIde:at1ioml M. Kuimaia e'l aiL A 1l![b'iqj~~~;()il.!S:pool. (If 1'I:~'ll!tri!t Iii "i1r:J:meter-~i~e~p~rt[dE! !i::lll! ~t~rs domif!.a~ process: of ,,~ro!ict forfl1ati!·oo O'Y.eW IJllin::<llJ'Or@sts.

an d Amlta'9IiQllllis't lby mi 1~-430 W; -Y" [h(}i~ A. t. Gitafde'Z, A.. F. SChie'l" Pi: lilooel tech IIml[ogy~o d~),rI!Ip'trnillR:M,I\-'J:Ill illte radionl5 rfvBiJls that :'iam~ milUM.5 ~'NiA m ~y na ~r<e~ afllilgoll1~'tt~~ dE!Vel.(lp:n~enHll reQl!!ll{llQF}.
s Ut'll! EVOlUTirON

10.112 61scien(ie.1147 5,35

Wide,.) pr:~,ad La Lt!ra.l 'Geltii~ira fI~fe~ from ~ItiJ'~lra'Jr:t! LarBacb:!'r~o1 t'O, ~llij MOlECU LAR BH,)lOGY

IDe.met'hylau]o n of ~ 311K2 IReg!.! lates IPotYQO mb R.e!(lrlLliil memua'l'lIld 7 IIHII,2'A biqlu mtti!Hlltion U M. G. Lee et at
TIile histone IHl3lysilne-27 dl~methy~:5e~n hmnantSl1[Jls
beelill idMmied.

j. C. Dlmning Hotopp' et at G~n.e'trons!'@rrromlhe >ymb.j,ol111: WGllb{l!chJc '00 difrlHI1!f!t spOC'i@s,of hOSits"im:tlldjn9 iln5ioctH~l.d n~~aklde~. i,~ fOl!lndro e filcoml~i;liSIHI r!'Iif'lge of genes:. S(lJ(1 corn pr'il~ Ingl ~
ilIbmOl5tthe' e rr~.n:~ '£Ienome.

.M,[JJ~t.i)c il.[u la r iEuka liYotes: e

10"1126/~denc.e.U4~042

TE:CHNIICA.L C,OMMIENIT ABSTRACT
ASTRONOMY

R:E:SEAIRCH ,ARTII'C:lIE
CHEMIS1RY

Comm'ewnt 'on "Deep 'Ittbdll'9 (!J'T~llHl]e::RecQ!lIcilingi B~.g Ba rll!garad :S~elila r U!J ui(ileosyntlh eSl1ls" .D.S~ Balser, R'. t: Rood. T. M'...BtJ{1~(1
full
le.lft allf1Nw. H1t'IICeffl(l9.

1170

1~;pol(icle·Olpening I. Vilm.ifev,k and

r. F. )or1Jison

Cascades,Promo[ed

by WilJ1!:er

i 189

wg;'9i1'iJmentljlJllI31

7!5.tJ421l J 70b

B!RE'v~A
AN.THROPOlOGY

Waleu near pH 7 fm:Hiit.:lles a series of rin!Ji·oi~~n:i'n9mac:tiCl>n5 tihfllt yielld i'l mrllillex toxilii pITl(hJ'(~ ln redtiides, i'l mm:tOClfiilihalt. bas pro'Y'E!'Il e~UlSii\!ie-ill1 Of9J~ n1,( s,oJti!r@ril s, » J\fj!'~ 51&)' p. 115.7

IEad'VUrban Development: in~~e Near Eas~ J, A. Ur.. (1; .Kor:sgoard, ), ,[},(1 tes

1189
AS1Fl 0 INOMY

The di:srnlbmlCDI1I of .i3innfact~ f(nm::!innorlhei31~'lceorlil Syria indi(!IIte5 that a la rge III rb [In ,[Ire.;!e:d5,ted tihere [lUhe tij me tnatlhe Hr5t dtie~ ~ppellmdi illil slJillfhE1\rn Me:5~P;Ut.1i mia,
»News
;HJ)lytl.

1.164

AHv~1I1 Walv,es i ~~.@ So[ar (0 rona! 119.2 5 .. Tomczyk st illt A dI]stincUype~f lj)~sma 'I'Ioiil~ is seen pr'Op~g;Jtll1igl u.pM'ilard ~Pllrotlt~ ~~~r ((If(lJiloi!,. b IJli~ ~rlelrgV t~~ ml~u:l~lc,j'~i1l 'kI'~xp\ai!1 hOMl~he oor(lU liS;beat~d M) mmku1is of d~gnee5:"
11"1

PHYSIICS S'i:l.IP~;n:OI11 uctil1l glnter~a(es d B!!!uween i 19.0 :~ ii'lSilillatilrn.g OXl:des, N. Reyren et aL ne l:rn~d.1lC~ or lJ,ll'(l o ...fd~qli sul.a~'o'rs;.~_AI.o~a rid SrT~O,l;' becomes l $u.p~t(lm:ll!lctif'lg at .200 luillikelvin,.
A PPU ~ ID PHYSI CS I~ar,ge'Mfllg!fll!l~ti( .A11i1~iso~mpy (!f~131 ;il:1lg~~ to.mk S A

:Spifll

1199

Emb,edded in as!l~t*ace MiOl[eclilalw Ne~work

C F. Nirjibehedl1n ret a L
The ti lID a 5<Gll'lni ng~lJrmeling mkm:O>I:.o'.pe can be 11J5000 to, place ,of ~rmdi~~idlJ!i.!~~rolll.alnd fIfI.iln9aJlles'Nli~llm!jOI'l il'Cllippe:F~llm ;lIl'1dform

lang!!! atoillilic"'5Gal~ mt'l'gMJtk 1III'iisolnoPlli!S,.
CHEMISTRV

Cu rfe,rl!~- h1ld ~I(ed Y"(lilr(i19~fIJlWi3J1I,i ~'rizMi,on H tu m iIIlIiiIIG('Qml,lIdamce' SVII1i'l.:clndingi ~ Nlalp~hth,]jILocyan'iIFile o
MQle!(uh~:s
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1.203

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:5CIIIENCE VOl317

31 AUGUST 2007

1135

Whenl it comas to job satisfaction.

We're off the charts

D'iscovery of ,Anltiibody Biomlaril<ers fDr Cancer ,and Autoi1mm une O'i'sease
1P,a1rfb:mp'!;litiing IE'XlpelJ1S,~
1Enlg'M,.r(lillil" ,M..I.,
Y~I~ IJ,ni!le,~ly Iwltrog.ei'il
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Jloil'lllnJIlI' pa,i11:e:t (I,f @iXP@'111:s til:;

.,..tearn aboutjhe promise of'auto-

M~~haeil Snyderr~in.D" P
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COf!POr.Ii~joll

ModeiraJtur~
Sean Sanidell'SlPhi.lil. COOllme:rciail ,E~iJ:!l'!:l~i' Sde-nee

.a1'11[iibocUes as b~omarkersrnr cancer a nd a ILl to~mm ILl rte d'S!e'ase. ... Obtain i~ls~:gihit how to advance ]f]to YOIU, r biomarker d~s(ov~:lry resea rch uS'j ng pmtt.eom~(Sapproaches, uW proteln arraysto biomarker d~'s((}v,eryin ovarlan can..cJ2f.

To,'V~E!W on dEHiI1BfilJd:l g:o~o www~sciien[el1lalo!Of,llwebinaf

110'

Hear a b ou t successlu IIep plication
WebinalrsponstOr,ed by Inv~Cl'ogen

CONTENTS

I

IR:E.PO'RTS,
PlANETA.R¥

CONTJNUED. ...
~ 0 LEe ULAIFIL 8110 lOG"!

SCllENCt

Coupled IFerrf:cO.:llides, aJ'r:lldS,YI:fab~s· on the' l.~f'. Bivfing et at
M~rtia.1i'lSl!r~ac'e~
Sateliliite' ohservatio:1U sh O't'l.lthat ,(lx.·idi:i~!t:!d mll lllii.ner.a!l"li3I~ pe.,alf k

1206

St'r~mdl-I3·]ased· din iQ,'f Mutations 50.mati, HypefliifHJtail _"
S. Unniram,fH'I and D. 6. :Sch'ou
The rIllfl:aHons that lIJ:11de~I.tE!, antihody diversity

[:iIUiril'lg

1227

·[lire ~,eEi[ed by

~ith .5tIJJ:a:t~ 'iJep,ol>rts.][I andent rocb mli Man, :;ugg.e~ltirtg that .illl:idk gm!llllidJ.llal~er IlEH'!;'aaeiiJ several.ooglion1i. PLAiNETAR'Y SCIENCE upled tFerr~c O:ddes ilili1ld s'u Uabes on til e 1206 WtarUa'l!'llS:ur~au:e j" -Po Bibrifig f~ sl. Soilteliliite'obseMtj;ons; ~haw that,oxid~z.\:d lfO~ mlinera1s~ppeaf I!tith ~Ua:1!edel)'05it5; f,nalilcij'~ntrocrts O~ M~r~, $llggesting that addle Igf(lt!nqj~.1lJ~(l1 p~Nad~,(j s;~llfal.lJ'\QgriOt!iiS;,.
(0
STI'lUCTURA L IEUOLOGV

e fror'lPrOJl~ DNiA r~Ii'<INtrig'gered In. uhe ~ootem.pla1e .ONAs:tra:nd burll110,ti nih.!:! temlJi,CI~ie st~a~ ti.
MOLECULAR BiOLOGY

Sua fl,dl~B.]a$ed S:pweadin 9 of Mutatlon~ Dun ng

H-y:pe;rm ut.3lti,on s. tJrwimtrUlIl anrID. G; Sc/la:tz
SCl'Iilnatic

1227

nil ml!ltatio!1'nh~t UIIi1,(jerl~' i1.l'ltlbody (fl\l'er$Hy~re Cffa[ooby e rroJ·IP~O·l1~ ON\A. n;!p~k trig,gfm~diiil U'le rIIo·ntem pta~.e'lJNA~~ra'nd bUil filoll in the 't'elDl Illarbe millllid.
N EU ROSCIEN C E

tR:,epliai'~i ()iri g~illiil RecogJlili1h:l111la rid tD~fG Oil rmaticn b1y ,11 He,terodimeliicAn::hae~l. On:l Complflx E L. C. {)ueb(f,~]. E. [om, S. D. ,B(frJ~.J'. M. Berge!

1210

Stn.u:tu rail. iBasl:S, olf 'DNA tlil:epU(;ati em Ori g~ilt1ll 121 tRA~coglnit~;oJ'il'Ol/' an ORe Pr(),tefrl M. ,(5aufiier. {Pi. S. Schuwirth S. l. INesocott; 0'. B. lWig'ley TheDINA-bl:nmcl ~:rl!l(~ures of M,Q p:roOO'inra(~lJr$·thatin iliat~ DNA r.(\p'l~(ii'iti(D11i ~nlau:ch,C1ea s·no'i\l how they drml1l,[l lic~lly dl'iorm thE! DNIA duplex, primiing it. fOI" 1IIliwindi~QI.
;>-> PerrPf}.dlVl

:3

Local~izalUon of a Stable 'Netlral CrmelaJtle oii 1230 A.5$oc:ialiw Mem,ory t. 6. Reijme(5~ I'" L PertLns, N .. Ma(511o~ M.Maylord The n~L1f(li1~~c,tivc¥ood ili'! the gli:li!Vgdi3li:l wh~1'I(I mou!>!';! ~~~nas to'r@glr a ~a,r~cliJta r Il!(J(ajti~!Il al~ ,a1$:Q a clfr",aMd w:~~r!t~€ imoWS!';! recalh. '~ha~fear.
EC,OLOGY

P.. J. C. OIiil.~i.mI@tflil.

La ndl-U

se

AL~ocat~'onl~'ro~eds.t hie I

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1233

p. 11B1

STR:UCTURAL

'8;10 t.;OGY

S~l'l!cturf' ,~f'a TYlrosine PIhQ':sph,a~aJs.e.Adheij'l,lle tltllml~~ra lio. n Re\!eals;a Spa.c!er-(~~Jmp Me (:na ni sm C ii. ,Fl.Arices(u etal,
Between ;ad herlingl (ell~. pai'rs. oflyr,o)'ine 'phO~phiJtil~e05,Qll;e p'ratmail191 hoom i8<lIicnadl. and eqUlal~n: l~ngtn t(), the s,p~ce b~I!l\i~~1'I t ~~If!t pos;itiol'l ea:dfi phosphate! ~ Ii)~arits ~gJbs'lfateMOLECULAR BIOLO'GV

1217

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A.NUcro!RNA. F,eedbarck Ci rcuiti n Midb uililil
li)apamilnu~' N.eUlra,I'1lS J. Kfm eta l, l!.~kmRNA5 <Ire rrequired f(l~th.e< maruraltiill'l ,,~i!jbfo/lln do,.palfilliine !leurom., and :to:5SO 'Gf IlIli~y Ill1de,r'~il! Pa,rkf !'ISlJfJJ' sodise:as!!!.
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1220

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il P mUculaf

m~RNA.

PetlpfmJ'IIt' p, 1179

MOLECULAR

BIOLOG),

Ca.p·~lll'Illde;pendent Tl!'o3Illf!Ilsiatiol1! Reqlu~r,ed fo~ Is
Staniat~:OIi'iFI du(.edi [Hff~M il"iltialtlioni il"ilYea $.1 n W V. Gilhert. K. Zho,tJ. T,. K.BurJer, I. A.. Doudna
U [:lIOIl:sttlrli~lthJIi1. ~n:iti!'<1l ollfilo:llaUng cl rniRN.A~rOrIII0111 @ndl e

1224

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tr~1'I5.taJl~ 'S(lQ'N~ mlRNtls f~g[Jil iI1Mtr!al'~l'!'try

sites.

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SClttENOE

VOl317

31 AUGUST 2007

AmpiificaUon

Join now, find your perfect match, and a[mplify your expectetons atprCIRMatch.oom,

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o S~mlp~y ROX.

SearchIng for' the Petect Match?
Find the reagent that bes: reflects ]loor needs among tile fuN line of Bio-Rra;d amplification pmduc.1.s. e,io~Rad is (;,ommiUed~o prov~dingyou wi'~hthe best to(l~Sfor your PC:R. and rlea!~tlme. e[F! p needs ..Iln,is, dedi.cation is pr,orvenby our h~storll {')~~tu'lO'Vatllo:Ifl." qualil1y,andi re'gaJd for re!sean:::ners' needs.

,. Perform oamptex PCR a.nd qPGR witll1minimal optimi~81ti;on time usingl ,eoUlers'fail ~nnov9ltiv,eefilzymes~h8!t work wll'1,er
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~:mpro\l'erelliaoi[lity by

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BJo-Rad afferslbe F'I'lICiSl OOf1l11I'ele Or reegienlsror line IrtMlrse 1ransMpt!on, PCIR. and real-liime p.QR,

• R:BC61ve dedrGa~edtecihl1i'ciEli supportfrorn

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SCIIIEINCE 'CARIEE,IRS
'I,I'lIWi.v.scie-n(eCaf,~efS,Qtg CAREER RESOURCES HJR ~m.NlISTs,

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SellEN CE S STKE
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trou blU I1Ig (allnl(~r stfl USi~ij($ fOlr

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:5CIIIENCE

VOl317

31 AUGUST 2007

_U!l_.J!I~_IN,._
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EDITED ,6'¥ STEILLA 'HIURTlEYAND' PHil SZURCI.MI

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M,olle,cular Switchii ngl

via Hlydrog,en HOIPpin'g
L~rg'~d~!al~,gesi!:'11 (onfQrlm!l'!'alti(!~. can b~ 'e'xp~(ted to dll~n'ge'
the (:om:h.lctivi~:lt ai~a molecule: in deviice appUcaUon:s; Simlait ch t1l1f1g@s n he<lp m ~]ntai n geo metties f.a,\I'·Q (a rabls for bCHllcHlII1g'llhe molecule te its contacts or al~,lowll1f1,git to
ifil:tera(:~:

LiU'f!r~th et 6.1., (P'·,lL2 (3)' sh ow ~h a:~the p osition of the two inte:nnall1illd HI·' gen atioms. m11~h,8! inWie~' caivity Oi~ free~b:as@ naIPil1i~h1illlo(ya~

'!,!lIltn

oi~h,@r:5wih;:i'1dll~,g molecules.

nine
lions

lliIfiIlo~e'cul,es·can be's'Nit)che,d under 'ryo'genic ,ccl'I1idi· us.]ng the, tip, o~ a Hanrningtlllfilneling m~,eI"OSi(Op@'

('SIM). (reaboll1 o:ftth,e l1Iew hydrogen tautomer chang,eid the cenductanee D~~he mO~®(lde. W!h'en tl~!.H:! molecules were pushed ~n~QI chain with the STM tip~ a current pulse ,ell
ina n
(l<

rid 111I~;O!!E:1(ut'l'lcould .~ u e~ blyd rIQ'g\\ln~.atom swirUch·

il1l9 ~:nits. l1I.eij'ghbG!~.,

no

·A.,qu eous Ca sea de,
When biosyfllU~etk patllnvays pmv'@ hard to rr@plf~ cate 11i'1 laDOr,atOIfY mode~ systems, the disuepa m.y 'is ,often alnr~bt~~,edtCI th e strw:~l.Iralll complexity of e,rlEZYlI1Iles., Sud~ 'was the ease fOI" the ladder po~.yethers, a class of marine to!:drus;,!IISS,O-

'elated with red tides, Thecere

Qi[

lill'l~edtetrahy·

recently, thl"€'e r~dors frillYe combined to prot.ec~: tim e forests; (0 I1s@waH 011 :shateg~es plrotec'~ agadn:!:it poachililiQ snd dearilngl' the tUl~ng of iU'ld].g:enQus terrrritmii'!!5 bas pmtectedagail1st deforests tf en and dlist urben ee s: a nd ~orggl]n 9 mn(~ss~o'i"LSha~e decreased d,sforest:atioml in tlhe ttmber harvest ereas, ThUl5, a iP'Qlrtf,ol,io of

dropyran ITHP) (~des sppeared most ijkety to

stem from a IHe'Wf$Or or multi pie 'epm::ides

land-use polkiie'5 CIl:H11 pmvidie bread pmt!@ctiQn
wmlil,e

stm aUowin9 for trlbaL subsistence and
g~nerraUon'l"

poi sed for' ~ cas(a!dI~ QI~ COI~sE!cutii\,i~ Iringl" opefilill1llg5. but for more than 20yealfs, the IreCilllis~te 5electi vityff'or thissequ en ('e (10 uld not be ~epIi·, al~ed ~"Ilirtholl:r:a alii ngl iiltimem ij 5 un n:3lura lsu b-

~~(oml@

Solar Heat W,i)ves
The soler corona is ,exlreme[y hotgl{!s. 'extel'lid~ng from Ute surfac@ ,of '~he Sun t.o ITiIHlioliS o·~kilometers 'into :space .• PLa:; mal WillV'E! 5, I r1dl)Jldingl iInc ernpl'~s5.ib~eA~.f\l'ifjIon

SMlIeir:ib needed to dlre!(:t: the reactien. \N'lotiJie'~'
.aJndl.~.1'IliIIiIri:sol (p. 1189;
,,J

'!le@ tllu!'
ShO\l\1

fI~iI'I.r~

S!o.ry by
~'etl-

Tille geological histo~y of Mars lspalr'Uy IN~!c,orded in the variouls, minerals in r,ocks.and soitl.s e:;.;;pm:ed ,ati~s slllf,ace. 'Us]nginfrared sp,edral data hom the' Mars E)iiJxe~~satellite in Of bit: around the pla,inlet, Bibr~ngl et' ,Ill. (,pl. 1206, pubbshed Qnl,~n~ 2: August 20(17') showtlhat hematHIE, fmnnled from oKidized ironis dmely ass'oc]a1i!ed V!li~h layered sulfate deposits across )'l'l!Vl'l! l o'~ the o~de,Ftena nes on Mars.. The oxi des ra formed 'either (O:nl~emp(Jra'leolllslly ow)~bS'eque!lt to the SlIUate'S..,. Filfllding! tml],5association a,ems:s dlnE!j'~nl~e gi~jlnsi iilfI1 plies thalt: ri~)ii1!9 ad die groul1idW,atef (iondit]ol'liS weFe pervasive at the tlme tilil@s,@ min;e~i3ls ~'Ij.ere!'fermed,

ilij

<t

S,enl'iiCe; see [he cover}
Wo'3I5, the~OCU5
OWl organic

thatihe problem

~~

sQlv'ent media,

~ tral~'l/a~e r jPIFoved oil n op ti !'lila l p remote r fo r th e' Ie l1efldio~rna~d tllffol'de~ t~~~ polycydl:ic ~or"e]1l

M.agnetic Ailli:s.otrojpl¥ of
Ernbedced Atoms
On
,]I

£
::J!:

li 'glood ~!'Ielld .;I11Fi!d se~'ectHl'llty flrom ~11'l epoxide ~ c.h.llnlf'l precursor anchored by a s]ngl~ temp lan flg TIr! P. :3 . -

~lIaves; lransmiUed
!51loI1Qll?ll~dromag·

per-stem

:~
u

nencf eld Iiines, an! th {lug ill to be
import8JflIt ~,f1 he·at~ ilijg this gas; to temp~I"~I~r'e5 ~b{H"e ~I i,J mil.~ion kel.vin, but sue h: waves hilve

ma9nets and Colr11 ~l<,h~ larg,~ .a l1i~otmpie-5 bit

ba~s'isr smaU molecutar 150latted atoms 0111 slJlrfa;(es
j~

~.Su staina ble Iropical
~ [Forest Manag ement?
~~ Tile devet,opment :Jt
. ._

th,.~rir m augnetic res ponse ~'Ilidn dkenio!1! of the theap plledf etd r3~ cryogenic tem per sll,lf~$. .Hifji~'eh.~di",fj/' I~i. 1199) ('PI.

:5 troplc:a ~forest'S req~]res the assessment of ,Cil~r-

,of (Qnise~vatioln Slf03ltegies in

~. rent prectkes, ,QHv,ei'ra, et ,al. (p. :1:2.33. pub; lislrued o!flil!'l:E!9 August 2(01). used an automated i~)abfU.ite a I1l.1l[ysi;s s,y~~,em d~~ect both '~ore!i't dh;~ to ' :!i: turbaril,ces. and defolfe.s:tation., do~vnl tothe tevtl :: of ah~'w tree fa'll:5, caused by nc:hm:.l and €i!nthro· g pOQ,enic. proce'ssesil!l! the PerllvlalflAma20n
it:;; ,0 ,

rememed ilIJ;:jde~e(t· ed, Tom czy'k eit al. (IP'.11'92) hav,!; now imtHlg~d the' :SUin almd det:ed.ed thE! chlar,ac:~eristij( paHeHI of A~fl,lenwaves tra\fe~ii'flgacro5.s ~ls

••

5 lUl'banC:E!sand d@folre~tf:lti.Qn have~iI'Icreas:~d

...

betweell1l ']999

(l

no 2{105. AU~~oWg':ll fa re!it dij 5~

sml2!c:e wH h a pe rriod off c b ou t .5 m ~ tnll!t'e:~.• HO~'i'ev,er,~he waves are we;all~er in strrengl'l!l thliM) predlc:ted~ whkh slJggestst ha t othe r IrJH:l cha· nisms .emt!ne@d@d to h@al tnlt! sol.ar ,wn:J.lI1lt1.

and l1i1I~ilsLJ~ed~h~h magn~t]( properties at O,S kelvin. n~e IlalFge ai!1Ji~~tmpies, observed .:HEr! !l!xpllainle:d by de:,n~Hy flJm:t~on:a1 calculations, whi(hindjC.i1rte that tlhe5e atoms, are wvall'tI'liUv ililiCoITp()trated~D'ito the (uN layer snd tW~M'lsfercI]']rgle and s.pin pollsllri.zat'io!l11into the 5!1Jnoul1id~lI"Ig l1Ietvliowk"

l1li"

have used ai~Call1lf1]ng tunneUrng microscopeto ptac:e ironand mall1lganese atoms in a thin layerofcCip:per nitlrid'e

For

2

years in a row Science is the top, journal for impact

research with impact, turn to

1 he'~e'son ly onesc o:r:c,e~cM news and researeh with theogre~t:e st jm pa c t ~ Sde'flu, W ir~h,QVEH70000,,000 wee kiy prl nt n'!arn 'l'US , em d m ilIi'~)lnlg rno re 0 nUm!. Science ra n Iks
,1:'IS

one oHhe most hrghly read mUilUdisciplljn.1!liry journals in '~lhe ~volf~d."And for

lrnpact, Science can't be beat. A.ccol'dilf'lg~o

the recently released Thomson ~Sl r of 30,

Journal CHatijon Report 20,06" S,ciertce ranked as the [No.] most-cltsd

m u Uid isoC! nmv [0 uma i witih ,81 itation pU c
1 h om a 5 Ed lso n ,211 nd pu bll

ra (to

fo unded in 1880 b,y rfl! ve n to r

shed by~ih e no n profit AAA S, S den.ce's. rep u ~.a::t~ons a the ~.ead1"1 g so urce f'Ow news, research. ,gJ n d[~ead ililg edgi6' pre se n~altTcm of (01iI~ei1 i t
,cIl)IFI~irm:esto grow. looking for news and research tha t

h)morI'OW? The!l1look 'fn Scie.nce.

wm lmpaet

the wmh:iJ.

WWW ..SC.Ien

~

(elml a g'~org

10 join AAASarlici receive YOlir O'WlllPeT5'Olila,1 CO~If'l®f Science 'e'IIe'I'IJ '!!leek FlO10 'li'I!Wwi.ila.<l:5"org~o~1'I

lhis Week in 5deno~

Superconductinq in the Middle
R~cent wl)lrk has revealled th~~:lheillil;~er~a(ie between l'll1.'ooxide ins u'[aOO'J5, I.aA~O,~: SrrTi0,9' alnd
l

Who lnsplres
Gin

be

meta~lic. IIl1i.\lldd]tiol'l, ~hl@mmdrlldivHy off the iintl@rfac@ d~IPl@ml) on: tlhoe~hickf'l@S:'S ofl~l@ o~~~.a~er. IR!eyurelml'e:t at., (p. 11:9'6", pu IOU shed ,rJnlilli! e 2 August: 20Cm no'll'll' s~lo'!'!'~hat: t:hin~erface can also be made 5up~rcofldljJ;l'l1Il1lg" albeH at l.ow tem peta t~ ~€5 (2'00 Ini llik@lvin), i:1lll'11d 5Jmwthat t.he pmp~w~'@s diisplay '5'l,gl~ IHlltufes of .;I tlF(1I1sitio I'lleXlPeded for .;Iw.lo~di m.ensiolfl!ti lsI.Iper(o n,diu:c~or.

br',d'nwaveswhHe study wate'r'w,av'e's,?
l ~

,Mm[wQ RNA.s and Parkinson's

Disease'
see

AvarriJety (]if n:onprote]n ,coding RNA tran~Wpts p~aly w~es in, devel>i:l<pmer.t IK:im et al'.,.(p.1220;

Hon, flJ'I1c Ii arli, tlllfld .S LJ PJiya l of mid bra in dop.am~ nergic Ime u~o n c.ens that a H~ lost 1n lPa,r'k]nSM' s

tll,e IPe rs pe'c:.tive by ~ ebeF~ a llild I"e :s,tnIIOI~e r) rlm,,1 demo li1t5lr,ate ;\'IIrote for ml CmR.N,P\:si 1'1 the lifIl·atUlra·

disease, Loss of mkroRN As ~n lPo'~itmHoUc midbrain dopam]ne neu rcns I.eads to a ph (i!,r'I.olypet~~al res,e.mb!l@s: parki nson's d]s~ai$e. The mi CI'QIRNIA mi R-13 3b 15:~pecific,3,uy ~xiPr~)~~d ] n hLl:rna rq m idbrai: ifl dOlpa ml ne rgk neu rens an dI is lost 1111 ~kinson 's pati ents, '11I1m- B·.3 bfun ction~i fII afeed ba ek Loo'p witil, Pa Plh:3, a critical tra nscrip tl ona lll'~g !JJIla~,()r of midb rafn d Oipamilr1!.~gic ,n.@l!JlmilS ~ ..

A,ID Asymlmetry
9 enes th eft ~€Ive ,a[rlealdy generated d]Vli;!r5ity~hrou9 h somatk f~ana ngemel1t can di'li'ersify huther,. Tlhe e'rlilyme IreSp()lfIi51iblle~or S H~"acti vallUQrH nduc.edl cytid~ne de,am]nase (Am), (h~8imiWbates ~yt'Qs.]ne£ to glenefa~€ madl~ In ~11~e NA strsn d, This reaction D ~nfltl.at.{ls ~u bsequ el'l:[ lFriuta:tiorl,s.of adjacent rresid~es till! rowg n tihe! ILHIJA rr,~ h'P,IFO c.t!ss,. IU nll1ll,rama n aJ nd pa Schatz: {po :1!2,27} 1110~" S!IUWli lhat SliM isan asymmetric p~ocefl~,wHh o'D'lly cytoi5ine re:s,~du:es!'J1Il t:he fIIolfu.@mptahi!! str and p:rovokif'll g m utaU OT'liSu pstrea rna nd dOWlI1Is.tlf@am. AID talrg,ets bQths'~ra 11111 H S SOl c;annet be theseurre of~his asyrrfl melry. Instead, t~~ DNA batse·repad rsystem VllalS resp ensible, e
DlJl!fil1l
SO'l:lilC3lt](

9

hype,rm I!J]talon (S~M). t

of! nt~body

,:,,

I

study

Uii.em.athema~icil~

equations that describe the
monon o:f wa~er waves. DiffeJr:l,mr equaJtij:onsrepresent d~ffe~ent W31J1es -waves coming onto a beach, waV,(l-S in a p~ddlte', or wav,es in your bathtub. Then whe: n I'\I~ sl!.Ilrifed the' math, I like nothijng bet~er than to spend the rest ofthe d8JY51l!,rifil1lgti"De Wi3!vt!s. Tnrs fr£!ld i~Vl1).ay imp(i!rtant, TIh~b~~~er Vile can mode l water waves,. the b€~~er we csn predic~ th>epansrns of ,_, beach e Irolsi 01 nair! cI Iiatu ra ~.

~uaI~

Or]i'g:~nsand ORCs
f sm

Auu Rite jnitiatien of DNA re pl](atiI11 is eS$ellll~·~ w ~ih~',lin leuka~l ores .:lInd archaeil. reiPlkal~ion ]nmat~on ils ~egllj'lat:ed Iryadenosine tri phosp hatases ofttheori9li!'l' recogillitioll, compl.ex (0 RO soperl 1

ny Ulat: b~rid! to reilPlkaJliOiil
T\iI,KI

or igi ns and p'rinne: the IDtlJAfOlr rnp~lj"

~~~'W'"

soma I.as.sembly.

studies no~1,I' describe the s,buctura~basis for

drsa:sters.
B'eing a member
eress of interest
II

origirll re()'Jglllinollll by the archaiElal ]nitia~on 'radQr Ore1 h;~li!he t Pewspedive by Geo !1gesiiCl!1.alnd O'D:onneU). 'Ga!!l:diel!F et 01. (p.. 12:B) descrl be til e :stFl[jch~r:e cfa 5irig:[e Orc1 :5 UlbunH in com p~ex Ylrith its targe~ olfig'in·lhind'ill"lg sil'@, and Dueber et al (p. 1210) dsscribe till.@'s,mj(njlr~' Of',31 paiir of Orel pal"a~ogs, ound to' a second dass of Qrig]!1S'eque,rnces. Toglet:herl theSllrudlur,es provide' b ~~~igh[ into the s'~epwis@ Iproc;€'~5IleiIJdifig to inlliUa'tlOr assembLy and ,a(~i\i.1lltiQ,nl.
a,

'oWAAAS
might not ...
1:.,

means ~ ge't~,o team albo:u.t

DU,ri11g memory ~mmd]ng, (@U{ls,s~mbl~i'@:; thot]gilt to be al(tivat~d e'ncillit'l~@d t!J!gI@thr~rr bYS,ytH11lJlk an;:: p~a$bcity. [)u ri ng sUlitlseCillleil1!tt welnel/al, itt~$ thoug~t th~t~hese assembhes may be reactiv.3 ~ecI by P artia [ ~d.ilvati'Qn and paU.G!M compl@'til!:llil. Reij'mers d' ai. (!p1.1l2::30}' d\~\I'elop'ed ~~I~tant fI1Iic~ lhflli aIIO'l%'~d active neu ~ornsto oetalgg,ed dliHew€'nliaUy d~:rill1lg acq~isitio,r:!, a retrieva l of Wll1!t!l!~tua l~eam could]tlonR rIg. ln
hl~IQlogica~ ~edom of the balso,tateral~. amygdala the number of neurnns t~]at Vlrerr'eaclTIw during both e!filoodll1g and Ir'l1!~lri~v'al cOuld be (oUl1!t,~d. S'l,ac~~s$hdm~m()ry I'etrie'l!'~lwas ilis~ociat~dwith ~~uiifa'~]QI1I of In e'urrons that ffJredi durring le,aming.
:5

Learningl and 'Recall

otne rwisi9 ertlC:~jlunt.er. II'~gUVies me' va ~u able (I PP'Qrt,u nilf'es to! 'exch,ange Ideas with colleagues in otherftelds ..Ai!1!d tlhiis helps me. fil1d 'n:E!wflJp'pr,oaJc hes to my
OWlfiiWOlFk. .

,t'
.

Dr'.I(atherr~n~ Socha. ls a:n asslstant

pn) $essQ r of math ,e m aUc s at St,
Ma~y's (.olilegle, Marylanid. She's also

no

a me mber of AM.5.
S'ee video eli ps
0 lthls

story arid

others at W\!\Ii'VIUlIi1I.a:s.mg;}:s;tories

:fli

:g

:~IIntrh:ad1es ,of Cell Contacts

'i

~ :~
~

E
,0
I...

5

(ell·,c.elll (lJ !Ili~actsirl m i!!,ltice,llul(lJr mg:anl!i I'!1S are 1!'Itn (ate~y reguLated,all'll d tll~eif 5ta bURy is pa rdll CCI1'1. tll'Olll,eti by p,ratei'n ki nas~:s,,all1i p ho:!:pll~at\lSE!Stll~ait hll'l~ time Ile\l~'l. oflyumi m,e ph05 phorylal~ioi1. Jype Iii B d receu;ltor pro~ei n tyrosine phosph~~a~l;s (IRP]'Ps) have both ad hes~ve!3lnd Glta llfti'c.IP Fopert~'~s, Ariiirescu e,tat. (p. 1121 d~llil!,rmim;edthe uy~ta l ~hliJclm~ (If rhe fulHfm gth e.:dr.a~eUIJ'la r 1'E!;gioWi f aJWi :RPTIP,IlIIMdlfonns. o eI, iho.molpMlicbi'al1 s di mer tha't is n.Qlidi and has di me!llJs,iolfl5 that ms.~ch interceUu I.';llr d'isw n~eat Gldlherlll. . . mediated ]UI'il eli,om;. 'The tra nl\i.~ li'iten.u::tijon rnI ay ad as a :space D" cL:Jmp U'lat loc{ll.iz:e:s phosp~];att.:iseadivity near fits tar'QIE!ts.ublH.ates.
I

n

me

wVffl.sden,cel'lutg.org

:5CIIIE.NCEVOl317

31 AUGUST 2007

1143

/\/\ ..I!J. •..•.......N> Rt.1\ 1\1\1\,.' ··....M,
5····· .......••
&...... ..••..••..
1._ ....•......•.....

Hiere'lsyour miinl~(to Icareer ·a:dvan,cement '
,MAS is at Hn€l rQrefTion~ ofadvandng@(lrily·~lroor wes.eaJrc:tmrs
- an:~ringjob search, grants and IfeU01NIDlip5. csk:ill·builCl ing Vlffiiksho:ps, find sh"~r~@lgh:: adviLe through Sdenc:eGlreers.m:g and our Center ~orCareelfsin SoielrtCe &. Techru)logy:
N PA. the !Nation al P,©stdcwtolr1Jl A:s&ociatio:n, is pmv[ding a l'Iatiofl~ I VOlt:e and seeldng po5i~ive dmfllg:e for PQ5illdocs-

pmt!ftering:wi~h AA.fJ.S in career fai r:s,semina~ and o'th,er events, IliIIf('u:t,MAS waSItt.'istlrll:ment(iJ ~f'!he~ping the IN PA get sta rtedl and develop rl1i~aH'J!gro~ng o~nization and
a vital.~rnk~o posidec
SI[JOOOss.

Science

~fyou're a.postdoc.orgrad sWd:ent. go to the AAA$·NM.link to 'Findout how eo spell QirBer success.

AAAS ..or!1 NIPA

EVE~Y ONICE IN .AWI1iI LIE, O(llila~d K:eMOOY l/ii ~ditor·in·{hief G)iI5rimce;,

rr's

GOO [J'10 LOOK BACK .Ai EV[~'[S~OU)

ONI ES ANI [J MORE

:roc,ent-;ru1;d seewhat has happened m rhem.Hl!!VC till:!]:UlgS ,gciuenbettc:r'? Wel~[h,e'fie'surp!ris;~s? Did certain ..issues ,~~ritll'Lk~lncl: ~sa:p:pear, 01f otbersblossem bec'1Ju!-Se anintervening evell~7 d of [O:]ere.an ill~bmml. eheekl ist
ScWe-mII{;e[IJ'";im41.A:5I~r.n.o;;, we (Sde.,ilCe) call~e]t [he .illci:cl'elll'lt:e of'reaearch miseonduet

IS neltl.'H;rr

up, noli'down, T~]econceras raised by an advisory group that examined oar l1~lnJ~ing the of Hwang ease warned of'anmcrease In {."OmpetidV'eu]e9,s <l.111Id illcenlh:etJo overclaim or even ebeat. Accu~!ti,(ln:s grn~ybe 'mare cormncn, bmwe don't see enauglh serious incidents to convince us UUIl oQilnpeH~i,wpressure l1~]s. made the ~lwil"O~,';II]t'Ieb1lt distinctly more wll:'lv.it~~'Iig ) fm,mi.. H A.H!~[na~. :!'!tf~\fh.• li. Last year. I said [hat auimal ~ldi'l,f]~m.i\f,a~out 'Of coutrol (Science. n ' 15 September 2006,.1P.154:~). It still .is,~~tleasl. here in the: United Stares: f~]cuJlty fll,embi~ws ,vtthe LJ.n.i.ver~HyofC~dif{inl~~1 AJigele~ (UCLA), ~f(l'reX3l$1~le. are t~llf' 5tHli beiagharassed, 1]'10S;t reeently by arson and O']her fon'lfls of :u:Uliti Il'li,cl:adon " UCLA's ~c:;ring d~~~mcellnr called lft~e fire-bombers of last fa U"terr'n}ris~$.'" [ t~~ough!:rh,31was ~ righteous term and used !i&myself. !Forsome reason, a Nature ediruri al (2 4 .~ .2007}1 called tl:;le of'the term "1,1111wi.:se ay brnmdiing;' iden'[iIY.ing ~~: a '~·v.a~ml as Jjudg)IJ:nem:'WeU. itstrikes me dun
fbll;:s who llem,(;!:fir:ebOo.ll'llOOOll professors'

pm:clliie.s n.':IJ~ghlbe ellliUed

to

a fak-illy adverse value jud,gnlef!!t
S~.Ii,eeyand
eOIllC't'Hi~fti1:ent.

I've ODIUpm;;)Jiuedi abour po~iicY-I1I'1ial:~rsin

~.le US. adm.i!l~~lT'~ti.on who S~!~'lp:re!ii~ t;Cie~.itifilC re..')ul~ .ifthey d)t1in"tsup~
jpOn a p<lJI:icular politi~] obJjecl:illve. Ahhough most auem:ion went ~o~~;lI:e C<lSt; ofJi In~l<ail(JJ~OiI1 w.t the ...<ltim~ll. Aer()im~H~i)L';~" and Space Admiillfl]Smnicm
and. a f~v others. arirc:~lilIm~:e: tlflllewm:illeri,~:~ is a:paning up, Julie Ma.cDonal(t o deJl'l!.1ty.u~sist<ln'~ secretary tor Fish, Wi]dlle" allild Parks; at-the .Departnr:le:nt of ~'he bn~Ji.ior.IlliILy be; t]]e C:han.1J1)io:n. eieece-busrer s of them all The d~pturtm.e'llt's inspector geueral re"e;;lled ~l<!ltMiJI,cOon."ld in're~~r-eredre~u~~nlyb'Ybu.l~yin!:snd'rto d'lJtFlge reclln.lmood~rion.s on endangered species ~Im.biun:, ex,posing lhedep!utment ID ]iliga,tioll'l, She' resigned ,!thnJlp~ly, sh.mtly lbeJp,n': being cll]lled~(~ tf:s:ti:fy before COillg«:SS. l\:n]d in .iI diJl:e<.re[Ji[ space. the Federal En:iJ.e"rg,em:y Mami:ligc:m.eIHA,g,ertCy (FEMA )le~l.Ill}f!:d [hat some of the ~erI'CY\~.l1i.ik~ffi occupied by Hurricsne K.ati'.ina ViCI~m::l ~~~id ·~C]"i.lI.lhlehyde eomceir1lt:i'<.Hoi;1s 75 times lJhiel1l'l1.txii)"ii.H¥'1 re{;lo'il1LIl'lle.n!CIesc], dose. Whal didthe generalceuusel do'? He advised empleyees not In initiate tesringbecanse il might ·'imp~y FE.MA"s ,~)Jw[iJJership the issue" and invlte m.igation. Representative Henry W.~xn'l~[l of (o..C A.)l. on leern i!ng Ul'~S.:PTOl'10unced it ~'Isid:\}oo:~ng •..•::linoffieial policy ofprellfliedliumH!I(! i}gnm,1mce..~· !Energy ,aJll.dl dhmrrc ~.I~al~:g~., Nothing mneh is new un cUgm~teth,mge (~i.e"uo pa~,p<l!b.le mcve toW':a. emis:!ij~on cO'n'tt[it1rs)~ But 1111 energy,. as Congi!eii~ bJ.reaks,fiJf tl1ef\ugusl dog d.aY$. tl.·oubl![:}" some issueswi I~.sti Ilueed settlemenr when i[ recenvenes iij~:l September {W:JIL"':num.ren1i~.rkoo. th.'ij.lhe '~<I]n.ted·'Alu,gus'tn.eve:r i~J end"), Of.spec:iiil,runcerrrti:s:theetlelf£;Y bin t'he]-lmlse passed 0]] 4 Au,gust

.u

Muda about ir is, good: l:5'% ofprivl:lte eleNfk~i~ pn)d:m':lion m1.:ffSt come from renewables, end there
are ili1cem~\les .lorene~y,effid!~.lI1!ey ~md dJevelopirilg bi.ofu.e~:s,renll'llDmJg c.tP~lc:~ty\Vh<ll\\; n.u~.ssi:ngi~a .. tough fuel e·cm1lJlJllilY !itandBud. SpeilLk~rNm1cy Pelesi A.) hopes tI1i:!iil:I:\,von 'tmaaenbecause the Sem~r!ebin dt)!;':S lmv,eone. Hmm ..Alrrer the recess the hi U goes ro .~ conlerenee .• ~ntll .11 the HOU!'ie 0 s,ide~ expects John Di~,gdl. {o.M[).who hates fuel 'OOOillcmlY standards. Elljoy~~e show. one lB1io[uc!ls. SOI::L'IethJl:iIgi.nrerel'ltiug lli~1.6h;;:IPI)e[1:ed~lat I dM!]."!; quute realizewbenlast visitingt~,~is l'ubjoct (xieru:e. 21 Ap[i~. 007. p. 5 ~5),.A nu~jiol"economie shill !':I~S (lI'Uen tlwoiugh the fusion of 2 s tl.U!e ]gr.iculture and enel'gy sectors by the biofuels Cr'JI28. 11],[11'8 rroub~:i:ng,. As incomes rise, the ~ margjl!l!illl d'e'!l~~W1dforJ."oQdf..1Us on: brl!t the demmldfo:w en~Tgy tt'<Ilck;."in(.';Qmne gfoll;l,/lrh. So' the ~nhill!ilP itant:sof rich eoumrles, t\'11ho do:li1'~.speed much l:or Ihod bin ] ike cars. are h~tpp'Y to tum com into

rDbe

pe'bn]enm sub~li.lute8>.l1it~twm raise wudd
]]Omt i:m develeping

QOirn

price:.;, ~lclversdy i.nf!p¢l!ct~ng lhe:lbod~dependent
ooilleagt!es ~.y dUI[. thi::; 'C01J1,lid ,en.d!augw

cmlilflltrie:s. My ~lg.rk:uhurnJ eeonomies
WOf~ld

the .s~eady;,de'Cades~~ongd,fopin bel'\i'~e]1Notth and Soinh.

fhodp.r.ices.; 'ex.~ce;utnat:ing The a~re<il.dJy ar~~ineqlJltt:y h

wW1I!V.sdenlcelnag.org

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31 AUGUST 2007

1145

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'Science

EDITED BY GILBERT CHIN AND ]IAKE YIESiON

SIOM~CI-lI\NICS

No S,kilmmling ALlowed
:Pt~ m~aJll!I s Wi!W,~'Ryi i'llifJ ~ep:mle!i aili:ildtheri rst ai r-bern Il' ve:rt'@b~ate$;the'y dom~nal.ed nl~ ~k~e,s.ro'm '~he! Ilate Tria,Sislc to the lend r f !!:IUhe CIT'diaC,eous~ dll!!lring tine elPoch olf ~heir relaltiVe:51 the di!:ilI05il'!:!..!lrs.• .on the baJ5~:S,o:himU!ldtrieslifll J,iilW 5lry.cture,i~ has been
:mgge!lt!ed that:s€verra [ ptefo sau fS,il'n (:[udilt'l,g 1halassoa:rO.f)J€U5 C!ilrlldUle giC!il1'll~ Q'Ueiz:ol,waUu£ {witlnla W]ngI5jJ'aJIFiI.(i~ up to' 15 m), (,ould hav~ '~~d Iby skim m'ni"Ilg ili'l til rna Iil,l'ler a kintn thal~ ohl!:ta,l'il Uelill1li.'ikif!! sihlOlrebi reds {Rynch'opnppJ 5 kliim m,e!dl y la,w (J,ve-I"(:.fl lm r sha U:OII'II waite n!lit~1 'the tip oif theiir lOllVer Ibeak dip pi n 9 beneath the w,ater surtsee. H urn phri:e5 d (;i/; h!i1'!.1'e usedfull ~s~:zedlmcd~:l:sof malnd]b ~,esfrom Thai;(Jssodro'f'tuEtlS tlill1.dlth e mo dern sUm m er ,R. niger to d@fI1Ioli1l strab~ '~l1iat~hle ptel"O~a.lillllr bin. 'W1Quld htn.l'@ ge nerateda n '0 rdier of iliWl,agnj ~tI!de mere cd] ragl]n ~rawll in 9 'lh flo'uglhtlhe I!V.atler. Mo deli n9 in dicated dUllt the 'ene'rgene (lost ~()! a $.hor,eb~lFd of nyi n9 wnlt~ its b el!lit: ] III ~he: llYater is atmost p m hi,b'~:ti\fe{-20% ,~)fhe tota lcost ef fllglhU ,a ndthe a Iilllth()'ifS~Ugl~ t glesHtnislevy might explaln the' rarity of ~he s,k~mmingJ [i~e'-5[yle., The'$'tI!ostaJ!f1ltiailly greaJter cost fer a Ipte.ro'5aJlUlar1gler than 2. kg a PP'813IWSt Q ,ex<:~LIIde O:LIIt:1ii'glht s.:'kim:milllil,ga s a po,ss~bile mea ns me,!, prnc Mlring fond, IFlJlr~llil.enillore. ma ny oUl1Ie merp hla~ I~og~(;al :51p-ee']al~i2:atiQns~o the hJeadi end neck seen in Rym::hcops are not: 'f()i!!lndin ptereseurs '(Jif any size" indudJi"'9~lhe a billity to re'gell1leli'ate' brob'll Of !Ellbradied bliUlTIilP'Sa I1d tlhe presen (1e of a rei n'fo reed IloW'e1F' jaw•.~ IG R P~oS 8iol, 5,. @204 (.2:0~:m.
I

BIIOMIWIC~N

Ii:

study ijillvollviing about 2000 HtPVapo~itive women
ln Costa Rica, Mlhio, ~~re mOln~b]r,~d kif 12

Ti minq is Everything
CE!wical canc@w is the S E!(O rid 1~E!illdi'l1gl SE!' .of cau cance r d eaths in worn el!'ll wi t:h merethan 80@/o of th~5e o(_.clurrt~gl in deve:lopilF'llg c.owlltliie-s 'lhiillt halve Ilimited access to sueeil1r~ng proqrams. SOllne stralns of a 'SexuaUy traflsll'iliU~d virus, human lJa,p~lllQ'p:JU!l'l{iIF'!JS;(HIPV)~. Ip1lay aJl!1I essential rote 1n the !pathogi@lm!E'S15 of this C{lnC@f. N~wly

rnenths, the euihors

fO:LH'l,d

that IHIPV'dear2il"l.ce
immlJlll"l~ty
I().

ral'Elr-meoasuiJ'l@d as: (eU-mediated

th e vi Ill! s----~ve re c,om para b~ei n su b~ielct:sreceiva mith

h1g tll~~ vaccine {spedfkaUy,. the bivaL~lilt !lIP'V H :PVM 16/][8 cenn cal ca m:ier ca nd]dalt:e v,ac(i !le'"
who had r@c~i;v~(h controlL va cl!]nl1! directed '!iI,~anst gin II,Hllre~altied vi rus, A~tih hthe ~ Q1ug LOn'lg~'t@l"In @rf!ld!;, o.f the CUHl@nt HIPVV{lcdtH~} (1~€ not ~et kno~lI!'\ the ,apparerut ab:senc.! ~}ftner,a!p~lJti~ €m.cacy noted in~hit:!, s:tudy r~ilflforc~, the vie,\'I'lnat the opti ma:~ ti mIl'e to vaccl n(llte' is before
05@

dev1el.oped

va,c:,clnesdhected aga!~!llistt'nese O:!1!,CO~

'gl@,m ~~r,ai li'IiS halJ,l'i(l:t:;;hown prmnisi li'I,glmSILI ltsi 11 ic d~l!'li(,aI.tria Is ai rned at assessln9 thek prophy· lactic alcHvH!f="l~~at ls,ltieirabHily to prevent

sYll'ldrlome s]mi~alr tn tlhle nilllmalill all!J!to~lImlllJll'le' diS!" e:a~~Sy$t~mf{ lupus ery'liuMllatO:5:ti$. GreE!i1! ,et {AI.. provud'e ,evidence that aM-II deficienc.yil1l mice' iIi'llvol 'r.!\esactiv,;;lItl'OF11 of UIiE!ii1l:i1I.;ai~e IlifbmI!JlflE!systeorni. i The f rst p:iece or evidence e tllef glea from the oh:S,~Naitioml that imdti6l,tio:t'l1 of dl;seil'S~ dfd ~ot. reqUli!ne (eb of hematopoietic origi!1J; r.ather, t~le IfI:esangiall. cells o'~ t.lhe !kidney W~11\e s:linlUlat~d to prOOI.J,einflammarolFY p'~'oteins,.SlWlbsequenlly, O'thi(H (I@ills of U~e 1n m:flte 1m FIllYI!] ~ s;y.s;t€m partj cipa[~dil!1! tlfle de~lolPment ofglo,mnewlonephrlti5, whkh unElKp@c:tooii.y .co~.l!'ldbe aU@,f1llMj~@d by boostl

i!ll:g'

fhea da,p[ivl; imIlIITI ~lne ')y5terl]1 vialnjection

hig l1!~g rade Ipr~c ~In(e~o S lesions or (~rvita l,ea11)i;,J
fer in women who had! not been 'eKpO'5'edLo IrIPV befo,r,e va (Jellnation, Hilde'50~~eim~l tJt. ha ve 'ex:ami ned \l\1:1~e;~her HPV vacci!flation cafilpr,omo~e an f1mllrrnune response ~Q HPViUli '1l'110men who ar,e ailfead'y :~i!rnf',ected~lh the' \1'1 rus.Such U\~ ra p@liJltic acUvity I~ had n'lt been obsetr'!,1edilri! animal sctud]es of lhe ~ H PV v(!(d !Thes, DllIt data. a dd r-e:s~.]II1iglthii5 q 'UestioI1J ':;ilM! humiHiS are iO"!,portarlit forongo:in'9 df~CU5S10n5 f.~ ,5 lQ,f hen a mi t~ w.rh:o-mth e'va:c(~Itiles sh mdd Ibe w 5admirnisteiretOi to maxfmlce! their Ib~neHts. Inla
I...

the onset of sexual alCtivilly'. -

PAt(

i!inmunog~obulilll

J. Am, Mea. Ass,oc, ::1;98,:743 (2007).
IMM,U ~OIl.OGY

in a surf,eH of hybrid-type IN-glly,cans~hat were

G. TI~eaJb~e,u!ii!or CdVH reslJJUe.d1
Ii'€C~

or

oogrJ,i~edby innate lrnmune lectins olheirwhe dedic.ate,dito S€!llSi~g t~e s'truduri:liiQy similar mannose li Iikages, of f'O'~,ei,gln ~ycQpr'ot~il!i5+Fuw!'e "'Olr~ 9
might d€humim;@ iHn:@ ffillfJituratlofl or brenehsd

.AutQIm.mlJlnliity CQI!1!lI€,F!iItlO Illal.lyfaUs w~th~ tb~ n I"e(llltll of Ih~ ada p:hve immull'ile sY'~~Elm b<eall!sEl it

glycan,s on '5eU~prQtei115 broad~yhelps avert hsrrnfull 'iIIH:iaJ~Eliml'l'1ltJnlil mspl)n~s:,
,fHUJ

pertahl) to rresponses to s,e'lf-col!i!:5.t:ituoenbin

palilogens might cloak t~em5et!i'esil!1! oomp,te:;i;;"
tyP~' garb a~ a mean,s of ~'Ila.ding det.ection. - SIS
.fmmhll}iry 27, lUO'"]:fJ16./j:imm!!ln'l20Q1.mS"OQB
(.~OI07).
COmiml!Ell7 .i')1Ilf!pge .1 149

\l'l,ihe:th~u

human:) anel 'un a variety ~f anirna[ mooe'~ll •. f~eviousstl,lc!ies hav<e shlolllllill! ttmt' ml!ce ~J1ldkilriU]t~le ef:J1l.yme a ~plh(!- a IilllilJo5ida!)e~1 ~ (aMEI ~)exhi bit a m
dearth of ~iJmp~ex.~lype IN"9Ilycam ami de'!.lt!:I.op a

wVffl.sden,cel'lutg.org

:5CIIIE.NCEVOl317

31 AUGUST 2007

1141

The shape of .1

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forefront of life soence reseerch and
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Life Science

N e.tworked PQ~yhedlra
One a ppreadt 10 e rl91il1!ee ri Irlig P orcus s,ot; cis has ~o(lJSed on wmb~l1itng rn~~aUjk.fllrnd organk: o'UlUdlng blocks,. Ull1Ik]ng mllH~ple' orga:~i:c: ~igal'liijs ~o metal-len nodes can produ['El mitreporous 'lh ~ee ·d]mensiol1!!l l nebll(Hks. ~;n an 'e;:del1s,io'f1 o.f lhis method, smla&l bijdentaJt€ tng:amls such as '1,3 ~lJen:zell!2 cI~'Gllrlbo"y~a!l:e {bdd ca n b~ adto (1IJ0!oi' ions to-form, dl)(f~~@ polyh@'drr.JJrhombi· ( h· h drc ~,t:Li" t int~u_n ilL r ". ·'t· ,J;:~,J~ _a~,~!a '" as la rger rI,Q dl@s~or essem bl]1l 9 e);lPiind e d networks" P~r~~'t.at

til' (:t, ~nters,petrseci pOlPula nons o·r m$ijal and motor neurons within these ITe'g~on~. G]( J. lIJelJrophysi()i. 93, 1 Ol11I5,21] ~'v0023a.2:O{l7
I

(20(.17).
UIMAH :5CIIE:NCE

Inviitr,o,gen ICelllu~arAna~ysis
l!lumlnate blologv In context

Change in the Water
m~e ra pid, lmHl:el1ll1!i:a-sca [e coolil1g episodes; l ~cabd [JifllfII~glaaro"Oe5chger ~veU1Jts)tha~ eerurred
1

,repe~ledly thlroughout the iai5~g~a.dallperiQdl are n,Qrmtli~[y aS50(iat~d wi~h climate (h.:lJfl9I@ in tih~ N'OfI~~Adallfiitic reg]Oll, Hlo~lIev,er,nEsea~ch ove:r the
past ,d~(ill has a lso impl]cat.ed!ilei r '(ll'lpressklll d~
in
1

the' Padfic ilJnd ~ndialn Oceans, te.aIO]ng to hvO

I'Q o~v sh(il~y th.;.t wh e,t:ilJ Lwo Me tmits ere b6cfged \il!l·th a flt;d b~e

mmpetil1lg ~pLanaUolI'iIs fm th~ ,coF'lln,fldijon: atmn5 pheric 'o;r 'OO!;;!~llrlii:(~r~ sml$$~Qn ,of .~ e sig ~~t n Schmll1.Uner et a1 used an oeean-atrnosphere climate .model. to show that changes fnbl<J:Ll''fan,cy~
forlJedoceciln c1IT(ullatioli'l ran cause lalrge' v.(!ria~om ]11 su hsmf ace ol'\~g,el'fi leve~s by dl1J!1g1 ",gjl'DXyg enl demand. This rre:SIlJUsl!.lJggests, the dfmate :sf'gl~ tbiaJt na~. of ![)ansga5Md,Oe's:c11ge rr'~flt!: 'on9i1rli a,'ti n.g l n the Nortn Atlalllk ~Wis tra nrs.mitrted Ib¥ ecesnic, r;dl~~rrthan ,atmosph~rkj t.~lE!comifiectlion!i; fUlrther. it is con$is~e!1it ~vitht:h!2 .associa'tion Qir 1J;all'l!sgaarij· O'esc.ilger@lJl]lr:lt!i ~yith d~an.g:ml 1mthe Merid~omlill
1

a ryl.oxy spacer '9 roup, seUilsij,embLy V!I~th (11I~+ions ~ea;CIsto (ova ~eUlJHy U nkedset ,of th e po~yhl~clralIL.H11ts.a 11.3lng@d t:o g:~therr 1n ani ~nterpene~ lratlnglbetrago'md net Cry:st(!ilI.o9rap hy revet! ts ~hat the ligands adopt hlJlQ independent (oiilfi()~'t11at]QI'nS,OllllE'sYfiland one antl,in dmeren~ directions withinl the lattice, - P[)s 1. Am. ["hem. Soc. 129', 10076 (2'001).
(I

Overtul1i1'l ng (irculation of t~]eAtla lfiric. Ocean. lhe
iinflluenc:e of ciul1IfIge!l. i:n 'wind stress ,all1ldNorth Padfk ~rltermedialeWater fOl1matiolrl! 1.lllas;also notalbte', though somewhat weaker than th(lJ1 of thermoha[]ll'I,e! clffulat~on. HIlliS, ocealifl e<msystems and biogeoc::hemical eyd.e'S appear te I"e'~pond sen5itiv.ely to O(e~11fi d~i:U~altIOrll ch,r:lll'ilges:.- HJ5
PO,(WC/i!eJ'{1Q:gwp'hy 22~ lCl.1QZ912006;PAO0138-4

PLa yin 9 with Mi nor'S
:$11l('e theillllmall!:~'H~ctlE'liiz.ati:oll of mirNJr neurOll1is iI'll the monkey-vis uernotor nE!urons that fin;! d'uringl boln eXIE(ut.10lf1l and ob.servaUol'll of m,O\,l\E!mefitr-i'IfI,olre~h.an a dKifilde ago, theiF@has

The Cellular Analysis catalog from Invill'Ggen: order your copy today a l www,lnvilrogen,comke!lsfoc}t.,

~2007'.

been much specuiatien a bout Y41he'~:her5]mnar
nl@'tlr,Qm in Ull!' hJlJll1~.!3.n brain ar@involv,ediltli a

v~ideIrang,e of secial (!ognitiv:e precesses, sudi as
IJll1Id€~sti3lrn dh'lg' t he ern Qti:Ofl5· and i nt~hltioIFilS, of others. mosle,tn et oi. 1P0]rll (1,1,J"t that: rna oy of ~Ihe hlLltnal'Il brsln ;]Ireas UUlSO~mlplicat~,dl weu!' charac~I;rizedas belngl "dive dUiriing imilaltio·ijeind have r'lIOI a~IiY.f1YS 1:!@(1ll'1shOWr'l1 to !ll!t'llwd@ mOWrl1@'nts ln a se~!ecUve marmer.. l,J.)ll!1!g brai rll imagpng of subilltch; pl.ayiril9 th@ rack- pa per-sdssers 'glal'l1le, tll@y

Harmoniainq

High Harmonics

describe a set

Qr sit)'.; ortical c

areas t:hal~were

~~o a r@p~a~~dI COI]fig uratioll'l (rOlF if'I~tanc"@~ ~ay~ p ~ ]09 r:Qc,k~,olllJ)wecl.byN;Jd). Jhesame !'I:.glQ i1I S, itll ~ ad'd]Uon to a h05~ otWv~r5, 1.I'IIer'~ acti\i'~ dlJri,ng ]m]tatiolfil trials (si.ml.ll t.an eo us ,oose'!'va~(J<1l an'cl1 ~ ~ ifl:X,eCIlJ! tilcm) and aL~j) WE! re a dhl'e, a bE!~t.onl.'1 :;l wea,uy,. during insolwcted mO'li,ement trialsI~the5'e~1i'Iro' kiind5 air tasks havlng Ibeen u,~ed ]n ~ most prio.r stiUldies of ~l,JIm.alrn.'rl!lrrow nel.lrol:1r-li~e I 15 responses. One-ilrntrigllJ!ilfig q~e5tio,n ra]s'ed by 5~h@sefindfngs is wl'leithler th:e:re might @~ist ,diis-

!se[ectfviW

~ actlve during the i olfthe '~hreetype·s
WlijS

observation and the execution Qlf ha nd C(IJII i gu ra,tiions, whe r-e f defined esa suppressed response

l!nte'l1ls.e' lnftared laser pu~se.s can ~Ol1liLe~he a~om'i ,of an inert gas and glve rise to x·"~,ay ern,1s;5~:Qn at hlQlh multiples (o;~ harmonicsl of Ihe driving Hetd hequency wl11erll the' liberated ~ledrMS recomblne v~ith t.~I@ilrparlEi'iIlt~on5:. Selecting Ute oulpurt !I'!'~,velength and bOOStililigl ~t!i intE!'r1lsity, hOV!\E!lj,eif., Ihave beeinl ex pe nmel1lt:a illy chaUerlg]!1[1 and hal,ll!! in ~,awgepalrt been

.' .'
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tAX H!l Wl1223 32:6:Sl2;5o!LE$.M~flm'lil !rUld'!!I~, Alex f>ahllU!i:,: $.AJ!E'5 !!<~I~r'kln ~~iri$~ Moo:Fe; ~\!INIJI ,100~iI)ij!ftl,H!~rord~ +Bl~Q) 52 7)7 5,360. F:AX, +91 S,~ HI 53,61; ~vn!u!1!t·U,._QitJlltTIOIl Q!',W!TtOfU ,;,wI_AtlIIJ! [IcooriiJiJ T!HIlpkim;; ~IDIjDII'lOOUrn:lN $!!'liCWH:m ri!i:lbil1n B!lld:. ,Anny Himrt~~;tle; UJliOIil.lIIjQ1!iC oUS(I'I!IAlI!flnril.tin~ IH<iI!~I'\i'J:U~,'IIIDJU ,i!.!il!ii!lT.!.NlI'M,aij!' L::I~oorui ,AM5 BoMB 'D~ Il!IfllEotIO~ IIIlI1It!J1GNe!llJ}EIN,. (iIlIIR! jilillm P. IHo~dN!;n,: KE5m:EJ1l!1i!lIIvId lli!i!ld~!E, ,i'l!jE!ilDllllFiElEtljam!,!!, Ii. Mc~flihr.'~ItEli~!llAn [I':l¥ld t" '5:lfI:IfI'j; (1l1H IEliECIilr,n,n; O~FII'EIt AlI.an t 1!I!~liIleil; .)gll]omilii l ~in!il, iqnn,W. Enqlli5~. SmanM., F1:tlp<illO::~ Albl'G~:t, U~iil R 18. K1Ite:lli, (!I~rr)' A. MlIrr.lf! lInalll1iU D. IPOlliifd., ~111YJ11 Su~li'li9l1 D.

fm

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06:JiO. FAXfll

ro~

~m:::

IIJ!l!'O'A:!!!Ii,UOI\IO~ f

AunlORS

dl1lf)'h~'o@~m~itcOOl):' IPiI,11ii,\IiI IB<lglliI{South ,A~a: +91'~m :u 22:7:ll

Sl!e 1it<I,~~s. 12:0 ,~nd1,21of~he

lNWW.;5;(:iIlDOOlNg.C~Jff~O!tUreJtanlribln:fothaJfl!!I1._shlml,

'51<i~lI~~~ 2!Ol)7 !~~IIJ~

mr

~«~£

,2006; I'ib1l9t!i@'/:!,rriL.rnrrd Af1Ia. ~,fll:K:oel'lig {oo!nttibli'till!l'~OImoon:lall;.

rDb,t;o er~@g;maikcolYi.l

fCDI,TE[)

BY ROIBEIH

(OOINTZ

Health Res,ealrch Funding:
No .Re,lte,f tn Stight
Som e pol icy wo nk s nl(lve s ug9 es.ted tirlal fou mldations and! t'itih,~lr privat~s()!JJ'r:c:es will compel1salte fQ,~~he flat ~alio'rJJal, hllstitules of Health
(~IH} budget
1"10nprof"iit (S(i~IW'i!,

up L@i'I.gJthwils@or cro:S:5~S~ctlC1i'1a.l5!iioes, mifllW of
which illdl,.lde l~beils; tnil't p]npo~nt !Il~~,e!llit orrg:am and other fl@attl.~Ft@s;. Add'itiof'nil:l ]mage sets ~~nlgIMi,ghtlne de'ilelo,ping lfIJeruouls sys,tem tfll!1,dj thE! skElI.~ton. >:> WIM',i. Fis.b Nel,a [9 .g, U

11 Ma.y, p. 81nThat'~
ria,

ceunts Ii mlh..JliUve wa ys:. For @~11 pll~,ltl@y)htOW m !~hat a cork can twistirl,t:ernaUy eve",:!, nf II is IP'U Uecl st raight IU Sudf~ "secend arry diefolrmflp, ttioll1ls" sho~lld not be oV'ertooked, DesHade'):ays.. A~ a sid~lig!~t,~h€ t.ealm al.soshmwdi t:fial ptl~till'ng and twisti!1!g eKifacts, the cork with less fIOKt€ than pluUing ab:III"l€. ~

wishful t~linkiln:g, says ~e.s:earch!.Amer]ca, a
91rOlll!) 111 Alexa!nd Virg1 fll,a, th (lIt

tracks U..5.. health resear(ihfll,.H"lId~l'iIg. ,Its latest

.1IlIlia[ysis; (below) shows that rnmindt!st~ private'
fUllding: represented 2% of the billion spent om u.s. ~~@a~tih,rsseerrh 1:1'1 006 ';'Hlld 2 has Deen "CiOrn:pll'r:!h~l y flat" Slnce .2 o 01, So1IIyS Res,e<alrdh!Americal plolfcy alll'la~ys.t Stade Propst.
:00
]{I'

CrislPI W'ith 31 [Hi nt of (a ~(IUtus
Ill's offici a l: A corb'lli III come GUll err a~1fii!1 e boUle more 'e1l5Hyif you tYr.I~S 11as yo~ t pull, ]h.a~'5~\lh:at plhysi(is.tMidu!l

prise en{l'phites, .savs Ral]end ra Kalrilodia,

That reSII.llU~'!rO.-.n't:.s~lr~

sn6

proprietor of the Web sUe C o~ks<:rew.com. He nctes that the Hrst pat~lIlt,ed mrrksclI€:w, 11l1!ventM ill'l1795lby Engilshman 5.iilllnuel

I.

1.lln~rn<$iry

fooe!'i!.I ga,v.

• Mo,If"@~ri rompjh!~
[or

[I.lestrade' oft!he' IF:lrel!'Lch national, res>Barch ageli1lc¥, CN'RS, l'li1i IPari,5 alilQ e!i1.gl]r'H!er Gim,eppe Sa!(OO<ll'l!and~ aloe
'f11at.hetl'l1:ll tki sn R]~c,judo De Pas{(Ili s (ltr time Unllyersity of Leece hllll~ly reported last week Ollllline tn the ProaetiingS' oj the Rt:Jy,(]l .5m:fe.fy AI. 'The~ealm i:malyzled the problem to LJlI1Ide~SWlr@ tlnitlt S()~jds call deform in

Henshall, ]nduded a disk jl!~tabove' the
SClre'l!ll. er "Vllo~,m," thiat inlltts !!JiP agaliliist the cork,. all()~lngl t~e Il,.Iserto t.wlst and pl,l~l it si ml.!l[tall'lleoUt~~y. Corne~illtS H org Bin,. an ap pl.i III d mech·alfll kia n at t he' U'lllilversily off V~rgil'i!i.], (hi(lr~one:5\liUe, cslls theanaJllysl5:"a 'l/elry 1I]'](ie appHcarioii'l of tihe tlht!Qry of nonUneal~' etE),S.fficity;! \l\lhid~ is; IC:iLm,enUy uII1dergo1ng a renaissance \'liilh fts appilcatioiflls to bio~ogitali ma!~@:rlaL~.

2J'JO].

.'II!.I'nl~erliilfie" , :)~a,le and bK"i!I~ !ll@V. , i()n!ie~ pifi'o'!3lle

Res~a:f,h:ers WOrkij.nglin centr;;i[ ChIna have iPho~ographed Onl~ of
~'o~lr~y Sltudiied mlalmmlalls~, the (nineSie

lneworld's

m,(l,$,t

Sp@i'Idiing
1

by indust.ry has risei'iI)~"glhUy sillilce ~.uH'50 budgietsttal,['ed at aoollJlt $29 blllio,~ after 200 4, tm~ Propst prsdlrts a dip becausefndus-

lry re.~e;;!lrchfl.J'lndi.!I'!;gltypically JoUo~1JsfedE'nll~ ~ patte'fns with ,Ill ta 9 of a reY!ty~iH:5, Ihe proper:f5~iof1l Oif' @acih u.s. h@alth cal'l@ doUo\lir that liilOW ,0 ! goes to researth 15 ~5.S ce~t5 and f,aUnlrllQ, Propst

i
lIE
'0'

~ adds; me,am'VI1iHe, countries such ssthe Unite:d: Killlgdom and Sf~9apo,rre. ,altI'IQU'glh stiU behind ~~he Ui'ldt~d St.fllte), U(l! eJiIP'(llfilding. theiir ]IlV~S'~:~Mnents. "The trends .::Jllre et good/ s·ays n ~ i1il~s,~arch !A.Fllleric::11 Pr~5i de ni~Ma ry WooU!€y. :t

Fiust d~scribecll by scientists 11111 189'2, the. ca.t (Felfs bietf') is known on~y from a ~w sk]iflS '~.n illiusellm,s ,iilll1lldsoh:, Uve ~nllmalls 'in (hln~'s~~oos~ays, Jiim S.anders/on, a lma.mlmalog~staod founder Qf' the s Smalil. Cart (,on:servati·[l.r1 .Ama nte, In M!1I'Y' 003, Sanderscull and cc,~1r:!:lailgues Vif'!1 2 Yufeng and Dr~ublgy.all (his. s~nglLeTlibetan nalme)'set ~)'U~tof]nd! it lnthe 1I1i'~~(LThe effort pa]d~J!n this summer, when their c.a.mer:a traps lain the Tibetan P'~a.te,aUJ,in northwest:ern S]uman Pmvil1llCie .caught ,e[ghlt pho:t:os of' the cats hunting at night Sa,nd'erson hopes th~lmages will encourage cOilselVati.on Q[ the (at

mOUintaincat

:~FUet of'Z@br,afish
,~ o ~.
'0

lOlllgl a fa'll'Of]te of deve 10pmenlt:a~. biol~og~sts, the
'

zebrafish 1'50 rl!O~Vcatching O'f! wnt~ ~:5.~(m::h@irs stutCll,m n,g, cancer, dwg addl.(.t.io!1!,~I!lid Z L . ~ numerous etner (jO!1d!iUOJlii • ..... A n.E!Wall1l.3lblmicall aUasfm t:~d) sc]elliltif~c school. ::ii '0 ]5 HshN'e~rr'om the Victor Chan.g Cardiac R@5,ea rth 1115U~lJ'~ef! Syd n ey,Aus;tl"a lia. i Q ~ The .~efere!1(!e.~1J'~lh:heatures 36,000 images, f

! I

!~
I...

~ Cfllptulr'EH:llJ:,)1ng loplic:mL p:roi~dklflomography. t :.~. ,5 ]'5 the firs,t to det;aill the fish's structure f'1F(~m "" U W\NW,SCleno~mag .Orgl

S,CIIENCIE VOL317

31 AUGUST .2007

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MO'VE

IGilRAI8, B I:N II] Ii II( ~III'G I'IIT. ~ 0 rI: 11i~¥e5trem U nivelrs:itY]1l Eva nston IUfn 0]$'1 has stollen
I

is

away a star orga nic {:he mist from the U nivews:ity of Cellito rnial. tos Ang eil~$ (ll (LA), l. Fraser Stoddart, \111110 has pioneered a subfi ~ld d(>V'ot~dto rna n]pul6]t~ngi nt"€rtocked ri ngs and other mecharl]ca'lly linked QQmpoondis. wjiUl. be9i n movi ng most O'f his 30-llllember ~eam hom UCl4"s Ca~!ffiQrnidiN,anoSystem'5 ~nstiiM1e {(INS n next montih: to N'o~~hweste:rn'5 rI€WIi ( @il1lt@F the fDr
,emtm:n.oI.ogi~tet1'1iI ':V~nlg1De~n his career smdyj~g how to boost yields by conteelling ~'rop pe~l:s~v9thL benefiChinese

~nstitlJlte of T'ecihnoll,ogyin lP,as,a.(h~\I1.alj he II'~ colJla:bDmtesMth Stoddart on mciecular electlFon]cs reseerchTbis ils gload fm Nort:nwesternL ! . . n" l ~. pmgralm ontne rno'v!? " sclear'lY a

RIIS~NIG ,STArtS
A (j1[}lI1EIN! Sl!IaMIElR. Sherry Gong, an

:1S,·year-oLd 'from E>1eter,~ew Hampshrre, Hed iorfirSI p~ilce at~he Ch[na Gir[sl
MatllematiGl'L Olympiad heb:llin WUili3li1 ]11 a~it1a'$ Hui~i Prffil'ijn(@ this m{)!1it:ll" lit ~'II~s~f1~·

fiirsitime the Ul1lited States had entered tile
wmp@Lit[ion.

Chemlslry cl'f IInt@grat@d Systems.
Po native (If Scot.lallld, 65-year-old Stodd~lrt joijned UClA ]r! 1997 ..He'sthe th~rd-most~(i~@d

GonglaLso palr~f:dpatedl 'for th,e US. 'team 'in the ~ntil2mat1iClnal.Mathematical mym!p~ad held ]n Ha noi, \{ietna m. which was won by RLissia. G~:m9 sha red hertop spot wHh lhu 0 Che.n of Chinal ..

n@,td an ll1!lJB ~ly s]no~

20 0'2. ~ J IU'l:y~ III

c:wa~ insects .. l.~I,:S1m()nth. he took 011 [he job of it1lfcre,as~llg dJi>epl'odu,cli:v]cy of tb6 ] 5 ~ndependenli~lg:l~t.rt~~'es llnnl]L'Iak~ up the $450 million Cm,]'S'utuul,V,e:; Group
on [Il[t':;n~,ll~md o

Ag:l'~c

LJ~h.u:u.<1I'iR(f;se <1I~'ich

chemist of the palst decade and wals
knfghted by 'the Queen

(COIARl· Wang., S2.,Iiii:3Jd been dep'llity d ire ctor 0 f research a:l CCHAR"s InrerI:Ulth.H:H!lJ Rice Research lnstiture hl
the Ph:U~pffi:'lines.

0: W'lilIat ar~ ICi'IAR's;, p,ri>!llrittles ftO:r Ihe~,llg poorfarmflrs,?
l:ilL'lJp'j,"ovi.ng t:lliJe prodliClivil'y (if :S[~Ip,.I,e

S~oddarl: salYs CNSI has strugg~.edtonund Us ongoing operatiens alfter mm~vil1gg~llu~rmIS initial support from Ih!E! state, Niorthwe's:~ern, by cemra st, has been buoyed bv an influx of cash from lkenses for
of IEng~allld ~nJanllla:ry.

A~o~his SlUll1l'i!mer; Adami H,@:st;erber9.a 2:Q(}7 'gradualte of G:arfietd High School]n 5@aUle,r'Wols.hl~n9ton,tookhome lop honors in the indh/~dua [ co m petition ,atth'e I ntematlonill lill1.guistks Olympiad in 51. f',@l@'rsburg"Russia. The 64 m'gh S!cnoo~, (ontestants at the eVelli[j' nOll'l inits fih:h year, 'IIIlf:!ire a~~e.d to de!:ilpher [!he rules of unr,amjiliilr lilIlligualges such as
Haw.aii~U11, Talt:all, flm~ a IPapLld New G!JJ]lllean

c:rolPs.especially fur ~nf~Y{lrab]e enviroemenrs such as South Asia or sub-

"I'm sad. II like having him il111 LA.,'" says; la mes He~[h. a chemist a't the CaUfoFnli2l

pha:nn sceu t~cill comp 0 und s,

language call~d N!(i,om,guided! by ~me :samp'~es andtheir IEtn:glishtra nslatlons, R.lI ssian and
U,S, sqUiadstied 'for fOrst ]nthe~eall1n co,m·perition.

S~!.ban!!l Afr:ic;;!. 'h~!~ Lo'w-t]!~n~i~1.g is fhurn t. We have drQugh t,-~ olerant mai ze tiilHl ,e't).ldd rai.~e.yrnddslTom 2, to 4, U)!n.s>
,Hoo,,'!!' you u:.'i;anage the ehal~elffil,~ef~'l:Is[aillm:ab[Uty with d~~l'i,nMIl'tlilt'i:o i carion enorn-(~!l~ni.:lillfl I!!rgent rssue, 's

»
AINi OF FIOEIR AN Ii) ASCII EI~lnST.II'nhme 2006, Tad Caldwell. we,n;t from studyilll!Q howalt:omrc d@c.ay aff>!Nts meta~5 at ILo5Alamo:5 Natlonal Laboraltory to Iraq's ,Anoalf Provin.ce. lit didnl't take tJOllg fort hie rea~i~ of '1;Iu) r to hit home for the physicn:5t .a no u.s. Army serg'ea nt f rst class. Tihlreew'e,ei\s ilI1Ito the pe'serv;:sf s deployment: ] 111
H~bbi.'mill,ab,

[petheetsre],

Q: How about d.ll1ilat:e 'hange?

CGJA:R"s goal is rohelp farmers he pre-

a roadside bomb blew up a Humvee ]n his
j"

[011\101',

pared for unpred.ict;ab~eweathe~r. Flol()clJ~ r~is:t~lIn rice isjust one ex,1!.l1Jlp~le. Hlr,ming$ys'~e~']1~ .r~~'ar(l\h-n:Jliiru[i!©iD. fbr '~xial.l¥lp~.e.
and [filsl-grQw:i:ng]1 crop V':lIlI"ffietjes~iD:n iwni.!e:n(iellliil!]~lid~~oJ pepp.le~~d (;O'lI!~d ch~n~ gl,~)blll[ agriou~lt!lu'e,

Wting ~ 1'I'l'nine.,~1 S~M!Jthe vehicle-nip OVN says Cald~!jIe~l. 91 3 who wOIl a IBrOl1lz.e Star for;, ~Imollgl oth~r 5eM~ej "personal courage' in securing the area and ,evacuatin.g wOII.mded 50[d~e'r5. lin was ill rem ]nder that people wa FIled to kiU yo u "
Iralqi

;'Iit

~

::ii '0

Q:: Willat alre tlh e majio" €iirlaU:eli1ig s'a(l ng e (:GIIAIR?' \"'/f!,,.v~mny ro inllprO<\f/e d'J.G e.ffiJ,ciemiCY of
O::::;:IA[tal~dln~ake ourgern'l;res. Uw[]ll'e .Iean., .• ,
'l,W S~I,Pll0IFt. [0
111ld (I:Qli\liVim,oe ~!,'eSIDtfl1i

no fllnning wat'@'ror food stores ons.]te. He took Oil! the III ]c:kn :!'!IIn e "S ergea.l~t AII'II'Q ry" to r his: d~i ec t: :style tn r traJining Iraqi. soldiers, IH]s~€(hn~(al. side S€liVed him weU wl1e.n the bomb attack. thwst hilln ~n~otth€'n:l~e of

(alldw~Uj.,anil1t~ll]g,en.~ off]c~r~Wil~~tatioJ'llOO wUh an army unit .of 650 soldiers at ,a basefor S mOf1lths",1it~l

!~ [but] ri'eecl more We need ~ rnobll lze ouri th~l' g i!!1i~'eIll(I'riQ!"~lill~griC!,lt[rrur~' pt{wid.~ ~sei;[rch
pr'~1'lnisiJlg sol.'m~o~ls,"

,co:mmullic.atnons o'fficew..

A prforstint in Engbund in 2001 disrupted hislPh.D'. researeh a~ f LOtr~.daState University •.whf;cifl I'M:!' com pteted .~ n 2.00:1i.j,jH·~ Iwstrati ng:i 1'1 terms of my calreer;" he say.sof hils mill~ itary :servke. But "H's H!wardil1g to Ikll10w what I've done."

W\NW,SCleno~mag .Orgl

S.CIIENCIE

VOL317

31 AUGUST

.2007

115·3

(.1UilCeif Af~$h'QIl~

(oaJL~U(jn. ,f~tlTlibd by q;,cl.ist lafl'l'@ i;lod :s.(ii'enitiSh,. Tex.Qis 'GIr,)I'!!'ern!l;lf Rick

:~efry ;jl1l)ltlhGrfl,e:s~ :s3 b]W,()!'1

reseereh h.!l'ld.

afterl!l~e p!Opul,awDemoc!~at dioo la~t year fr{llrn e.s.ophage~li CalJ'licer" Bouncrsays shewas !.1!~.VUire of Cnl:ufrulnin stem cell ~n~t~~mi'!,re thought .~, ~]m.lI ·'nmll,r's.!he riJTI.1e'~ to dio oo!lnel:hi.ng siJl:1J!u,lar Ibr (,:<Ulr;:'~!'es.e~rch, ';i,,~:l~(.;h ~he fe~i~m~deda ··'bi.,g

v ision' :~1fI ti me of a.
jnined

nrnll federa~ft~n::tdiug ...S be

wH"h A.iFm.stwng's feuudarion

:!iJ!lI1Jd.

milcrgro[lps ~l~,':ld :p.i~dux'J ilIDO Pe~"l'y. y M~]y,. B the!egi.sh.lirt:lfii had voted to (l(:HlV(tl;'tI:h.e ~lme'g crulCel!'~prew:inriQ!l ag,ency imo lhe emtcerfre'~ ventinn and .R:e~'i1Irehh1S[iurI(;'l ofTeJi.3~andro g.ive it (]uth{)rntyi~:I f~J~~.d sci~:Jjt~HC:I\e'l.tr.!]~"Ch 'on "all types of cancer in humans," Voters are 'be]:lJl!.gOilslbed 0[11 N{wC;:lr]lber to ~lppmve the 6 sale of$,3 billion iil~;:loond5lO fund the: instimte,
which. v.'ou'hJ gi.vepliodry l'Omtl!"Chi.[[Jg gr.ailllJts.
those ]~~uI1lfli.singeconomsc benefits, CANCIER RESEA.IRCH SInd ";:0]-

laborst ions, Up to ] DO/flo of the funds canbe

Texas, Vot1e'lr's; Ask1e,d to Ap,prove ,$:3 Bil11lion ICanIC'BIr' hritiative
te.x~ is planning a bio!l1Ledk·(~I. research initi~~
rive fit fer a snne wiler€:; ev,e:rytfu.in_g:is bigger: a
$3 bi llionpot of money fo'.~ tl<c:~enh$t:&w its
\'it'd.ge wllr..agaJil.lst cancer, Legislatlen s.igned by Govemor Rick Perry III Junewouldcreate a C,11!"ICel" institurete ma:m~gelh.el.O~:rear ~')II()~

"top-notch peer-review process," says Alfred (];~ll'IIl:!IJm.(iiiJn.illlM,'l ~s..~Nobeli.st and dean of
lilT Sm!th'>Vieslte!m Med:ic~.ill Schoo~ ~W! Dii!U~l.""

spent O~]prevention i:]1I1iJd 5~· on fac:H:~[i,~:the nrnl U;rmHS\VOiLtld be awarded in 2010. "Th i5 wi ~Ibe an e~liOJ~1IDU:; boost .forcancer 'research in 11~.x<J.:S atim.e when federal fund~t ing has been very right," ~ys cancer bio~Qg;i~t Jtrff:rey~os.el~, f B~]ylor O).I]e,ge ~r M.ed,ic'im-e; o inl"']ouS!toll, Mendel~dim hopesthe money wi]1
I~

gram, funded t:h:mu.gM] state bonds, If "O'~~rs ~]pp'm'll'e November ballot measure, the the
~mlOliJlIflJtOn'llloiM~yal,;!r.~li"ded lilillmm~.]y

another reseerch pm¥e~il:Quse lika~y LO be:ne:fit of~HeOihhstudy sectionsandalso am11LC~: 1.1I.e\>V £mm ~'henew gl:arJJl:S, pmgl:a~lIl. Scientists outs ide the state ,![1rC app~ il1iucl:~:lI'Ig r,nlen~into~~e suite. theplsn, \ivhkh h~ boon endorsed by a ,t:m~UThe oneconceru raised by some sdelltis~s rion thatinc Iudes the A!'!~SE~[Fba:sed~bu]]dati:o~;:! involves tl'leli~['ld'~g~~_llr~revjew COtl1!111]Uee.
,cy.clingd~rmpiollaflllJ(ill CallC!e'"r survivor Lance Anllst!.'iQi.rlg. "]lhink if); a v~r.y smart
n111f.1 by U10Ye

to "do inuovatlve thi!~g:!"" it"! areas fOII.1Cm ~$ .mu.lo(lirech:no]0.ID", that are considered m·l):1'.isJlty:rhr Nati()na~ Instffitm~s

encourage

researchers

will easu.my

The legislation

stipulates that ~~alf 0·1' ~Iile

1~11'i::: $2.26!ni~Uon in grants that the ~tate received las! ye~U'f~i'Olnrhe Na.l.lo~.Hd C~l11Icer hlP

ln~titu'[e(Ncr).
~ropon ents expec t the ,i ~f]] ~ti ve to I)Ul la

Te'X,a~atop the wm~d of '~~:rICeD' res:e.art:h and boost the' ~.mue:'sb]otech industry ··~~,",*~j[lf [0 be ~ie~d~:r~ WJ:1. ~U~~ ~m'i \vhich Texa~ is ,a~!~dy im
very, verystrong," says John Me[ldelsolm,

president of file University ofTe'x~ls, "UTl' M .. D" Anderson Caacer Ceil1lll'c:r in ]i,ouston,
whichthis year 'W1B1i d,~sjgl],atedl the n~]tk)m~ lHII1l1lb~I"~O[N';~ cancer treatment center by U.S .. N(!.M/;'i! & World Repol'"/ and !.:,,:h]ch

on t~,iJ.e OfJex:.1S," says cancer blolopert gi.~t\~'ebster Cavenee oft~1f:: niversi'lJ OfC~ll~ U ifornia, San Di.~'go.'wh.ohas\:\%l~d,u:d Cal wl:br!li,a de¥e]op a sinrgik!dy sized $3 hilHolll!il~~ri~t'" live 'to fund human embryonic stem cell [\e~gfi,t'"l;h, "]t cow(1 be j[!(.~red~hiy(l"''i,re~f:iji~, p pM.r~ [,~clll.!l1ily if it were sahedwith Oil 'bunch of'new people:' Md there are fe'liV disse:nte.f~,,..It !~ Jlfli[ a popular positien 'to comph"l1~JiI.."'S~lY!) eth S the state to ;m,ppnrl cancer research, which, unlike stem cells,mJml:dy receives substantial
fedeml fm](~jng. A fr.iel'ld,of .ttlU'nler
goveTrlClU'

18 members repr-e~mTex,]. s schools ..~hJl'mug'h rhey ate nOil1vor:ing 1]::I:e.mOOll'S to avoid pore:l1l1r.i.~1 cenfliets of interest, legi.s'~;:]jtDlf~\!;.'anted the :id~ool.!iw "have input: :int'O~:h.e rocess," :ii.~.yt-l p Ky Ash. iJ1! ~['i;.ier~br5>~ate r.eprese[ltarhre Ji.11.1 Ke.I~er,. the bilfs [~IDUSB auth.or. The niue V{)"tiJIgme'll~berf; !]11,J1,."'~ be: either a p~,1ysid~1fI or another professi on~lwlli'lQ treats :::!: e cancer p.:]tie~il:ts. repteM:'m a ,(,-:;mcertre"tnilent m or
center or cancervolunteer group.Benaer
c

z

because "\ve '!,,vanna .::I C~'r:!llUn~. u..].hreffii~ of f[ouS>tnnlm~pmR:s~ expectslTI1OS[ to b~ l't1X~Ulc~ a 501.", whowouders whether it makes sense 1'01." d ra \V upo It ([~!(S ex perri sewe have here" and ~ :says rev~e\:ver~oould include ~'re[iredl dott:orn" ~ m and re.sf;l;;:ur\:hersm ,[lri.\f'dtte G1il!nc;c;;rfudliti~, That descri pti on makes some observers \1!.'"{lIlder,~~:ml,Jlt ~tnef~ expertise ..~l"oiu rnuld ~ the end! up with a~I~1 [he voting members not E of
rea~!~y ul].de~~.M.l]di~'J;g mnch abourresearch," ~

<

receives hal f ofdl the N C] money ~lO'!i:vi,ng ]l'UO tile state, But those hig~1, xpecrations e won't be' mer, ~,ly~ciel1ti~ts.mJl!~eSSi the new :i:nstitm:e selects l~h,eh ighest-qu~1 ixy PI"OI)!i)S~lls
l"i(l! !mppOrL

I

Amnin business exeeutive

AJ]nRLl[,;ha!d'i~ n]~:hy BOIll!Jller, came

SutcesswiH

depend

'DI.l ."1

UPWil1[1the ide'l of a caacer research inirlative

,. ~ u

!;ays if'ILFa1JlJ<CeS, S:h~!rpks., ~Istair member ar the NahOl:il1d Aeademies .. Sever~i.Texas seiennsts

~hO~llt n::trnll!eybeil~ ~]llouned all <I political tll~e
basis, "l would he glreally saddened if 5 years. frou::tnnwwe "re ~l an impasse because E~.Paso !N~n.~S a cancer ~'e$e~rt:h center:' ~ys de'!JIelo,rmentaJb~o]ogi~r rmifh~r~.1L~.m seieurific

told Sci ence t:hey '1irlllu~d much prefer r&mtdl rev.i(;;~~fel:S,lh,,reur of sl~me:.··Tlumt'l sj.10uildl'l't be o ~]W1y lexa!l~" on the' peoer~lUev~c:n1i,rpanel:'says M.iehael Kyba of'U'I Scmdl\,~ster,[], a reviewer Luis P~mld!.1J of UT Sondrwestem. fbr stern cell i!'tls;.ealid~i~'l~ti~]tive3sel~l:p re~:el1t~y Mtmded:s,()h[l!lisll!!in~·es~sdHI.l the pHlfle~ [0 in Connecticut end New Jersey that, like Ca~.i-· could mp outside reseerchersas n·eec]~ld f('n,]lIi.~'s" dr'<)'J,;\{ :!'evie\N"(irn flb<iliL ()1Jlh;:Dd~ t'he sl~]~e, e[!SLtre ll:J~gJl.~q!;l<Q,Ul)'pee.rreview, Cavenee Several othersexpressed similar concerns isn't worried about thelimitarions. either ..
PARTICIllE PIHYS ICS

.,~, ··I·! Wnfl< I."OI.H" ~ ~. . ~.tW]_ nepremcrs, DOIJg Ulman ,. president 0 f lbe larlee Ii.rmsU'Olll!g .Founda:!!tion>~I.ys SUflpnrter.s wil I publicize the ballot issue and IrJh®il uch inis

tiaHves ~'tYJl~C~]lydo pass," M1lx Sherman, an emerims po Iwti ea I science p:lI"ofe,s,s{)(r ~[ U T
Austin, expects 11I'1,..n)' Nuppolrl i[for (. to

simple reason: Mnst families III '~.~IS have: been totl,ched by C;~:ilC~1'

Fac~ng an uncertain future ...offl~cial:s.~[ the . ]~:iit. ded i.c<liled p~~ ic le I'Ihysi.c; I. rt ~ <1I1~ the ~u

United

S:[Hi)eS

b~lvedeve~,o'Dedabackup plan
If)

im case their glf<iilJ.d ambition

hesta §1Ar-

gunman international ou ~dy d.e~.ay.ed.
N.,ni[onal.Accelerarcr

celliderwere
~l

seri-

1IIu.:l·erthe plan. researchers

Fermi

Labcratory (fer:milab)

im Barav ~I!JI. .~II iuois, would CO~1iSnUiCt .a PI,OQi" ronaccelerator using parts that meet all the design spec ifications [ow rhe proposed
mulrjhillion-doller IiIi'IItElrmal'iol1.al linear Collider (IL C' ). l'he proton so uree W(H,a! d

feed neutrino experiments and searches.for
certainrare

particle d'~cjjlfys while ~ervi.ug!l$

a test bed forthe ~LC•.accordiugto a drafl report released by the ]~b'~ sreering committee ea rl ie r rhi sm. onth . The morem ode st aecelerator woul d sril.l ccsrmore than $500 m~j]lio~l.ii!!ndit faces comperition from a J~~p~~nese lab, Fevrl1~t~bofficials stress thattheir pri~:11lHl"y goal WSIf) JI.and the ILC B IJJ that 4 0 ~k ilemeter behemoth expectedto eest
j.

Hadron Coll ider I( LH C) at [he European tJllZ communiry for proposals l"IHU" couldbe p lJr1iuediin the me<1J~l'I!ti (ltfld Project X is a me.) particle phys~cs h~b{)ru!:ury, CERN.n.e~lr l"es;]]mu;e~:o[halcaJlI .. SH;)fS Ymm.g-Kce K:illlll" Geneva . Switzerland .. which wi II SUUl smasbing protons next year. M<'1ny p~,~ys.i~ deputy dlireclnr of if eiFnfl~1'lltl. · eisrs expect the LHe to blast euta slew of As: early ~~sI994 ..some physicisrs had new partie les, T~,~e lLC ~\lhi will col Ud:e d'l. proposed building ~]proton seurce atFermilab,B.l.Jlt the previous design, called! the Pl'f)~ electrons and antielccrrons to make cleaner eollisions.would be; needed to study tlsose tom Driver, W<l5 seeaas cOlilllpe'ti:fi:lg with the pan iclesin detail!. researchers ~ay., [Le. and in 2005 IFem'lwl ~]!bput it on ,1 back burner. The Proton Driver \i\i()u]dhave used Pbys.k:jsl:':i~r:lo'Peto start building the It.C as ei;!]"]Y1.!!;2012 (lind fini sh ~~by 20 [ '9. BII,n in some :Piil!ft~ des igned 10]"the J l C.but P:mject X \IV in use 1'lIl,O re a. fl. hemand '1;'1 in S~ Iek M~\reh, Raym.oll.d Orbach, under secretary for sci en ce at th e Departmen [ o f En e rgy U} exact IlC speuificatious .• says lor .[DOE )., wi!lrned llilal the It C 1Il1i in: notbe g Raubeuheimer, an accelerator physicist ::It: completed until rhe !.lI"! i d~20[2.ns: ow hrte r the Sta!l~ord Liuear Acce]e!!'~.ror Center ill I(ScieN.~'e. 2 March, p.1203} ..OrbfJIc:h, .asked Menlo Park, Cal ifQr:n ia. "So i:I,1.doiilllg Pmj ect X. )I'Gu really do advance the [LC.:' he says. Fermilab is not the only lab withplans
for aproton Accelereror source, TI~e JapaneseProton Research Complex in Tokai should pO"'i,I~r"Ul~ ~i:leXl year"~llhongh ~ll ~lS first phiil~e'~twon't! pump OU~ rnJ~ many prermi:lsas Project X would.Projeet X wlllalso

more t1haJ~] il~) illion (Scie,fu;:,e .. 9 Felbmary. $b ~),746).\.\f·~ndd require an internatloual
agreement that could. take many years
[0

be measured ag.~:ilfl~[ other HlIid.!I'angepfojecrs already proposed to DOE. lnc]uding a
Sp1lJjJC;~

hat~h'OiU~, ·'·[nh.i!~gs ~h~lit btly~'.md~]]e ~]~e con-

tm~1of physicisrs are 1101 :ready. i.f would "be ll!1lu,:fu better fur pi!J.y~.idst~ In the tJS.~o build a [I'I~ch~.~,'lerh.ntis .!:dlwgl.~I~d. with. [he ]lC
~~[tdgh-les yOUSO~]H~ n:~~.1hysics op~lnnulti" p

u'li.:st>ion with NAS,A to study dark e.~,1ergy,; ~.x.perimlell.l:s at the proposed Deep U~r'ld etgt01,ni.d1 S·ci~~ice atild E.ng.ill~.e:efi $'Ig Laboratorywhiclris seeking l1ua::tding from.
H:le Na.h.omll. Science
FOUWlid;~Hklll.:.

hap s ~ln aece I eratorto
cal ..!edl Bm~~ull~ I

:p 1:0 ee du

andi perInlr~icl e s

in cop .. S OJ.m.OiJJ.IUS., iJou
~l,[ld d:evdupmfll1ll'.

[ies:~ s!ll!ys Fernlli~!lb Di.I.'IIl:'ClOr i.eI" Oddol1l!c. P
HlIhbed .P'l'Ojl,ec~ X, the pmlollL
S·Ol!lfce

FermiJ~]b seeks $.50 miniotll (lV0'llhe: neKt

"" vi,oUulc! keep the ~!i!lbon lite reslearcill fm~frO!nt ~ diurillg the ])121"]0d bel\!!.IElenlhe :sbmdown .of Fer:m.ih:lb: .. '[tw.~lfi(l<1J] Colli.dew !!lit the end of

,
PI'~OIritle:5.

]. ye~]lfs '~"or.rese<liidl.

lab

I

~ ~ile decade a I1d the' stHr~-up .of the IlC. T:he 5 ":ev<al111)~] ,,,,,i I~.!'lnom l':leed ~~psedby tbe Large

~ermn;;Jb 'I!l(I[uld1b!l)IiIld11he

proti[)n~olJ.r(e

ol1"iGia~s hope lilm :DaB w~'11C'{litne thr{l"l.I.gh ~,vilh some .I.u(mey as soon as .1.Th~Xl yea:l".The fi If~l ~tep .i.s;a. review by o OlE '~P~rHcle Physk: s.Pl'lOjeel Pri or~,~':izal:ilonPa ne~".wh iell l
~.holLlld. \lIidgh i.nlI.ext 1'>1.l!F.iJlig. 4t.miR.IANI [(:1::10

(]filly ~~' U '~Bre .(j eliilyed,

Di[ettor P~er Ocldollle says .. VOL 317

w\!VV!i.sciencem~g_.orq

SCIENCE

31 AliGUST 2007

lUSts

• Mraximum proEc1~on
agailnis~ aemlso~s

• ,ei!l' Duamlite!rT.I.r'.:et ava~~atHe ten sizes m

Stop aerosols!
Unique two-phase

fnter protection w~tlhep DualfUter T.I.,P.,S,.®
IF!eatures ,of:l1Ie ep,IDuallfiilite:r T.II.P.:S. IDouble protection pfiovide,cj i;}yttne town p'n!8oo m~er
• Plfovia.e.8 ma.xiimum plrOtectionfor botih lPip,stte

lih,e new E:ppernclolrtelP' Du;aliliitelf 1'.11.IP~Sr",'Wlitlhthelilr 1IIlniq,uetwo,~ptilasefijl't€rt pn)vid~tltrue perfect sli'nlm,elldl ag:ainstco:nlami narlii·oll'nl. Tlheiilter consists. of ,",0 v~sible p1nas,es, each wU~l1.a diUerent po:re size, TI1~s,wo-phase-fnt!@;F protec~io:rl €lnS!urli?S t ultlilnate absorpt.ioir1lof aeresels OMd b30mo~eciUlles @,.
oumatclhing alii oonventlionai filters .. Rely en it.

and! samph;~ • Wt:imalte ab90:rption

()f

aerosols Ian ell biclTIoiecules

• Free~r{):rn FlCIR inhi~}itor addmv€ls; • P8!tent lPeuliding i:wo Iplhlaslel'i~tertechno:l()gy • Supplied stlerHe~ EpperndOll"fPGR dean and

pymgen-free

:For m oife~nrfQ:nnnatiol1i goro
www.epIJH;~lFnd·oli.com/ch]a·lfi

• IvOr ,conf,o!'mity • Batch~rellalte.a oerti,fic,~desavaHablle
Ite r

eppendorf
.Int,ouch w.ith life
'il'\'Q~rlg¢aII(iI!stn'bu~lI':: MIiiW,eppffml!dorl'.,OQrn!iWOrldvwdl;l I • Appli¢~iiQn.$upp>IJ:li1:: .+4$. "ffiao~, $ 181s~ G Eppe:mdorf' AG • Garmalfl¥" +4940588 OHl • ElPiPGnoorflNor:lh AnnEln!3<l,. tI'iJrC) •. 800~t645~:a05r()i

-'

-

-

.

,I

I

I

OR:GANIC

CHEMISTIR'Y

Syn'thesi:s Miilmii,cs Natulral ICralit:SmlB ash ip
Whe]]i[ comes to making complex moleeules, microbes are m~llnre"s, master erafts[og,erh'erri.ghL HH'~ cnmplex uhre e.. d ime n si cuala U3i ngeme D::tl of bond s ill the

.sIIillllefiOlr

a

IDI,i m e
0111

Worm biologlY jILls,t: gotS,4,OOO mo,~e ~ucraU\!'e. ]hat' 5 the amount sma~l team of tealdill'91 worm biologi:$ts has put up for a reward '~O t:t1e first person tori ifill a ne~lIsis,~,el'spedes to Ca'enQfhabditi~ eleg.a,rJs.The problem is that
altnlou9,1h tlhe< nelillatoc!f!! C.

eiegoos

was~he

rm::'rl.But just lI:!O'l'V fhey mamlge to cunS rr uct some 0 f l hess C omp 0 unds has long remai ned!~1iy~tefious.
Ta kea cl ass of long, ladde:r.ml;:,e:rex ins"

molecules WOi~l~d be' wnthe righl place and orwemta[uon. '''Il" oilers ~ simple \'I,tay '10 expl uin a lot of CU!llp~exity'" Janf!i~on 1>ays. But there's ~]s.light:pr,Q,]h,lem. Wht\'1l. epoxide r.in.g.s open,

firs~.arnmalte haveHs en:lir-egenome: s,equenced, the otlhew nematodes sequenced ~1"I(e ar,e teo diislanlly' r'e lat ed to ,a~tow .1:11 gli:s;tsto ow
idenUfyt:he g:enetic. dHfelt\2m:es ln C el'egafJs tn>allevo~uUon has retained through natural S@i.8CtlOIl. TIh,e woml'S dlJ!512St knmvn ro@l.a:liv,e branched 'tens ICJif mtlhons tlif years aJgo" arid Sci@'Fllti5h need al rno~:e ~e[ent rellatj'v€ for

s uch ~] tbosem, ade by!1L1J~]d~n;! "[rl lcrobes s U called di:l1on3ge~~latl\;.~ thal are responsiblefor
ri:5h~killi,l'ig,

Ihey tend

ti'O

"~d iide~.''']ti 1985, Cohil!illbia fh,e

(l,n

U[I]versirry org,aniic: chemist Koji Nakanishi,
sU,g,g!esled Ith<l'~d,i['l!()'t1.agelh!tes create c cmpou nds byl,Ulnlchi,~i1Ig I!1i e as cade of react ions t hat break apart a series ofsmall

genome companson. Cmator~ of th~ priZE',iindudin,gl Ca:~t~(h's, PaUll S.~:embi;r9 ilrl!d james Thomas olr the IIJni· vl:l'I'~jly of W.fl~hillgt(Jn: •. SealtU€. took a pag€ prlvate' :spa m mig M {ompe t.m on~fIl ·i:llillnOIJ:n{lng t~e p rize',.whkh Vlim mme out of th.e~~ IPockets.i\\SoCllmeoClne, was ta lkiingl abolJlt \ll,lhaJt:
1

molecular rings as the first :sle.r~o ad!ding ~IUC~ eessive ],,1IJ1,~gsto l·he rn~lIdder. Til e tr~lulDl.ei~~'~,1~ l

hom the AnS,3irj X PRIZE-.2005'sS10

miUion

'QHC-

Mo

:,;y:m:heric ehem :isi:!ii have
neve~ rn,;u~,llged~!ocreate
these easeades in '\;!;'l;1rer. ]eav ingthem If:!\>wnd er feq'l!ll red, MaJ~~ne nmk rebss mil 'Ij use 'I'Ilat..er'~l'l ca tfllyze the cOI1I\Hu:5ion of dl em kill t precursers (~op)i 1"1[10 toxi [IS :~UI::h til) gymn oei rn·A {libl)oL\'.j?}.

types ofs:ped@-:S t~~@'yVlIoiluld ![ike tosttmly." Ass;~m~'l~

ne,caills Stembel"g. "~~vMspetredl, '~ would pay 1000 'budk-sfmm my own poclk~t t.o s,e~ atrue sibiing of C eiefj(irls ..' ]a.mesThom~s immedri

r

whether it's truly the
'\>'i,l"ay '[he ,(],i.n.cf];]gem ares

{JINlly replied, '~" too.' "[)e'tallbi. .filWiIt at Wormbase •. :I"91, Q ~IE11I1& l'.I'OIUiIIINI

do it, BII&t now lhwngs U1I1~)! be locking up lor duis old ~d1ea. On p~lge11.89 nf'jhis issue, eteam led by Tim, Jamlson, a ~yrul;heti'C' organie chemist a1
[he Massachnsetts

form one olrl'wo compounds. Oae, sbbrevlated T~lP. Ius just the ri.ght structure to,
beeeme lneorperared i.1l a ~1~Hj:der]]~eeompeund; the other one. T[1F, doesn't. When

MI,lrwiinthe Nlal1~ln, IGoogl"ed~
Goog le Ea rth Ih(lIS been turnedi ns,de out lin
parlne!'S~lip w~th lhree as tronomicall~ea:ms, Go09 le has {re,ated (31 ewf~atllrn for s lain"· n gazers in its, Googlle Earthilrn.terfaa:;e. Dulbbed

just the son 0 r cm:;!~~del[1aJ Nuk,uri sh i P!1)~ posed.What's more, the MIT researchers
feund that the reaction aGul,,4~ly works bei teJr
.im l>..' ~~~}l;:ir-S!ug,g:t.;:&Lil~.g \N.a~.t:rbu~nlt:'marine l]I~U~,

Institnte of'Teehnology (Mrr) in C:mmlh]"id:ge. reportsthat it prodttced

chemists run ll.iJ!eirril1g-openingreactions i.I1 i:urgiilinic elvents, they .i:!~\!J"~y'&ge't too ~nucfu,(~f s the urn\o\i3n~dITHE TIley can bond add itional gfnup~to each epoxide to force i~ react rhe ~I)
\N<ly

UI,t':y

V\.Il;IIILBul

it

apIJLl~IJS:uah.l.r!;; dtJt:'1iIL~'l

mkf10bes may build their de~dI~ytoxins ina sin::lUar ~vuy."'[t's really a terrific resulr," .says
Er,~e Jaeebseaa sYlllh~~i.c· rganic el~em:ist at o

do it ttu~]tiW~I.y, lutrigued by this puzzle. Jt'lr1t~son and his
graduate stIJd,emt[va:n Vllotljevic dl()'ve in. Afierextensive '\1\'OI:k.]]eymllud ~lS!llii!U ria~gt COI::tI[IL~11J] [ng compeund [hat. when. plac ed in ~otuti.on. seems to hold epoxides iu jusrthe
:I'igllt 'o:ri,emn~~.n:Qilto aHDw' \o\i~H~I:o tT~g~(;1'r the t r-eact:io'n. Not only doesli'l!e reactk~n ChU~"u:l nut T ~;~lP. l11flt. 1'flP thempl'i]ne5~11!10[~mr epoo.bm ide tu bf1e~k ,n'pe ~i;;li rndinco rponl.~ei~i]lt(,} ~~ ~lI'O\cving chaillil .. '·['t"$oo s is]'Ipie., a:ndil opens up a hn of fumd<l1'L1enta]mech .to]sl ie que$rio,l'ls about: 'Wh~ll,!;Vi:~Tel'is doing," :rlacobs~m S:lIyS.

Sky. the roo~.p resents an easilly rna nl pl!J,la~ed (If~h~ as s~nfrO!fi !Eartiit, (olflpl.et~ sky with consteUalj ems .a ndthe 1.0C1llio IIlIS of fameus ( illIlag es ~jke ~he ~'iUalirs.of Creatkm ]11 the E.3Jg1le'
map im,fJiQ@$from the Slo:i:'liWil .Digftal S~y S~.rveyand~he' Digitill S~y S'urvey Comorti u m, along 'W'itij~about 125 ,of the best: Ii!rlQ'Jj\lnl Ulbb~eshots, ar,e the ollilly(Illes dis:H IP'liilyledi!1l~~e prog.ram, 'Ill.llh~,c:h1:5 gearedlowiElnl educ.atiorbalillsage a n:cI t~e gJ@neralpu blk. The astronomers beihlind the sys&em. Ihaw" ev-er, S!3,Y .sky mu ~,di 1'1 the futu reililtegra'~e more innag,esfrom vi:s.]bIe, infra red, ultrwiolet. a lui l(~lray ohservatmilE5; to mak~ tihe syst.em US!l1 ffUil f'Or1:l1l::ademic. sciemllis'ls., ,ejther as.:li fuU-fledged Ireferre:f1l(!e syst1em or a,~(:Ii way fo~ res,ea,~(hers 1"0 do quick. (he d;s Oil are..a.) o:rpD:t.ellt~al ~l"Iier,est
l

Nebula.

CLmefltly,

~
~
~

~

Harvard Univer:sity.ll~eltew\¥nrknl'W !11iake .itl~r easier for chemises to emft: new IJrurniHes nn~dd:ed ikt::C:\(lIn1iPQuncl!i,~·me of wh i!ch Imv,e sbmvn. promise fbru:.eittiug cO:l'n.lli~i,QIHi :oJ u.ch as cysl~c fibn)~is.. .AJll1oC)ug,bCOn'lI)1 ex. 'the ~adder]ke comi ~.l{)u[Jds h!il!ve' a t'ecurr~I~.g t-l'i1el'!'i'f;'l, E~!c;;h i~ ~.'trl,ad~ [po If ill chmlim I(Dfsm iilil rings contlll ini ng u c;;~]J1),~m oxygen<uu9ll~. Sume f~He~'$per~e ~HI1c:[ the IQI~C Siolull ~.~lrgl~r~, ~g 0 r ~~d differe nl ~~ n ~ c:hemH,:~1 ~]ppend<lge.s..Aher W(Ukl.llg <Hlit the structu:re of som.e of I:hese cOI.11'pomllds:.

Thfl findingwaH.::\ htj'a~'tenrung.t §~Im~~ou says, because .il suggests thar di:non*]gel~, li.llt!e~yd.o ~oitl.etlhlng :liluil'lii.~.<u·.]:['1 <lin)!' cm;e;. §mni8Jo~ ~wld otbers ~ay lh~t the new l'eaJc~i,()rnhould 11llnk.e it mw::h eas[erw oCre'~ s ~I e new ladder.li ke cornpou t nd~. l"h~i[CO~t Id pave ~,]e'''lay f'or nove~.drug_:li.
I.at:es
-:IOO:E IT F;, 5IEII'II(IE

~ NfI.kani:sI.!J.~: prop,~d thal d~n{}f'1<l,g.eUrrl'es; may ~Cli,e!ll:t:et.hem. by h~l!~lIChillg s;eri,es-or C;!q,[ia :::I! ,, '" ~ .. ,- ,,~ S cad"a-ol' lI'eacnom; t~at ope~,'J: small nng ~ co!npound~, C~ lied epl[li{wde,~.e¢l!.ch of wilili C:~[1 IS cm.1.~;amn:liall. oxygen t~U)lill bound U}[WQ em"· ~ bons,,[ fille i~esul.Hngcompounds ,ue PUt

!before: co miij tHo9 ,other p:roifes~i'lonaldata o.ases·, "'Rig ~lltnoM'll,thalt's a d'hEi~leililgel" says a stm,li1IO!lller'l3arlnl IIItingVllolrl:h Qir the UliliilloE:Hiily of CahfolFJi'lia, Sali~t:aOuz, who caUs the tool a "greatide.i;( for J~ll!JIbliiz:1ng a$~lrOlilUJmy.
-III1EN.~AMml~l!E51iE iii.

lUS7

I

NI'EWS OF THE WIEEK

A US. federal judge has rejected the' Bush

A.dm.~ni:su~ttion'::; sluggish

approach

to

repm,'ling the resuljs of in; $1" 7 'b~Hion elimate-researeh etioili"(, BUl (;'lvem researchers crirical of fhe gQv-en1inf!~nt cI~n1 ate-science \> program SfIIY it's a ho~l]o"v victory :10,]"those seeking meaningful ~nfi.}~'!H?!lion how O'~:l glloball c:1Uu,lge afl~cts the ~':Ia\t'ion" Last yenr.. envlromremal groups led by the Center for Biologica] Di,v'ersily in Tucsnn, Ariznl'l~'1. sl,iu::d the Adflrl~nistll'wt.io[r], claiming that it E]tlId ignored a .~99'0 ~!rni'l,Vthat ealls for "an ~l!ssess;nu;l]1f'of,d.inll.(t.teo.JdH1n_ge

this country's ;;~bj~~ty to eespeud to the g ~()bai,'warm ingthreat," At the same rime, the judge did not

~.al~s:na·, ~.ion ·:5~UU.lyi~i S.,1illl issue onwlli dl! ~be:~;. i.do . Congress has nut ··deailily d ictared ."[n 2000 .. t1~e Gi:~Hon.Admi:n]stra1tio~~ ~UI!Jrln'Jia~ r ,i z·6d hundred s of Sot II d ie S 01.1 possi hi e d. j.,
ad tillr,t."ss!:he pian.I.H:"(jll~o[".IJ!1I of the Adm
Ol~]ill: .ifl1p~c:tsina

600~p;;]ge report based nn

years ,()f cousultationw iHlI hundreds 0 f sc i~, e~ilJis ts and .1 OG~d offlcials. I uthe pl ~],,,:a;l of I t ~.1 ingl e , ii uteg rat ed report, th e Bush iss
Admin~suaD.i()n·~
w\vlfite

.ulHerage]J'lcy

Cl irnate
S

research every 4 years [b!:AJt "i:l'ltcgr~tes. evelusres.undi nte[pn:l'~s" lllhe 1.0000lest research and describes its. ]mp,act on the country. Noting [b~~u: government the wsn~al'~:Y.3years hue in
and .~year
dleUvt':rirog ~I,ilch ~]roassessment

Change Science Progrem (CCSP) has opted
2] shorter reports en varinu

late om ::Ji relered rnll:ilniliuoryresearchplan §udg~ S.nl.nd.r.a Brown A.F':n.l~tr()ng of the U:S.D:i:Slricl Coun, for the Northern D]su"ic[ of Ca~iIhrn 1.1 rellecred the Bush Adl1lliin isrra[ions ~I!'gmne'll[ thZllf the it~eadl~lL1eSwere flexihle' emulq.gh [:D i1Ji.I:Q~i\t delays, "1"11e de:fell~ the (~~UUS b!!l.venotadhered to the text of the starute orits 1].'11.1.['1 dates," Arm strong w roce ID,a~tIJdl'Ol!l gtl'~?TiheWn it'{' HQ use f) ,()r~~red'~O' s:peed up iit:o; asse~~ment o[ dilrTi.1l1e-(lllang,e hnp.acl::!;,. the Adminlstration 'scurr eut
phl.iII~S,,"

aSI}CClS climate cfu~I'n.ge. ;six (If which it of says fu~:fiH lihe .law'sreqt:l,iIHnnent. llilef~n;t report W<!lS Issuedlast year; ~]second one came our in Juue,
R.iehard Mnss , who rauthe cl imate
change office under ,Bll1s1l:lmrutiI2006. called it "Ul:lrOn~HnO'lre" thin theml in~ critic i.lledl the ...

cc gp to ]~!liteg its f:i:['Id;~:n:1igg., "The i\:cl,11.1 innne
istration s!hould be heldto nh:igher standard
of'thelnw," says MoOss. ad.d:iWlg that AmeriC O!iiIDI S d eservea .,' ull soup-tn-auts f [If.I.[ rnonfll
then ""~ustwh,atm judge And:s fbUlm7il:S rhelener
".. ...",:.

tim ing of the reports but failedtoforce

in her 21 Augnst ruling, adding
20[)i8 and. the assessment
N ot ]11]

UUI~ the

research plan should be relessed ln March

May.

surpri s ingJy,

the Ad 1iL1~ istnlt ionand n

although it is considering an appeal, But Senator John Kerry (D .... MA) :a:~.d Repre-

assessment" air

hOiW

climate change will

its opponents interprete d the decision quite dI~ n:eoonHy" The WhitaHoase scienee om ce says thenew dead lines are "·()om;.i~'ttem\'\i':ifh
E.NDA,IN GE RED SPEC IllES

senrarrivt J,l,Y lnslee ('[)-WA) ~mythe H!ling shows that officials have been '"i[l.tf!p'IIlIy s:up.rre!.l:&i ~'!g"~c~,e!~l faets and "eri pp:~ 1Ilg ifie i

ilUp~~Cl: them .. J.\.bH] [hruit wou.~dI for{~esuclh an inre grated approach pa S se di theH G use of

RepresentmEves last month and is pe:Ulcl]ng in
the Senate,
-iEII.IIIIUINlIIS:CI'I

Find them. That's t"lh~topp,r.lor.i~y

.1 UH:~ 1.1

'en'b:~tto save [he ivory-bjlledweedpeeker; ()nl~![ned in ~ dr~fl: planlastweek by the U.:S.If] sill and \1f,li. ~d~il~ Service {f WS ),.B~,n n,1IMJiLYCiI":ut ics fear that, the chari smat iclb~iI"d is ia~re~ldy extluet 1:i1§Id\,VQJ.iTY thatthe $.27 n1il~im! planw i~1 me ~mless 1:11011 ey for censer vi.ng ~I ,other e~ld~!tig~n~d species,
]vo:rybffil~.s (CtlFnpephih f,Sp~"im::ifJ(1ii8) \01i,~re

ure out lht)'!,;v to he.I~)tIH:"~pec'ie:s, benaee back The ~g2~p~~ge' !Q,~ler$it detailed li~r l~]~~!1 of
actlviries ~,1'UUlyof which FWSis already eilirlflelfOO'ndu:ctin~ or funding. Ute IIImin ta1>k~~. 10 ,eo,xpalld.the search lOir the birds, now done
mainly
srste wildlife

by ~:lfeW' cademics, vo~unteers, (]jJld a agencies ..A.150 biglh on the list
h11bil1J!t n:idd!eve'iop~~~g ~

~~.,(;';di.all expendnure ln 200'4 of ;SS500 per tl!re~ljtea1;ed~~endangered species, O Chris Elphlek o:f[he Uuiversiry of Conneetieut, Storrs. RaYs~her-ecovery pkm,gives short sbriU to those \vlli:lo question the reeent s>.i.g!.lli.~lg~in Arkansas. But F'WS"~ l~mrie:
Fenwood, \vbo coerdi nates the recovery effonl say~ that tbeevidC;;lllLce s '1~.~t~n"OoiVI_g s enollgh~o compel the ~gency ro act, rile plan is Ollen for public cnmment un:H122 Octobel.·~IJ~d wiU be l'(lvi,e'l'iIedb~The WHdHfe Sod.e:ty,. ~]rool~Jltnfh ~d.entific ~ gllooUl' in Bc[hesda. Maryland. A f~nal v{,,:n:- ~ !Si:m] of [he phlrNli sll1nul.dbe; re.1dy I'i!e.xt yeotli. ~ And dlm 't ~ccuse FW S bli.!!!eii!ucr~ts ofnega~ ~ !::! [ive thinking: [fdl goe:~~;veU.lh~re'porl S~ly5. !

project a hea]thy poplJlli,a'01!liI~U:l eriginal federal list of 'endl~ln~!er~d linn size, These enGrr~ plUi~ maltagi:ng habi\l,'Ou~cl 00:;[ $21.8 mi~I,]i():n over 5 years. species in ~C)i67. Thelasi cOli'llfi.l.ul'led :&igl~ting~s ~:!lL "fi:lOJtpri,c:e h]g. i.m an era 'of s:c;O,I.tce '~:.fthe.Iargewoodpet:.ke.rs ~Vifjre LOll~si,mm~ in lin 19:4,4. BtU in .20(1.5,.a [e.run [edby the Cornel] reSOllll'C,CS. uliakes S0-me b.io]og~lsrs. shudder. L.~b ufr·O.r.nit[~u~.o.gy a:lUun1i:lJJ1Jt-ed r.hat .il" .hOlde\l:i~ "'\~Ie pm ot~er sp(;}ciesm.ore <l[ r.i.sk by fm:u:s.~ iug on ab:ird \~fe can"t find:~ !H1yS Lou,is d,eu'ce fi1m!I!t:leasl one nll!.ll.e ''I,\!./llllS ~l~ive!Jl:ndmilip~ Bev.i.er. an orni.tho~,ogi5l :!Indi research 3ssodping in Ark~~~,lS~S, ,smnllillg cbdm. that ha s a ~~n,ceannH:ted \r.i.go .IFUU!il sk e ~H i ~i tan HID~~t Colby CoUeg.e: im Wal:erviHe. Ma.ine. fWS es;[,immJe5 il:IN,ill,IH'I,\~e spent$ .1. ,1 mm:iOI,l (Sc ience, .~ August. p. 888}.Righta ft~rlhc 7
!J[IJ n,[llJ1Jl.ue['Jrl ern,

nff;'!ch~]f;:]cteri.zi!'igi's computer models: to

t]]e ~vory~bill.ecJ\\i{1{.~dped.er (;ou.~dcom.e ,p'~f i · t]le ,en:dallge:rod species ]Iils( 2:075.. . . . . ill
-[ERII K5IDIC'5,1:A1Iil1 u

RillS tOlll.velflOO experits~n

fllig~

Ihi::. year on UH~'hrorYbHI.s., cOIJ!lpared with.<I.

I

-'

-

,

.

,,'

[

i

AUST[RAUAN

SC~ENC[E

N'ew IMis,co,nldulct Rule,s ,A,im ,to Minis,'te'rto, an Ailing ,Syst:em
MEL[BOU RIN[E! AUISliRAUA=Fbur

U,ceiiUI

Und er t.~e E,ars

'ObS'erliato r,' Wle:~
-

ye~lrsago,

,ijl

nffen

S;'~[""

sue

h

;il1;;.

sex

ual b ;;lILF;aSNlll en

t n:r

diluvis.iV'1ol: seriles ef u,mWS(i,~1l ions :iJ1.lllOthe a~leged

~deW!JriJ:ic m i~Qnducl' ofaUn.ivewsivty '~1ifNew SouthVli\lk)'s ~:~"I1mu~,'lo~.ng~st what D:1Iimy bared sden~sl!;,saw as an!;l\iI;,l~dsy~tern fh~'lm:ndlilllg such aUegati,o!I1S: .. A~'<I ~,tcr:na~1 e 'C0n111F1i~1t'e' fmmd ~Jhe researcher, Bruce H(~II. guilty of'miscoe(]l~c:lt, but he retained h isposirion alter nUl uniy,ersity fO\imd hhn gui [ty of alesser charge of academienrisaouducr (~)'cience. ~,,o J!lu,ul,ary 2J)[}4" p. 298). The case convlnced the counn"y 's g;Ii1Uni,~,1gage~,'lC andthe ,con::rnllun iry that ies
chlngtl~ were mee:d.ed.The resu.~t, nLtt this \;l..trek, is ~lJle'\'!i,f code ofreseaech (''.Q:IJ(:J~lCt

!'.l'm,be:.2Zlell'lelu. ~.h:oll!: witlnn an .inslhuHO:IlI's fllll~ en te~1};ri ~e bargain i.ng !J]grt:'e:ment. hat'~ an I

important change. as [he barga~in:~:Ji]g~lgreemelu reiqu i rt:'~ all prolllemH tobe handled by Ihe accused person 's :iimm.ed iate supervisor.In
the~L:I,OlII. ~s:tl
•• t]]~]t 'lI,':"~S

'IThe Hna'l piefes of the Natlolllal, ScienCie FOLJII'Ildation 's Oc:ealn C b:~r\.la taries I i"!~H!i3'1ive(OOU ~~a¥e uaUe:!'! into pl.a!i::e,.la:stli'!leeik;, the Woods '1=I1Ql>e O[\f!,3·nogr.aphk ~ns,~ituli.on in .Massachusetts ,and OreglQn State' Uni:v.er5ity joi!'1led~h,e SClrlPPS IliI5ti~liI~.i(lln ~ Oc:eanoglraphy i1Iirl,cI the o Unive:rsity ofWaswlirogtol1 illl ~ece'1viJng ontl'Cids c eo ~e~he pM rna if!I fnafiage~) o~ wh.al:t i,s hOoped to

fhe d(;lii'm of nrtedlkti.I.~e.,

i:]

persou !l,"ei(;;"1'l as pmenti.ally biased given that a findi.ngof mis;ct'U'idUCl: c:ou·~dd~nt~aiI~ethe med ical school,
Leav]ngfh:e ~m!eMi.gat"i:onin til':lei~lnd''l.oftftJe hOI,Jle illfi~:ittlt~on poses ''(Ill. i:l1ihe.renv~,md gJl.~~U'ing

be a ,S-yea f; $.331..5 mi ~lio~~Ho:rtto establish coosrnl regklllat and gllQbe:1 netYi'Olrlks (lif ardmed sensor buoys and um;le!'wOl!,~er vehides, 11 e f1etwor k Vin IIIp'~,ciVidl!:! t hefilrs·~ rea Hi m~ h measures of key parameters such as nulr:f.i:::llt Ile-lJe;l5and currents .• O.!'nef~~mea:5!Lm~menls, sre
oft.en taken
0 nee,

not. ()Qntjmlol.is~ypa ndin spe-

"The eodeisa reSPQn5;~to [[~eu::a:~m wreck of the HaU ~ffa~[,";ays Unliveffihy ,o-fSydmey s ilnnmno]ogilsl Robert Loblay, W:aliwi.cl
A.~'1delf~oll, ehief t."xecUli.ve officer ()JAI;,~~

comflier of i·~ue],esl" for ]ns.l~tlttiom::i r!1.<i.t fear nd\ler~pubiidtty. says M~]mnV."ln Der~4.:ydetL. editor of The" l~fledh'ld .!.ounwl (?f Au;~fraJi(L Lo'May says tlli~]t: the ~u,.1cLlsed jwuu~d~I~SObene~,t t1"OrillhJe ~st.ab']limU1GIH of an e:N.'I:{!oJ.lI;m]oody 1:0 oversee inves\"il,!;~linls.!"I-mHU had ~'lOone to ....
'

ci~c poi nls,thruu 91hCllI.Vt ocean lhat may 0 F the may Mt be 'il1lckat.iv.e 0,1 lar,g:er paIUIE'Fn& ~111he t sea. "WI; don't •• , rea~Qyk!1lolV11VIIflat normal,
m@ans_'" says HoUy ,Given
(llf

th~]oiWilt Oc@'ano-

9raph~c hlS.titu~:o!ls.

~vllri(h lS nmning:
,all! d

om.

[IFHld diiti on t'od Ulumi na tingFi:@w tJrfmd) ~1'1

n''tllias Nafio,mlillea~,lfu and Medleal Re!'le.n"Ch Council ~n Can-

ocean conditions

wild life, says. lame's

berra.whi ell eo-aurhered the new codle ,. :Sl!l!ysit's ~']l.e<'1r1t teelim inate coufusion over who should deal
whh aneg.ed miscomlncrwithout

B~~tingham of the MOll1lter!l!yBay Aquarium H:esear(lll ri~)titll~eiln fo.m]¢i, the 'i riitiative Ca~i "h(lHlllds '~h~beginfi1fng or a push to beUer instrumentthe oc'e·a:i11·s lnlteir],or ~"hidil is an e)~ent'ial pert ot de\l\etopirng a better abillRyto
i

being too prescriptive, "']f there's a system everyone understands. things should work better," he ~~serts, ~1;t!,i ng that researebers s d sbnlLl~dregard itas "a manual for
good seIJ-reguhnic:n:'

obstl'Ve aillllo predict Earth's djmate.. ~
-.Mi]flifllW BlIi!5,5E

Ellld,alngered

S::pll;cies ,Iit'ls,sue

Thefirst part of'lhe cod!elays
diO\\1'lllhe rules of~:le road for professional dnties such as memorlna or-

PoIHici;!l[ eppointees have Olleml! ledscientt sts t1It~h€ U.S. fis:hal1ld WiLd [IHie Service (fWS) on enda",gere~ species derisions do:zen5 of t]m~5" dsims 'thlil (@'I'1I~lilrOF ,EI~o!;:)glic!llL [I~vll!r)ity (CSO) f A!:':M!le'm~'~honor. AUlltrllllia!s fil@Vl lode of ( mapf'o r N~'.sear(her'S.
(OlfldilJlct

smdents, h:md[ing questiens about
data andauthorship,

Ilroyid'es a mad

and Inter;;]!c[ulgwilh i:.~dlffi'mI.·Y. B niferI'!Il I?l;u't road map fur when Lhi:n&'l~o ,ool:uth.III the event

ill Iucsen, Ar~zonla, This week, the' eirTillironm@nt:alacti\l'ist orga f'IIizati Q:l1lform.a ~tya ~ewt€:d the ~g e!~(yof its pLjI:rlSWSlH~, dem;1) rild~ngit
open (In irnr~'S;ligallion of decisions made om

complain
be:iie've

~O:·e h

notes. Loblay

~~lUtd. others

[h~t:Au~tr~lliiJlneeds an independeet body Hke the II S"Office ot'Research [,m€~n1ty~ Hnd A uderson !'J:ay:!' "we are about to' start pOlen~ij.~l\Mh~nehl"'\ver should !if;l]~ortc('J!U1c:erT!;'" t'O a diesignmt'ed: uI1,i:v,ell"sily om,c:ial. Tim! olfF]explol'ing~:li.tt." d{~typ[call]y ~]deputy V](,e:~ch~]I':lCel~{1ir f l o In th:e !He!:mtlulIe.. one ofth.ose wh~)i[lir~~I~,]y aocUised Hal~1afm i,&conducti:sslep!:i,call[ thm the f'lElsea:reh. '\t\iol:l~d then choose an .appropri ate .~U]y f'espm'lse', ~[~'iyHiingt'i'OIU~declillill.g hl PU!1i~~e: neiJ.l code wil~.~'li~~'ke d~fl:ern'en:'i(:e,§u(:huah ('hen,. a postdoc ~In lila]!'$, ]ab\vho C\fC:lu;ua]ly rIlle n~a![el" i.fl'h.eIMcl.s do nm 5[1])'])01:11 ~he a~j]eg;'[tJaok his ,cnfl!;;ems to the Atl'iDra~ I1I1~d]~], ian s.ars tion~ IDl'l! Gunve:ni:nl~ (HI eXIi!~r:n<i1 ]llv'es;tigHtiv'e ~)m~el]fs lip m~~'!I;c ui\o:t':l.'si.ly[o m.e~:~ u olUtany dun lhe4 years he s.~:}el1[cn ~hec!lsc cmlsed him in pu.lli ~~rnnlleIDt;funding :repen:ussi:ons Fest \'vi.ti1ClJ to f~ll[ .i[n::til.ieY~hly b:~~~]l1d :tds n~·St1arcll,a['e!;'11 of ~~. "reasonable suspieion th"t reseereh miseonduerhas occmre(t·~coordi~1.g!:o the code, a
~1']carpprol:JIritale gnu'];t ing ~1g,cncy. The newcod,e, u:n]~ka the cunen~ 'llI1,e

S 5 species,

FWS, is eutre nUy reV'i~li Ii'1igleight d eelsions

made by ,]J..J~ije MacDcmald, a former political
Blpp()i'~tJe'e \!'i.11th overrsight of theagel'llcy. ,SIHl WesiglMled 11'11 y arter 'U~e[)eparHtlll~l1t iIlIIa of I!Tliterior' s ~m:,pectof gefle rail fQIJI!ld sih e hald pres~ s'lJr@c1 sdentiMs (Sdenc€" 6 Apr.iil p. 3 "Th(l

[po~itic,a[corwj:ltio!l! ill the system 'gloe's wary Ib€'yo:nd '(ll'9lht ~p!i!:de5 and ]~Ii(l' J\I\a(Donak~,~
says (BID's lKieram"ll uckilirilg. Amorngthe, Gli~eS S ~e \\'I1.mtsiI'nve-sti gated~:s thall Oi~Taoe,r:rlaf!«Jo,f}tooo ((J(ensis, a ralne Uee O!1!Anr;l'ersen Ai r Fome Bailie in GI1JGllln. Agemy'sdent]sls €llilid

n.

~lnd.a]so rn:ulled Iris ~"Cpumtr(]!Il,"No one wants I:u, mire <1\vi1LES[leb]m:ver,:' h.e .\ii~ys,

tu~op!ed, ,in ~991,. cavern w,o!r~li~ndledby [he i:i Amn:ral.ian Resl~~~"Ch COUll~~'[ as ,"vel["a !'i t~le ~ heat~h and n"le{hc~l c:ouf!c~l,.exrend]ng .u~ ~ r,each~o ;1d~,~l~,~a!:i{)1 f ba's:icresl\!"il. rc 11" ,h: a[ so
~ t,OOlnve:s sti.emi fk: In.iSOOiDlductfrmJtl a Us.t of

The new code wU I.g.o i,!UD e~·rect(ti/e~8ev~
em~
:YGtaJI"S

[peer r,e\l]ewers.(o'l'lch.lded

]1

deser!l€'d protec-

as Ulli.ViI3["siIies .Il(;''got ime Il~'V 5-y,e~u
tII~'l:ut]li.'ls.

tiOIIl, but 1n 2004, FWS rl.J~,oo il wasn't a v.al,id

'I;!"ol'kphtce;~g!it'ltwnelll~ with ,e$l'lpit)yee

s'llibspedes. (lInd dedhud to tistthe specie:s,"
-EIRIIK. S1iOIKSIAEI

~El.IZA!BIET11FII~K'EIl.. Eliza'b~Jh I'in ~I wril~I'rom M®'lIb~urll~ •.t!i(j~t~alia,

lUS9'

THE
Harmug

I~IUN!. ssas BEilHANY bleakly in tJlheface. Cancer !:!urvu,vmJ

Acccrdiug
Hartung's

to data on age and fisk.

dive in older teenagersand

young adults,

chamc(!s~,vonld have been f~~r

rates in older adults and children had inched
up an average of l ~, or 2% each year (we~' 2 dec:,adJe~. the gmrh showed. BUl for teenagers aud yeuugadults ~j[keber" the prospects for survival had lxue~ybudged, Re membering the momeut she caine across those :-l~a~ist~cso.'"] was just kind of amazed" said Hartung. 2], in a lelllll':pl~,~one eenversarion i~1'(H'n

betrerhad she been diagnosed tit 9 instead of a~19., Reversuigher particular disease. acute ~yn.'lph()bhl!st~c ~leUkje!l'!ia tAl L),. :i~.one ·oft'~hegreat cancer success stories of the
.l0dl century, In ]970. rO'l.igl~:~y 80% of>chU~

~ol:rc\lfuO'l"Ul 5-y:e,lIt survival hovers around \ 50% ..No one knows exactlywhy,
The mystery extends well beyond ALL B~~I$Jt{m'~l', c!('),lon c~l~~c~lf,b{)1l1e 'tumo'vs" ~'e'r"-

H~\r:iml~ sarc(m:'lI~,w'hi.C'h anacks bone and soil tissue..are all likel lerto
t'l!li.n ,Iymphom.as.

and

dren wiih the disease died:mdHY,
survive.But

801M) will

:l'lli.~t: eanemng fi.gure rakesa h

k~:U15- [:00 39-yea.:r-o[ds than those in many other age groups, Adolescenrs and youilIlI,g mdulr,s,(AYAs)I;vrutb CIDlJ!ceT once had
better prospects than ehildrenand

her f!l!mi~y's home outside Portland, Oregon. :5 days before she died efleukemia.
She I~~denduredrwo relapses

o~de<JFadu~l~, ~lrleirsurvival r;:]tes B~(t have been virtually frozen since abnu 1975.
The possible explanations are !1!f!auy ~]lIlidmuch debated .. Oue W~ Ii< that therapies. are not being ~: d:es]gll.!;:dfnr lbelt] beeause AYAs ~: are ~)ool1yrepreserued ~rII clinical trials, Diagnosis (ll1en comes ]~~t:e!r. ~ perhaps because of their anra Qf~' ~ luv~ndbni ly bl the lJn ilt'f:d Sh]t{j$. ~, l~':I]soohon ~:sless ~Iikely rlhian other ~.

~wld nearly 3 years

()f

grueli.ug

treatment. ineluding ~. bone tlfl aH,r.[l;niV~r.am'f~'1 wU,Whe~~ that

fa~led ro h.e~.p. hewas o~]ered a s ~"rm"][1 ~U]expe:rinlenta~ ph~se[ ::rmdy .of 3 tC~l\~C tbempy dun S~le believed had .1 e clsance of ittl bearing [HN::k the disea se,
HI<U'~un.gdecl 1li.I.ed. "'U
W~~~

a

groups

to, h;,'l.vehe~~m~.ili'ls;lJJr<lnc~. ~
e'llOll!lg~,l"

pretty nu;u;:h !iII!Ili easy deci sion," she said", lustead, she entered hnfipk:e care at Ihroll:le ~~W!d di.ed

Fina]'ly. their ~r~trnent~ nfl~~y be ~. l~a:U
aggressive
Glnlmlllln~Wlij Jm ~om,e'. From 1975~Q 199'9, dle(b.alll{e O[5olJlf'!liVing G1lncermr 5 y,e.ar'ji ~lowlYi IllprolJ.i'ed in oldE!'r iilduills alll d' dl~ [e~ brut IlDt rfl~o~ef 1'1 lJ,e,t&een .. lid

on 24 June .. 2, weeks befcreher
22ndbri rthd~l~t

~o

Someoncologists (1:lferan alto- ~, ge~her di ffereru exp lauariou, ·'My ~. w,
ownpessonal be Iief is l~]"]~ Ollie ])<]11:
~

i

~l~]'ead!yinclude fe'llV pa·ti.e'l1n: 'under 30. are RlmpingdO\v~] because of~i.ghlfedef3] budigem. dl~r-ector otthe Ohio Stale Unuversi[y CQrnp:re~ Before researcbers begaa smdy~ng AYA. hCO'lilIs[w Cancer o''Jilllit;er ~~:1 O~lJmhus.11e ,adm.ilS C ~:I~]tient'&W'ith cancer.there wasl i.m:I.,e :!l.'r;'iC..!!!'e1llie.ss H1.r!lblbOlf'dIDry proof i!t~ud\;,ing however. dml $urv~val. raies were stagnant, Some smdles Efforrs U'I ~~ddres..'I), con troversial idea this dud suggest thl[ y{1iu:ngad~L~lts with cenain C:Hn~ ij;JjFe h.e(_u~i~~g Re~"le~m:::herf; beginning u) up. ~~e cers, ~i S~lI"CO['iUU;;, we re ~[' a SlU\" :~v~~1 g., ke di Take Ewing S.~U·COI1UI.,"Nh~,dhsl$'~keSibone assemble tissue banks dedicated [0 y,o!ung, of ~]duhhu.U1QD'ji; and :Iooking, [hr clues ~~.'l[hei~~ ~nd ~oii tissue, Ome:lnfge' E\v ing '~,tW~I~~1 ~1 ad\"'d.fll·~ge c:o:rnpa.redwith ] d~i]dren-bul it uew ch el,lI.otherapy comhi nation p ubi ished wasn 'I.' d:e~rwhy. Albrinon noresthatshehad erature. This f~1U, after years, of planning, Ollie ofrh,e first clim] c!;~1ria ~ imiredte ] 6~ w' ]11 2003 and led by ollc:o~.{l'git>l' Iilok'Ool!i!lbe t!f,e~He'd oldev pati.eJu~ whose encelogists, t sl 29~Yil:lut-{}]ds will examine the age group's Gri er at:C~,'lii~dren's Hosp i,talBa ston ~lnd,lujieJd. U nac c U stomed 10 a c ancer S'U ch ~5 .Gwi iIfIg Slg patjents, .fil:'i:ytvere [g or elder .. More Slil Jllllla fha~\n'Lt1ff: lanlu.1 i~u tQ pedlh~tri.cian,~. n h]gg.ilUl,g survival ]11 ALL Andilli the past sometimes omined e,he.m;()ll:hel·.apy. nd a 2003 A doublethateumberwere under 1.00. The 2 YS0ifS. the Lance Armstreag Feundarion in r]]~.n A~h.HI~,. Texas, h~lli [.l(]i[i:fed iIiIe~]F~y li'l1illiOll !!if"''l;:~lge ag,e ~!I d~<]gmo:s.i!<i. with E\~vitli.gll,h0\7Ir~ Germ. Wllstu dy ~ugge sb:!d th<l~ AY A~,w ith $2 ever, is: about I.':k Ewi.ng"s fare bener in pediarric ceaters, Gra,er"s into the field and begun H) reverse what is ··We don't realty fuW!Yea [Deus onwaether clinicajtrial underscered that hi.o~ogymight seenas y.ears of neglect of AYA palielllJts,. the l1"Cnm::lCIU5 ~h~l[we know '1v{1!~k in children alsobe ,key. A~:though the focus ofOI~er's trial w~~o~eU.s. .. ranks grow by nearly 70,000 eadl year, 'II\<>1Hi me'll\>'d:iHj:l1L'lnt.1hief'~lIpy reg]l!ll.eu .1 in Ewing ~aJl."cO~11al!,i.l contained "¥ou seerwcparicnts who
1

of~his must bethe distinctive bio]ogkl:S·· oftbe ~)atiem~ ortllieir lurm)]r"S,. ~y:~,Mk::h,ael Caligiuri."

adolesceers amd,young~tdillHs the number hovers (lHUHldl% OF 2%" (The c:o!np~md)le figure for adults 40 and !!ill)is about J.'%~o 5'%.) Soule trials ha ,1oi3 .~ge]:~m]s that keep t o~dlerreensfrom euroUing. O[i.lel$ are based ~t ch ild ren 'shespital s, whe roefew yo un g 1i1:dlll~xSare lre~ue~l

Some melanomatrials,

",i'h~chSender notes

oo:Jtnei:~ wi.thwh~]I: ~lilepal]rolog,i:;t: lell~y'ou hi line SH~nedise;J!se. and
you see: drastically d~I'Iier(l'.1H outeomes" depend in.§';on age, ~<1y~ nlligi,lJ1.l,i. "The ()IHlS is u:poin US.I)()
sort i [ our:"

seme start] ing :S:lmi.sl:~cs. Treatment \\i{15 $l~u'!ld~lrd~ledl.ye't the 5"'yea:r
survival rate for children under ~: w~u; 10oAl., comper ed 'l;vith 0
60% f()I,r I O-mI7-yenH)]ds~u]}d 44·i!lfi,Wol" t1tlnse~: 8 yeHr~ and older, "We Cb,l 'thave ~m.yUl1eJeTstU'ld:ung:" ofw~ dli::i ~XClU'S, slIysA:ibril1rm.

IKn!lwnalg:e gu 1.1 Asse ~'n in g the j:i gsaw pu zzle hi
an ii1Ui.;]nc,e that extends across the bQiUnld~r~es of ~1ge-~, 1:11why h'l medicine. "Biology doesn 't change on ill! dime' on l'n~e day .of [!he I.81:h b~rlli1:d.aYJ" s,ays Karen AIbrimllfl, who directs the Ado lescent and. Young Adu~.t: O!H;{l'~Ogy Proi!)gr:~m at Dana"vMl demand

Several forces galvanized the cancer research c ommunl ry to cl~gdeeper ]lrJ!lO A"i}\ cancers, The
first
\\I~~S<.1

persistent

'Calnp'~l~g.1l

Fa rber

in BOSlOtll]" BUI~he health-care andbiomed ieal research enterpeises act
m.;~hough

C~lil1Celi Insrinue

byW: Arch i.e ~lleyer.Trained as a pecE.i.:.nrh:'oucnlogjst, Bleyer worked for many years at [he Uni'vershy oilfTex:JIs M. D. AlilJder-, son. Cancer Centerin
Medical

Houston

before mcvingto SoL Charles
Center fJ~lBemdl,Orego[l,

it does, Figh~I!i;. Be'thamy Halrll!t1!'g (c.en.r.er)', 21. 'cclebwaltes (hri~tma:s last ye~~ with he~ Albr,itl(m has experienced l~lJ!i.s ,old'E.'r~isl.en;.:5he' died jn ]IUlile',C)lleuk}efl1li~l" she did
~HJ't:

eultural divide fi,f'5'ti.l.and.FI'OlU

her residencydays, sheknew

wn~;kil~ older nge gr>Oit!ps.~·says AU8l:mli'[IH
oncologist David Thol1.'1HS. Thomas directs [iI']e ado],esce:!u and yDUH~.aduH cancel' p~AO~
gl]lI.11'1

"van! to choose between treating dl.i.lldlftm. or ~U,hl~ts. ut she: rec~drns doctcrs h!II.~ll!g her t[~;J!It: B wt)'r~img in boUI C~~1l11S "would be eorebin iIl.g, fhi[lg ~rjh~]t on '[ eombiae," d Tb~1tlifuJi:lI1kMg. .f\Gf~,ected.n thep~ll.ciry of is. i d!~'r~. th~ AYA 'C!'{J'IMd" ]11 ,,;;:hmdren. "''Vli(: ha\;e ()!~. gn:,aJ li!5Sl:lt': ban~.i.ng for ~eukenli;.a.:' says LOOI11U'{i. Sender. \vj].o direc:l~ ~dQ,k~celrJit ~md Y01!lfllgadu]t cancc'rp 1."IOg,I,iams. m C ~~:i Ed"'en's
HospitH~. o,f Olf'ilnge County m:lid at th;,;:t.TriI]ver~· s[ty ofOdifomia,. h·vu!le. "'As SO{)11 as you get to
.~ &,1.9"

I,· 'I., • ph~s Ollire ·~·tut~Uy <lire ..rCliIl'il bllsllge group. t D~lta 'O'n yotlng ad.ults an~ .~~$oQ ~'C~]i!"(:e !~.'" I'illU]iIlg oir ~ C l i.ni,c~l l'ri.a]s,.meauw.bi, [e. ntre~~ .iud.ude oocallseoo~a~ive]y .I~'!.flll"iah; foctJ1.son~he pre·, ,~ ohler leen,age:rs ,and young. admhs. R.Ol~ghl.y d!om.il!'l~lIn tumors ·~nl'hi~ gm'UIt:l:~~n:;omas, ~Jlelan Ol:lfm !i.. thy 1"0 id ,ca~,110el."., on~da] H.I,HIors g :~ 30% to 50% of dlUd! ca~'~iaerp~ul~cmn-:i umcler

.:n ~"'he saY3. the

at: t~ller'etl;lr MacCa~]mlill ~~~t1cer C Centre ]f!I Melbourne., Au~tr~1 i:a.,~~ ~~ I ~]s.tbe i~osDii~ f\ secon df~l.c'tor \,v,a:s,an ex p~~n~H~lg ml's s~u:com,ag)el]lQ(mk~s; and ge:llieticslahoi[~l'~ ~ld:vocacy ,C'ol~.'lImm]]i.~y.led llH:: Lm::tee by tOll, Ft~IS,l!;·~~·iQWi sh~de~h~S\¥aird~· ~., he,~~dks AllIl~lroiJlg. Fb-l;,ili!d:i..'l~tln, fOl"u~'ldilld by th.e lqu:r tlIbOl]l how poo r~:yAVA cane ers rnIll"e lrtnderde ,Fr[l,nce cml.am.pi:on~v~ho beat 1~.'1el:as.t;:][ic :!;[(lod .. Even tbeliflO':'ltt ri.gorousi.y designed ~estk:ular ce!ncer. the roun.dat:inn jo~n.ed \v:ith cI i.ni.c~ll tl"ia~.\.vwHmOl del)ect AYA-,sl'led:fi,c d i.r:. [he N ani,onal Cmlcer Institm.e to ]SS,lJH.':!:I, SJsr,of f'e:r'~lli!De~il dinlg respon~' ()lftumOJ h]o Ingy. h '''re,'lJeotrchand (:afeim.pe:JfiJ1!tives" E~lI 006 and, 2 SZ.I'yS Thomas., if o~~.~y t.end:!.or l~~~rli!cip(llJnlS in M:ay IJubli,$.bed mI shlllwgic 1}lnn fo!r boost~ ill
img. f\YA ~UI''Viva~ .. The larliGe Ar:mst]"olllJ,g

C~]igi:ud of'Ohlo Sra~eU[IJ,~,reli'S.ily:··Y'ou took at [the numbers] and gO'.. 'QiIl!1l1}"godwhar ~s wrong here'?' .,

Blejercompiled and publicized the :s.mgn~m.lAVA. survlval sratl~s"" t~cs that sstcnisbedoec 0.1 ug~~ts .. Says

S;11fll

'"" ~5partici.pll'ne ~

effon, c~llled the :U V'EST'RO NG Youmg Aduh, Alliance •. is 1.1I.0W ~,edby 39-ye,a:r-o~,d. Ew.ing ~~![i\cmtl~ ::::ur'!"r:U'vor Heidi Admlb:,.\;vl.lo lilms the :tUi!.vocacygmup Planel: C1l.111:oer.ll.l1Jd.
un.()o~.'og~srBrandnl1l.I-I'lIye",... L~uirti. of Oregf:1'Il ~

~m'I

dinicai tlri.]ls" whe:[eaN.I()]f

!lm:: ].•]~f!est~cu ~.~rc; :lII.I~.c:er..<ll'!J.d i.ymphofiHl I

is.

W\NW.scleno~mag .0[9

S.CIIENCIE VOL317

31 AUGUST .2007

NiE.WSlfOCUS:
Health and Science UI,dversity iu Portland .. who e';{ au ste d hi l'l. arse ual tr ying t (J save h Harmng .. lt w~n holditssecond annnal meeting in Austin ln November; Albritton, Bleyer, and many others are dk}l],~Jillgtheir [hue to oae of bs f 1'$~proj~C:I~, a Iite]!,;\Ill,Jlfe ~se{lfiCI1~br dues ~lb01;nt: W!UOif 'b:iology;
FOr'e:x,~umpie. ,~,lue:l1Itii()n Oifyonr.l.~ ~\dullS ~ma p~per !l1]gh:r pro':mpl a C;;lU lQ the aut!loffl [0]: additi.on~ddata, "If there "1,~dS.a big breast eance:r~i[lJdy but i.t h.~.n'!!lledi ~]Ithe ~~~e:s log,etltef,we g(~ back tc aml:l:Q\rs ~mdsay,.'Canyon ]ook !.1i~ tlhi~by ~\geT.. !'!:1Iy~A]briUm~. Onco~!ogi.5rs also beginn ing, to collect are' young-adult tumor samples that eonld be falJel.'l l~lU.o. Stock and Nachman examined the ~IIJLrvh~ of ]6~ l02 [~ye~r=ohl,and found ..~ that thosewith A Ll who enrolled in ~du]t t,.l~l.s h~d a survlval raie of38o/o... abour the sameas o]def individnals. In the pediatric r~:ials,t:~eir :.;urvi.'!I1.d nue wa S 68%. "HeJ~eJil'~y,itw~~s ~ uemendous shock Sll,I(::]1 to us," s~ys Stock. Resemrch.ers in Frsnee. Ge.rrmmy" wl1!dUa~y subse qjue:m~ly reviewed their-own ALL trialsand encoumeredu netlilily identical .~Irv~v~dg~lP+ OirllCologists Ilioarecl ~e'll'e:rH~:possil:l]el:l!."tp]~l·' n~~[inu:s. one 1r1;:'L'1Su[i~'lJg. One is th~]tll1hey had n been tro·ari:ng,AYA:s.aslh:Oiugh rJhie,irbodies, and even the irleukemia, 'we~:,e''adlJ~f~ henreaill'~y w du~y\""i@.TI'~ ped!iauu.ci,llllld ():ug&'it:tohOiW recdved. the reg~men gi.v'eIi!.to children, AtiJ.'l1i61er posslbility is th~uthe pedil~]lrk~i~ln&. encouerer \NffilO Allli.li!o:re olxen than .my other cmlcer. :iirnply

Se'e kil n g; a FI swell's .. () riI {lo,log iSI 1K.1I n Albri no n re wants 1rJ'kl'1l'o\!'~why 20·S'IJm('lh~ J1I'~swHh sarcomas
f.;llre ll'i!Or~e~hll1l (hi ~dlreili.

AYApatiems biology. Hv." recently completed examined for chromosomal mutt.ldQIl:::;.~tnd. HltJH]Y !Df 14.,01)0 yuung Aus~;r~n~ms, "I<v.i.th varlather chasacteristies, Sender. fur example, ous cancers revealed marked gende;r dUIe:r~

hopesrc gathermelanoma samples, and enees in KYAs ..You ug wom en over ].5 were males If ~hey Albrittonis ~Jlil.ut~ng cdlorett"ai. cancers In 80% more likely It) ~urv~ve L1,']:.m for ymm,g adults, SIhe has coaxedher Dill~ltl~F~][fber had E\;v]mg sercema. 40'11, more ~jlkely to SlU:" colleague, cancer geneticist .R.om:1lldlle'Pinilho, vi'w ~Iftb~y 05U.':O!iUCOma, a bone C31100.r. I~~td jnto .~:Ul<l]y-Liu.gdle s~m1pl.,~~, D.ePinhtj. believes. and 50%1 more likely to survive witCh Alt. ~n that "there must be something intrinsically youngsters under 15. gender did not seem
wromllg with the cancer eells ,ar the ])]o,\;f' llli~[

do a benerjob or~rewting, it 'Ielearn m.ore.R~~luml.Larsnu.an oneolcgistwhn oversees clinical research in hem']it(}~ logkl~:1i~di.gnal1Ldes atthe Uuiversjty of

mn.ked to survival,

makes young adults '\1\,r~,thcoloreeral cancer res.~sl~mttto eannenr, u R esc are hers be Iieve t: hei 11' \l\.IQ rlk: cou ld
extend beyond AYA:-!,. Justas fin.tll.i.m,gs in

rerinoblastoma, a rare pediatric eye cancer, opened the dum to au entire CQ~ThQf~ ef'mmcr~ur)lpressorgenes, "sometimes ~"hemQ5~: ~W1~er~' estillg sluff is atjhe edge-s." says .Alb]"h:l'on. A few AVA rumor type~ have already
yield.ed iiur~guin,gpi[luem~.
suggest

d~nim:~;nceg is puberty For exampl e, adolescent an d young
;?iJdu]t ';V('1:J1l1en have a higher percentageof bcdy fat than males, wh~ch may af[ect the d!is.u.ibnrion of CheIll{1<tc:lel,~py drugs; 'there n.'lI3Y 3~,SO be di f-

Chicago, .is r'lHtnWI!L;g~m ALL clinical trial As :~i][ s I,ireCQu]d~~U. po!)slmlc di;t1~ren'Ces a funded bythe National Cancer Inst~l1L:uLe.]t .30016~ U) 29'"yeaN'l~.d~ stani Il,g ]1l1l'l!<l.1e bel1l.M.vi.Oif-Sllch~s tieing less (;1.)I]]P~:~~ aims to e'll[l()I.~1 [hi~~I~I. P.,;li[ienl!' be tl:l~l'l:edlon a lx::d:~IlI'uc d '\:",il]1 arlit in thernpy--p~j~]yed now]e.and Thomas ~

concluded thaI the key

'~O gender

protoeel by aduh OI'iI!C:'o~og;i::ilts mllti, 'viwllbe OrlinU ill!' ... piJIred\,v]th ~. · to 2J -year-olds 'vilidl ALL in 1:] (5, 6 separate Olllgoing trial who ilJJfl:' !
a

receiving

••

b.~eseme In:ulllflerlt

~6.

:Frol"lJ'Iped i,1lLtrrnci'lf1s. The

question,
w~ente.r

Preli,mimary

datU!

key i says Larson.J s !

rI e

rmH~ snrvival !I"l;U:tl ~Ul C

~~ny form it] different pO!! rts oflhe

dun ]n .BW~WLgarcoma .• tUH'I:()fS· actus
body iilimong

lerences ]~]drug metaboli sm.
Tbomas \!von.oors \vlire~h~r (~1.e effective dose reaching

be ~inkedl to clif1er·ences in a !fi!' :II:

a

.fij
!Ii,

~.

d!epe!~di:n! e~] ;;lg.e: in tillJ:eextremities younger patienrs a~::td r1impelvic region in :~mll o~der ones, where thetumors are more dlffiC~~llflO' remevesurgicelly,
j

tu mors i, s E.l rng her for young
fenl:arnes 1~~li'lIlhr males, "Until \,v;e 'Llntft.'1J.r:;;tand the b~o.~egica] di fler~':[Ire..:;" oftbe p1lri.t:~U and sively on yotl[1l.g m1nhs. Me'olllflJ",,'hi[e.the Stock and

~:

AI: the mclecularlevel tlhere:i gm\v.ingevi-· denee ura "lui.:>;in~f' of,adu~t mld pedi~nric I)i;]!t:~· f,j]e 11.:111101", "'\1IJe ~Ire ]lo[m;:;-u~ E~ ~.h!.1see~~[lf1cersopt iUM1Uy:' lert1LS. Imgas~lioill.tesl~IHlll smmn.al ~un',o]" (Cl[ST)" ~I Ci:]lIIKt;::r 'oflbeimestina] tlr-:a.ct that" iI' ~y~ .Bh;ye!!". Th1U:'S. boon evid.en~si.I]:oe ~:11l.ost COI]:'IJII'I:O!n filler age 40. ~~e;;l:m.~~t Menilo!"-, 200ft when. '\7V~udyStoc·k i~!~ S Ili)an~KeUeF.ing eancef C ent~riH Ne\;v¥or'k of G,ly 2 y~ar.s ag:o descri,be:d difFerence!'l im a d!i;re~~Qcr.· the leu].::.611::thl pro~mmU:samp'k~of ch~ld !'e~1,yUn.1Hg ,aduh~ and gfailill ~l" tbe Univer ...ity of
j

~mo[her

t!iol!b]~illlIgq,ll.!estion: fl,(lLvetHlCt).logi.SiSbooll under'·,

I

~·te"Uing adulltsacros:s the boanj,'?Wit:h ~b~Hin mind" D{i!!Ha·F~lD'ber phy1>ici.a!~s: ~!re no'",,1 '6xpelii.luenti I1.g w:ith

treating
5del'ltisIS d re vro I'lIdleli (fIIgl whether lyt!1!:phgbl.ils~(~elJl~~j'lliij!;l (tQP) a,j'~d oolonli 'C;;Il1(e!f :mil III res:t IdHrelfentl.y in old,[lr te~,f'II~and YCUlf19 aduUs UlaJrI iF:l otn,e;l' a~es"
[D!is:ltimlctiw]"
l'i'!lO

t:\ren ~ldllQ.Its.~lpto~]g.e

iii

~.
!:;.

01100]" OO~J][s. Youl~g"'lal:]l!.~t ~m:1lp~:e:s, theylbul:D:d, l'e~ided to b] e~:id qlUai~l~.e~ both :p ediOJtric of OmST, '7i,11~i,d] lHiumi]ylacks <l class.ic.gene n'lllM~l-' lion.. al'Ld. the adult fonn. RJl~]'bd:ol"l1ym;;a:rc('in::la ,\:vh ieh anacks siQifit l'i:5."l1;il!5 i:]Ild i~nlo~t ('!o~mmOJl ]]'1ch.i lldren. ~hH15 .111llllll!ij:Ji ·ornblliyonic .lbrl111 youJl,gerpmienu; to' in ~m.<[]V'eol r :f(li!'m [[I older omte.~. he di.~ail.~'lctklill a T refers to tili']e ceHs' gene[[c;s1u1:d ~11)1}C,ajl-'lInceand. "vheJ>e' ~~'Yoongrega~B ..Like U:1a1llYodle'r ~jI~;,'(J:i~. d
~ltriC 'I';;~'lcer~., rl.1.alxl)p:n1y,t~ar1[,:;\(l:m.a l~~"<ij wnr,se ~I

Chlilcag:o Dill.. ~ M iaH),is.., pre~e~:i!ledel.\tr.!]d.hlgS ~lta c~~ ~ c~r ~,'IIlil!e[.iI1lg.. Sl:te find <1, 01ic;;,go co.n~]~'lm~. ianie •

50 \lvilh h~ukem'l.i.a on a pedi~tric tegin].e~ll,

.~.

z

rn'lc{)~og.ist Jmnes N~1chman. eXHl1llJi.ned ALL~d~]ls, ,cun.~ diucred over dlle hliS[ ~10' yea.r.s by
cuoper<nive

red

Sri.I.1 d.ebaled i,:s.\i'!'f~]erl]er ~' v ~]terl fl g ~fe'arm ] ent 'irV m by

C'aBc~r

g[iU[lp~., om,e ped,ia~['ic an.d

nne

:ivsel:l'e[·as(!' the ALL sUI."vival g;JiJp .. SenderbeHeves t[~atit 1; ~ un~ikel.y~obe.as 5il'lflp~e ,as S\I\.I.itcb~mg 30·yei.'iJf·~ ~ ....
.

I
ii.
101

o Ids :to

<1. p.edi;!llr:iclf8,g.i.lJi1!en. '!DeC;iI.1li$e

'"the

outcome in o]de:r~t'i,~[lfS, sny {)illool:o<~i.!il~. Tbom.a~'j.is om1eof 'lhe :few~n lheus 01'1 dle

~ldulL Ch~·ldre[lj.'illiiho'C~!] !oler,ate !nHr~inrell.~ s~:'l.l'(;): treatment" rocewved. aJ difillren'[ chG'i'lllmhe[~ ~py regi.men.Iill!<il!1!'Iadults, ~I~ .i.~ ~·taJll'J.dJ1Mrl:l Some A'YAs, '\'.~re h·~I~'Cd ~]S iM:ren.solfble mi.adlll~s. ch depending milwbich cm~pe[<Jdve g:U''Ol,lP l~r)Jey'd VOL 31'7 SCIENCE

leu·kenli.a ha:s 'Ch~wl.ged" fl!.m.d~luentaUy in thesel~tie.IILS. Harmng's iuni.ny 'i,villlbe raising fijJnd... tolu:[I)~u'lcnver a:iIl~we!~ she did n~n .Iive UJ see. S.ays helli n~,o,!:her,loni: "fl~r cause Inas
become nun;
W1iOW ..'" ... JIBrIIIlrilIIIFER. ,((iI'I!JIZIIN

.~
a '!i.' " ~
(l. W,
II<

~.
~

31 AUGUST 2007

www.seiencelnag.org

SPACE

EXP'lOIRATI~ONI

As,i,aln IP',ow'8'rs Shlootfor the IMloon W'iit:h Ollrbitin'g Research Mis:siiolnIS:
[hey liIay rncd be iin a Slpa:c:e'rae,!!, il!:!l eMma,. Indi~l nd lalpii!l are vying to, make~lhe'k b a mlilrks, 11)1 p~arnet;ary sl(i'ence witfuf~rs,t.,tim1e' hmar missions
lOKYO AND ,~:IE.W DEl.If!II~-II· the'l1flmilTI shines rnorebriglttly on Asia in l~il£Il()Xl" ii(,'lii:Vyear;s~ ~[ rlimy be because three AsirulLpm"rer;s are using a

OYIe,rthe IMoon. IFnornleft (iIl]n1:i;I'~'LI!,tn:J ]i, Jlap~nl'S. Ma!l!lbiIJ K.a;to,andiIWldia':5 (i M~dluljlal'l Nillir are e'xCilted a bout LJ pro ming Luna r sdencs mis:s~alns"

mOOJJ1:frof' ]2 mouths at aheig~.uof200 km. The star attraction of rhe $100 milfion CI.~il1:~.'1dri:Qiymul-J mission, JJl1eag;lw:hi~.e. is :11. probe t~~OlJt will phunmettothe surface, stiJap:p~[JJ'JJg

,;

:~
~

:~
~

:g

~w 'II' •• ,. ·'1 1'1" ;!"T Sl ·'~I.Il!lahc·at tne unwersny • O~lenrl'(';:~see. ~ ., ·U ,.;VI... pa:mlci panng . m ..I"[1d'··S nus-, K11:0XV.1. :e. ~!QIS ..'.. . . i . 1'30 '
n:

sample'·r.t'jl'!!I'I"il mission. lndia also ~5[1lt1.ndrnyarul~1 as ill :$Jtel~p'i!]ghunprogram, The results could help-resolve out- moous surfuce W~ a moltenmass se'l<f.em~ stone, ]SRO rus planning a [Olver snisslon [:11 Slfl!lldimg quesrioas about the fllOOJ.1.·S hazy oridred ki~.ol'D.'n~ters~hillcik:. fo:mled ~ crustas it thm: c cO!lrJ!:img a "'il~ gJns: and. evoil!.;Ll~on Windprepare for p{)~.sib~e cooled Thi~ cm.~ceD:r.io~."l the best fit" il'f ~he 20 l'~l '\llid~.~! rewed eUbrt ~;)o~s]My of erewed ]andings" And. .MJlhougl'l n::to.st:data \,viU c.harnc~ie'I"~slic:s the 400 ki]og[7.u::trls of [110011. decade later, China ~md.Fap.)Ul both die;,velopoo, the ~HIill"dW<1re on~leir own, whereas India colbe ~1~m;~d Elllrope.1II1.ifIil'l[ill ["S. co~~~agues. rock samples that Apollo astronautshauled wilh A:;iansci,entisl'l wi.]I·be&pe.m.1.~lea..d'ing the'llnaiyfbur back, KiJI!w~]ys. Bu~ these samplesall ~HHe laborated \¥i[h the UnJlted Sunes ~~!I1id Euroses, ·"I~'Sagoodchance :!hrl\.t'ii,1IL1I] scl.em:is;~··m, lrom lnid-!at~mldes of the near ~,kk pean mU]Obl:':l. Ahhuugh Selenehas no :hjud\~~re The .loIDg~del.ayed. $458 nlli]mo~'J! Selene, n(Jl.:>J lwonrJ abroad researehers fiom ]5 coumrles aJrt makea mark ~!1l ]IIJnm studies, says Hi toshi also called l{~glt:l:Y11after .[l.ml~u,ol1wide Iil:tl:ttll,ing on. the seienti fie teams and l~here~Is adamIVli.l:lnmlll.,. a pi1.rnJet:iu'Y Sde!iilil.is~·who ]ed. Selene 's d~eloI)JT!entm1!ti ~,reri.ring:2 yt:·at-s tlgKl,lium (he' COIUe::i~, wi]ll-r~.,in ~5 ,:e!ug~e-sensing instruSh!lrU!ngagreement w~['hind.i~!.Wl! ~.Y5 Cl~u~1 menrson (he 1,']lQon jfrom~. disr,1ll111JC'e of 'IOOk:l1], didl1 "'~ ave timeto I~lncl.in~~m~~fi.omd h co~.~abi()m.,lnsriture OfSp:1IDe and As[n::mmnic.a~: Science tors•.whereas India's Nair ~~y$he reached out to, del,e:rrlrJ:ine'diIJe disl"lF.ibution ef'elements and (ISAS)in Sa~am,ihar&.. J~Irm). for partners "1:0 derive maximum scientific minetals m,rer'~he6r.1lir'esurface ~Ild t,oe]ucidate Lawre nee l'a.y~():r .. a sel f-prcelaimed
dJ~m:~led: look at the moen since NASA'::iApoUo sciernl ist. l'hlle hjtp othesis hold s t[~~~l~h.e t%'llfly
a.

trio of spa:cecrail to shed some !5c:uent~lfi,c ~igh~ nnthelunar surface, Barring ]~M'~mimJ'te grn,ivd,':!es, J~lpi;1ln 'w:m launch irs Selene mission on I J, September, CMn~t's Chang" e Ib5 expected to go up with in afew weeks 'OfI11ii1![ launch, and ll::l!d,i.~ <lim:;;to :foUcn:v in Apri~ with ChmclJl~aY~lan.~], Lunar scienri SIS are cheeringthe sciencedrivenmissions.which premise the most

Research Org~misa'[~!nn 'l[SRO); th~s I]nKlmltlli. ISR:O opened [~e lrld~,~nlusl.iliml:e f SIXill'.e Se:D.·, o erlce' and Ted~I'J:o~(lgY Til iniVfU1;1JJllbaFmf<ll.nl, j;li which will .alci:m:il 120 students a year, Twe c;,~ec11.des frnm l'lo'!;M,whe:n space travel n~'Ty
beeemeasmun neas a.illl'mlv,ellooday, Nmir ~~ys.. "we don '[!;'v<1lnt~obe buy~,~::tgickets on other t

high~re;S,oh!rion ~ilmlges and measuriug the spa,f.'S\e' ~ll;rlll3ir ~m"D1Qsph.e',oo before crashi:nJg..The moon inliJpw;::tco:ris.11 pan a led.ll]:oIogy rest bed i
for fhruremisslcus, says Madan L al, d~pu~y dirocitlt of'the Vikram S<lr.Mbh~]SIP~~ce C~nt['e

in Th iru V,fu.1L2mUl:<'!lpurru~i1" Ind it~.
Chlnese researehers ~~'1iVe: een pllslli'lingl,"r~r b a lunar exploraiien program since the early .~ 990$, ~~:%Wlli. But the !g:mrernment's prif}r]~ was :~:m[r,ungI:l: person in. space, ln 20M. wilh the
crewed progml,l"II es.m:bljs[';tedi, [!he center gt'lll a

peop!e!s space vehicles," On the' scieneefront. Selene's mtl!U tl~Il~,s tD i provide thelast \\·'Ordon the :~n~gmn ocean hypotlu.'lsns.. a ]e.ad][lglliteol}' for how the moon

greenl ightfur three~lnulifm issions, O:umg 'e ].
a $264 n,iU.ioan effort, will be followed by a robotic lander ~niilbQ1J[ .5 ye~rs and ]a!ter by a

1hrn1ecl sa.ys Manabu

K_iUO, I:U1 ISAS

planetary

!l~,ain,~all!i l~~e llpc;:o!ir)jmg se~~m~ ",~U1eNcitil1.g

,6 ;~ ~ .~

tent an cl rimi ng of ~he bonu.b~]'dmen~ wi,'11 '0 .~ .-~ . ,. provide clues FO,cjolldhwons ofthill early solar ~ sp>ec'.la list at the Center tor SpaiC!el SC.I.f;l:.1l0,z and sy~tem, T~:wee~di me:nfj.inmd ~ur~'aceinmging ~ Appi i.ed ReSce:;ln::hi 11. 'Beiji ng. A:n ind.igenous; :~ !iip~.lreProgl"lltm. ,us ·mi~ica), m In.di~s,ltmu:e. :~mt,e:s \~ihidl'll willi h:~I'P aHS\;ver tlli,:<;q]ueS[lon. i,:-,; tl key J
eli;
.i"'I' • ,-

tin.il;~,.·'fJ6notes that NASA willbe launching its .Lunar Reconlmt"~ll.1.Ce Orbinet (lR:O)in kll'e 2.008. "'ThiS ,mare enth'l.l:s;ru~~sl;J1'i,W C~[IJ gent'lnll"e h]boutlu.m]rrese~rr(;h]l. the be'kr oW'ijij,·;e ,1,Ire.'" ! FiorC[1ina. lhe moon nlissiOl.ll,is!.IA1IopponuB' ~. rL~l'y «.m~~ke .~() :n:llo:ie (>o![u;rr'IbuliomiS'" l:n v.!'~lrijd,~, \vi.dc space eftbr~;s.,~flyS\Vu Ji. n l'e1;110t:e-Se'lls,il1g

tbe moon's tectonk:: ~istory, Puttillg ~JI the observaticns logethe!i should reveal ,vheth~r the l!ll~\gl1lI:a OOe:dfl ~.'i:ypoU'ie"'~i!'l bolds up. Surluce mapp ing is a pr~odty of~h,e three mjs..s ions, Sc.ic.n:ri.stS\MOnd'er w]lethe!' mo'st ,of

the. nlli(),on"s c:raml"s '~:re got:lged in a brief pe]"iod ~eve[~dhtlflwl~dmi 1.1 Y~l~ jJtter the i:ll<H
Inoon 's Jb[l"nll~ui(]'n. or whether du:in'll'paNS mper.ed orr OiV"fl1f fi ni'lllt~:hImlger pe,nodi. The

knmll4edg:e ~]buut [he mcon," Many fOI1'{';mgn scientists; were glad tolink f~1im~ \1l,ri.til~ 'the~rb:idian ~o~leagn~., "The~ !lt~ no op:poml[lilrC5 [lin Europe] l'O :ny 1"0[hie;11'10011 ~n present" :says Sm.\i. B(]r~b~'lh oCthe Sloivedish [nsl ilrur.e of :Sp.ac'e" Phy s i!c s i. n K i,r'tll1~l.\ivlliJi'D \I\rut~wWi.lh Go.ll:e-~g.1[Ie..\i. the Villam '~e:l1~erHn ~~~

a ClulIldray.aan-I sensorforim:aging
;UloliTIal.ues anld, surl'~It:eClQI1'Upositf~jlt

:m.agnelk
Si.nll'liIO'ldy.

!~

NASAhc!:5 no fin1l1 p:ltms fCllY !:lnyl!l.~ngafter LR:O. So '!:,vidll three probe:s ready ~o go I!Ind nl{)~"ebeu~'!!g~hu:n.nti~A!>i;;i!!:; (IIIe.ri'.g ~i:e~~ti.!\~s
theiu-oo.'li: vi:e'!Iv ofdlC 'moon,
~Ii)E.N ~IS. 'NJOI.MIIIl.E:A!IN'D' PAUAV:A BAG LA.

5

G. Mad,havan Nair.

d,1<'lUIi'ofri~e~'lIldualfl Sp1lce

objecrt!ve 1(1fCh<ll:lJg'e ], whicb wi.II, ()fbh·the S,CIIENCIE VOL317

W\NW,SCleno~mag .org'

31 AUGUST .2007

1163

evidence ofa large feast. A second mass bU:u'i.aJ pit ]$ .~.dozen meters i:1W;:~y. on file slope of the small mound •.and appt'l~u H'I be [roflil the same time .. At least 28 iBd]v~thmls--,,]s,!) mostly youthfu~,-were found iuthis butial.whlch inchides clusters 'Of Iong bones d1J{·1,tt !ll'J!;£IY

have been ,c~rri,~d.there bythe armload. As. i~llhe first pi.t.,lhereis a nl~lS5,t1,rp{lUery~nd cow boues, aad fingers. hands. end feet are
mo.sUy ;;]!b~e nt, A thi rd area on tbe other si clIe 0 the mennd revealed H thicklayer of ~]s,hI:nore [~l~n I meter deep .. n has yi.e~dedI3 skele-

r

of ;,]duM"!j r~o.gi.ng [u ~1Jgeft()"jJI 20 10 4 S and two chi ~dren, Unl ike the ones in The massburials ..these bod[e~ ~ppe~~ro have t AReHAEOL.OGY

wns

been laid 'to 1,'c:1'St carefully; Tlli,eages ~gail1 fui.l:l~ 0][ aviolent de.ltlli, but t"I,~ep(~tlery lnay C01l1C ftorn a. :s]i,ghdy later em: radioearbou
analysis results nrc net yet: available, ~~ru~d.

Re(!ent fimdlsll11 SYlrh~1 IPlfio\ride per'5l!Jasive e'Videll1(!e't~ClJt: northern lilI,esOopot;amia dV'a~ed Ih.e,sold~ '~liiIthQ rac@ lo buiUdl (1t:lQs-alild that 1t attlraJcb1H:I 'l'lnl'emi@s; Bto\'!;'im1Jg''1rrench fHI,e(lw~~h rat poison, are haeoleg i stsi u Syr:i~ h~'I,!c found the remains 0 f dozens of youths ki rn~~e'dIl a ~ r.ierce' cunfrontatiou nearly 6000 years ~~g;t)___,as\'\(,ell evl deaee t~i1J~~[. celebratas 'the ... ingvicters feasted he~trtily on beef in the
-

McMal.wm. ~i(ly$that aUtlnee areas have been on Iy P~'1[·l~y excavated .. MeMahon says file site centajns clear ev idence of ~Ivwol,e;I,u conll:'Onral: ien. .13mshe doesn 'jkn ow wh etiler t hev ic mr S were UK .••uchaeolog i''l.lPililJU ip K.ftir::sg<JO'Urd.inv-e:\ttl.a defend.ing, 011" 'lnack~[\]gBrak, or w~]ethelj'the gated and sported several laye!l$ofl)one~[his (If clitlife:aL <~We spiring, Br.-.k field di:rec'tor.Au:glIJsn<ll M:c~'v~al.u!o(nfeast {;CiJI:lI'IIJtu::i:lrl.o.ratetllvh;tory won penni SS]Ol'l from thel eudowner to needat least another season to understand
\1i;fh''lt

e,,'i:C<lIi\,jne the site.

~~<lppened" says, Joan OH~e!i1.ill. Cam-

i:~flierrll'l~thl. he researchers expect to find T

TI~,efirst 11U~SiS burial pit onthewestern edge oif the mound, has so r~rrevealed the

m!a!l!1!Yore victims next yeal" when e.'I!;C~VH~· m ti.ons resume om <I site ~hm.on~rs a rare wludow into violent conflictat a critical period of pre I'! i.stx:nry. Th,e surprising discovery is:at Ute ,~~cien[
site I].amedlTe~,I, ,B,mk, 'Nh,ICh :icl~{)la]"s
IlO\-Y

bridge University arelraeelcgist i!!!,nd:Bnik project di.rec~!l)1i" "vhf)began working ,OIl the site in nile 1970~~w]th her fuusb~md. David,
who died :in 200~.

From the pottery, Oates estimates that

the Majm'mla incideuttookplaceatuund 3S00B .. ..E.. She says Brak appears C
~iHlV'6survtvedtlse

N>

bel ievewas one ef the world's eartiest cities {Scie1'lcl? 9 June 200(')1. p, ~j458lThe 40-,lnettiiJ'-h~gh mound, Iocared \'Idthh,] sight of~lhe Iraqi borderiu northeastern Syria. has been cenrinneusly excavated for more than 30' ye,!r~, hLU' .i::;· 'mli~y ~'O'W revealingits surprisieg size and sopbisticanen at this early

confrcntatlon and to have been destroyed 2. centurles Iater, After that event, influence from seurhern Mesopotamia beghrs tt) appear, and. hy 3400 B.C.E .• southern poUe]'y dominates rhe arehaeological record. Something similar tonk place at the
S:1rJ~~ll ~'G':!ile'!i.~l!Ubled blui;;lIIiJ1t ~j.~~!,!!~ and ] r:naly' hQ l~ rn(JIny !II10re s ~let,Ql'l~ yeUo be IIJ:!1eg ~'~led, mea:rby she of Hamoukar.

w
'~'

Arch~,eol.og[srsa:

i

~]ge.Twupapers published '[hiswee'k ~n Am.iqllity~md Science lay out t~~Ie' case for ~]~prvawUng urban center in the 5th and. 4lh millenrtia B..CIt!. riv~]li,ll~ ceetemporary
!i~'U~e~lle!:its ~uu~l1LeJl]Me~(rp!()~'~l~n'!li ~ I~ a, ]ollg

con si dered [h e ];I nd is put ed b ir th plae e of
hUll1anily's

first ,dti,e~ ..

A lh]rdp~lpe:r-shued H> be pi[lhl ished this I~]llu 1:iLme j 'Ou.nuIiJ k(lq-wr~'~ t de'~a~:1 [']ms~ the burials at Tell Majnuml. half a kw~omele::['
ru~['th oh1l'le 11L1<1~I1LreUt Bt'o1J!it Im.~OiJI'!W·urkers a

expand inga g m in-:il>olftlgefacil ity ~,nstyenr lj:lI,iiSreus.img bulhlJOlll:':rsto cut into Mfljm:m;a\vh~uch mewtrll1> ·'!cr.azy'" in. An~.bic-~nd cli.g tre:nches. \V~,1I:~c,h Ih~yl~]led "'<vhh ntt poison t{} pr(),~:ec:£the grain .. tJnive'rsnlY of Ecl,i.tllbtlrgll'l"

bones of i:~tleast 34 ylmng [0 nliddle~~ged adults .. btu on~:ya small portion bas been excavated, '-'The:l;':~ COM~d ]be hundtedl~ ~~~d potentially thousands," says MdVlahon. an ;:lrch<leologj~l at ·~lhe Un.iversi ty of >C1iI!ln= bridge, UK. Al least two skulls show signs of injuries that may h~ve been the cause 'of death, The absence of feet ~ud JU'!I:nd bones .u"ldlthe:~~c:[ [hal 11.''1any of the skUlI~.s <lppar~ erofly rn.1h:d off '\vlle]] th(;l' bodie.~W'ereID~}$sed ]nlu'Jolhe ~)it 11i.nl.s lha t tbey vvere Ie iii to de:compo~e bef{l,re blJ.r~.a.L On. tOIr! of Ihe

(1,1,,(,; destruerien of Brak, includi.I1.g, hood~ed~ of ~Iung bul.lets, al.~hlltl!gll <'I rehaeclcg is [5, d isagreewherher th eywere actual We~1JpfmS or had <11Ili.clt]H~r use..In the
,[I,S

from Syria and U~eUniversity of Chic~],g'~}~; in [-~I~:~::noiiS, recently found evidence of ~1 01 fIerce banlear H!amolll'kar during the same ;

period

~. z ~
~

;
f3

past

S'C1IS0n" the Hamoukar
. .

excavators

w.it~] aJ mix of gcndie:l's an.d ~]ge8. ~dtl]~o'l.l,glI ~
n,Q ubv:inus :5wgrls. iQ,f vi.olellLce are present ~
.Ii,l.

f01[l!tr:ld.111 ~~.1J~Fdolera. bur~~]]~, from [he fl'er~'od ~: ;;;.,

~

They a I~nfound a. s.1 bu Ile't lodged in ~l i.ug phl.SHmed ,:van.!lJd,diticm,al e'V]dial1i.ce [bal the
hul.l.ets l,vere weapoHs, 1>ay"" Ul1ive!'s:i.~y of

i
~

skei.etonswa:s ~ nm,s::; of ~')oueil"y.n1O's~:lyve-s~"e~Sfb.r

Chic~},godig co-director Cle:mcnsReic:hrd.
After~he

~.
0 w,

serving ,;J.nde;;lHng. and 'cow lmne:s,--

b<lule, l'e!>ide[iJ.~!'l<l,ppe<[r Ito ~iLave ~

31 AUGUST 2007

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] lved as 'temporary sq uatters aruid the fu.i.ns.; no~ ~,gng~tfref. at; at Bmk. ~.uunle!fn pottery appears.Both Oates and Re]ch~::I say this transltlon marksthe demise of an
ind ependent unrthern Mescporamian urb~1lm cunure, There are few ex ~]nlp~le$ ln~]s:s;buri~I.I.!l of :imthe pr,~hisl~orie Neall' East. The most dramaticis a pit found in ~ 9~J7 ~t Dnn.~uztepe in central Turkey, cnnra inlng rhe remains of nearly 40 peopi.e'a['(li.Jlg w]lthc,mle. sheep,

TURKEY

SYR ~A

1111~AO

and goat bones, dating re 5700 to 560GB.C.B ..The victims, both male aml female, aramge from in~bll1tstn the ei.derly: uumerous s:kuUs ~h{}w :sig.l:l!.s ()f IT~Gt.tii'es. atld some sku Us. were chopped o.lr. The human bones "'~I"'C] "I'''''' d' [.n,,, of burnlna .,.,>1" .ll,~'';;'en- . U n "'-", ~ dl~ rector E: Iizaberh Carter of th e University of C.l.1 i[oru la.Los .AlI1Ige~.es., caemibal ism and
.;;~ ~.:JI'I. '

III

'II

k

[1;P4I'rJ/~ ~

,;1!,

.ILU',,",Y

~'}l~.~ua

II;..!' _

'II-

1I. 1U .

,~.~

~{_I,"",,"]I

has nOi~ been ruled out. A late-Srd millemtium B.C.E. 's:irecalled Tttris H6yilkin ~HHJth central Turley
includes .19 skulls of mostly yo-ung men, withevidence ofMlJIll['~force tl:lio,n,mm.OIJ, but

eutti ng tool s and 00U1 ined fl',O!IU til, isrant Anarn ~ia_air.mgwi'l:h imported j asper, m~ll!1b],e. serpentine .. 31'D.d drnori,[e sr:O]].esused fOol' beads .. .AI~o rreH.e:nlM!s,.~ 1.~lrgeG:hunk of r~w bitu-

these are' cmrefu]1y arra ng ed ~. ~]!IiI()\~1lI asin, n b
S<lY3arcfuJ.]e()~ltlgd,st Guillermc Alg~)zf: ofthe Un iversi t"j1 of Ca Iiforn ia, San [) iego. 11':11"<1 i rn~i.l.e.l:iltdllIl11B.C.E. Mesoporamian texts

nUlmr-lhe gooey substenee
easrern Mesn:rot~mia-<lI~t'.'e1

dUIJ CQJ[bleS

from

m.ldro (he >city's northern g<]tte. Part of tl:U;:bui.~ding and ~l:S street ~llItnmc,eU'ema]nbu:r.i.ed under t~~e h]gh~ell. TllIe finds sl'1o\i,\[~rtext.r'aiQ'['iC;U~ , mmiiycmuilulily i~11nmn~uIT~I:cl1l:ul.'illg UII,) a single

~~Iong the

\Cv,~tmlr,nJ5::ide rheeereplex of

pearl inlay
whorl

FrOIrJi

i.. mother- llf~ 'IS ~OC~l] mollusks. Spindle

area over

.1 .~ eng

period

.()f

time, OH~es.<:uM s.
(0

Brak's activity was not confined
tmillrun[,ell fo. diose examlnarion

the

describe similar scenes: the f!JtHflOUS 'stde of Vultures. for-example, boasts ofa Sumerian k in g hea p i!lilg U po C~J rpses (I f enemi e s and
Uiepi.Gl:s ultures carrying off their severed v

s usedforweavi ugwoo lll.i ttered the site. and a cache of SO d~IY bi!l~~,s-eit1':1'er
~~.pcms; orblaeks for srampingoweershjp sea~~-Iny in a cornerof one room, its pe~',i8hable container ~o~ng d,ecayetllL "This is not

ofthe surroundi ugarea reveal s settlement in the period of 4200 to 3900 B. c.1E. extending
uvet!!'
,]T1

n5lOnws'h~!IiIg

50S hectares, ~m order IDf

heads. The theme of vierorscelebrarhig a I~eatst.aJt:er a battle also is. fOlmd. ~ilms:.crip-' i
of' the era, adds archaeologist Glenn Jchns Hepkins University in BaM:i :mm"e M~fYhQ,nd.
[iQUS SC~,'\,!,I~Ii'~Zof

household industry

bUT ~I rim clI

iSlrg:e[' instim-

msgnim de larger than oth!~r settlements o f the time. D'ul".ingthe firsthalfofthe ,4~hmillennium B.C.E.,. Brak had I'iJ"I;Qi[e than doubled

tic~'iI~" ays o.:n~s."An.d evidence for ~ndus,s

trial-based manufacture using im:ronedmw

COOler ~mdsenlemenr both before ~lJ1idaner the Majnuna inci·, client Work.i:ng at the n"l~:in mound in a deep cut' • Oates and ~~t1'ir colleagues rece III Iy un ea nhed evi deuce th.. t a
Brak
UlIlOO

was a tluivi,ng

l]le locals linponed l~l.l;,.'il materiels

m~]relJ"bt~ doesn't exist anywhere else" at or before this period, she adds, Themost u mlLlsmd fi nd wasa ehal iee w i'dl, ;)I wbil:e marble base .1iild black obsidian bowl he]d together ~n:its seam with bitumen, The upper rim once cemalned :ru~olhoer material, possi hly go] d which was wei.moved inantiqni ty. "We've not
seen anything like this before .• "
SH:YS,

in size and itspopulation densixy also Increased. O:n~.y one chy ill southern Me~oputC1!nlVi!L-Un!'k-\lilMsl i.kely hu~er in this era, And un I.ii~:e Uruk, '>vhiell was den sely

populared pr~m~~]~ly1l1 the censer, e.~dy ~ Brak
by open space,

appears to have fearuredvaticus
neigl:~bQlJ'I:lloods separated

dl usrers of

fiu!ul! hundreds ofkilemeters ,a'!.:vay ~~[JJd ~Dsformed them .hllfO manum faetured gond,...in the 2 eenturies ~1f
so befure burjals. R(;j~emrcIH;~IIf~be~i'eve ~lI!{;:~]~ city
nM1SS

Reichel. fom::td am]dorlher

'fh~.s more disp,ers.ed panern, ssys Barvard Uttllvers ~t Y arehaeol og ist Jason UII' W hi s n feponl~:!i$ \vee:k in Seienee (p, ] uun, could shaw the ex ~ srenc e 0 f al ess h i. erarc b leal

the

~1I'Ii~lli]['l;:veUI:uJ.v·e

dDllwn.l~~e m[]\c'l''el.c;(J.U1le eye.' ofwkl:f;:(1i Of i.!~v,adefli,

Alth01.]gh, ]t]ck.ing uhe dnm."JI:1l f o ~]IIHm.le 'Oirnl~~s.~(]c:re. ale~ '$ '(Jl.i$~ O
o:!l:~eU's ~Ul :il1lporr!l,!II1il: gl hlil P Seill[O' d.H~,ern j U1l1 b efu.re "1i~r,iling ~md]al])~-sc~dc Ul'bmlliz&HQin~tHnsf'airmedtheOlnde:nt M ]d~ dl~eEmit The: ex,cavauorsm1COVDti"ii1lli: UP',· This
iJnliql!.H!~ Slo:rle th.!ilin·

cove:ry

cearserpotterythe dr~nkiP1gves::106'1, .a]Qng with .~ stlll:mp sesl shewiuga U.OIl beilll!,g caugfut im !:'! nel-a ,elias s.ic N 0uEasoorm] symbgl of foy~]lty-!itlgg:e~tsawell~ slralif:ied 50cie!yin ~lalC 5th lui~,-, lenniumB!f'~lk. add.s, O~nes, An eari]er bu ild ing in the n:-e11C']] , wh.k::h dales wabout 4![l(lOB,C.E.

SQci1:!Jy~teun than.amoug the southemers. s
The triple series of fnmn:{I]s al t]]e Brnl!::dig. which hi spensered by the Br:il'ush Scbodl of Are haeo~.ogyi nlJ'aq.l.beiBl'mtish Ae~c]el:~::IIY. wnd C~.!.lfI.'b(.i.dg'eU!:i..i\l,e,t~H-y '~MGDu IHdd [nslinw~ for Ardulieo~:ogical Re:s.eardl:li. h~s
draw!1L Ule nlpt ~]ttel!:lt~on oU.1Let sdwh][s. of "'it's ~~b:s;o.ll,1t,e]y unique ::t1ind ff"a:nrmsli,c:" :says AJg~lz;e. «It i", nuwcle,l'I.r Ihiillt n.ortlHHIl M,esopotamj:ll i.s 11{H rile h!~ck.wale:rpeop1e used t{)[,el.~e'lte:· add::;, S.chcw.][!tz.\,\'i.lh\;"t.Olt[ in.

inc1ud!ed ~,afge Iml:1flbers of g]",~nd,i i1Lg ui(),nes, big oven.s. b~]s<tl't: pOl;,WId.e~, c~1refl[Uy 'Cr':l.fted ~tone und! bone too.ls,. nint and obsidian b~!!lides. m.otheN)~v~ead .i.nl~IY~MJHl clay :::;pimHHe \vholi.~s.. A sn~il\t. paved wifh ponery shards riIJrrl!, S.CIIENCIE VOL317

~

,~ .~

'~ ililg t'O,~hp;ut '9{~O 3 B"CE. ~nd C:O][IJ~ :~ min iug ,large p:ilcs of ob.sid,ian-a U va~,uHb:le 'v,nl,Cilllic gl~~]S~, u~ed,'for
I...

V~:ijrol,lllldiin
1fI1aJitl1

Brak'5

Iraq :prevent.ing 'e;;;;p.l.orr.at~onf th.e ,;d~uvi,,1 o soil. ali the south" resea:rcilers.are C()im:ent~~{) keep ltl'oking fiI.orrl~fur data. nn how the fi rst urban centers cmdesced.
.... INIDIREW LA.Wl.EIR A

tell

W\NW,SCleno~mag .Orgl

31 AUGUST .2007

1165

~lhtl[,flm.llelv.i·3te::r [0 11(~ri.llkimg-'\.v;ater p~~ml

BI,.II1 ~D~l1e oi.r"!~lmi!;n1S ~tin see'p U'!:fough"

t;1lys

Qin Bo'qrncmgof the instimte in Nmjing ..and currenrs cannot flush aw.ay a~gae .i.11 water em:;lo!Sedb,y tllJieb~lrff.ieT~. Simply ··d;.(;HU'l[ng om the algae" will not. solve the prob~.em" !O~]ys QilL He el:r!ph1i!.$i.t:e~
the meed to reduce uutrieuts. especially phos;plll::rn.ll5 and n:itr-oge~~. i~!:le ;;lgdcu:ltulr~1 in nmoJiand sewage, Paerl and Qin are con-

f.h.lcthlJ!g e:;;.::.pell'.im.entsto dete~nninehrnv !llJuch mI.U~i!llom.l:concelltrn[i!C)ill!:; must fall 'to arrest ~] bloom, They ~dso!]{)I::If::~O~llIlil"''!,fe~ dynamthe ics o f b.~ m format i on .. ··rIlC r easo n we 00
de'!,fi;:lop~dIthis col~,<iLbf~nl~ijve:fl~JilTils ~h;ilwe e h!lli've sim i lar p:rw;)bl ems in the Un ited States," says .P'hed, ···We lfuoug_fu(, '·W.hy not cOi.m.bine

E.COlOGV

our exl)elt~!'e1'"
Othe['retl.tt<lillt:1I'Ie~ art] plf,obiugr.he
mO~OCUa

D,o,in'g B"a'ttleWith t:he Gre1en IM,onster of Taihu Lake
lin
,ill

lar biology of cyaucbactena roxins.Wirh globaltemperatures rising, warmer surface water leads tnless Uflb.img. ,~,;hi,cll favors the

growth of toxic eyanobacteria .. Dec.i~jhlSring
the to;\;.i.n!i.'bk)logi.ca~ :rorne and 11m\!' the (::u]vironmeur influences dlC:UII" Ill'loductiQ!Ul :mtly suggesr srr.:JJtegi.es fen rlrlilk~ng blooms less venomous, NeiJHn~lYS:. Cyanobacteria have .1 long lI:l ..i,gt()~y of

aUre:n1,p,ftiilngb),$;ubd~Nl!,a~'~ch)'us;at,gal[ b~("'lIlmr $dE1!:~tiis:l$;alililJtQ !r,~s'~o.r,~,t'he.lheal[th ,of maio'li" l,ak@ iin Ch1na and hone' stlr,ategi,es;fOlr he,adil1llg oft to,xk soups; els.a:w'lrrIer'tl' ",.

-

f,AII li1IJI LA Kit, C H UIIA-1\,s I

the moterboar

That could pose agrave
({(!}wgiJu)stJ:,

healthrisk.

g~~de$through a 'carpet of fetid algae, HaJns Paerl leans ove~ the s~de and scoops up some of'thejee-greenmne k 'ii'l,fil~1n pla stic sampl ing, boule. In early June, a bloom of cyanobacteri a, also calied blue-green ~~I gae.fanned out
aeross Taihll:l, Cfumm,a's ]hi,rrl-la]'g,e:s~lake. The

Some cyanobacteria, suchas Microcysl'is
maketoxins that ean damage

acquiring remarks •. le adaptations, such ~~s b
n1I~.l1rog'en .1·i1l:~tioll'll:;md

gasvesicles

ithi!M

keep

growjhwas uno hedle!d\'vben ~ team led by Paerl, a cyanobacteria expert 31 the University ofNo:rth C~:tro~inaj' Chapel ~li~I.!iln,ived ]astmm]th to help ,ooUeagues i!I~ the: N~Ulji.ng Institure of Geography and Lim n.c..logycombat the foul bloom,
Much [s at ::ifOilike. "[aii~.llil,l:e~:by l'fueYru.~gl'Ze

tile liver. intes ~':~ ~nd uervou S system. ues, "Toxic cyanobacteria in dda1lk[ng···w,ner supp[i.e s puse a cli rect threat [(l' publ ie heal tfu:' says Brett Nei. ~a~::t :fthe Un iveiisi'~y o or Ne\'v South, W~]les in Syd~1ey,Australia • Micrccystis causes sympH)~l1S includ ..ng i

Ul:!em ~H Qilli~ unci en il1!1b1 e themto

eurcompere

diaeoms and green algae Ih:E'lighr and nutriems. lht.'Y carlie dormant in extreme conditiCHl.s.-S1::H"viv~ng dr.cilHglus and fir'ee.zi.:ng~ [l~en 11()(][' to ]if;e when conditions ]m.p:rove. Cyanobacrsrla are ··veIlY tough," Paerl says .. "T~ey ~r-etthe cocdl;:lFO~cihes ofIakes,"

dian:be~and

algae at J:1[i~lim.Nei.hm ;s:ays, co~u]d

'~~'\fer~i~.u~e. Re.ini~'!].g,in the f helppre-

River, helps ~["rig~].te millions of'heeraees of gl''a:uruJJs and C!OUOIl. in a lush agneulrura lregion between Sl.'l~nghai. and Nnnjiing ..Wh,emit!; he~hhy. the lake also prov.~des dliwmk1tng '~rnl'er furmo':re th~m 2. .!tl~mon :fleup]e, nnd iu,ust~dn1> CIIl,!'!'of 'Chim,a's most ] Imporhl ~t f~1 sheri es for crabs, (;;1Up. and eels•• The b]oo!~~that ha~ fLlr:l]~dl Taihu ~,~~.IO roxie nig~htm~~rehows no a s !;,ig;u'ls of iJ1.b~!ling ~Ind n:'l<,y last tnu'U wi:n'ltel',. experts say. The' eco~n,gIc:aJ drama has. far~.reaohing cm1scquence.,;:" "']fs ~IJeiQS!IIj'th~~1 ~~pr~tty if:,;: seriuus pwbllem. ~1nd not justin Ch.inn;." S<Qy1i Pa~["LAt o]]e [i Il:liC aviJ ]~]il1ll al.':gd!y cQnfi ned. to sll.laU lakes~;:ilgal bkHII1L1S have: nflate gotten serillou:slbmbo.1 ds il~,l~,I!lI~'ger wmer bod ies.Pae~i] warns lIDliar lak(!s such as V1cwri:a in A f[]ca and. Erie ~nldOkeechobee h'l! l·i.TI!e IUnited St~teSi cou~.d b~ onlhe b"unk of bec0I1I1;ing p~re~,1il] i.all
;:dg<l~.,\1)011])[",

vent disasters elsewhere. lt wasn't long ago thatT, •.ihu enjoyed ~1 cleaner reputarion ..A popular I.980s song. p.romL1:~gmeSl~Qugh. em lsslcns standards for "Talhu Beauty," boasted of "white sai b phosphorus and nitrogen fur factorles near J:a.w~,"Ili1. :requiresthe and ~m:H~~[nJlal~:Oi'iL offimciUHes above the water, J~reeu reeds along the water, fi~hand s11ri.!H])below thewater," that remove untrientsfrorn ~ew~'ge.Nul'fient~ lI"~cb ~\gricuhunll :wuno [1' wou I.,dbe sr:ell'n"l1~-db~ Back l1hen, snyslP~~eiUt TH lhu rarely sutfered blooms, NO',"v they arrive lile (dockwork b~~1!!lingchemical Ife~rri Uzers•. pestie ides.and
d,-,tergml'Jits t~,'lJ~M' oO<m1Itai pli"losp~hQnl!'l Dr nitro11. g.(;WI, The mHml~lt of cleanwater pump 00 frt:lil1.1 lIr~.~I~,'lJU i~pmJjiected to re,acli"l I .Il'1JiUicrn tons per rnU~!!'ltimlQfn[lt:ri~!u~ri!cb ~ltwiage mi:d ~lgJ!·~c;::u.I~ duy by the ~md 2008.~lld :und~~sh'ies iu (rf tuml runofl' in the shl!l~~j·fficV ~~ke.That resuned Wn.:lxi U::IUS[ meet awater-recycling rate oM' ]rI! severe e'U~Ii(liplli (..";!(l]on: a s~l!:rlellt of mine:r~ds 78% by 20~D. "Th:el"t'.;·s 11.0 daul)!]: dun laihu i.:s going~o 1.Qi1:l:d orga:nlli,c uurniients {h~dl1!uu'risllElS a.~.ga~ h'e .] Chii]'II.enge.'·s,ays: P,oted. Degfl1d,u.ioi]. ,of growth., !U 11UI s>ua~,~ylwt! dlty c()nditiuns .iu ffue lake ':& \iV~.•. q II ~]Ihywas a 5,1 o'l.:lI-rl101:il ou u::::r e:rur,lyS!JI;J1ITI.1I!'<:r appear W have hocn tl':u,~ sr)!.I.rk [rainw.reck[~~ilJP~Olyed nut ,Qiver several [~::l!l .ignH.e,d dli:s yeHr'.\1; b~.CI~nl. Alie:r [he b~.nmn we~lched.!].ight!uij!d~hp!iflt~ de(}(lde~, It mail\.' take m(lluy.· ~rl'lnre '1.ear!; to '"' . J por~~ons, 2. m.onths ago, c],(;;anup cre':vs banis:~l[he bl.oo:m.s 3Jndibring 1b~]ckthe TaiJm ~kiln!n~d ~nollet:lhoo.{'iOOO t'01I'I~ ,of.i1~le Jrl'lm Be~!;utyof yore. I -L!1lJ(] lE GUO ~. t:~e ~.i1iband bdd a polyvin:yl cbl!or,~debmJ:~ef' w, ILJ!.u:ne is ill fr~~~c!! writ~r Ila;edin BO·S~D'n" GlI(lI ~ to pre-veru' O'llg~]elinnn] genilflg S\\,:eIU iml!to pfpes

To control Taihu's litrle green pests, the goverumeru ]rIIl!he nearby C~l'Yof WiLi,x.ic:r~n'Sd nn aggressive recovery strategy. The plan

every ::;ul],'1;mer.,I~)rc~ll].glo,caL'il to resortto lum~ed dr~nkingw~~elf. The root eau se of T~i,]m:sill sis an aceu-

I

i!

31 AUGUST 2007

VOL 31 '7

SCIENCE

www.seiencelnag.org

EA.IRTH

MONIITOAIIIN'G

Sci,e1Int,iists Se,ekiilnlg N1ew Homes FOlrO'lrbitingl'C,llilmate 51810S0 f S
I

researchers ru n tere sred in alt i me try were "~]ever ~l.~,~)p), ~~bo1Jt be~qg on NPOESS." t>1lys

1

l

AHem,ptstlO liieSllJrire(~ 'H~El' s:elil5iOlrs gllf'(Julilldied lb, cest OVierriUliilS Of! a stlliite' of polar ..o~ibiting

sa'em~es are 'corrufll"oi'IDtingharsh budgie! ~tlall~ti:e's
Free the' NFOESSf.ive ..Th1il~''s u~n~es~age H frem U. S, climare sc iem ists hopi ng to 0 1,'La a
'liWI)'

infO spac!;jlil[ five :sens()~, ~t[ippedla.'i[

y~ar from IJol31f1S fo,r 111 mulubilliou-dollar s ~]t ll ijJ~ :sy S~(;1f11. (Sci,(;'~J(.'~.. [6 11 e Utie 20.06. p. USO). An upcoming report lays OlH their preferences for sal.vagi.ng, the sensors, which are innocent victims ofmassive 'COS[' overruns ]m1I the $11 hinlon Natioaal PolarOrb]ring Operational Euvironmental Sarellire System, (NPOE:SS}. Burthose choiees-> essentially, sli,eki.n.g the sensors back onre

Despite tigl.n lDudgets. NASA and NOAA offic i al s have rough pl,.ans il"o:raunching l ~lddili.unal satellites in 2014 <;md2020., But the $lJ hi 11 costper launch is said to' be ion
d~~t~~teJlil. 'lO\Vh~I[.(;,~Honse offici~~]s.who dscl i ned com 11.1ellL A til :ird opti.o]l-geU ing tl~edah'L[mI11N~vy satellites or fr'Oi.ll1L foreign

NOAA's Je!frtly Privetre.) A higher end, t11he.rec. tore, more s~,alb~erbutwould ~lIID\>V i[lSllrU'·' o [fue ment to nlke more aecursre measurements Qf the minnseuleincreases in S~~ ]e\-lell... SCie:nll~S~~ Wfe 1,1JO'!.;Vhl.ll:ddlh~gwin~lhe N~vy Oil ~] possible stan dial one alt ime try sale II i.~~ issi on for 1~;'1 2.'011 or later; nl.though the Penhlg;ons ~.e!is J stringent \ll,ie~uber equ irementsmay make :i~ r indiffel'e!1l to pleas for gfe.a~er m;clI,.1facy;
Gettill1,g i,n~o space as SOOll'l~!ipoiSs::ible'ils

crucial for one of the b umped .i.nsF.runrJient~ •.. Ih)~ TotWl] Solar ]rnld:iWlI1Ce S~H'SO[' (TS]S)
nle~Sllte:s the lO~~il ~ol~lE" ~dli;a[i{ui b.uhi[[l_g F

pal.·m.ers-de:pcndis on U'lelr ab.i liryto deliver
h~gh.-qu<J]ily dHI:a.

Efllrth, as \\leU as the snengrh of'various POI."tions nf'the SIL]!]':Sray~. l(~help scientists menir;o.:r -el1~~sinthe sun S omput A NASA sateln llte begoll]. GuUec'ting rhos.e d~lta .~!U'l2,DOJ,.but Privene ~nys he sees: little chance nfavuiding a g~~) between ,20 ~.'O

~]wHI20 Theproblem 14.

ls com-

NPOESS or ~lywngthem on separaremiss i!Qins'_'~]~"etnJ~1ITIn.g up ag<1in~:l t"ig~l" bu dgt:ts i uud III governmenr decision U) emphasize short- termmoelro dm,g formil ~t<lF'Y find civi I~· inn \"I,c'e~'1(hel" forecasts O'VeI' long-term measuremeuts (I f gtobal el imate. Conceived in ~. 99,4. the six-satellite NI?OESS lI.V'd1S, erl"isl!O:ne(']1A;s;ajo~ut militasyei '\! i] w an effort to provideweather find elimate observatloes.Bui al'l:e:u $:5bHI.inr.a. in
eosr overruns, n I1!'H'!!udWlU:HY Pentagon review determined ]~f:a year that weather

plicated bythe need for overlappingmissicns to cal.. ibrate the
~ns,iti ve insuumerus, H itch hik ing Oil h(~ ~trdother

crafts could be the answer for ot'l~er sensors. The Aerosol
UNSOR
MISSION :~un"$raljlS

G lory,

Polarimeter SCIDIs()I" I.nigh,tmy on a NASA craft set for
solar-

l.. Total S!Dla:r I rrilcli illnc~ '~'!hn~r 1(T$~:5) 2. IE1.!r:Ii1. Ri':i:dialtiio.ml 1B!!.!d~i!1
Selnt51(lr '~:Il!!B:S)

launch next yearwhose
,M()irliliors, ·tiI1l~radian(iIl
e!i1ii!i!llllll'ltibij'!:iff(ilfil

rndhn:tI(m sensor should maintaln tbe eontinuity ofIS]S'.sllleii]slnec.
mem reeord ..A~ild UIlSM\~UjJ oflhe, Sensor

brUl

forecastsngwculd COllie first and thatit ccm]li~.only afford four satellites over the uext decade. The dec:~s~~Hl bumped five devi ces re ~I IH: to c Ii mat e stu di ,es-a n eva
oce.•n alttb1t"IJelrysensor. ozone andaerosol i

3. OCleilimIAltli'rnilel:ler (All)
4. Otl~!1i'.!' Mi!\PP~r!I!iI. llmdi Prufi ~e,r:SUiti!! (OMPS·liIln1M
5. A~r'MQ~ IPlOt~ril!iil~t~:~'

M.e~IiIFe!i !lea! ~.ev.e~

planned Earth ~{~uJ:i~ti:O[I Budget: •. whiclli'u. tracts. e~llergy radiated backfmm E;!!l1'th.effiC:itlliscould deploy the already-

sensors ..and solar and terrestri al ~~'.ra:d iationdeteetlnglnst rumeets (see chaf~).

5i!~ISl(n;I(IIIPS~

bulfr ClERlliS on.a 20010 NPOIESS

lest mission,
Tfu.e:NRC report will also review the srarus of sensors still Oil l~lle m,ght s;di1Jedul.~. Rt;;du:C1LIl.£, t~le fleet of satellites from $~.x, rofoun.for
means

Scient isrs complai ned eboui the resn hi ng gaps in the climate reem·,u,.Se U:le l'1IIQ civilian p'lrtn.er~,-NASA and the N1ll'~ion,,1 Oceanic and Annosplreric A,~:J:lninistnilt.ion (NOAA)-;;I!sked ~. panel 'of the' NaHo!U11
Acaderaics' Natieual Research Couuci l (NR;C)llo r~vk:w the .age:nci!es" '~')ip'tiOin~L The
I::!a.n,el's

A.birdl i'n h!1lll1ld!. CE:RES rad~~tio.r~e.nSQr, alre:illdly built, (!ouid Jhe s
~aJl'ldi l1l~ior ERaS, Q ne ·of the fi;~~C:~fu:eled sensers. Although :~temoved the ;;e,!C!:SIDr~, the r De ~e'l1sle:Dep~~ru.Jle]1t'cl:i.dn"jshrink the s ize o:r e;!!clilNP'OESS satellite. l1~:al leaves ",enrJp'ty

example,

dl~1Jteach spat

report i·s ej\'.pec~ed s.bortly., Be:rh~"e ils !l'~1gge::shon:s 'CiM'i be ~idol*~'d, ]ho\ve'vrew. Utey '1vill neeclm overcoluer~scfll il,ndl)o]:idca] ]mHH::hed ]f!I 2!013_ BUl NPOESS managew~ re~]lilies beY'~:lIld~he sde~'l!Us;lS'conlT\QI.. ~ thephuUl to reduce [be pO'Vi~ln:i.a] Fo:1I':smneors. d1e tll'i ~:)]e all i.ance W~lS sup_· ]~lfe:l' ~!~roze'" Qsed tom,l'Jk~ if t:'ijsier w ]allllll:ch ~en1inrs t1~~]t fur rec:h:nk:al. g]hches ..Whit(l House 'G,J~·kial.~ '.' ;2: P ~ [1I1~ghtmot :JHilS:S lUtl5u.':r \ivithan imilliv.i.dlH~] IllWy ask the ]llHnagers[0 lievis]{ that: dec.ision, ::;; beC"fUSe <Iddi.ngp.]y~o:<u]:s t,t), exh.[img; m.isl:1il ~ge Iley. [!: LU e:a.dl p~rtne:rh::~~,mlly ~() n'iilil,dl :~ [0 :;;pe:ncll,:and du: ove:mmsluwe la.ke:nEhei:r S~O!lS,\:Vou~dbe m~ch ~e.<.;se;.;:.pens,hre th:lll!]ny~ ]]]g addhi,onal mlliss.i!()\ltS. [:oM"·'The m.ore m OI~.e'Y dun :agend e,s] use !fi! Sci!ellubu~ s~~y thHl ()~H;:: ftIDle se!!il~(.}]!s, t&ie o ~. ()!ll~~e o1i'.i.gin~~1 project. the Ies~ YO'l[I avt': for' h :~ tllil$: addi,l~lonal e:ffclI:t,'" say~ NOAA atn1105~' Oceatllil Altilillel (;';l'. wcruld actu,[I,llybe m,ore

the bus," :ii!tys M.en.zel.But geu.ii]~g iii ricket~o Ii de has so far pnrve~l dlifficu~t. III January. ~ joiJU NOAAINASA H:';am sug'~ ~e~~ed v{;':stod11g SO!fiLe !'llel],50fll hl the f~tS~fi;u~I NPO:ESS c[,l!lfr. dubbed Ch.eJIrHc L~o be
:roal:il on

be covered twicerather day" The loss of a n:lii.ddayview meansthe
\I'i$]

Eflmr1hwHI than Itfu~.-'ee' l:~!iFle.sH
01]

ble/Infrared

[mage rIFtad jOI~1Iet~r Suit~
c]'Duds.,

WOIfI'[ S>0'{'l l'llid~1HHI1~J:Ilgfog or

1llat''$ U"ilEnr~un~te:, s a bi.gpaft ufih.misF ~ si.on iSliD d:ceu 1l1CIU c,1ou.dpm.~erIl1i8. . .A nm:re
Ih!rl.i.~ed SC~Hlner om..~ European weW!tber wn:issi.on ]aL1nc~hedlas,[ yC<?lil" is hel.p.ing to f.ill

:i
I...

r

l

[~~eltidcllay gap. f Privene hws ]ea:rucdlw cope '!;\r~.dl rhe !Slein.~y ,\j;nef~m of teq Ue~l1l from ~denli!St ~~·o influ'e!l(::ieP~~y~o1il!dphln~,~·Everybod.y w~ntjl souo.eching," he notes. Bur ['llie 1:Jl'nJc'~rul.inri~s suwroun.ding NPOESS m~1y :u'e'quh~ hin~ toO 1~l],e-ml1 [llOoSe ooping sk iliis. ~
...nll KII;INli'~SICIIfII

5 ph.eri!c ,pllysic:i.~t W. Pard Me:IflIZfd.

V<'ll.llIi'ib~.ei

fHO\.\Ii]'1 '(lin <!~notbe:r:s>.tteU ite,. I~CI iltl!<lle S.CIIENCIE

W\NW,SCleno~mag .Orgl

VOL317

31 AUGUST .2007

1161

1~!c!!i!I!:I:~
lETTERS I BOOKS II POLICY FORUM EDUCATIIONIIFORUM

PERSF'ECTIVES

ILETTER,S

leferen.ces:
1. P. F'~r~, It M:!icedo, lrref'ocy; Rtrodififj m-e Wam' (inr)' the Wbrld (B~,g!li'I &: Gai"~)'; New YlOr~.

usn

2. C..Z\!l~GaiIiloo!lM, ~1e'~s"nL 1[1 Gr'e,~r. dWlnCm,9 Heoll:1l A. A Hlerocy:;1, FfINlWNO!I:{o! Ulldf!f'S~'(Jm1iff.f'J OJ'W~,tr:I:I\Il (Joss.:ey·BM's, ')alii Frrililci!ll:~,20(6). 3. A, II~n, 1'~b{~c !lmie:mfJ'nd.5(:i. 10 lIt 1~200lt

mo.

4. S, ti:uru~i~IOJ1, N.M!!)!5, ltlilKef3~MS,:llllli6

t2@ost

HIE POtlCY FORUM "~RAN\!I'~G St;J,ENI(I[" B:YM, C. ~iUSBETAND CMOONEY

(6 AP~U. f. 56)'
pub~lic poll-

~lI'glL1esl.ltatbec~lU!'ile n;~remr '~Hdil:uct\s respend 111~1~.~~e:nt~y certa in science-based dl to

5,. p. ·S~I!~l.Irflll~.J, ((.)mmQl1, ~9' ~~()i.[)" 10:;:: (:~.9'~9.), ,6,. M.lkiJJg>1l11, Ii" H!lll~g~ S. Hamfll!1, Gi!ilvefnmentand 1fi!!i,ffJ~,fp: ffiirly YeDft&! fVD!rJ1I;iPJ'j1 (~prim9~~. IDO[d~(M, NelinllrU,mds, ~'. 2, 2:006.).

ky issues, ~~e.nti~~~ sbul!1~dlJfadethei:rre]i~uuce un :1~!.C[-b~lSed ~1l~lm'!enr.; for ones n1.ore S.I,1l!!l'!led
to'\:vlILrd the lnrerests ef ~pe(ill!C' gruul)s. 111ei I,' exm1,'Iph~s-c! ii~"liIt~ change. !tvoIUltio~:.,m:1:dl stem cells=-seem ,a:111 simU~u·to the 'par&b]e ofthebhlrJid]m.e:n and the 'e'lel~11;[m, e'.:will'! too n'l,~I['l de.~crib""

~NrIHE]R PO~IICY IFORUM, NtSBETA.ND ,MOO~lY

asserl that sdenti:S!ts need ttl berom,e

adept OGS~Ily·B;W[,~Ili Fr~~dSJio. 2006). 3. s: IIliMn, .Pl:JbHr: U!rd~rn'flrJ.5d. 10 {f1D.nJi. t C2001J.

,u

HIE PQILU;:V FOR'UM'IFrRAM~rNJG SCIJNI(IE

m'g~leslhalooci;lusedi

,(1)~lfIIt

C. WUSBET ANi[) CMOONIEY (6 APRIILr p, 5,6)' tludi~llces;respond d~lfere:nti.yto 'cent] in science .. ased pub~,ic po]b
ri

BY M.

4. S. KUIiU~itla, N•.M1!YS,lall'l[!l1' 3:6,6,. ]416 f}OOs:i. 5 .•. D.5th~ld!1IIJl',./. C~mmHfj. t:I~,(im,iL'!',. :HD2 U_9'!jI9~', '~" M. ~og![m, 11'0', Hi!n~!i:~,S. HaITIli!1. GIli'Vf'J\!JJJ'J!f'niand ,Resw,:c,fr;fbillty Yearsajf.r:oMirm' (Springe'r" IDardred1I, Neijnerlill1!di. 2, :l!OO6).
I~~

ky w:-;s;ue:s."ge~en'tiSil~ S:ho!dClmr;Oide~h~i:[re]i<Ul!C~ Oil fact-bnsed argnmei'illS for O[[e:1J.1ll10JTe slm[ed [O\li,r<Jtrd interests of speciflc gro~~ps. Their eXaJ1tlip~,es-----<: Iilmil[:eJ change, evolutieu.aad stem the
cells=-seem

,E[n too

~ilnnar:lD t[le lWt'otb].e of~hebHl!1Jd men and l1~e,e]ep4~.mt, eacfu..'l'll~I[ldescribI

~ng the beast diffc:remiy based 0111 his. own firnited d1ili~:a 1111(;."end. aH:I.llclugh each de!'C'I.'llbe!i a ..]n portion oftbe elelJhmu ~tccum~BI)I;.none C~lnpkrure t:he elni,re,!ni.nl~ll Thti[~eelJJ.l:=; mltlr6 'l. mot~ell tor po~i~icjalJS than seientists, aad Ci\~isbet and Nt oouey \ ,adlvioe druu "scientists should :>mue.g~"spin" onan issue Il:li,glnprove moreconvlne ing,
EAF.llE M .. HOlLAN D
Asc~i$ti1lRt Vke Pr,f~ldeUit'1o~Resea:rdn (omnmUiUliLja·tIoi'l~ ,l')hl'D S'la~E! IJl1ik\iler~it.y, rO~ilJn1Ibi;lS, 0111432~2.'_n53'. tJSA.,

liN THEIR PO~11CYIFOR!UM. NJI::5S.ETANID .M.OO~·EV assert 'thaI scienrisrs need to become adept <'lit l\()mJ!11Ua!:l~~ni.ng their science in ~:mlbli(,"llsil1g flm~rn.t:~ '·'mOI.:t11lti<!e it rel.e'i.!~tlnto, d~ffereID~t<iudienees," Allhol!tgh I a_g!!t'e,suggesringjh,~~ sei-

emlsts ~.oc\ep.t1lill'ldl POi]lt~l,1lr]iI1~nJJespresents use eally avoid ,enl}phasi.:dnglhe~ecbn~ca~ details ufscienee when.lry]rIig to defend [C seems; somef.;ertminri sks, what d ishonestlwould hope lh~.t reseerchers ceminue U'I N~Dyn Uld~~daw. r;;u'fuerth"~1! n '\l\~'1al o o

Flrse, 'mi:1lruy 51dendsts would prefer ~,() "stiekro the fi•. 1!C1 publ ie for very good reacts"
::iO:IUl. Frames

are n1:uclh more

dli'1m gi.mply

'1'1 eaving out deta il~:'Iiedlnci!~
Ji:'I!r.go~::I: pl.·ovhJ!~~gmore con..Of'

N!SBEJANID

MOONEytS

PRESGUPTION

OF

framing lid 15 short of a comprehensi ve di ag.IH1Sis and treatment plan fo~ whOlt ailsscience, Theauthors correctly argue' that frami:n.g 1::; one, ,<J.~beit ofm~ny, po'l'veriWul CO mmu-

ofl.• mgu ~ :!Ig:e iilindcommunicaeion.
l"i.li:'I!c:[ elements Finally, what fraLillmg strategywins ~be d,ai,~y

text'. When S~~~!:keT,sli;"~me"lhe problesn {)If cl imate ch;)iJng~~sa !l!!~tter ~d':reli.g,iou~ nloraUty;"
:llbre.X<'1n1!pl~.. [htly arr~ using sci-

nicarion RlOlsp(ltemi.n~~yuseful to scientists.
H'O'!Ni:nH~Il".

rna ss medla "i\'~1JIi'S'lll"Y not enhancel oug- term

reh~[io:lrIsh.~p~ etween b using fr1Hnim1lg for persuasion, political CO!llnlill:!nicat~on. or pl~bl~crel.nl"jo:l'l.S: science and ~ooi.'ery.lo~ ends does not neeessffilr[[y empower people ward dml end. evldenee lfu~lt tOl1.H1I,ke better declsioas about co.11II'IIpl.C:l'JiI: V~rJidl~C';;!le~ seientsts silo urud e'ng~tl:1)~ m'lOIft! in issues 2). ~lIad ongn~~gdi~'~ngne The <1J1JJl'fuors'argument :JJUklY l~!l!il!d\l'twte~uDy perpetuate ['1,'10 COllI! nmnly encountered sc :i~ with po~m,cymtll'lk:erli~J]:d euee cornm.YIm:a.i.t:;mUoumyt:hs. l'~w~I~~!rs~bl, tM~Mt. rJilJe puolic to he]_pbu ikl

c!iupport a phik~fSl{Jllh.i.caI .fU'gUlilllCiU. Sciemi stsare relucU~11t to use fi;aml'!'sli.ke this one, no'! because of l1fle demi Is they have '[0 omlr, bm beciilIuse.of the
[:0

,ooce

u.

de~]ls they ht!.ve~[) dd.Its phia l.cs!ti!phy;,nal:~ci'~I~lCe . Secol[l.a., .1 h'h()ughoth(;,;l"slu~ve IIsed science in "fore ign" n:ame.r-i BJ 'sha.j)le p1.lb]~,r; op~nion .. when they

shared understanding; and ef:fecti.ve policy :>olu[ioa:n:s/---4. 6), 1\'5 ]'n:vin\II.I·rl,lle. "rhf:l rela'" ( tio'nship between science and society sbo"-il[d ~:l:a[be about: rhe seaeeh f~liI universa 1solutions and im;tillll!t!..:JlfIi:'!1 fLxe...,butrather the develop. ment of an open and erlrlcal discussiou .Moo~.'ileyam ,dlaimn this misrepresentstheit c beh;ve~n !'ie~e~wc:herf..,po~icynH!.ke~ mld ci'tiin~el~t. b ut th~~illl.l!~tnnes the in ~'!!el-rea1!tvulnerabfl.~l:y ()f even a we~]-illUl'llded fmme Ire d i'f.. .zens:" ,(.n." Alsr.ake are not I~n]y rele'\!'i!1IJIce and , re ring ~lI.~telipTet~ti.(,)'~1!~),iFU!F i~~S'w!lce',ret'd- iruCTem:.ed. ~.dupi[:k]nof :$Ciem:;I!!,..,. bur ~h;o .Iumg(5 ,e;r5,of S:(,/(f!ilce mfiy i.nte:rpre] ~ha aur!';lo:i"s' term sHppan 'for scie'nae" soc!.a] coh.esional:iid equity.llUst, and'!,iveU~bej~rJJg (1--4,6). ad!vice to ~tr>!!teg.k::liiU.y ooque-'ireF the"l-echrd~ ANIDR EW' IP'L1EASANW ,ca1 d,e[.~~ls. of science" as !H~IU~ningli~,mi:ng ,eompJe};ir-r cannot be successfully commnulcated (2). The second :~m. coumerproducs tive "two eormnnnitles" aotion Hu!!blames the pu.b].icas ereraally deficient and alienates science from society (3. 4). Nisbetand \\I'~~:h·'dUOlbin,g d!CiiWlC science, even tfuJougb

dominate
~nitireliy

science media, impo~,taillt ~deatls re a ab~enl.Fral1C!!es'Mo'rk because th.ey distil) complex issues and emphasize wh:JIt

th!;: ~!~ld~e9~Qe~ln~~uJyknows

\:ve should be concerued

be true, But if tlte dcminant
to

1W-,OllI1!lM the media tHTI]l file aU!il:oritative .im

basis of science i,~,len::lF:irica~1 observation. experi.me.I."lf<B.11.lru;~dl ud:!'>" ~u.ul..atlQna~ argl.Jl-

mem.

Wr!.ll.·

'~xall'lph:.Wc·re l'en\\\'i[-~1 sc:j,~lu:e
COila
i;J.

., filct~" runHll ~tlienrrm:iLle. Wilhon t d:il.es:e
C03i1JlI.i()IVOTSY

cept:s; how Gan tilQc:~ely 'cupe wirh scientific
0,11" the in:tpUca:~i.olls IQif new~m,d

~'

N~~lel" mld Moon.ey cerllllhdy :re'Cogniz.e: rl~~t:
framil;iJ.g and [edUl.i.c~11 C(lim~.J~:e;xi.ty ~Ire d.is-

Depi3Jrtmell)~nlif ltiumi:llfl ~toW9iy and ~aWiily & (emnnm1ty H'e:aUti S!!:i:ell)(es., Rt!l:'lIl!rs Univ~rsity, New B[!lIIlS1H!ciR, N1j

(::h~~n(;m.gingdi~co'i,{er] es,?

~.

0&9011, 'USA VOL 317

D:e:sph~~ t~,'1:esre: {Ln"Th7l,fbacks. ··fole'.ign'·lfranles ~: ~]lfe i.rnpo rt~l1t, undm.ore ,f>{:lemIj\t;s, sll:loU!.ld f5

31 AUGUST 2007

SCIENCEwW1N.Sicie'fi,eemag.or-g

belittling

.1111(11 Insnlting

thework

(yf science ..

and just plain dumb. Seientists have to s~~y Ih~I~. tiifl.y it n.1:OII'e often. and

Rie::s,p IllIlliItS I'
IN SPINNING, OUw.: :SUGGiESTIOINS. AS "DI5·-

honest,"

HoUancl assumes ~:hat&~l~ning is

leam to 1L1rSehem, It" is perf'ect~:yreasonable t
~]mcllegit!n'!ate~o use !;Wb'lOtiOIHd, religious, ~)Ol.i.t i~cal..al'il.d econom ie 11I,et~phQ:l"s,!ioor.ie s, iiwrdmt:s.'ii'lges tn£~1mThe sdence. Sc:1en~i,sts~re:
::I]SO

ueunal, that it doesn't takepositions or ;;!!do'pt arth::uh~trframes, Ifwe ']!fe~~lin~ to p
:DS

dtiz~ms and have a right-even

a F!,,"SPO]1m"Ol:ill

maxi In iz ing persuaslouand understa nd:img ~N;filJ$>$·contexts (n MQ!reuver.~:noe~~ officers theprocess, voices, Framing science ]!fl tllie~e ways does and science reporters rO<l:n.inely negotiare 1:11'I:JIlke science llVIore accessible. But wl's. imporAnother exaniple presented ms the public v ~(!nth) undersllllmd the wi ~kt>{If sal\]r~tlir!!g U~e debere o()]icerni$i!g evolH~~,pn ersus c~~J~iO:!l, ~tory !lI!ng]e::s hili!~ ~ l:~v·orIl~H'~.c~!I~r~he!l1!e~aand, 11<1n.·m.ive s (2,l 0 r, at the expense of contexr, media wirh these ~)Clpu~arfl"~~m.es, as 'i;I!,!.e~:,] as: A.ccord~l].g to Nisbet an~IIVloon,ey, "rU1l1UeVOde'f]il")enews n.{lf1fmil,f~.y;:]!fOUlld a ~iHgl.e sc:i!f;}'lil= Iutinnisrs lJin:ull.o'led '~cie~1.tifk:: uncermi.nty' H~epotMtia~re!liv:.,(ms.
!'l.ibinl:y-~O frame li'lei:v scie~:iGeill their
SUlP,HiE'N 'QUAllRAI~rQ SMIE ·su,negies., l.exingt.en,N\tI 102421. USA.

adopt a Sll.ll~~g_y cd' adepring fml1f1es v-vlhem comm~I!Il~c:~]tingto the pub]ic. \lffl S.IUlU~d; at ]east l\ons,ider (1112 ossibil ily ofthe uni.lllremIDed p OU~COI:il1e ·oJ~acrif:~ci.ng scientific 'credi!bil Uy im

fmn"! tnldit i.onl:JI1science COI.mn1lUIl icaUtnt Yeit,v.r~~ethe:v-wwiti:l1g l.!!P gr~~1!l a pru.posa~l nll.Uf1ori.l~gajourl[l~1 article ..or providi ng expert testhmony., scl.>eirldstso,lf~el]emphasize eerraln teehnieal d'em.iJs over ,o:~he·rs.\vilh the goalof absent

INIIS[!,fT AND MOONEY ARGUE THAT ;fwnHO~T

m liiSI'e'PI1'esen ti ng sc ien! if:~c .i n~onllati O~lI ]] 0
h~gb1ycontested issues,
roaeti
sc~en1lti::i\1-l.

mustlearn

¥ely

'frame" ]~fOI'.IUl'll~alll nl",ke «1,

if f\td-

evant til dif'li:re:ll[ and iences," I won ld i;]!rbl"Jile~1!J1.t frsm i!l1!g the debate wi I~ lead 'to. (i] 1h~~vill1lg misrepresent to scleotitie i:t1"lliJn:lfI.a~~iQn (ii) sacrificing seietnificcredsor bUily,.'both of which \"f~lIonly reduee tllilie pub]ic aceeprsuce i(lif what science has to !my. Fo:Ir example, the authors say thm~ the Un ]ted. Nations In tergnvernmemlllI. r~]:llliel 'O:Uli Clnnate Change (UN [PCC) has "~le~umy

teach-the- controversy fl,~~ mes,' \~Illi dh ~c:.iemth,t~ countered with science-lntenssve respens es, However, mn d,1 of the public ·~u!<re~yt U~1es nut file Sf! techn ka] l'lfle~ ~m.geSl. In stead frames of ']:'IU b~:.e accou ntabil i ty' i til 'lIt: fa cus an th e rn.~use ()f tax del i~ars, S "economi e develepment' that h ighl i.,ghl the negative 1."eFe.rcmlSiJ)[ls for commuuities embroiJ·ecl in evolution battles, andtsocial progress' that define evolution ~s ill building blockfor medical advances, are ~wkrely 10
t'l[lgage broader .\l.llPPOU'·'

tili nd'

l:ijfi·c smdy (J) .. When Httelfltion.~o science shi 11 from. the s science pages to other rnedi.a beats, new audiencesere reached, l!Lew ]n~erp'fet!:'1tiOin~

emerge, and new voices W;lin stauding :incoverage, These rival. VO~(.-e3 srr<l.tegk:l1lly~hutTI.e issues around diruensions that feed on the biasesof journalists, c'ml~lmel~i"ltoi.r~ otncl, their •. respectiveaudiences I( 4). If'scientists do nor adapt to the rules of all ~ncreas.ln]g]y fmg-

mented media ~y~l'~I.l'l. shifE1img fromfr~me:s. dm[ only work HI. the sciencebent ro these dmtt
fit ':I.tother luedi~l outlets, then l"ney f~k oedli:~l.g their ~mportm1lt role as CO~IlHllun:ic,-uOl:5.
hl response [u Pleasant, weagreethat a.

A]t.ho[!gh not qu ite a public debate, recent events :ill1 DQI\iCr,P'e~]nsy.!·wlni~). and the f.iud]mgs of Judge Jones came d!o~'e. The mlrti!~v()]~.nio!l1istslost ] ~hii'i.t one !ffii:1,s<):iJ'Ji.\\'.hy ls 1l~<1!~the creationists 'ldopH;~d";$cie'lnific uneerrainry" and "reach -the-c .. "Orllnrversy I.m:rm.eg"\iV~hi.le science

increased its cQi'i~fidence l;1h~[luimai'i~.i]lduced
greeehonse g~lSem issions are causrnl,lg global warml lilg. So if scienceal one d rove publ tc respenses.wewonldexpect ~nc:r-em;ing ie publ confkli(l;1l0einI11l!e\l'~d~d~rty oflhe sdemce, and d!ec['e~]s]!J"lg itical gnr~d~ock.~·I~hJ/I;ve've'r. is 1)01 th would be tnae ou.ly lill.·UNIPCC i.s seen by l1ile pub[ic ~~ ~'I.e~y p!)ese!l~iHg l"ech~1:ic~d ofXlnlp]e:x:-

we I~.-~mfQm:ledp'1J.Ib.~ie iiS an empowered pn hi ie, The problem~ IH}wever. is t:l'l~~~the <l'\/mn'ilhni~y of scientific ~nfo~.·nlla.ti.on the media does in uotmean peeplewlll useit. OI.ll~ylby fnnning

and evelurion refused to .adopt nny fU'~lme at
~]~Il Those

issues in a manner tharmakes them personally
meaningful ~liIJ1daccessible m nentraditicnal audiences cun scientists and their organizet~OilS boos<t public~tttl1Him~ and lhe.reby SPOIl:!>Oil.' infQirilTm~ le~n.l[ng(S). We Hiso agree wirhfleas~~ll:t th;;;u tile type of dialogtl!!e feallUred at dldi.benl![:iv~ furwms

representing evolution m;;tde no appeals tn "public ;~!,'ccou:!l!mbilily" 0]' "ecoaomic d,eve~.op·.m.elili('i.nr.lip'1 ieat
~OI:iL~,.

Ralher:,

.it:k~s 1il'l~UreTS science, as o:r UN1PCC fr~n~'ledH:s;e:IJ.~~.]1(1~it~c;;~I. j!Jj im,t~tuti.an seeki.l.l.g not j mit sci.enl:dic OQlIlC lug,ioittl:s" but ~I.>!,)cepl;abl~ socia~.., 'ocnml!flk. nruJpnl itka~ soluti.oms. Bee~lUse' Oflhi:s, crili~cscm.1:J. eas.i.Ey ~lttac:k UNIPCC's scieu~iJ"ic Cff;ldibi[il:y ~~cS; being :inl]ue'lllc:ed by a pol.ilical or socia~i
~~gend~ ..A:!l.ares!i.l.h •.\eveh3V,e d.tlcreas,imgpubli.c

tl1!ey cSti.!!ck the scie'!1ce. :In 8'0' doing, r,bey to buH~ tlliieir argl.lm.ellts .on ~\rliclh !lueH~"Cma~lr~cl~tj!Oin thm. Hl0re tlmn ~oymi:lx~!'in O'lV!rt>o(.:iely. . :us.seen as ul]biat::;~d.~Ild crtetl;ib]e. Ask any tr.ia~. an.d oo:m ~::II1I1JIJl[tYI1'le~rin,gs .remai.l~ So i,l1l1!=IQ1"I:ttl].l. ]~'ill.'ye'[;The j u.ry bu ys ~he res-ri mnny of the Unfb!rtIJu.atdy. at vhe$et~Y!flllIU1Js. the cirizens.
mOS't credib~:e \V,~ll;K~S5. does the pubi.re. So ]n comi'r.nl;i.l'. tho.... testi fyi lug f~M; U~~ '1{: ~lnti!ev()~ ]luionmry caul]':) wereI:.11it[llOO.J]]ey desliIioyed ti1lJeir Ot~.rll cred.ib.i~. it)' and dimini:sh.ed tir:le

Letter.s to' the Ed~tor
1n Srif!flc(!'

c(mficicHce and ~m::rea:fiing 'rolilic;;!ill deaCU[}1;;k, PO\'Vet of~ulY cQl,wl~eting ~1t-gUnlelilt&. l1M~ OMlltilOrn. o'bi5enre that "many SCi.lWlt iSots. Had UN1PeC stuck exc:~lu:dve]y to the sc:if~il eWlc-e •. lhe :rublk::~v(Jlddlmve been f~r rncure not '~1inly to {h inl stnll!regic1Il1~)' ,abmm how to receptiw lei ~he :f.im]lil~(~s of tlhie orw~miz~t~i()~1I1i con:Lmm::t~e~ue,o,m evohll.ti:Qu. but bel iu]e m,d ~]Wld'C;ril~'c~ would be WlllUCb ~!ess~b~e w di~~ ]!UU~t odncer:s' rel.igi.';lL]~be ]iefs;' ]IHlJ\'ewij:t~ m~ss UNIPCC's sd.ell1c!6 as po]iricaUy or l'n:elSSOOqui.le: llli'le OrpPOSilB. The .s.cie:lu~f~c COnl.:meiaUy nlO~~.'II~l'ed., Sci:~nce hrn::,;cl.~d.i.biJ i~y '\\~rill]~ i~mbl:;~cpretlhe c.is.ely ~ilet<'IUSie t~]e publ.[c beli!eves 'th.. tsc.ieil:1ee mU.llity h(~~bee~:lll]ll.Jl'chHm re~peclfu.1 of the l;"!e~.i,g~'ousbel iefs of ol:he:rs.Wheu SO!nUi:QI::t~ chi i1].]10lJI.~l the \:V()rlldis. 6J~OO },'"tt<an;o:~cI, lh<!Jti~ SiCIENCIE

Lettef~ (-300 words) di~m;~ mil teriilI ;wblished Hl lll~ ~..lre\ljou~]; month!> or iS~'lJe~ of g~nNJll 'int[!r~~t T\1qf (,]" b{' ~ubmitt{'d throLlgh 111eWeb {~\\~W,~U bm~t2s(;em.e.or9} or bV r~ula r
lTIJil (1200 N~w Vork AW'!_.,t\lW, WJ~hing[Dn, [)(

.200005,USA), l~W?{s i]Ir~ not aci~noI'l1ed.g~ upon '·r2cei'pt. rlOf are .auHl0r5gen~rally (or15ulted be!o~-e ::Jubh{<'Itior1J_ Wh~ther publiS'ned in !till or in part, len,ers ar~ ~ubie(tt() ecdit1nr:] f~( clarity and ~pa(e.

w\!VlN.sciencem.~g.orq

VOL 317

31 ALJG~ST 2007

1169'

LEITERS
whoare ~jJlIos~I~llk:e!y anend and speak up are to [fuo~ 'i,~m !:lIre~lre'ad:y ]!!Il!frmllJed Hnd active on
t]~ i(]) 1ft I

ECTIIO~:s. A.ND !(lAIR~ IFICAlf 110NIS

issue (6). ]:n ,co:ntlmsl, carefully

framed

N!ew"s: O(~Is;: F

"~~-'1li'11i19the

Imlili 5t!lry' o·f ~:u ~P'E,
:!;ki'De

I:lJHilh] pt-esent<'Ll'ioilliS 'O;~111 e,lfrectuvely prnmore (J] i,a,~Qg and trust wi [11[1,1 iil'r_g,ei and reore ue I

(ap~j®~ 'k! a Ipho~!J!;Irraph of

~I'I!arm It.old teaps" by J. It!Q'hal~I1IC11il {B .~IJ ~.Il. lS8). Or! rpage la~,'Ihe tools ]ncGrl!e(~ly caHs thel1fl, "INecil~~hic"iTIIdatoe" ~l5houlocll Da'!!'e'read ~rpre-Neolitl!l'iIi:, ~

dI~ven.e il!l,L!lll[el::u;-e.
.(nn!>idef.~()'1Ii e~"l.a!.1flpk:" E.

n Wm!sO:I]"S;
C'QlMMIEffi'ION "Dee!p

tECHNlllCAL COMM'E~T .ASS1RA.CJS

Cr(!t~'l ios: A.n Appeal to Sew'!'!'Lift> on bCll"fil ( 7). By recast~mrlgenviroumenral ~te'w~]mi.~h~p a~ not only 11, scientific matter, but also one of

Nlu::lleos:ynlthesls"

IMixiilngl of JiH!e,: Re'Goln,ciling IBi'y B,ang Ilmd Slelllllar
t. ,R,Oo(ld~T.
M. BaJf1l!Ja

persona! ;!I~'ld mom] clItnYr ""Us!tln fu,,~ ,g.e'!ler~ ared discus!:'i,QU arlflong It religious read:er:ihip, [h~!ln.dg!.ilt net 0 th!erwi.~elJ~ly atteutioeto popular science books. A second example i.s K<Ilrel~ en~hof's d()cum.t:]u~[ry Tbr; On;(11 H~rmi~1g{B).. Narmtcd by KCaJI:1:uReeves and AI~Hlis. Morisseue, the nueatrica~. release cembluesinterviews {)of climate cI~angc experts whhrestrulucmi <]hlfrum IIdig,i tUIS .~.t::,I!t~lttI'S. Endo~edb:y !n~n'.iom"'ll igiJOlQ S organizaricns, rei 1:(H'Ufil"lls['eallliiing, the fHIU Itav€: alsobeen hosted by churches and :;'Y'lH:lI,g'ogues. In addltien, both of'these examples fUn1Jc~ci.orn as newspegs fo r jeuma Iists m .re'~.:igiClus edia m out letsto write stories abour el ~Imate c~bJi.1JI."Ig~.
thereby f.]cUh.iJ.ling_ exposure
.]~llol1gnolll.~·

[lain.], S,_ Ba L5ef~ Ro[belr~

Egg~etol'l el' of. (ltlepo:rt;,. B Dec:eml:l~r .2006, p, 15;80) repo,rl.ed naldeep-moolng rlil!E!(h"l'ii~miflllm'V-llIl1i!1sl> s1ars caused' by'a Ra,ylleigl'l-Ta~lo!rinstabi~ity that destroys, [lU oHiIle helium iro,to~ 3He producedl during ·tine 5:tar'~, lif'etime. Ob.se;MltiQJ'~S of lH,e~f1 planeUlJY l1;elllilid~e, ilIowEwr,.iJildoc(lil:etti1"t rom e 51tn~ prooll!ce p'rocligiol:!:5 .amOUlli'!S or JIHe.lihis is lJ1;OOrl'S~$I.ent wiitllt~@ !a~~m~hi!Jt all. IGW-'ma~ st~r~ ~hoolldl d~~f,(ly~lHe.

°

fu:lL~exI:illli'/,""M1.sciiE!iI'l~mag~orgl('gil(OfIl:efID'lldIB17 5M21'n JOh ment media .. As

5horttcursro'rredlu:::ing

cnnl:p]exhy,. t~he~.e schema a[h)w oU1Y lndiv~dm]l-wbel~ler a ]ay eitizen.j ournal ist, 0:1: polleym ~~k<::·r-locatego rize uew iufermation quicklyand efficiently, based on how thaT informatien is iramed in the media (5)., In sum .. [1. one-size message about science

U nd:.:ngIF'adlu(I,le lEduc.ali'on
ilnl

!Jorda:n

IIWM SUIRPR.JSEIO THAiTTH E MliDDLE: EAST WAS n()i~ mentioned in the SpGlcm~J Section "The
World oftJ.rnd~rgf'.'lduah:: 'Ed[l(;al~on" (6 July. p" {)J~81). The Middle East: c\():niStimr:~5 2.9% of tllie\;!.'or']d·spo~:ndaJtiom and plays a promi-

wil ~ uot fit fill ~ lid iences,

We 3ugges~ that science ()irg<'Ln~z~ttioI:'lS tU'~1d]t~omll ienees, aud wad" 'i'I,,'i,~rlcommanicarion researchers. COIl~]e~iltro~e~m:i]ljt':eHI~1.tiona~ pol~ti'r.:s.,~nd the' ed:u~ 'CO[ltii'.O!LfY to Qru.~Ui1llli:lO;~ warnings, in neiduc~:~.I:ilg focus gmupiS" surveys, and experlc~l~i!Q~] its population o.:IF is ,arekv1B,ITI.I: interme nts that ex polore how d.ifferent audiences tnllell' the Wibo:l1 nor the CoshQf'ext!lnlp~eS does mu-inl.la.~i issue. For detaUs nn nllldergn;ldlu~]w u[IJterpret~:ap~cssuch as cl.~nl;]t.e·eh,lljflge ElVO(lif science .lppear 1.0 suppcr[al partlcnlar reliednc~niol:l in various Arab states in the g~ous ph ii,O::IDlJI,1;Y O~.·argument; [:n:::;~ead,~wmn~' ]ution. 0111 U1:ebasis 'Oof this research.messages M:iddle' E'lst, go t~)~heUNESCO '\ijeb ~~te (;<11[1. be tailored to fit with specific ty"pe~ of img is used to create a uarrarlve 'bond: between ( \V\vw.l:Lm:sco.orc;.4). scienristsaud rel i.glou:s eiti zen!'. OOH1LIl'lUIl iC'd!~~' media outletsand to re~!(l<natewith lile baekIn 2100.5. the ,gW'SiS eil'lroUme:n't f<llt.io rnroif .ing ,a shflr~elin~eves:[ i;~,i...Ih~]tSCi!e:11C!~ teU us; ground oftheir p~~rdiciLl,~lmi~Rtdl[enee \c' c~~11 . und.eli"gr.!~d!u~[euniversities in §(lil"d~!nwas about the nature of e~1IViVOl1!lf!enta~probh::!l!ls.. ~~l:mur39%, otnd.lien'l"~C;:s make up 49% of It is eno ouragi ~~g that the leUer writers a_gllSe 0111 fetv cennalprinciples, First fll1lllna Inresponse to Gena, scienrists and their rhoseenrolled (,~).There are 22 {pri.v.!llteand PiJtb~]c~ unlverslties i.i:1L Jordlln,.\,;'~j,]d] is .M,high i~shmti:~~n& are !~1~)li'l,lo;lted di~cover·w~.~al" is VICligas a (,1(_)ir!cepl han.,,, !':£!'ong Fl.Xlit[l in the seeial to sciences, Second, fral].,img is already !cel11llnlltrue about t~~e~\rodd and to :inrol.11l'1Lhe pu.blic IlJIlm.1ber since [he population ofJo:rdml is on~y ]I!litell~~(m<ll rnot-e-tn In!d~tion<l~science lKml~ 5.3,75mUlkm. n abont tht:: implicatirms of dll;::ir research, ]n ~''1ru;m.i.cahon eJlhrl:S:., Third, whem applied ll,llI~flS;la~:ing this: lklr:t()wledge for popular eon\Ve have many .of the proiblem8 di seussed l:es:.rm].~ib~~ ~l[!d ethi .c;aUy•. franli.ng can be: a slumpti.OI1l, ShOIJ;L~d sde~ltiis:rs r~ly :.o.iely en t!hei:r in~he S:peci.al Sectiou, sueh ~]Susing English instincts and their personal experience, OIr \i"..1J.l'tmbk:: tooll for scient isis in 'cmw.gJ1,~,lgn(mrnlas the ]~lngt;L~g:efb!!' science as in the Ansrrian example fHC~m'l havea career. ... w.ithQut. druti[)lla~ aut! leuces, SilOIlJ]d tllt:y 11e]y Oin a s,ys,tem;rult le naderstandMAiIi1IltillEW C.,N~15B Ell, AINIID il.~gof tonl!lIlu:nicat~on'? App]y:ing re:f>earch Engl.isb,· " t Bolmllnm:l. p. 73} Oi]I]!i:I ch']ilfIJgCHIR:liS M!O Q:~IE,y<l img the cUI".rictlIUl~'1 foom bC!lvy menllOriz:a~~bOlUthe pub]ic ~]iIllIdthe media ,",viU onlyl::tlEllp ]Si:~Qi:l1 or COiilliifllinh:ailiom, A.il'ir1Ie'ii'i(an Urnive rsi ty, Wdl~h· tio.n 'Wm more ~f'lands-(ln.t'ppr,03cltl •• ~s h~~s the sc:iemif~c commua'l~ly te'i.~the~mthn]ol!'e ingt()n,. ~K 20~n!6" !LISA. IE-mliil: IlliilSlbr~t@~m!!rk!!f!,t(jg" been clio'uein S,on~'b KO'rei:l ~"'A stn:ms ellectfivel:yand lOa '\'vide:l"a:m::]wence. ~Wi'!£~ill1g~DQ i:@HIl!Slpamlellil;.Seed MQgm'irw. vO.i~oe'~ilr Olln;.e re:!o],T:tI'I," R. S~olile. p... 76). c Fll'ao.rlling i~ ]lJ'Oitan:n~po'Werf~ll. nor should it be c ons:~de"i;:';d.~\nla,gica I,key t:o lIll ]oc ki.ng Ah:o. our te,l(:b~:Jflg]mad ~s very heavy. le~lVpub]~c ~]cc;>ep~am'oe,Rese,arcD'i ()Ii li~i.mi!'Lg

suggest's [hat esmb.i.ush:illtga cOrlne·ction wi~~ ~mdi.ence$ def~ves from. the bet\veen the frame:; embedded: in. a n.'1ed~~l message ~~[ld.he Ellrterpre h]tive sclftemOl [h.]t a l},[[rtic~· t

·nt

ubu' audii,cne,e

P{)S,s,~sses.. OIlJi!~ com.lI1lO11 SGL~rt:eof ,'ldetlce~:rei "ted :ii!l.:bel'Jtl.a'lIl1el.()l':lg~· terml soc,iillli,zed\!,/'Qr~,d vic''oVs 5uchi.ls po~.id-· c.a~ id.eoi.ol)gy" part~silns.hip, elhuk:i.ty" oU" rei.i.g.iml!' be'lief. Ollle,' source:> Hre the ~H:ereotype$,. narratives, and in.l~lg.e:i:l .~ej)jJ.rl.lletl l'hrougll. pop-uhlir cuhure <]I1i!ci.[he e]]wrr'~.<II.;lll~· '

2. D.N'EiiJI:.llil, SfilrJltf) 5ri~;fJce!(Fr!BNITJaIil, Yur~ t99'5)'" NM ~. iI.. ~irn, in ,Fl-eM ooirJ.e/(}.rS,dffJcf! WritelS. O. Blum. !!Ii. ~niiNl5()n."R:. MataiiIlji; HenigJ, [.cis. {o.do~ Ul1Iiv. Press, ~ewY'OiiJ:~2:{lOS~., 2~2,2!-229 f;aJ~ailiii'ble' IPP. al~ onU'l@med,,~.orm~p1sodes!2~!lJ06f12f.1)81(haP:te~,hllrrrnl}, 4. M. C IN1!iitle,t Hu~e•.f16rvaM' {fit. J. P~s.~1J!iC$ M. n. 2 ~2006}. S. O. :5'cllJeufele.if'l.Et!'fIl'1gillg Sa.fnce, 1. Tllrrnty., 1E4j. mile WenQO!'!ll~Tiron, !.ond;o!'i\,2!IJM)!,. p~,.20-2.5 (i\fall:al~leat
WlWj.wellico<!ifQe.0)cA!kla5s~~wI::dl3:2691,pdD"

F!!efienHiuies, 1. 5., Hilgalr1mer,S!odrIl5rud: 5it1. 2{1, :3 ~199G}. .

.imglin~.e~in'l:efor re!iiearcll. We are p'k)ifleelil~g pro.ble:n.'l';b.:.sed :!earnin.g, (PBL aSlnel]l~milM Mil the UK .anie[e., ,,.'Much of \vill'I~]~v.'e were doi.ng elidn't~'ii~rk.·" D. C]ery, p" 68) in .rord.m, and r!e;s,isl:1.I.Ilce fs l~:igtl. o.ldeT fncultya!;e W!!0l .i.mtere:Sl"ed. ]t wo,~!ld be
micero have ~n !open d,ial()~He to s.h~~reexperience.'> ;j!TIj(j, tac-ti.c:sfori.unodud.]l,g ~ych nlerllOcl:o] ogyand mdd res:s [ng ~)robl e Iibl s .• ~. WQ uld s~lgges't fua'l,'ij.nga foru 11r'i. 1i!!lId .i ~~ l'he fm,u re: .an imnl'H~n1U] na,~ con fanm C(;110 d·j s·, o
C us!'!,tt'1ese~ ~!is;ue~.

6. m:. Gcid~ •.MI.C Nisbet, Politl(ll[ ~h",v. 28,.2 !2006t 7. ~,Ck 1NiJlsoo. OH~M'(IN. W. NO\I'lIOii!, New YOOk,2(105). 8. Ililm Ii"rom~Um: :lhe(lr,ealiffili1'!1nri!(J.corm. ~

RA.rIIA [lAJAINlII

31 AUGUST 2007

VOL 31 '7

SCIENCE

www.seiencelnag.org

LEITERS
lJ'elparlm ent (!if IB'iol[o,gyarnd B~QVecl1rno~o y, lliaslliemlile g 1!IIi1jv~ilSay, P,oot OHiceli:lox :tS,04S9. Zar<lla 1.3;133:, Joman" E-mailt: rd'ajani@!lilU.edu.m..
Rle~erefill[e!§. i!lllild NilI1ie'!s L l'~,e !i!Urnbelr of sttl!den~s emnHedl in a level.o1f edum~ioin as;;! IlElKeiMa g~ of the IMt\P ~tGtiim in the lrelew'nt a'Q~ 'gJiilu!l' lOr 1J);a1:~~I. 2. 5~
WWlU.lnl!S!~Ili,mgl,

been pulhlis~]ecl.~Im Science (1)]1.. yet this was ]g!mred in 'f1lvor of re~)I)ft!ico!lu:;~.iHing main Iy opinion and h~~rsay. Private empiricism->
\iVlu;:iJftwe believe ;s,(m.l:e'thi.ngl)eca.u~e of our

tanee of educauon efficacy, cempared with
ml(;liUo~(!.1 re~;;;!~'Chprod'u{;tiv:iry'? Or
[~~.~t~&IllLvebeen

i~ ]t th~~it nlcuhyare s~lmp~.y unaware of the advauces
made in
sdel[IJoe

own personal expel."i!~t1ice-]s nm appropriate Even in departments \:vi1:el"~ theprimaryfceus £llr :-;c:iel1trns't~, yd wheuit eoiues to educ~!tio]1J. is tlli1idlergI3dHa~e edUGi;u]on. ol'yf't:eil ]iu!ei;l~ten~ rion is :ptlid to [t:'~'~ll'Chmiljeaehingand learnIJefSOi~I.~. experience ~eem.!lto be an !J!CCt::'1YM1b]e
subfl\ti.lute I"or evidence, Unr:hrmlu]~:ely. most

edlu.cal~ion?

ing.Wh!ll't~ver the reason, it is si,mp~.y unae-

DIata ..·DII'iv,e III
Edu,catiu,n Re'sear'clh
IIAP PROACH HI 111E REC ENIT 5 P EOAL 5 Ecno I!IJ 011 Im~d.e:l:gl~admne science educerioa ~"'The
WOi'h.l of lJiH.le]':g,~~dll~'iI.te EdiJ.c~itiotL:· () July. ~)P'.63-8~, ) \\I,ilh great ~rI!lidpilltiO]lJ. 'Clearly. fl~is ]S a v.lt<1!lly ~mp()rtamttopk for everyone-«

sc;ie~llist~' be~~e~ ~bout ,~d!ucat:in!l~re :mndy based on objecrive evidence. but rather 011 \i'iih~l[ [hey j!l11:;;I~ine~Q [t!.:le, Allhough perbe sonal eXp(;1;de,I;TI,C~:i;[I the classroom CHn g hie valuable i.nsight!:>.il i~~1:oldahl, We now Ih!JIvenllll.ll:y effect ive researchbased \val's; tn i~'IIlljirove~he OlJtl!t:mfle.s lilir oode:~grad.ume science edueat ionruncllo assess
stud~a:rt ]em:u:lingandaci~ieveg'lJH~flJl (3), There is ~ gJ.~eilIitdeal. ofresearch o:nJ\'1ihal:'I,:vm.{;;:s, so \I\,ihy

ceFh~b.le th~ltlll!en{t~p'~:lWj eurnal of AAA:S, p reports op:in~oIl ~]s.!h,c[and personal belief sY!"te:mcSasevidence,
MEIlANI!I!, .M. COO'IEIR
(I'lall[, l\'me,riCilllI (Ju~mi(al Soc~etlj' Villi ~jo(l!llIof {: h@l11Ii C;d~ I:idUGcltj(llli IFelllow, AMS; tlhrm ifIi ilf~11;liIglm~1,ed Pmreo5~r ®f (lhemi~~ry. dlem5011i1 n,ve~~;t'!/; (~eIilU(lfl, ( .2:9MII, USII. U S
ReferelUuiilllId' Not,e:5 L Ri,ing.llbo'H! the Gtiltherilllg5w.fm: fll~li2illg and fmpj.Q¥!~9'Am~ri'~ jfJr (>I' 'J!jgh(i~ ~t~ffli.c Fu~i~re

notjustthose :iure'fe;S!red science edueatsou, :in since [1~e connection between eJlc.cli\~..inclusive undergr~du1ll~e science educariouand ~:lJal'i.ona!. eompeli[iIVe~ess U,S v.1f:1~: documented U ),ll()l:l.fe'Vtlf.1 was di:snutyedlbythew~lY Science 'Cl1l:DSe ro report on theworldwide stare
ofseienee ecl.l!eatk:nl. There ~sa growin! body

is highe:r

the 8ci.t':ITI.C'0S s~}re.$~:-Jt;:lill'l!t to d]~]lilIge'? \Vbi)' does [be f!;1icu~ry in your
t:dllc.n~m~, in

'~~ationlaIAtadeli'iliK iP!lesS. W.ilshlnglcn,. :0 C. Zm7) '~al.r~nalbleal wmo,\,~alp,.edll!!lC\i!,ti!~O~ 1A63Jhtmnl;i!Cices~e;d
l!4 julif 20(7) •

.round t<lLb~e dIlseussian

no~knQcw<ll bout t~.~ is

J::eseHrch'?Why do pecplewhowoulduever acceprscieauflc iu:Formflti.on without data and
theoretic U~1:cleT~iI1111in!s. embrace eonventiol:il:a] wisdom lind peirso:mlll beliefs wheuit comes to ed[lc<ldotl?

2. .1.. Ii,moeisllill<ilil act" 5dEoIJIeliQ4, 52] (2:0M}, 3. MuJdlllj~ ~furii~WCIri:.h~liMNrfll~ml'~d Bly thE! NI~nDnlill Science Fowndation ~nd:e;r ;:! i!'ii.ullibe~Qf~r09r~IF!1~~ ~t I S@oe' menlio:n ell ~!lYOi~'tlh!i5WOJkii'll a!lly or the arl~des. no

of'data-driven research
i;mpITYv~ OUl:(1[)nU:srehtl'ed

O!ll

"what works'

1:0.

Editor Ji Note: Science publi~shesa monthly
fea~llre. the Edm::<ltkmlf()i!unl1l.wb~cfu focuses on data-driven educ~!.tion :rel'i!e~l~"Cfu.

10

teflth~ng, learn-

i:lllg .. ~nd

SllJ{kml[

rerenfion [some of~vlh.uchhas

Could it be the perce ived relative uni Illpor-

IN TIHIIS I.SSUEI::
Ourarmual Pestdoc Survey can be summed
up lnthree wo rds: Communieatlon is .key.

Ga~nfurther lnslghtlnto what postdoc
su pervlsors see as central for a successful postdoc on p..1 :2:39oW thislssue ..

UIP(OM'IING FEATURES: September 14 - ,facul~tyPosltlnns
Septembe'F.21 -Intematrona[

Careers RepoU; Germany

September 28 - Caree'rs for B.S./M.S.

.Also ava! ~aJblleonUriH~at: Wl;!;!wsjdel1!(:~ca w~ell's,.:o,rg/busi UJ..ll!SS~~:U1Jres

w\!VlN.sciencem~g"org_

SiCIENCIE VOL 317

31 ALJG~ST 2007

EVOLUTIONAIRY

BIOLOGY

c]l~lmge:s.lin allelic ~:reqm'lnc.i.es~,vwthin popula-

U·Unn",;.ere i~]deed 'the '(;a.~e.the job ~s done, C1Jnd we are nmvle·fu w~[h$~Im~)]yystems
tio1l1i!l,

.... · E
c._._ .. '

~ni.zing, t1'lie~luge aI1J.'lI0UIl:I'$ fi.llfbU"m.~1:[ou centQ

i~1grO:utJru from genomic smd:~es. As Ci:i!Ho]1 comp~Hl,ns[in (8), quoted hy lynch], this is a
One oflh_e cenrral theses nftllh,e boo:.kili ti1n.iI1,l
lni;]ther u~n!:insp'irijn,g theme, Lymch's eernment lilh~~ seienee isnl.abo:l!lt .inspw~ti'On (I gue."~it tn.!!y must ibe ~bout per:.. spiration), Jhio'l!v€ver. isses Casroll's point m lliirlmt Ul1e modem ,syu'lll~esisfu;:)js ot ,gi.v~n. us is n a tlhieory of form, and app.lyi:liIg populanou

'i,leryQmllf;~in b inl.ogy keepspredicEing

11I2It1!lml se~ecLio~~iis not ~,'1ece..",sarUythe ceuual !llns.'''''-en to ~mne of the !lla;iior open evn.lutti.oruu:y ~n~h~1ni;;;rn.i;!I.sG1Juiteabh of [he Cjluestkms in evelutsonary biology_ inn there det'l!lils ofgenomle structures and. evolution seems tn be dI~s(]g,,'e!ement on can be ~]ccotmLedRl:IF by iIwok! ug the neutral mechwhat. eXfl:cfly. those questions are, The r(l~iigj;llIIs I~'fGe-IUDlI1Ile E~[I[h~l:s:io:l~~Sthe various ,,, omics" of anisms of nurt.(lti<.l[J].recomAr'Il:[~hectLlU'e

'I thal rhe next fe'l;,y yea.r5,~v,~111:Hi~,'lg,

(gel1oll1Li,cs.p!rOloom.,ies.transeripUli!J.Fiu,eS,meh]boioVilic:s, ~i:ld even phenom ic s) believe, as Michael

h'~Mich'/iUJ! Lvnch
Sin.a uer Assod.ates,

binaricn.and dl~lt. Lyndl is (,:er~.~ll ~.yC()tl'-e(:'~ on li~ is poi rill. and he backs, ~,1s i

gtwllerk:s~o,gen(lm.k:s-4]s":a]~~lhle¢1[1'exerc i~' as that is in..its or\.\11\1 [ig1~l-'-'isn't going 10 give U.sone eithfii'. As nllj~ch ,,..Si gene ~ arefbnd~.meataltothe evohnioneey process, there ~IS
much moreto 'bio]ogy than genes and their

SUiu:lerlalH1, MA. 20m. Wllll1J.r:lel'tt \1ili.lfl mrLldli emiPir~ Lynch puts it in the final chapter 5ilO pp. 559,95, ieal and th eereti cal detai l; of The O:"igil1i~(?fGenome .ArchiISBN 9180H78934843, Y(H:. welUilJst be .h.mgtecture, l~,'1;;U""Vt1' tan beceufldeut of'two t]]ings: thebasic theoretieal ing around wWlh different crowds, because ~.hardlyknow ~mybody who [DU1Ch i nery for understanding theevclutionary p[nL:.~1i$ii\lwell est'lh]i:sh'e~ ,W1di live '!I~dU soon ""tluld~r:inu~Jy conrendthar evehutim1 ~s j ust ~.m:!lt:ter of uauiral be e:nbc1fiv,dy unl i luin:db:y the availabi ~jtyof ]u.'Iforn1'It.klil1 atthe DNAI!evel." O~he..s ,( 1-4), ~eleet~ol'l. Ly~'lc:h hifb'l:self cites tbe;I~,m,v~cl~',5!iii"c al}er by Gou~.d p lunong whom lyuuoofur SI©(Il],e teason s.ingles eur Sean Canon ~5 )~r:lr special cd~~i,c~!->n'" re :;1 and: Lewcntin (6) railing '-lgOlbnlJS'~ a b~[m()I"e'skepliicaLTI]ey nu •.mainthat we m'e "p~m~e~e<:'lion~!sln~":' mosr evei and h.~ve ~nn:~trl~s$ffimgsnme exp]a:rmtory p~il:il!dip~.es ]ul'kH},;rury b.i.o~.t')gi.st~~ <I.] re.~dy r gotten the message. aecoaming for the COHlp:I'e"X]ity of i.~\I.ing rgao ni!::ml'lS <tl]!d tlml the t'SU~]~U:'JI1d(];f'"-omics'· ~il'l:for-, · BlU tllite rea Uy i:nte.r€:s:Ling .. ;JI[lJd

dymun~cs ..The ve:uyfitctUl(j1~1~,1Iol~~,'cubn:bi!o,log ists .If<t~1.'iI.O:\Nt1.t~k~,ng (~lnbeit often naively) about higher-level "~omiC's:~all the wa.yEo phenol."IJ"Iics, means that they .apl)reci.al~ 'th~lt.

~m~ti!on.!lhho'1.!g~.l\~du!il,ble. :is!ft:ct:J.~llhhti ng a ~y
field that is unprepared :bl" it, bfltllil concepmiilU'i and ]lrJ! let1111S of.!.qJHl]yri!~~1 [00,1&.
B urbefore we get.tD thecOiUrO'l!"Isrny. I_~t'me :}1ilY that ihebook's first 12 chapters are amustread tor .anyone ]nmrested ]nlhe 1e\/o.~m:i_,o(ll of Vl:l]i,~,IU,.~u]d, highly :::;clThola~,']y attempr at making sense of '~fuenew dma provided! by

certa inly d eb€ln~lb]e.part

0 ll"

the

bouk is: k'l, :~<I==1t chapter, ·'Ge.11 01]'1-

lart" lfrom Swed ~ for "the sh way fo["!,;v'.tii"dl," \eve are toid) ..There Lynch honestly stares at the OI1L:.>e'l

rhat he isgoing to shift gel!lr
and en.l¥lgein~!'.'l ad:\Ii1,X;:3!t.::y 'piece.

g;enonler-;. This Or'l:gius repr-e1'e11'!~'

;;!!

serious,

I found rel.reshi.mg: s-ci.e:nti.srs have opimioIDIs,. and they
sOlllillillh:ing[hat
il!:U'e

rhe genomic revolution. To thiU aim.Lynch dJep~ojl::-J, 111.U array of co,noopma:~ tools ll1h.M~ the make up U1:e' modern synthesis paradigm in

fh~ revij,ewer ~~ at the O'eiPillrlnnelllt ,0'1' [(iD~.ogy amdl IE'oI!oiu'll(lil'l,S,u~ln¥ Blrook U.iIIilJ\er.~U:y. SllI'ilIY IB~()O~,N¥ ~U 7914, US-A..E"mail: pjg~lu,(d@,~typ~!?y!n'!,!'hranlm~liIt!()rg

evo.l.u~.u.ou,ail:Y blo.l.ogy. LYI:!ch {"!fl evol uti on.ury b ig~,qg isr ~t li:l:c:liianaUnivr.'lrsity) guides 1:JS throllg,]l alrosr nffitscim!timgp-henomerm,bom the evolntien of sex d,'llI'OIl]oson:1les [0 tlhe disappesrance of of a single individu~d 't 7). LYlliCh"s lh,~t are operonsln e'ub.ryor'e~.lhHn th epo pHIat~on thesis, ~s mentioned {Ib~)ve.,ito t1~et~]eu[Fet~ g.e~10nl:e.~ on~y a .pmt of the e;;roI!Y. ~]ll'"gu!:l1,b.I'y :tc,a~: apparanrs of ~'!,!O:llutiomlJy theory is. (:011]- the :s.i.I'1flp~:estpart to figul:e out b~lo]ogy of rransposous to (]Ul Ill"Iedl~I::dl::m:1is of p~ete ~nd: ~!~~l:people ~ho!.iIid~top\i\i;h~miling nfi.g inand ]oss of h'it.rnUil~, Thvuug.hout, he LYWlCh (;ntrec I~yidentifi!e~con~pk:x..i~y. reminds evolutionary biologists ,(ood ped~,~ps abo m rnissi ng pieees Ollmd Ihe need fo,.1I" a new modularity; robustness .. and eVD~vabi,nty ~s ]eu: $It'lilll!e fii:H)~ecu]ar b]o~{}ghits brJJo,",,, for (he $·OillUeof~lI:!e key CO~1cepts of Fllie rece~mtl.y synthesis: just st1udiyyour ,popuht~:~ml eneti!cs ~ firs,t lillL"IC) [h~r rhe'·!Jop,u]m:i.cIbl thinkiwlg" so I.:tlld everyl:ll:l:ing 'wllillbe al~·right. e:merged flslld of evo~cl:~vo ('e'I.I'ohui.QI1 of ('h:'!,fel.upITI.]~'Ut}. bm i.l!e du:snli.sse~ thenlil ~]s This ~s, u f c:our.;e. ~]pe:rfuct Iy lfetl,:pt:lCtl!llb]e ceiltra~.I:o~h~ nH)l~m $yn:tilli~,i~,~IUdiup'll1h:;~· opi.niom--although (hcl:~pea~~t .i r ,ob]i.qU~. "bU_ZZ~MOI"dfil:' g]ossing o\~r HlrOlltlll1llin,g C~~blffi)]]"i~ u~31rthe w~.id1y de\fe~oped~h.e\ary of popula t:al<11nd l11~oo.reHc e:!l'hrl'S. ~~i :MIt ~lr~ku]<na:~ Il"led HQi!l.geilel~ci'J't 'lHl_gfu[ '~~')bep~]n of <lrrly V~Clf;r.!.bo:e~· l)jJiftlli.,els. .lynd.'il dr.'IIws bet!i;,I,'ee1l ~egHlrml'te .\idnOlu~,cliLl~der.stalld of :moleCl!1~!i!liie'llO]lUt km. ing entiJ"ie uppmu;:'!ll~ ofhi~ view and cren~~!onijst.."> ing tI1e~t:'nothms ~ncl.e..xp1oling ~llieir!'tllat1uum; who advoca.te in~eH[gtl'lu. des:~gn beco~ue \:vid], the smndard n1lOcliBrn s:ynrhesis,. lynch a (he En.c:rea'i.ingly~rr.i'I:(lli[lg[)y the end oftl.l!e ()h~!p~ ~nn1ke~ b.ig cle,1lO1;Ut of 011;:ck.jm l~1~1~ bur~
B'

most i.nrere~ring when they me corsroversial, I havt:lilde patience for rhe pre tense of ~ "f~:i an d r balaneed "iI.t~w." when ,'.ve1!l1l know that balance comes OIIU of discusS~i('J:n:S. and dlsagreements among peers ...not Jromthe~ paint of VUC\i\,l

~.
~~ ~'

~.
ili'I,
)n

::J

~:
1;1'

~.
~:

rt
'" ii<

~.

WT.

lYI,1,ch.110\;veveor. ~:ns
theory

'oolJ!v:ineoo Ihat ,aU
h~!>~o ex.pblin i.s

dCiI1I

l~~(M~ e\fo.lm:io,mtlty

udleli i!Ci.e:a!>win be useful

~: ofpJ.~oo:f:isOlil p\:!oplc 'who think these~u1Jd. ~. w,
c}~Uli.llI.g

the sh.ap~.I:iI.,g ~

B,OOKSfTAL
of an extended ~yn[hesis in e\o'0llU~mulIliY biol-

ngy •. f!ilJ~rencmgh.1l~.rhough
[00

]~]rge undiscovered couutry ~~,e.s there. om nne Im~nn~y Let's: w:k.e ~ ~ook
R!('riere'!il(les, :t 5, A !(~~r~!fI1@, Qri!\lj~J ",til: 'l/()r:dI!4 s~y: I<90.~jl.(l'(f,,,,t.I 0 ami Selectl"!!' fill r-~lUfiot! (Odore! I!Jm,lv.P~5., MewYoi!lk;. Jl99.n. 2, M"]',weslH~berllfllrcil, :iMvel~mf'J1/;aJ PlusliC:f/y .flnd ~{!1!'iM (Oi1ifcm.! IiJllItv,IP~S. O,.;4lortl, 200r~, 3. E,}"l!iloo~a.M. 1. La,j;j(jll. f.LIlllllltjlm iil, f,~f DimM~;M.l':

~ee'l.the Sk]lneWJiY
WhCill f~t:ii~g

rn feh on [Jones] rn3eilc[],. 5,O•.oO.[) ~iir:S ~i:1!d 5,00,,000

read some of the several books in this field thar have come OlU dUl1'illi'1Jgrhi.el.a.!u

b a thers,
nm [",o.'!!lfe. E~lrOl~e~ult!cithe Uni.~)ed. taies dUf]mg S t:fuefirst decade af~erW()rldW~[r Il experieneed :tr.'Il.i.1>I~d iree]ings. 'fh.ey perceived rhe US., rese~Mn:h :f,yslem. fiiml!H~nJeou~;ly ,"I'~.a mo~ei. a clliaJllenge, and a threer, Suclla!l1b~g"l,l.n1"vS reIHt~onship$ ;;I~e 1i!t" the center of John Krige's 1I1,neric'r,m He.gemony curdthe .Po.wM:(1.fil(!;'Cffllslruc-/inn of Sciemx! in
EUP01J'l:.'.

deeade to see that people aren't simply sh!Oo~:~·
img t~,1ebreeze, But t~[Iebl,ll.rde:n~nf~proof~lrg.lunem CIJI~ bo~h 'w:!Iiy$.Lyll.d~ bo.~,dI~,yelaims 't'lhi'lt "I1I'11:1l1lY
!"l1,g5t)' ~SlJ{::iCU>of ~:n.omi,c biology thai sllperfidt'llly appear ro have adapth,e nmlSl '". :~e ~.]moot c:erta~l'l~ya]su plioducf's of nQnadlapl~vep~OC:(;l:SSe5:' but all '~~ get in sup-

111~!; reaerienwas enlists u';(l,v~],i~mg lUlll

(~nd ,robably

4,

Gf'l1E'tit, fp~'g~ne,ri(;.BPhovio.rn(.(1lld Sy-mhoJk'~fimwoiJ in the:Hi!f&If ~flife (Mlir il'ff!5.S, Cambm1dg:ilo, M.A, 2J)OS). 11', PigMuc.ci, J, M~pl~ n~ M~ki'!lg~:!"!l' f)J Ev~lutif)f:l'; loward .Q CMeRm Pkture ,,{evolutionary 'nI~,orymn~v.

port orthi~pnsit'Jiml is ~~ ph]l.I1S~brn]ity argument, E:vem thm:ugh. 1 3gree '\:vith his ccntennon l~haJ( ne:U[Fd I :pmce;.~se5 hav~ 'COr'iuibJ,:Uled 'to the eVG~ ,IH[ion. of'genemes (but·not.l am willi 11:g 10 bet, of phennuaes) toa much b~gher degree than usu~~]lynckn:o~lv]edg~d~, evidence lynch the .][hjjutesi~, fOilrfrum overw1.iJ.e~.tniu&. Tl:1JmlJlgh~· OlU the book.we are neared to a series 'Of plan5ib~eSCel.1,al,~ilosaboLH the evolutien of iIlU'OIl::;'
l1f~]~r:l5IHJo.sOI]S. f;i.l~ [Ce~;HimlrH;:s.

,of Chicago ,PriEss,Cih~c.a~CI2!00G}.
~5. S, IS,(;j,"UU~ Naf1Ire 40:51,

6. S..]. 'GolJld, f,t, (..lI!wonlin, Proc, ~ Soc.lrm.rkmStr. I!i ~OIS:,5a::!. >(:1,979). 1. ~. t lomJino>, .Sdeoce a~ Soao.l1f.nrmledg,e: Vi'llues and Objedi~p~y ill Scknljjjlf l1lq,rIiqr I~PIii1Ili(~lnrJ Fr'~55, Unw. ~'fim:'Ceton..INJ,]9 90~, a,s, IB, ('<lIn-oUI, .f..Ml~$ Forms Most B'e;Qr,uif~;1~eN~ Sr:JMce' af EVl:) 1:IIl'vo ood tile' Making oj.!'MAmmaJ KJ''f!g.d"fJffl U.ta<iiiI:,o:n, N~~'I'or~. 005); ~e~ 2 by I). l!)!lJibeu'~,.sd~J'IC'"::UB, '9'5<5(2~)i05). 9, D. Ii)el1l1)ellt,.~a1Wi,l1'£'Do.rt!l'e&loI1' l(f~~ E~l!f(""'n~n'd rJ;re:
Me6n.rlJ95'

noz

{20()U,

p~~lyed~n tra.ns!Ilthl:Uuic

The

]SSUf;;,'

of the mile the sciences <]ff'<li]"s. after] 94$ ~s

hn[)tOIltaHl.Weall suspectthat Us. . aid was as Em'ope~m scienee ~1iS~[. was 10 the economic reeeustrnctlon
cmti~I~I'Q therecenstructien of

~md the ]]ke.

oj Life

t)i®lClnl

andl Sdlillile~, Ne~ Ycrlk, 199'S}.

These scenarios

a.~"e

backed b¥ clever :~ppUca~,

:ltO.

P;;.

PCppelf, ]. (. [(ide'£, Ine StU {Jtullts BIroin,; An

ArgumM'fjiI>r

Illli(\'f(l((f.Q't.I!lm 1~5plliil1ig~r, ~rl'fn. l9nt B J

(i{lin ~ ·nfpcpu]ou.i(}:.n. g~U1ie'tc s:UH~m':y (rtI]U~t of i wh ich has been deve~,op>ll:d si Itlp~,e for Cine- or t'i~!o~~:odysl,e[Jt'>,. uot for geJIJ(J~JJ'lic~). HD tfue')i' s b

of the o~.dcontiment However, this conclnsion is uusubstanri ~lied"be cause ~]srorians i of'seieaee hlli:Vf.l r:;1I:e,~y ~H.l!c:bes8ecl 'tlle quesAmlE:r DC iii Oil iiI:11S! g le.-no nv tiou, When discuss .. amd the' 'POI:stwar trig science and title

Cold W~r,lhe'y
expl.oroorhe [~[IISTORY OF SCIIENCE:
UI!lIl

]1~ve

]lfIl-eHec"·

Riel[: oJil s1ru.ui ilil1ll(j,i s,n;. i,enlc.e ij E~! p cm
1111

hard Iy meet the h ighstan dard of h istori C8I] proof(:~n~.'1ere can 00 ai:rrysuch thing}', L~I1LCh claims that nonadaprive precesses sll!!)illl~dbe eonsldered as null ~Jtyp()thes.es. m b rhis gives him the il.~~lla]:I!' :!ldv.oohlge QrS('h:~ffl:ing, t'fuebumen of pmof against selective SCCIUl.r-' ios, W~'H~UmH]rue!> this move is HO:t er all clear; because LjI:tllich 'thi~.~ks.of selection as Cii.ii.~Y .one ofthe tbur ~~!iI!U~iillT!enta~. mechanisms of evoludon: .i f it ~sone of Ibm. \~lhy treat [t M .[l special c~~te,g:lliryl see howe'ls:~~y~h!~ table c~m be To ~tllilled"j ust con s[dt.'r De'UJne~~fs. diametrically
oppo:!!l;it:epositio:.i1 that nanual selecrlon

achievernenrs of
as

bli' .Jofm Kri9~ M IT Press. Cambridge. MA. 201:16_ 3B8 !pl). S4[]. £15.'g,s. ISBN 9]~0262112~7[l Tr!!MI~rmMi(Jl1s; Studies in th'B' History (;If S.cien!;B <! nO: Ti£! (:. tm{l~(]"HV,

y'he U,~S,~, thB~ in Rle b u iill,diin,g D,f E:u1rolpe,811 SciiencB!

the peJi'[od, the advent
of big science

system oflJund~[JJg,.o,r l t:~':te marenal cnlture
or the phys;ks labora-

,1

t.o f,Y,. Kr~ge's novel
fmC! 1.~:tr.'Ilelype:li!l:plec·, rive IHI:) been to irrvestigate the mobilization

shoruld

be treated iI1!!l the defeJiu][ exp~mml.']on fO[· comstarion III Wbods Hole .. The' visit made ~1 on him, ,<IShe noted ffi~,'lJ ,11 ]et-, p~e~:phenorypt'S.,iIJ~,'lJless one C1ID :oJhow that ~t. sln:mgim.pressicm clI~dn'rp]~1Y ar-t11e C9~1.A l!!iiJ,;u]yla]f ~md ba~~]Wlced rei.' r.o hi$ \!j,ljfe: ~~ppl'o..'ld.'1 simp'ly L're~u~ny ~hypm~:l:e:siss .is:r.o a V~:ry b ig~ilbgr.uogje!5. hlli!.ge ~,ibnuy, '!hf,~e ;;WI equ~~ (;'orl~-e:nderinthe:>e~: of p~.ml.!l$ib~e' sem imU':S3weel. i:t1lpreSSUV'I'!org_ani:n]tion. ex:ph~nll~[olls, soo'how it fiXres ag~~inslits ,~.IThd ~Ie.Th~idl:l<l, t~~t 350 bu~ogisb; are \"I()rki~g ()I>ponenl}i\'V.itlhouil the adwmr~!.ge ,of :play~ng :h.erc', thai; iln.ey 3.CCtinm la~)e ohser.vat:uOI:1S; 01], a I~Qme fie]d" U]t iIlll.ntely,. the HThnin reaS(ln ,~ !.l!eedan ~h;uthey compl~e e.xp~fi enls ..m~~~ure·, m ex.pa,nsio~. of ~h.e I].f'lo<dern sYlrthesis 'W~[S m.e~I'1.~S, we~~lniiuW"; Ula:1 ~i1e'y ope'r::ne [,a,inled nut by Pnpper S~V~F"~ y~aW's~g.o: W~riburg ~P!paf"~l'1!,!:lil. ~t.'lU"ifugi;"N, artdmicro·, ~rnnes \\Ihile pi~in£,up ilrtides. A IIIthis I~s ~, "I[dle Da:nvinianl.i:leory] is SUi.Cl~y 3J.[heory oomerlQ.w dcpr(~ss;il1g. ~nic~l '011 me, ] ,~m of gert€$,yet Hle phenomenon li1'~U tube h~l~ IillSW. tOo [hiumli.ng th ..t lillY 'i~;'Orl;, ~ssO:rl~le~hi~:g eil(.phlinedis n'l,al: of l~:len'!lnsn;'luhltiol1 of fib!lf!JJ)" lyn(;h.'~ cOIUi!f]butkm in Tin? f<iI['l"ii., .~1.I.gh:~y ,,~'~ollal. sOIl'l~lb~l!1Igl have: Ol]Ii1,l.GJsl: li,~t~COO:I:ed. my llnde<Slt.md~;I~g. (hi 5 ]n Origb.ts olri(zuome An:liiteclw'egocs a long is ,V:~~t lmik~g i.t 'II~hLl3tril(ll .. Hcrei! is nQ way 'lC"I'~~rd: c1mnp]etjn,g olllr ,exp~IHm~lio[1 of longer [Joo,s~Me to chel.is.~. sllch ilh..u:>i{)Ili~.~ hO\\1 genes (and gemOines) ,change O:VC~i Ii I1l'1e. Nomethe1ess. :dlillliougb ill1ld.eed necessa:ry.
~I

O

of seience for ~(;!,cI1Ieml.

ue d~lY ]!l ]946. flli,e FII'e!.llch biloCb;eI1111i,sl: Jacques Monod, visited the ~.~bm~tode5 themanne biCl~o1!.k·illl <:][~ '''''

1'I()~itical oals ~ncl ~1!!ore g precisely t·o explore t~heuses 'ofs·c~ence po.iicy asan illslmunem in
the ecnstructien of US. p~l"V::~!i"~ilegemom;y. Heg·euliollliY is evidently a qnestion of power, bur tiit dloes not s.im.prnYI]1!.':<Ul order,

cont~·ot.and conm1i~nd. US. di(oe$ 'of lhe
post\o1!l"dLr em.l"lalJoed :!I strOlllg emphasi~ on rh.!.': i~il!t~nlaJte and qu~!,~i~nnmr;;ll ,~~~i;!lnc'e of rnarke;l I(IlCO[UO.lUY freedoll:'li. and democHlcy ms .. tt~e essence oJ AH1ieric~.n 5pecir~city. A:; ~~ consequence" K~rruge (ao histo;r.iaID:I ~n ~h.e Geo~]!:L!lln:stut!.de ofTechnn~.og,y) ~Uggc;lS:tt>. I hegem Dily 'Iva 50n{li~ iQ111]Y[0 be mall ifest ed~u1Jd if'epf\l.lduc:ed bUl ~ll~(":1 ttl be H{llQepled by U10~ \:l,fho 11<1dmo ~I:ve w~th iJ-mld~:os.cm,'le;lexx~m. i (;O~'COIts;lFl.l(:led WEtlrJJ tI.lem"g:].t ] e<l~~\" wilh tho se l.iv:iil1lg ol,'Ilhe old COlu,illlelU.The sc:ienrif,ic

um,

~eI,u](}ns, between the Un[[~d, Slat'es
(Wesw:r:n) Eu:ropenn
COllllUics

~Mllid.

C()i~,'ls(irul"e a

pIm.v.i.[,eg:ed[err~]i1:'1 for evaJu ati.ng [~'l~ sl:he:s~ s bec~l.use lhe cnguge:mC'Ult of fl.lle' Uni.l:ed SM.lleS" hoth gov~rmnen[~1 and ~)riVale, '\~~S

close Ito $I,.d~ ficie'n~ ftu und:ersul..ndi,ng holtv phe.nol:yp~s evolve. There i,~,m.ud.l m.ore Hi do, and 0;1 .
'e-\fen

~}~)pl;u~!Jri.'onge:n.eti.c~

i.~nut

TI~~ fE'Vlie1'11ell"lS

at

CefltJ1e,de Rec:herd!lf~ Med«:illlle. Scieme,.

~n~~Slive ~]nd,.Ule;iDno,k derll.'O;rlK["r.al·l;l$, bad
a subst:!lnlli~d i:m.~)aICl on l:h:(;l reSlilJaping BUI'.arpeallscience. of

Sal'lllk, et So;ciell9 (nRMES), '/If1i1e 'Guy M~le.t, 1F·914BOl VI~l~l~~f CWI!o:t, IFr.arH::~.IE:·l1IIIa~~.: !J.au~illii@!!jf.nillr~JIf'

w\!VlN.s.ciencem.~g"or9.

SiCIENCIE

VOL 317

31 ALJG~ST 2007

1173

BOOKS,ETAl.
11.i1:B

seven core chapters present
O!]

c~~:!>e tll1,.!d~es based

~ren~HrkaM!e

set (yf US. archives .. They provide information. especially wlten de'~]~lf!g
]m~,'IIl,emse]y valuable and onginsl Wi.lh deve~.ol::ll]jle.mg thai m'ili'te:rII isrerlans ha~ pl,~iol!.I"'~ya!1~IY7J;:d l:T'Ql[!l ,i,Q. Euro~ pe~u,land 1iL'lIO,OO :imwl~,l;;'CHlid,pe'rgpeClive (ffJffe';';;(ljnu;ple. t~,le§,"fO'i;li;;t1fl of~1!I.1!:c:leafp~'l!ys~ ics and tile: rise ofn'lol:ocul,!.Ir biD~jOgYl.,

as '\;velll as the pby~;;~cal~c:iences. The book '\!'i'\r:idl~ describes how NATO enllaborated with the Ford FOl!ndi!triiOiIl i~1iturning CERN into a truly C'(JJ.]rneC'~ive pbJfonrn visited by dozens of U.S. Ihi.gh-en,ergy pbysi.eisrs engaged .ilt:i: am ongoing and ~lmgh]y 'con}1[petiti.v'e dial(~g\'\iith their ELI[FUpe',iJI1
ccllsagues.

AU pr'Ojects \1!Ie~ei!']~;n~Q :>ucc:essli~ L
KlIi~ge:s f'il~::te-gn],ined. aiulilysiis

of the

Thehook eentrasts

tW{!

periods, The
ott

ea]",~ie:1I" one was s~ilape;d,by the M~rnlll.dl

1960~ p]~~nto cre;]te H "E l[lfflpe(m MIl" sh ows I~o\vlill isconce ivedwere some
pl,u1JS ~d!lllillg at
defined
(I

Plan, which fi~");l plJlt science

tJrue

~~mp~em]JflSI]{liS~l·in:n
\1(1\'01$

agenda of POS[\IHlIr w~l1ile~'nati,Qnalaffairs, T~'je'c~~ of,Ger[!'.1<l.1rIys t:y:pi~<JtThe ini l1<'l1 i ~)oli,cy was [D "cripple dO\\ll:1J" German

of U.S. praetiees.The M[ll,~ode]

andmilitaey capabilities, Th,1Jl resulted in a tight control of a~ll research activities under ~'~]eoccupatiol1l forces, Impossibleto sustain in the coorexr of ,a
llidustriall

as aninternatjenal ~e~:chi.I].g ilu;[.i1:mion:aLUono mons from The local I,Jmi\f,ersi~[es,rrommin.g interdiilscipl inary research. combilning

the ii]Cqldsi.ti.Olfl of.knowl.edge ,.U!ld, the develcpmeut oftechaologies,

mounting CuldW~~. :it V'I"liIS rep,i~}c{lld,in :~ 948 with theideathat the local sclentistsshould

linked 10 :i:~duS!rry ..This NATOb~]c'lk;ed European M:rID' k~ not die because de d
~l:~dsl,I."C:ngly

eoumbute

[0

the defeuse orrbe'·Fr,e~Wo~·.id."
apolk:y of~eljoot~'i,1e st.rte.mdl U]e rliliHrnry had becmli.'Le! SlITmgo~~ d~H'I

US. ;EluUTIairiti.eso,tdoIJIDed

Gaulle opposed irs ercatlon, although the de~'e:ri,a.rul.io]jj. of reladens behveen Fl':'oll1J.oC:!f;: and
NATO during the 1,960:s did plt'llY a role, R<Ilt:l~er~ f.~medbecanse nue pJJ'njeml1l'1let SlW"U11J.,g h~

graats th~t barred nofhingexcept

military

ever; .A peeul i~l!ITequlilli.onl iI]k~,~,lg good science,
mberal. d.el1.1iOCtitcy. and themarket eeenomy

resemrdn:.,allI:ti. thelocal M<n:]!shaU aid .imcluded

specific financing fOIr [he Germau !lic~elfl[ifk:' instrument i.i:ilti.w:M:.ry, This logic ofhet]v.ily political aid did not cll],~yde'liertJ.lii1J~e initiatives ,(Yf the US. gtJV-, the
e~'WI!Int'1Ji1!l" S'llcb as those ofthe Office of Na,r.ili Research, oIDIe cf'the flrst fed!er:~~JIinstinnious

jasrified poliicies: dun would have 0000 eensidered ~UI:mt\Cept.~I)~.ef)1 years eadier, "fhel~be.m.l:ii 2 :Dncharge of'the Rocke'felh::1r FOul.l:dm~on tl]us
gntdlJ1,ally <l{~opled Ib'l mntkJoUl:hm "red" oreven

tmn a researcber

'~DiHk,~j'sci'entiS!1:S could nolo benefit from gl.lM1Jl-s" wlth cm:rlmllJl]istineHn;Cl1io1:'ls

resistaoee wnuniversities in France, Germ~my. and the' United Kingd)ouil becauseitwould drain S;OU1:e of the best brains out of the m~~I'~ll1<ll researd'1l systems precisely <It a rime when these inst iruti ons were experienci ng
m~joClrrreo£g<illl'lruzal]onand. rapidgrowth,

to send researchers on &'vrop·eanmom'SID evaluate ~ttleedf:>aru:lpossib~]]t.ies, Private philanrhwilk fbundetiena al 00 took lip [he prospects of'resioration. The book's two cb~~pil'.el·s nthe o R:o<.:kiele]i,er.Fo~mda:tu:Qn'spolicy in Franceare mlpcci,iaJDy enlightening. They shaw how the
F(JiUil'lrl~tk}nquicklyresomed its pre\\i~rpF'aC-'

could not (bydefwnitio[l!,' be a g,ood;md free scientlst, Tlms, .in spite of lhtis ~riJlliil'iiAtitl' trumVt]edg,e of the; United States and h isprewar acq uai nranees tbere, theFrench biochemist Boris Ephmssi ~:wdiii very difficult time defeil.'"!ding the PliOOpect of!.1i '::lil:u,m: gmnt I:br the creadon of
ageneuc iilua~rllmeiil1l.fl. couerrywhere the commuuist pa.r~ybenefited finm :!I q uarter of the votes, where I::htl Alol],"Iic Eli:lergy Cm:l1ll1l:bi,sion \\\o\ilS under the lead (Jf:F~rede!'ic Jollor-Curie, ~l

Kr.ige's. account provides !'nron,g!>uppmrJ(Jf
lli is concept o:f"a co-pro du cedht'gem{my,

He convincingly combines rhe idea 'Of an
American eJ1J.I1Ipi.rengaged in tbe defense of e

p,oHdca~ideilllocmcy"''''~ith the perception or ~l science ratillk:~.lly chan ged by the ,Co]dWar.

free-market economy., individmd

ri.ghts ..and

The hegellnmlY t~heUnited St~ues exerted was COil sensual in the sense that iu11porh][IJ( segments ofrhe seienrific elite in Europe shared equipm e!1[ glJIDl'S,. ~1!JBdI adapted IO the new also pEa!rlYlue~:It'Iber, and whe~re (lt1ileNew Ym'Jk ,t}~rn·, t"~he eireumsesnees. Rm:1ke(:~ne:r Q~m'~ce~rs thus values associated w ~Ifh lbe permanent o thereforewi U~ oet-s rhQl~ght) left-minded geneticisrs :m.ight m obi. ~~z~lti,onf researchaud ~greed H) gi.ve~b:e French Ce.l1il1reNaIlviomd.de' ingly prurticipa'l:ed][jJ the des~gJ]amd ilnp]le:m.ell'. \i\,/€]I support Lysenko.. la Recherche Sde1u.ifique (a governmental til~or~of "At·lanth:;·' pol ieies, American hegeThe :rec:q'!I'lstn!,etiun that K~~i.gediscusses ~g,em;y ~]rheri!l~fun~'ti!l1l.e ~re!iie"fcheT.\'in st;:.te meny uouerheless meant unevenpower and t ] i~bo.ra~o:l"ies outside the universi ty) l1.1Iajo:r rea1l,cfued an:urllil],g pOi.IH ,~JI]he socond hal:fot ll~e.~ 95Gs, In tilec(Intext of the ~')iSIS.upri~ ing une\ren ~In'e&'i, tOfieSQ~!~{>. 'i.lrIfilh the un~\I'Oid~ granTtj; to be 1l1!dnr):ini~tered. I'ecti 'l.rdy•. Giving (';·01 ::m. fhe Fren.ch physi.cis;[s 3Ild. biO(]ogi,sls aece:ss[x} ~djl,e fai.Et:nresthat orjgilmte m 'OlllHiOided v:iew~.~' ~i;]] Hiu 11I,ga:ry an(i,!:he consci,()Ius,n ess th3t: allY fJl:JeH'I()S:~ re(1e.nin."iti1[lm~ntat{iO]'JI-~n~ a ~"OJiltil'i~· m~cle~~\¥ar\N(.ru~d ~n!1ihi I~!~~bCilh 'e~)lpir(:'$. l~ U~is co~pfod~lced hege~I1.0[~y lli'l~itdy ~] I::: :iii. .of Uling. o:flhe pasf? One ~.l1l1Jst:rec,ogn i,m t~li1.t.the. ?J1. muion ofp:row'ar Rockefell:e<,u fou[[lcl!atkJ\n po~:i-, US. offiiciilll:s ll.nderst;om~: Ih.cl.aumch ;' S,pul'rnik as ;'lport.;:lll ,()'F a oomi1l1gsc:.i.emifk: mMI1![Fe~I'lI!d ~.ys of 01·J;er~ting. ,pf t[~e '\en'1lpk1':" ~. dec", suppor~~ng Ule developm.ent 'Qfp]l]y);i.c~] ~~~ld. chenli!Ca] rec]mwqneslln the study of supremacy of the S Q'Vie'1 Un i'Oill. ~1 supren'lID::y have been dl;a~.naticaUy ~lul'red in d~.e ~9,gos ~: rbatwa:s to be: ~t'\"o~de:dby <ll'~:~I!l"lle.]n~.They alld 1990s tmough no incre::l:liilllg t:1.IL"Ipha~i~Oil ~ life-w~]s deem.ed an e$!'Semi.u[ IlHr£l1l E.l'1' flj, soughlm solve [he al~'~~I~dI '!.Vi~sr.eTIfI '·[lfl.3n~ g[obill~ 1'iJ.'1arkets. r.ech~.10IQgi,ca~ i.unovali,on. Iii ~"esh,al)i ;(IndntQde~'Il1i:z inga SY.SWUI. :p:lagl1lJd ng (~nd. CO:ipol!<B.te I;\ese:arch (In.cl: d,eve~opnu,:mt. ~ pDWe't pliabl.e~'1I'I".in.1i. traJl~H1mlk: .I.'ather rhrn1 wHhi~o]aUon. poverty, aUld ;;11 ~fig.idhi.emrchy. ~, .one 1TI:lajor p~lI:ado;o; of the peiliiod is tiu!!t i;l!1l ~m Arnerk:an way, wid~ file North Ad~]~':ui::: NO',1t:the:~ess,. [be eXJauiLpile of th.f:l' fhUed ~. emp.h~1iSison ~cade~,11:iC'~j1eooon"JJ puui~y and. Tretl(:Y Ol'ganiza[u,oll i.n. the leadimg rohL and EmOpetl:llli MIT offers ,~, good 118I:111i,nde:r~h~]t ~.c.'.' bis:,t{Jrym~llteTt> wJ'ie:n. .Imiking (!!i~ c>i.m'~enrwporary ~ l:!he~~iJ~enceafrol hiC(ll. en,gageillent Umnri:J!ed D ~wingth.e 196Q.:>.NATO startedm di!>lT:iblllte Iii 0, t~mong l.]"S .. !-;Ci:e'lflitisH:i and [}oli,cy-mt]lioors :p:re-, feUmvsh ilJS!.IJIld {lI,rgnn iz~ IUlillsti ng~;;an a'IJ grand sdc:m:c po~id,es. w, ~a!lle, s.uppo:r:dng l'lite b~o~()giC:<I:~,<J.nd[;litesoci .• d 1I!(I,11!26lmBncl!.l]!l2200 ~ ti~e]y al jJ t~lfI'U::: 'i;:vhen reS>e'lrchen •.' ties, W ~he
31 AUGUST 2007 VOL 31 '7 SCIENCE

[ices ,~)f close p;am:m'ersll~I:l\I!'.. i,l'~ a core of e Iire ' sdeIDIth;.t::l,\,\lhof]'llit supported \1!Ii1l1~rave~1and t

www.seiencelnag.org

-

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:

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-'I -

-

1--

'IREirENT~ON

E,Dlginee,riinlgl E,dlUlcatiiolnl Re:search Ai,d.s,llnstruct:iion.
'-D'

F~lI11t'H

stu (homts hi1a.ve @iI1Ig]Fleeri n.g stuctes ~vhi@J:1J
tOI

ed~(ii!ltiof! jJJOgW(llr!1S concepts Unk pra(ti~.e.

re~il:'wQl!'ld

·i sclpl ine-lx •. ed educurion research s . seek s to nuury dee pknowled~e of
. .•..•.. r

Our commitmeer to eng inee-ring .. a sed edneab
tjom !'esem1:h does net devalue the
l"IIU:!"'kof

,

the d i sci 1'] Ine \,d ths ii rni.~1.1ul:y deep'

k.-a{)iw~'ed.g,eof I!earning ~wl!d pedagogy ( I, 2) ~][ld:may encourageeollege and university f~culty ~:iI]!eH~bersto hringli'i'D!V·e ti.gn.r ~o CIIllS::WQOIH insuucrioa. for example, the pl.1.ysicSK based educa tion research commun~ty has used tools such ~]S the Force ConceptlnvenwlfY (3) to detenninethat studJenrS[ala.g[~t wirh ii.aJJilen~cljveteaehiug techn~,'~.u die'vel oped from d i, sc ~ip~, es ina-based educationresearch [1'11[1 ch as Peer lnstructiun (4 . 5 J] better understand the CQIfIcept:s uJNe\Ii,ttorl]C1IDi p!-n.y:S,](,$ l'h,u-n.
clio srude
IUS

researchers in.colleges cf'edueaticn 0:11" that .of cog uitive m social. scie uti sts, Rat h.er,.\!\it: SiliOllllf:rmlfl is(JI'liecli .i lIlJd]v]du\~~!iesean:;:he:rs H) academic C![)[I1UI111!J~1:ities devotl1!:d to the seholenl:plli~]:si the ~:lulmr.:Hi.onof the engi neering ze ~]fii.hip of eng]li'Ieeli".ing_ educ~li!oll. ed lil!q[trnOQ f"ese~u'{;h cni11~:iiilui'ry- atid~he i increased. valae attached ]:0 the emerging f~el·d The .Journal ol£ngineerlng Ed~u.Y1>lh:m
by theacademie engineering (jo.IUI'II.'1l.lillty,

Un iversi t-y (20(]4). and Utah State (2:[) ~)i5 J'M.nd ~lfInouHced m Clemsou (20f.ff), The enterge nee 0 f these depart meats marks t~~e .... lrru.~

Past~ Plrn:selliill~j.alild IFuhlre'
In the ['9 90s., eenters for research on engieducavi,on op{:)'ned 011 several campuses, wi~h foci nUlghlgfrmtl fOil,li"!l.d~lliunal
neering

was reposirlonedin §ali1iUary 2'001J to focus on publishing scholarly research I~~I'I ngie n.eell'ing educaticn, The change was cele-

brated with ~.special issue" 12)..aud [he jourfocus. 0'11::tl:dv.an.d~,'iLg the :rligor m:u:irecn_g[l :un.:] on 0 f eo tie elfhu.g 'editl C~]lion ng.i research 1(13). The 2,OQS and .2006 .Ellgineeriag ~ducmi.I()':IfI Research reh

n~]

COlU~~tIIUI,e.s m

ta ugi~n ma Jlectu :rc8CB%··

based: farmar, W~,fltlljn the engilh,eudrinUl'Ee' aims of ~l:Uch research incln de lhe
neeriug ccmnnmiry,

Coli ~I()(IU ~,es(E :ERe), ~dentiri\ed

Hve resea
serve

a reas fhar

W~~ II

as the i"t'HI.nda.t"i.on for the

creation of education programs rhat attract more, and mo re d iversev studeuts to the study of

engtneering,

retain more of
'64%
6Ci%·

rh e srude ntswho aree urn] ~'ed: deepen students" understand-

new discipline of engineeriag education (.l4l (i ) engineeslng epi stemol og ies=researc h on what constimtes engineesing thinking and knowledge in
SOC] al

contexts

m)\,v and lntc

the;

ing of engineering coeceprs; broa den s t ude ~.'lts·app:mc iatio u of eugi :If!'ee,~i.ng'~ lein meeting rn tfue needs of a glob~~1socie'~Y': an~
better prep<]r,e students l]H;;r study UI.· pmfcss:ilulull
.~O':l

future;

(i]} enginee'fi.ngleam~~lJ!g

rice, [n

pU'Isuhl.g

these

furpraeaims,

ThliHii
(iali

Wing, Seml!!ll$ter

research in engineesingeducaHO.m looks

beyou.":ld

quesrious

~Q:leiy de:voted~g

teaching.learn.lli1Ig..<IL nd as ses smeat: h .~I so ex;;Wll]!~e~ issues a8soc~:atedw~rh filcmHy researchto ~!UlnV!;[lt]'lte apprnaehes 1;0 currewards (6) and the ,o!rg~~[I:~.z~~tioil1lJ~]m;- ]"~CUIIJll"I.] e~m,:til~.lg dY~UI .~~.ntch;iilf]g. and assessmsn L [II 2 (I n 1. the N ~!t HfI,a~ S,ci elfl'ce Fu~md.~tj01] k ics (} f e'ng~neeriHg de'p~llfl'J.rrle~1!ts (7. 8). Ahh.cmgh. not ell engi,~.,e~r.i~JlgfacuMy·v.I~]1 iniriurad support for Centers I'm!"Leaming e~'ig.~g~i!1 s~t~~i[i\eseatch., ,,\r~ (:U!fil"e:nd tlJ]~]~,an I ~lnd Tenc]h~n.gl~atl.:l~ed cn~ e~]gi.n~,e~W!ig ~~~d technology educarion ,~9.. J()). In 2002. the 811011,1. ld learn an d benefit from it s fi ndi ngs, NHli.orn.'l~. Academy ,a,f Ellgin.eerin~ s.i~]fted
1C:e:n~erfor the ,1\d:¥IlI'IOement of 5c:ool:ars!dp' on Itngi l1Ie!H~ ing i:cilwMion. N,a'tionall\GadlNIIII~ of £ngrineerii!lg,. Was.h·· lDglllCln, ID-C2000:1[, USt!..l!liIl~lral\9dlle,adl~liIgl9il'ld ~e.amiillg lP'r@!JfaID, C(l~h~g@®f 1~lfIgil1~crirlg ~Ild A.~p'lioo Sd~n.(@, U!l]ver~ily or (olO!<:l,dao, IBoll!llde" ClO i!Hli3{l9'~112S, USA. lIN'II] ~l1'al 1,I!Is,iil u~es of i'leailth, Nati:O'l!Ia~ Iln!ltHut:e of I[)iaioo~es ilnd l[)ige5tive and Kidl!ll'}' DiseaSles,. 8et!i£',s,dla,.1M!) 1\Oi8:92-~6\21, LISA. ··t!.l!Ithelf~:'r~r(mires p~9d,~l'Iceo. E.~·mfIalll: lf1ir~if!lel'lb.@ifI<1e·.e<tlu U:ltILF.j~i,.u)~)'n ..!l'UtH1Ivil~t@>OJloi!'l;oo,~'f!([u .<l F:S,)

n:s in Ire~l;!iIIltion. hie IF¥EFc' rse inn pr~d ~eleilltio n of eng~ Ileerii T (QU ilfitoth[hil!'d,linh.~!1d sev>enth Sie!l1iestew.There l;\I'eir,e2128, s,tUJ(ients.'I:/i'lo t'o'Qlklhe F'i"EPCOUIF'.5!e (g raY)ilIlrild 294::1 students who did not (gold}. AII[ rretention g,ains over 'expec'loo rdenti'Q,!1! retes s:m01l,i\lfl '~fes;iglnm(af1!t (P <::: 0.(5) •

meclranisms=-research ouengiueeriug ~e"~'news' d'evdopi~ll!.g kmlm:vledge and eompetencies in context: (Iii) engmeering learni.lI~ syst~lllu$-n::.&~arc]1 un in!itT;UCl"~ QI1.i:] I cul tu re, tn:st[t~.~ ngl~~lJdel!lts

ti oual infrasrrue; ure, ~mdep~$te'"· mol.o!:D' ,of eaglneenug eduea ..· tors ~{iv) en g~neeild~].g di,veroi,l~y ~~~,'1id us,i vene ~s-----.-resea rC~:1on incl how diverse human 't;;;~lentscomfwbu~e !:l10re irolhu st so,1ut ien s to gl obal e ~ha~, nge s ~~tI1]d le
~dlfllfibrc:e the relevance of the profe~s~'~'m l,c)

all sectors of society; end
~]~Ses.:~a~e !U-ve~e,atch

('Ii')

engineerieg

o~';l.¥!lld tt:he de'\tel()l]~ mnenl of. assessment methods, insmrmeuts,

::mdniletrk:s
. --

--

to
-

][ijJJQiWl ... -- .

<el"il.!!.ineerin!,\'; edU.mlliml
'!Ir "!!iO' - • _. _.

fl"iQm sohdy pl.x}v.idillg advice

actively en h~.I"ild,ng eilgineer.imgeducal~,on by fo:s~er["«':it

~.:)I.".~:Cl ice

.i mg dlC g:ro'!cvtll of a C{)nUTl~u~.1i,ty f engineers 0 c:ol]}cl m;:~ing educ<lti{)[I~e:se<ilfd.l ;dlm~1 'If".M'lsl <'It-

~mdlea.r~nIng. L[I'irM ra~es of litudent reten~i.din wjt.i:iJro the disci:plill.c h~ve llieiglnened COIThCermi .in lhe
eJl'lgll]:Bed I:iLg ,tUlrurn.'II"U:rl"i t:y tJbOUl: t h.e
stmC:UiRl.

irllg f'e-search n:suhs inmm.on: effecuive'f:md c:o~1Jtent.>a!ld delivery of engineel!.i~]g'eduaa~ efficiemt ,(Sduc~u:i,on"al. pr.ac{ic~s U 1). ~i.(m...Although m=:llmy eD1lgineering I,rograms More recell1Uy; dep,IU"tluenlf> of eng in,e,er~ ~]Ii{yW 'oin.ly~ ~tr .ingent~ly p:reSicreeroedropula~ in g educat:uo n w~I.-:eopf)medat Purdue (2:01)~·h don [0 e:m:o,n. {}]1J1.lVte'rrl.ge. only 56% of
ViTgilJ'l~<I p'()~ytechl:lJ~c Il]stin:al-e all1icl, Snne und,eTgrac:imn:e ~ltIldents
adminet!. naliun.]·lly

1175

EDUCATION fOIRUIM
hno ,el:lgi:Ul.eerjng di.scip[i:Ules are retained to' gradua'!:i ~~in" irh some Sicho ols :~'epod~ng w retenri ml rates of only 3 (Wn" Academic d U-T.iculty Is not why these students cbange course (15), leading l'l1eell'Jig~!leel.-]ng educaAmerican, and 41 Native-American stumrs into student
'ill

background,

college

denffi. Stude:n:r etful'li.ci.ty dnn].p!i'~1Vided by

~ldlnli.Hi~,t~al~'1N~: 'u~;~u~S:.academic

th!e' university, reflected the self-reported erhuicity on a student's admission applies .. ,

tion ..An IlI:ddit~i(m~d 265 studentswere elassiethnicity' i1llJidwere uor dOllc'()inunumity~Q\1'ie'\M theseloss n1JU~S~Hi fied as "unknown ][Jjc1uo:eduFlilhe erhn~ci[y~.!l,~I.~!ysi:fL ~1eSlllJdy T jndicatnrs of defects wiihinl the system of e ngi neeringedu em io n tha [: shouldbe eo r'-' sample inecrporared only smdenes 'i,vho took. l'he FVEr' ceurse ~!.S fi.:~5t~ye~f en,gineering rected, One ~~FP~·:ic;;l~ionengineer~ng edu~ of cation research, developed with Ihegoal of students ~rraIl5J~r smdenrsweeeexcluded, as i!~crea:s:iro,gre'tenti.on rates, is '[hef]i!!S>t~Yeaf were student.s who were not e!flgineerir~g m~~~o:l"::; orwho wok the course ~I ~r their n EI'lgineel":il,lgPiliojeclslFYEP) course at the first ye~r, 'E,llgin'ee.!.-.ing pu-ogn]1il1retention Unilvt,t[si.ty ofCdlloH:l.c]U lair BOl!l~de[:
\'\iH;S

and 1>oc~(~1 i~'l!tegr;;;lt~on, anitude andmotivation and f:~t ",drfu]n au insrimtiou; we su,g.g.estthat ~dl except a student's background are subjectwo im,niuuiJonal knte rvennen and inlpll"m!~mtmt. Conced ing that !>O me srude l[ltS\'\!' i~ decide I
fer them, we believe that II'IJe ove:f"ii'ifhe:liIll]!flg n:l~uor~t'yf o engineering students should graduate in e]],ginee'rin.~and re'te'l1t~on rate~ abo'!,fe80~1 shouldbe mill"nspi,mt,imill. Engineering retentio]] imp HlV'elJJlenl ov'er the past decade: ( I j) su ggests liiuu great strides are p 05S ible; au r cb~]leiige is tomtlle the p'0~siibie: pn.lb~Me,
Rl1!fl@ffln()esa!f!d IN01i~ L l '5hulilmlan,Erfu(', R:es, 15, ,2 ~U8:6.~. :2, Ii.. MCJCiit.rnt'OtL .Mys. WOrN' 1.7" 4,Q i;2C10>fJ. 3, O. :liiIe:sl>enes r/' ai,. Ph,.. If'Mh ..30", :Il41(19~2). 4, C Crollllrn, l~. Maizuw,Am.). .PiJ~. '1i9. 970, '~2001). S. E. M.amr, ill rhe (ha:rlg.irJgR'(),I!I'!OIP:hY5.r.cs:D~(Ntilll~l!I!l;jiJ' Mod!!f!l'l ·Unwooities: hKwii!"!g's of JWPf. LW.RediIJI. J. S, iijdg:en"Eo!!!s., (Am'~nc:G'i!I :1!liMil!lii~eof P;h~5ia:, Met'liil~~,
Prof. l5iS[.ft'~Mg. [dttt. Pmtl'. :121B, '~:S (lOo<2). 7. ),Ji,lIc5'h:ilonoo ,~t 11"A Pfot~H~ Ell!/- fdJJ(. Pir(;I~,t 1]2, ( !l~'~(~'~). 8. M, C. !Cia ilk ,e.t c/.,}. ElJ,9, £00". 93. 37 '(ZCUHJ. 9, (.fftIllBrrcr ti1 e JliI!!v"liIil['ell'lllenl of Eiflgin,eering Edu(i3lj'Ol\, I!JIIWgIT5~.)'iDIWashin!1Jloo (WI\W;~mgr;w~liIinglDlfI,N~<le~', ll.O',Mi!!~~mlil (elf!~~ for Engii!l~~rili!g~1ltIiI T~hlllcil4lID' ~u~"lfion", Il)Ii;;llh St~~~ IU,ni"'~~il~(Wllw.In~!!.argf Ire~ll'~r>!:h.lh!mt n, rtjI, L IForiUlnllerlfY. pa,per !~resei!ltecl.atUrt~ 33rd I'n~elillla~ioo~l 1m;po~mlli116~MEWJ\SE£., tnoouli!i. S Sw~~r~liImd, 2:7 to lO S~pti!n1b@r2o.04 • 112..5;W~di~1 or(Th~ S1~~~f lIw Art and Ptra'c1jl;)~ of i~su~ o 6.

t~h~.l,eng:~I.,:~e;r.ib1g uoenghr is

assessed at the third, ~illh. and seventh
iUW

ll~€l FVEI?' Ci[lurse

~~nlLe~~er~ar all s-lildell[S ~p~he ::>i1i:iJtlp],e.

The FYEF course was designed :~nthe mid~9'90s
~1:1J reSri'Oillse ttl research

Logisric regression

ehi-squsre statistical

on Ol~"ler p:ro;iect'-·

base d engin eeri ug co u rses, KJey pri uei I."i les lnclnded cIClII]~burat.iveand ream-based learning. expericnrialprejects, open-ended design. mld. supporTi~in::unlctiion (16}
The fYEP i[;IOUIlSe (:1()II1I'ile~ts 'tlhieeoneepmal, and educational side of engineering
\illd.thprul;e~~'donn~ractice. This is pl!~m<!ldly p t"lCCOlnp]sh e d d1ll'oug~] a L3- wee kproje C~ i rhat .~rrtrot~ucesirst-year studemsto the f

tests were used ro test for differences in retention between students who did and tiliJJO~se"VkIO didnot hlke 11]!eFYEP courseaud to resrfor differential ~~np~~c(5bybodlg~!l~ der and ellulicily (25l

R,eitie'nti'on

Re'.5'lIIl~ls

.A.c:rm;~.~t.[ldeln.\\.Uwsewbtl

t,()oii:: tlruelF Y EP

J•. M. :Roes§e,1;. J" 1. p, 1I'ao.,1,

Ni'(" [9'97~', I'~, 98'1""9811.

course were retained mil a h:~glu:U' level li~f,tmgh the seventh semester (P < OJ):i), (see

design-build-test cycle ofp'roduc~: PI'otorype develepment (\vlherei n a new object: temeet iii stated or perceived customer need is conceived, die:s:]gned, realized as .~~ physical

graph on png.e ~~.75) (25). Logistic regressi,~)[I~n<II.ys~s, indicated
[10

~t:.1'i:ist:ic.~Uy 3~g-

nificantindiceriuns
project gender
COiLtUe

that a f'irst-year design

ob:iec't,~~1d tested to vel'i~'y Uun it meets
requirements) ~fil a team-based setting, supported by experimental testing (171. The
.imil!Ovm,io.llS ar the Unilv·er~iry

bas a di fferent ial :~ mpact by Oil" erhn i,city, Becausethecourse '~.lS taught by nmltipleinstmctoes during the 8,-· year period under smdy,. no instructor effect

ofO;)'.loi1'ii(illo iM

Bou[de'f "'[ieconsistent with the results 'Of previous science and engineering education
research on experiential. ~m<enu::tive" .;xnd. co]]aooral"ive ~:e~lrldng (18-24" Oni.y some of the ~1 euglneering jPillD-' gram s ;u Hue U n ive r~:~ of 'C Q~o:rillido illilt: l1' Ba:uJde!lf rtlquire the fYEI?~ fo]['~llli ,(li~he:r~ i.,s; it ~n iIlcce~Jredrechnicul eh::crive. Thllis results
on avera.g.tl, half of the i,IlC0I1t'ling firs~-, yealli student 'cphnrl::; u!kwn~ t~~e cla&S" which. p.rorvides a 115,c::~fu.~ Jo:mpar.al:iv,e uta.t.a set, ]t"s C 11J!!!!ge. ~Oinginld~ml~., 1!l;ud nHI!.hi.diSiciplim~~y.,
1.1:1.

was ln ~i2:.r;jed. A.paUern of elevated re'u::ntioI1fio]'
l,)ViOUUm at'

Engin~rij!1!g[;duC'a'lj~
'(J!~!i1g~ Iif 2'(05)"

Rese:OlKh,}. f.~,tJ.ld!i-c.9~

the SeVeID(J)]

semester

suggests

rhar

additionalfocus 0]1 course elementsand ped'agogy could. be frlli~ill\I]. The analysils by eth[l'ljicity \,!/<]S ~ik!eJy influencedby .10\;1,1 sam-

:l!l. ~M~a~rng ~(:Igim!eeriing(!hjcallf.on Reseatdi Worldwlcle:.~ E j, :mg, ,[due; 9<1", iB (2'OOS)', ~
141. iI1iI~ S~BE\ring(orniril'iro~E\I!oflh~' Nation~I.IE:n9il1lE1erin91 M!I~<llff~n~'!NIrdl (~l~ui~s,J,. £fJfJ &Jub. '9!li• .2 519' (2()061. :1::5" E. Se~UIlour, IN, W. H'eml.t. I£king Ail~!li't U6riill~ WJry Ur;rdef9~a/n lrnv~ UJ'f: ~dm«:s~sl1Ii~~ fIBS. . E!ool!lle-~ (0, 199:n, ][6, IL E. Carllsoo ej' al., ~iliPU 1~'IlE!SE!IfIrt~d tmEAlm.~ri;[aln ai SIlcie!yl~ ~1lI9un~1ii11l9 Eduwal~olll Anm:l!ml. Col1lr~Jl)D1C)~ ",n,eI E~)iX)sl~ionl.A!l1laheil!'l1l. CA,,'~I~ 2.9'] wille 19'95. 117. ). F. S.ilIlUlI'.illn., LIE. Carilsol'l, pilperll~e:mlled atl:he

ple sizes for Latino, Afncan-Amerieae,
Na'~ive-Alilledc<m, 1'J,fliH].eIlls:,i~oolev't:r,

and

re.g1u;d,-

]ess ofgende:r or e{h~1icjty,re'le~u:~HHin engi11I!eering is IhJighe'.r 311TI,m'lg;SHHil~~IUS"(,'11110 ra~e tli]e FY EP cour.:;e. Thesremsul ~"S, add [0 lhe gr'O'i;~fi.ng bo L~Y' of e'vide'llce demnnstraliWlg 111"'1: fin;.[~yea:r 11I."Oj ectts-based ,cmri,'cu~a promote ~.X:1'l',e.l],l:I,on of e~1gi.H~H;w~ng students 1(26)•

N1aln(JlfI.a.\ (iIJU.egiate

~nVEIiIIO:rsandlllnlnMII!J~

Allialilce

~l~ld i.l eOI],~:a,iluali :rei'l::1oll1i~bhl control ~1'\)Up. N 0 Ki~n - if] C<:1J d i.fi"elfence-- - in - rl;ltent] on - W;[f.i. ....... - - . - -- I1t - _ .. - . ". _. --

'Cordi!r'f!nH~,Wa4lillilgl., Ii)(. 12: to 14 t1\ardl 19'~S. lLIl·. [1;. W.ja!hllscm .. It [ JonmiSDil, 1(, .A. 'iIIIIilh, AtliVf
lJr!(Jlmi,ig; (,a(l'p!i'~~:iQil.ifcl

I~u nd b er\>veen ~be l,"Ie(lu red an d \101U Ille~r il FYI P'hlkern.i !fIlp~ying ~() l!O~l"u!~~eot1lr 'ffe(;'~, e To ex1!t~:lni:ne the :irn~,a:cl of th·e;;C'ollrne on studer:ut attrition, we giJUtbered reu~nrjon d~hl
~N::I.~OSS: e:~gh[

thwugh (.~onmined 5'0 7 Ol'[rsl~ye!llr e Ilgj l[lee ri,lllg sm dlen.t!-i, com SD sti Ilg ()of:2]2 8 ~t~udemu.. (42 %)1
B'

F.]n

cohorls fl'i()!unthe F3~~ 1994 2002 sellilcsIDers,. This, claw. set

Condlill ~i:(I'n Although <1 6&1:%1i6lentio:l1i rate rus Slm~:GO ~ow For ~tud ents t:h;u~relhe~wily screell~d befhwe !::1Jdll1Liss.ion0 Ehe tIlUlj:or. :i[ [~ep:l"eSelU:S 1 nn ]m.provemellt on. tbe n(l.ti(.ll],aI. emg.ineelfjng reu:ml~~on Hire {)if 56%. G~"en rhat Seymou:r
.~ndHfl'l!\,
~I U:

2,0,. B.ooMI\ S•. z:. ti~llh, W;, ,A. Manon. M~:l'Jm'f:n! Pw.ttit:r5 .in, ,r}r;rdl!;fgmdurJif: Mfilthf'J'J'Jitlti.cs(l;'lillh~m;;rlkaIAssoG1al.i'oli IlfArn~fl@, W!l!~h[n!!lI~n,,[DC, t9~9)" 2! • Ill. fl, Hake. Am. J: .My$. ,~6" M U:998).
22. Nt 1tl',Iii(!IQU ~',al.J Ef'lg. [(JIl(.'. 88. 435 U999). 23. J. McS'h<ljlUlOO ,~!' },.Prot r'!!'-IJ!'6 Eilg. fdll€'. ~C:/: ~L,.

i(lnlefllc:!io!l Book (@~;P~JW, E(ilina, mN., ~. 2',.U981. 19. J. WtmglM e1 ai" J, (hem. fduc. 75, ~Bif, U,998).

m~ '()ll~1l'

O;g;f~(lGJJIi'

c..

1.32..

204 (aOO6}.

(J 5) h.]vere

pOfl,ed. re l~eli1JH m1

the: FYEI? cour;&e .and 29'42 sm·· rut'cs of 42% in tbe bi,o]o,gical sc:iel]:ces, diems {58%)\;vI.llo di,,d,nmmke ['he cmn~~e. 2.9' .9% in tfue pbys:~ct'll S1cm,ent.~e,s. and 29.2.'% ]11 :nu!thenl'lal"~'c~.,'11i;.'.by~holi,dd 'we ~eek $tm The t>~lu'1rjpleindl,Jlded 1011~ ';~TIn1en (lJmd4055 hii,gher eng:ilimG~miJngre~e:ntion nne,';'! MoUer'~,nen.M,nd included 3992. Cm:u::.1u;ian"40.2 \vhomQk
;.\!>.inn~Anl'Jierit;1m. 190. L~ttD]]O, 80 Afrk:!ll.n~· Wong mld, Eide (2 7) f:lfg~lnizl:::d attll'~li()[Jn]c:~·

2.41. M,. lPirlil1l[E!,j,flJ!!I' Eda[.. 9:l1, 223 (2004)'.,. 2'5. nJ<, W" ~ight LIE. yll'lS(!II, l f" :Sulliv,i1IriI\,p~IPll!rlPres~n!f'd

,illUhe lililefl'l<l!.iOrJO'!~ coorllfe;noe I;)!l ~!Jim.eerin!!J 5d manon Re:i'NII'IC1i.. ~an,ol'ulu. IHII :2:2 to 241urte:2007 • 26, J•. E. F.!I"O¥cilM, VIt, !oh~af!ct, J. fn,g,. EdtN:, 94,.1.4,7 {200S~' •. n. ('" .MQ'Uff'\Vong, /( Ei!lle-,J,.&r9' •. fdlll(., 8'6.,1 01997).

-

-I

-

-.

-

1--1

-

-

-

--

-

-

'I

I

--

-

I

'

G E OF'HYS,IICS

Nel!Jtri nos c fl::\~tedby n ~)::l'eal" decay rna y

aU ow

geoscientJ,s:ts: to

the distj'lib~:t1on of rad]Q.a,(U]ve eh~mer:ulsi[[nl the' Eil!fth.
m@,aJSIjI'~

~Iier tlds ycarreseerehers n'onllhese two d,i~cipline~ gathered to discuss ru'lt~lCle!JLf~nO$ (the :a1U~lp;ar1:ic~:e 'Ihe neurrino) 'll}. These of

P

I~rl~ c,le, l)hysi!c~lst5and

-

!"ardy~neel

w c>o'nl:p~IJt: !];tH:e5 but e~u'~
j

geophysi~c il.sts

opl.nllllHJl lecarien

lor measuring t~le

disiTh'jibution 'Di' h~ltt~p.r·uduci!lg 'e~e~ ments in ~lhe ancient core of a
continent,

signalwill

Here. l~~e antineutrine be dOll11iilfli~ted by t:lliie
HR abnlut

li.l~]d<ilmenta~p~]~-li(;lef>~Ire a by~prodlUc:t of
reactions eecursing ~n. nuclear reactors and P['_~S] ,ea!iHy thr<)ughEoutht blJl' lhey <Ire: ,~J~()

CF1,i15>n]I component

80% level. This experiment

Hue win

generated

,,~eep inside lliarth by the ]1~rura.~
liTharj,um. and
fe~,

rtov~de d~d,<menthe 'IDi,nlk c(1mpD.~d~ tion of the CO~,'lIlIU~l1enls place i!l~;ld
limits un oCflllI.l!pet][fUg_ models (l!ftl~e centinenral crust's eomposit i (U'll.
'fhelEl:Oi['(J!I] SOI<lf

r<ldiID,.~c~ive decay of uranium,
g~"liIDIeutt~n'l'l\~). ide Part

poeass ium (:in wh :ich ease d::1i~Y call ed are ceurly shown rlli!;1JJt is possible ro detect it geonentrincs and 'rims ,e:s:Ulhlishlim'llilm em l~~e amount ofmdin<i!c~,i,ve ell(;!~Y prm:hu:.ed in L~!l:e inrerlcr of our p]~n~[ (.1):. This years joint I'ilTee~if!Lg was aimed <1[- ,e1'1h:;lIThd:!lgC(}I!L'InrJilJj,llic;:~, ticn between the two disciplines in. order to
better eOl:lst:rr~in t-he dis~.ri.hmio1'lJ of Eartl] 's pIhY:i,jj,chushfltv,e

menr (Borexiuo)
in cen Hal
'lA,iMlt

removed 1~111lTh tile regi,~:nt'lof

u,~.my{~u1d ~~('nc~ seme-

Neu~:rU:I]t)experidetector, situated

France' with many reacuns), has

begun 'C'ulIll'ling I( 51. nl~Sda];~c·to]

will uccunurlate ~]geOl~cul1;.i:l"lo siglfI~d flr'C.'HlI] H

yotmge:r c()nti neural
Medi-

I'aduo~ctliI.'e elemems. '
Researchers Fix)im.the K.<I.lll,}~eka l iqui d seintillamr ArII[i~Net!n.inoDetec[or (KnmlAND) 11111 Ja.prmreporr,ed results tfum: are CO]]·· sistent \vith the pO,!;¥e1: outpnt produced from the decay of!:hodum and ur;i1Jll'lli.lm"ll (16 TW).,
and. the abundances of these elements in Earth. as est wm~\t'edby geoseiemi SI:S (3 ). present due to the highbackground hit this !ieg]O~.l ofthe ~pec;tn.lm.) fhe irutial :me,{•.surement is also :bmad~y cO.l:[sistem \-vi.tIr'lrhe Til/I[] '(1I1i.o for E~ll!tl~. being equal roO thaI of chendritic !l1:eteOl'WrCiS" wh~cll is: a fmul!alIliennll assumplil1l'ii iJset!~,by geocill:uemists to modelplanetary

IIlISid'fil stl®lry. One model o~ the dj~triblli![kH': of ra,aioo"cti'!.!l€ el.e·
!f11@'1"![$ o:tas:s:u~fI1I, thorium, and l.!lranium p 'ill br'tl~. N@'Vraf!lt.ill@'M'·

regien

and surrounding

tetl:a[le~Ul ecean

trill!) de'~€'(]owS ill Carnarna (SNO+} and IH(!\l'~a:ii O"lANOHIANO)

b<llii.l:il, fhllsre>ceiv~· ing ag I'e'61Jcr proportion of its sig.In<ln[~e.,

1fI~! ffiumth,e

Punic le :p'hysi.ci$!u; from Hinwnii
the reactor s~gl],arn overwhelmed the geoneu<lindtheir colieaglLLes from elsewhere
in the

(J\Jt.a ssinm geoneutrinos

C1111.111-'Dl

be detected at

rl:,ino!>i.gIl~1.New derectorsare lbei:l!llg eveld oped, depl.oyed. ~~l11idpo&ltimThed in ]ocadons that have s,ubst~m.t]ilIillymaller contributions s
from nuclear reactors, ilind [fuus '\vi]] provide
more

Unived States. Japsn, and E:uf1l;):pe!!I~prOJ;los~ ing a ruo. 000";1011, pOi:1:~lbl,e gaoaeutr ino detector that is deph)y~ble 0 u the seafloor ..Th iS
deteemr; called H~~"r~ii nrineutslno ObA !lerv~!t'i'Jry (HANOHANO\, whk:hi!'iab:o H;;!!~ waiian fc,r ·'magt]I~f:iC:eIl.f·), would allow the measurement of the gel!:meuktino signal ecm~~'1galmost e'!(i'.:I.us~vdy from deep within Earth, f<ilif removed from the coetinems and nuclear reactors (6). Thanks to the (,'np~lbi~~~y of 1.1IlU~liple del)lloy~.'Yleirrllts:. l~;]jfJsd:C:;'l\'f;lC'ru(UWQuld provide theexci ti ugpossi b~1 'Of 0hrn,i.!l.i.ng, iQ'
d.I:iT'ereI'H posirlous on the globe. U ~ti.nmtely. thesedifferent de tecto rs ,;vi U ~t]lo'!;,v an~ ::vdlemtis\'s to te..'i~'various models E signals
£[-Oll'l

precise n1!.'ea~UTemeut~f :ne'Utri.!~g5 and o
the

~nril]l~mtrino:;;~Qborlr1

Eanh science and these

~~:lltmphysiC<i~. comemnlnes, ]n add i~iO:l1hldetecting geoneutrinos,

compositious, However.the

upperpower

limit

d.etera.lIl.i:nedltly '~be exper[~me:nll 1{-60T\Jil ~'r~: l1ile 30: lim]t) exceeds E~uth'$surlace hea!t flowb,y 11. fihclor of I .5 and Is thus not very useful as a

constr-awnrror f~e mocl!er~.
Nevertheless, there ws great excirement \'\i.ith.inthe two ,(,;onmu'!n~[ie:1S,a~ advances i 1lli antineurrino detection are .mu::JJi:c,iptueci" The: K~mLAND detec~,[Ji[\!,~~~s ]~~te~'iJl-i()~].a]ly ~ited 110011" uc]ear f'eacw:rsi~l n Omeli];o c!ulracterDze ~ltille1!,ltrinQ~~c.il.h~ti,oi.npl:mmi'leter'S (fl~el~~c~'
[or ~:nnduc.(;ts so-e~}lhxl cI,eetf1o!n amilllcm:l'inos" ,~Hil,d, ;;111tineuni.nUli (;.111 osciJI]ate be'hvee~"i! the

f1i.ciUti~t1'S de.'iiglled, ttl d~el1;lctneuuinos frolll11 are supernovae ~md determine their osclilaeion properties (i~.ite amiuentrinos, ueumnes can OS\.'ii~bl.t~am,olflg theirthree -diH-e~'entsli:~~e;>.), As panicle p~hysici:SifS (:o~.ltinuel:o ccuntgeoneuainos, the signal-to-ueise ratiewil] impruve 1!I~'d" w:ilt,], ruore counts .. the lmcert~:u:nty in the ,~dl~oacl]\fee!lergy budget ofEu(h wi![ ~hdnk 3Indlhll! measured Th/U r.!I~ of th~ pl.an>e[ win io be determined [:0 @! gn't::~ner frec:i~;iol~" Me~]~ SUrerlilenl lIm::·(;lrtalli,11t]es o~" HI'% or b~I.le:l' 1:ilre:possfh~e w~~.11:l'~hefiI€:\~ detedflrs. ~md ·~]fe ~C'hi.ewblewruth OIdy4! yt'~.I:Sofooumwng. Whnr does tlds ~ne~]~1 1he Eanh sd~ fur

fhr dle\.;e!tk'al.
riumaml the

ii;lnti

uranium

hlter,a~di ~tribut~orilof thain Earth ~~ndwill y.ield

lI!-!1.p1;lndleh~d 'Cl:)!:istr~dfll-s·'ml tthe COI~'1po5~~illll of
Clonl[illclUS:

from g(;j~mel.~trilH1\S\iv-j an",,\, U.'i to doedde II.~l'li()
~mm1,g 'coll'lpeting
i

and the dec·pe:rE:arl:h.rn[lsi,gh!.s
lillGdJe]s,

of Eart:h's. inrcerio(r.
R

llulC'Cdiflilrcnt "navors"-the el!()cITm'l~nl!.:lOl1.
.;ullid,il:.Ulattrllllllielurinos

ences'.'!Geonet:~tll'illO

del~Cl{)lrswwll. be

$,il(;."CI ou

Dec ~ldes, ll lf re$tl'<!rch Olil the state of m ~nt~e CO]1Jv~ic:tion hmve assliHlsd! '!.M.idc nlil1lg_[iug,
v,<lI~I.es

)-,1uld sense nu.ct[la~,
olL1.rpnt COlllseqlUe~lt~y,

CUI"ilH l'l!~li'IJh\l.crll;!jt uf di"merell[ <l!g.es~.incl.ud.i.ng
~!i1C~-e'!l~ iF~ltOtIS, It~e o]de:sl C

of

t~~,e

'Urey r.ui!o. th_e FIol!OPtJ!itiol]. ,of

['ioms in re~ctor

j:.l'O'!;7!r'e1:

pieoes. of cO~1:tinents

Til ealu(liIoriK ~1lI~h:e [)eP<lftlm el1i~ (II {ielolag'i, Un{We'5~tJ.l' Qf Marylalf'lri, GClIl.eg'i!'! Park, MD :20742; USA. E-1l1ali:
mctllGlfleLl!;l@UIITI[I.@dui

(see the fi.brl.l~re).One pro{po5!dis to ICOllvert t~ile SudbtlfY Ne'u:r:r:inn Ob~ervatr:iTy (SNO) to "SNO+" f4).11]'I:::;,U)OO-m:ll delOCi!Or iiii si.iooin o]m.i ne in Onl<'lirio, O:llnli]d.]. <Indre:preNtli1:l'i .]11

rd!d~nacltiv:t eJllergy outpm to ['he tot~i energy ou.tput of the pb.UlleL Geocil-eon:i!5ls h~ve ·dJ~dl[lc:eda U~~y~~ari.nf·-O.. .. ,.vfue!ie~~!i o 4 gen~

IJ,hysici,81:S j:Jore:lier co:nsln.liClinglnmu:~e 'COI],'!,ICC·'
timllltmdeJf> aSiiN.Ul1Il~:nghigj~eltUrey r<~l~m;

then

W\NW,SCleno~mag .Orgl

S,CIIENCIE VOL317

31 AUGUST .2007

1177

P'E RSIP ECTIVES
r,ange til' to rn" 0 (7) .Jn addition ..geoueuni no dlal(~, cnupl!~dwi~h h)taW~lem~nml!{dmll, wi.U be used. ro evaluate model S of'bulk eontinemal crustal compositiou ..Competing models ull[K'eT by ~limfl~t: ill! f_',u::tO]i',gf 2i n their concentrations of potassium, l'llmdum. and uraninm, with smne models critically dependent om hem:.. 11m,!,' d:!liM!. {b1., kyond detenrnin ing the ~rnnun~ and dis~
tll"ibl:l[ioll ofhe,au-prod,ud~llg elemeats ilnEarth., i,:narlide ~'lhysid~ls;atthe 'i;l!;'orks!m,p described

composed

of high-density

metal,

!has

:31

marked ccmrast III electron c]e~llgi~:yfor~:fue ]l!lineT and outer core, Measurement of neutr.inodi:sp(u:s.ion in these ~!.~rs would substanti?l!llly iU1!I·Jfnll;!t:O!L!r knmvledge of Wle ab.,oW~,;ute n1.{lIl~us f the cere-and hence rhe preei sien of o g~,~)bnl.seismol og ic~~:1 dels, S.uch beam !:lJn'l

rm~rletUy h~gfuelF clectwon de:n:si:ry care shells of Eill!n1.1. Likewise,

lm!:1!11 the

!Si~,i~

there is a

Referl!II1C!E!'S 1. I!l<eef!!! Cl~e1!fl! ArilHl!!U!lFirn;o Obs~!V>i!W!!Y W'c!Ioo.!hgj), HOiilCII~lI!i. Hial!lait, 23 00 .25 .March 2m17. mlo\l.II:.p!yt5.hawaii.!i!dliJll'-sdyelhano.m1111l'L :2. T. Ar;'!'~ et,oJ"Now~~ 436,499 '(WOS,h 3. W, f., M(iOonoiJ'~m. ill Jl\I~ Ma.!'lilll'f': ,rl.!'ld [Ole" IR:.W,. CaiTll:oQ,

ffid!, (EIs~r;:f'·lPe~i;lrrm@n..I1.d'ord; 2.0(3), v.dL 2. Pill. 5~i-S,68.
4. M,.], (hEin~ .f:aorth.Moon Pltmets.99', 221 {1006j" 5. MI,. G. Gi<lmm ,ndi, L Mlri.lrmiOlrli, foClrth .!HOlm fl'i(}[!f,rS '99', 2,11Ji7' (2.006~. 6.. J. G, L~anlle[j, S. li. lJ!je, 5.,.i?akwlsa,I'n ,Pt(}tmJinys ajinf Xli Jnl'~~"fiO!!'~1WCrJts!l'!i¥I' G'fl lIkurrj'no .~ri.Jtf(OP:es.,. 11\, Bald'lHj~oIilfl, ~dL (ts:IilIUID'lleIfl,~~ Sai!ilIi1lli~, t!iI~ Ilf1tl'~.re'~DI tw't:i. Pad'or,a", 21007).IlI'P'. 2:~5-269"

snidies ool:l]d also place Unlits
ofElydmgem:l in tile CO!fe"

011

the amouor

The range of novel eJl!:.per,im.en.tsunder \:l,!;;]Y omly a decade or so ~n"'TIiy frem 1im.p'~en]el.lLhltiom. thJ~ would allowmose ~lndthese just ove~-the hn1f~iznn win difectly precise de~(;';rn1inati,o:n (lif Earth's structure. i:~uermgare li1le interi or ofiEar!,b. in ~xC':itil1g and Di~pe:l'siol]. of neIH'rul'i.{l, beams peIM~'t.i'~.ti.ng litllp~iF~]lei!ed 'Mays (:9);. these '[:Otlbi \!..~Il essenEtllirthare afbnct ion of theelecnou density of ria].ly p,mvide nc'w\w]ys ol"journey.i:llig" [0 [he funire experi
IUI,;'iJfll:Si·.

7.

L~~tsk_~i~al,I., J,lore.j(j'd!!ial. Gtophys. Re.;. 1:iIl2, 8031212 (200'n,. a. tt L ltltldmidk. S, G~>O.: fhe CiI1I~, R, t Rudnkk; Ed, ~n ~EI~t'!!~er-Pen1il!i'm:m ..O;i;lr~rd,2003». 'ifC1. 3. P[i),· ~4, 1 9. NI.ll'il.• Sl~!i!"" .farl'b .if.l\:;oon.PloClne~s 99,.343 {211(6)i.
11".

dI~.fferem. I.ayers

,!)f the

pian.et. The Earth's.ollre.,

center of the Evt~l.

Plriv8lCC-- B~.- . esig ... - ---- y y D -- --rn

New l,echlilotogne5 are be]n:g de\le~,ODedto

prot~,(t the privaql'

or~nl(H\I'i;dutlill$]!l

00OilY'S.

lnlfo rma'tion s;Q(~ely.

nologyhas lowered the >CjOS~'S,of g1Hi1~eri~ng informatien about indiividu!ll:~s, ~~nking personal d~e'~:ilns".storing tbei[IDJ'~~)rm<1tio:Il,,'\['ld

I

n~hrm!llionpiriv.acy used 1:0 come by ~,e:fl1uh. 1U00.~~]y because o,~tI~e h]ghoo~lS

mllpoS!ed em. any snooper. Yet today. tech-

advocates ~rrengl~ening the powers of the U.K. Infermation Ccmmissioner [If) ~[I.dud.e substantial pe~.1t]ll~esor misu se of data. f T.l:l:ere are' i:iI:1J~my impQ.rt<lur ressens [0 use
pe~1iio:ll~~linlbrnlli~lticm"

blD."ldc~l:sting, rhe results.Tnexpensive

net-

worked stl,rve:il lance cameras capture ollr digital ~llli:]g'eacross time' andplace, TeTi:~byt:e RAUB (rooullda~,n array cfindependem disss) drives :~)Ioovide cheap ~W~j;lge. Real-time dam inl"eg~,ll~i soflwaret urns fragmemed perom
sonal thll<i huo con~poiS]~.epictur:eB, o:findivknll'-

Megan's L~~-\:l,(,Web~les per.m'll~l publicto s the loeete and idenri '~:Y'eonvicted sex nffende rs In the Un~md Smt!B:S.Deperoo'm'lli.zedi data 011

For

'eN;!il11l1p~e.

under

p~tiel1:1drug use can be mined to better tavget: markejiug e!I'(Jrts for phanuaeemicals; rhfis !;1plP~~!chis used, fbv eJo;,lnrp]e. by Veri:ip"u]' (6), Web-bas.ed sQc~a~. nl,;';lworks ~,~keaiku ()rTw'iln~r J
1~~ciBt;J~t':e peer-to-peer exchange
()f

personal

nls {l}. Conmmnicarion

fhm is universal,

del:~l:is. RO~ld~ollsC"olI!ll be debsed I
establishment of a Federal Privacy Comnusslouer or P:l"ivacY' Cmmm:iSii ion ..gr.ea1'tl:r!"ed,e,m~, re:gulali!on ef'businesses that useperseual

e];eClllFOglica]ly

in;st~mtallemj;s. unUm.ited in CfJp"tchy, and free
for all (2) is becoming ever more plausjble. With COSI: barriers lowered f'or dara car:!our privacy is no 10 nger i:m.p~kil]ypliOtec~:ed (3), Instead, t:l~ose d1~r:ged. with ]?rotectin,g in[orml,litioll1 pri:vlJtcym.u:M 11011,\1 give it eKp.lk~h ~IU~~:Jli'!Oifl. i~dl'ewnl.!q}o~e of two thOllght~ T]li$
provoki.mgrep0il"illS re~:e~~ssdth[s year (4,.5).

lroo) a dri.veJ'i-!p~rso\tll<d~CQ~)untwbih~ iUllOl1l!i'~Qr-

ing every vehicle's s~l~ly viohniOllS.

speed

~H1(~recordm,g

ture,

storage,

i ntegration ..and disserninarion,

informariou.and more government aerion to pfotecl ind]'!J'.idu~li.infCJrmatio~1'l .rivM,<.;Y. p

But illlh.ewmng tm!]d~. th:is personal information can be nsedto exp]orur or 1,~a:tm"JJ

In its i'~:r()Wl, fhe U.S, N!li!tiom(fijIRe...o;~arrch Council recommends f~l!ll[ fa:~r illf()rlua~:ion pnu;;~i.c~...be ad!opt.~d by bu~i Ile~.'·,;es· tile use ]u of :person~d inibtrmm~()n nnd UUjJt m)~cjlhl:ru~1isms

Ute report' :fro:m.the ll,K" Roy:nm Ac:adem,y of 'En,gi.neering e:nllpbaj;i.ze~ that 'because oJ hlU[[1an~! r~glus h~,1'!;~~, o~Jani.z~1ti!()lIl:s. Hlli:ntaiJ].i,I~.g n sYS~~i1\'1,slh~t O~tlpt;:'r.;oil'l~1 ~~'lfntnl~(ll~O:iJ'I s.hotdd be acoount;)lbl.e for des]g11.i.[1g thenll hJ provide pf~V.'icy'l5'). The repon ~!1;'lc:;(}mlil'le'nds. le$~ intmsive data. use {:such ,as :pl"cferring cli,etl!
autil~e~lit~c tltiom- "are they ~
\'~]Iid

individuals; f(.:l'.f 'ex,a'lCl1ple. released sex offenders may be subject to .lmras:sn.n~,l].l.emp~I>oyern may discriminare a.g(lin~t thnsewit:h certain uledi cal coudi.liloms,. children '©ill social net\.Vl.ltk

s may lDe~~g~;~ed by l"hOSe\li ilb evil intenl. and car o\,\T:I1iersInuy be held accoulH-

be dev,e'loped to gi.w~indi.'\f]dL1aI5 nu!orn ooumol. over Ih.e 1i:l:se rlt~i,['iJlfbrlrJiation[ 4). P'e'.lth(IJJps of
rll1ie mo.'u ,eonrruvt':lrNbdre0~11l'lmendOl.HeHI'JJS i;IIl~,ro,lve i.:ncreased pri,vii1icy :I"egul~lti.o~rl::ihe'
The author 1~ atUhe H. J,cihn IHeillll. III

usersTthey?"),

~lblefOir w~n t:hievesm.ay dowHh ~heir C<Jlrs• . To he~p b~llance ~Jl:i.vac:y conoerns nnd HIe
need forpefMlrl;;ll t~<lta.a ~,ttlWp~IJ~I!(Ugm ~s. cll1Iel'ging. in ,:vi1!i,di sys[C[1I1 d.es,ig[JIe.rs conduct privacy r.i:S.k ~~se:sl;,n.1e.tU'S<n.lJ'IJdilu:;firpo.mtepd~ It"l;lGY a~ a fund~~me!fltalcl:esig!1 :r~~rroJ1!~':l'leter; As .~. 0> Ahm. On:e:nsIYaI1! li'I~~s:ron~ll.rkecll (7).·~Tlli:Ie most ~

over

idel.Tlwficut:icm-'·who

an:

n~se,arch Ollli hO!\iV c;:amer.01I s.Hr\'ei~hUlce can igllore :bIlV~~lhid.ing. ~u;;:~iviri~s; devekl1'ling clar~
it)! about p:r.ivacye.xpe.c'lflrioms,. fOl]Ual:rnon of

andl ,Managemenl~. Can1e-g1ie: MeMe~ U1li1iversi\lI, 1P11~'llblll'{llh. MilS2 ID3,USk E":mlail: gd] 7,@arn,tlr,!ru.I!c:IfI'I~.t@tlul

'Solild lid

Pl:lbtic ,P'olic::V

m :rltusted~h ird"'ptll'ty ()rg:~·l'uz.ltinn~as> ,guard~.~n~ erfli:{:,~i\1e .e'~H$to i£;'OiU[ll"f;lt tecfunokigy'S ero~ ~ s:i:on of ~)~"lilvacy ils ~echnol()gy il!l:cllf.·· Tib i.~liusl" ~. of penmlnald~aU1i. ~~ndrlrm:ikjng d~nl. ,co~]ec~ion w, []'"t]le hO\JiI p[J:~;vt]cy-enh~u] c:ill1g 'l,echnn:1ng ~:es, U ''1ndl use l1"1JInSp1Jlren~ to the dat<l. ~mb.iect It
VOL 31 '7 SCIENCE

31 AUGUST 2007

www.seiencelnag.org

PERS:PECIIIVES
mighrwcrk, cons ider t1hireepr ivacy-affeeri ng sy~tem~; surveillanee callC!e!7'~$, wirdess net\'VOF'k andrad io-freqneney identi fi cation s,
(RFID) tags forpetiems,

<lind! easures must be in. p]ace ·ruo m deal with privacy failures, Access by i.nd]v.~dJu!1lJs .~g Video ::;urveilhlnce Cim1:e!4Shave become a commonplace cOlnpo.n~el]l of secllu'hy systel111!:i their personal dam. sheuld be ea!'l)l,~nd: mechim puhlic pl.~ces,Hig,~lFr~~oh.1I1ion i.mage!> mter !l1!~'J!~ !IIll& must be in .Iil~lce'~o ~ ensure that per..
a wide field. of V.USf.V can be dnl~Ha].ly SILDr<ed

performedto :~end tity lfue~)o·tenri~l f(lF disclosuee of per,"omll ]nfTo:rnfl~tiou, D iscl osu resin u st be· revealed,
risk

.a$:seSSI111~ln IUU S~:be

imdefi:nitelyto :identify:iaJ~d track persons, !VI indful of visual pti WH.';y. rese archers h ~1Ive dle'lfiE::']oped. apprn;ach to perturb :aU facial an
re~~ure5 sOII:h,~I.l each race marches a nlm,'1b~rof ()t~'l:effl{If}. .~Io~vev'e:.!-. or 11i[0; •.c'litm.~.In\)Ib.len~~ n~aj

scnal data are aeeuraie .. Tn enSl.Ilfe effectiveness, ~ysle!]1i~ m.u~t mtlke a trade-off betl1l,,re1(;l11L I)rhracy risk am:'!' uti] ity,. but reasonable expecmtioWl~ faf priVlilCY

Pre55., IMew Y-ork" .20 M~. pp, "1 :11-813, 4. N'ali()lfL-a.t IKe5E!liiIroh Co:tmcil,. e:ngag.i'Jligj.Priwuy (Mril ~frxml1l:ir;rn Tc:dmol(Jgyln a mgjtoJ.A~f! (N1iJlnoml11 Acad~lI1Illiil!:l;,prif:ss, 'iYliIsrnln'9Iton". IDC. ZtlOJ'). 5- "Ot~ 1R!c\y.illi.c;~demy (II Eng~llIe~mingl, Dlil~m,rll"~f)IPiiW).~r / (I;I1!fSI.lMfllof!a': Cflalle:.ll{J5 oJ T«bn~tJfcal CJ.Ulll1gt '~lond!Qn. .200'7)'. 6. WWi'i.'Ileirispan,oomfilildE:I::.:phf! "1. It Gr'E\ll\nSIIlIilIIll". t (OflljER1.l'l'.[e.on .Prirt{1.(yin dili:' a ~mgliao/lA9l' '~5,~U.l~kf(ii~~. 7 I!.pral1'99f); $l!!,e ~:lei!leu<!l~er.;(!'.g(l'l,!,ibo.~rd(locsJspeecI1;6I19 97ft 997
l

must a~,\v:a.ys met for e,'(,al;1I'Ip~le.a subbe
by name lf'just

ject need not beidentified
rem. is

remaililinillF)~:)]emenlingsuchprocedures.in !'i~y OJ1,fuotb~m Sbldhl f!i'l. undedining tben.eed. fur .111.rti]!31r research: the existing techniques are too e;"penswve .<illi1d slow lD be used hll gen~·
eralvideo surveillance.

aJlnl1cnti!cario.ll1'o,frlhie subject:s role in. rillle sysr,e~lrired. A(:hiev~l.lI.g "<ldequat<f' privacy will require engineering Junovasioe,
mam]g.er~alcol'iL'II'J.I'I] lm.ent.i.nfi'lru'lied . .coope.m.~ tion of data subjects, ;!:lIrldsocial eomrols Oe.g·]s~'ltioll, reguhn~ml, C1~deR!;}f emu.tuc! by PIOfes5.iollli~1 assoc iarions, and :respO]1 se ro reac1ions ofdllspub.1 ie),
R,e{ienl\IICles. illlild

03tH.~~m. 8. E.M. Newton.,. L. :m~nill''I'. e,. Ma~in.1EJfli(l'n~tl"litl'n~ on KiJO:l!ll~~ and .!)arn .fn9irreenn-9' 1:1', 2:32 ~2005). 9. 8., Gr'BBng@in.. alt .iI.Uli w.orli.iha-p 00 H(JI TDpia iil' qpec(I.ni,,!}! s~rem,:l (H.fJl{)5 XV, S~If'l Di~9iOl (t!, "ll(!? Mi!!~ 2007. :110'. :5.. C.:5eideiil, r" ~dra ~h,. fdri~ of Su.rg;fl}' 141. 931 A
1

'~OO6).

:1l1. YMi'I..gIllI1!'!lc.lI.!<J:kteruironn1li!l1Illif~lI.1)etaiL.",~p'?IRe~E!a'5lE!
11Ii)i~2M:S67&iNllW'SAir~i3~1i)"'2.&Niil'lli!ialll!dFrom[l~p3r1fl11 11Int=Falllse

Tim rich c0lmoct!vity ofw.ir~~.e&"! networks invol ves a SpeCl1lfil,;UlIl shered ~ a wide vade"ty of
d!~'i,I,ice.&, uch as ~I~~pmpi).,muet()mh headsets, s and mebile :rlliome.>;, Because ~mydevice C~I!.u be

:l!.2. T: KafYg~ol"!11~ ,",., ~fdeN"esJOI' Sect!"'1?fJfIi~1) et FfilQ.r.rMc; trfetJtlfirnti.rNl' (11m)} systtms (National.

n.

]de]1ri~Ied., tracked o~'r time, and profiJed by .mytnle '!.v:ifh sufficient teclmieal cali;!l!bility~ this
ccngestion
enc~)tion
1:!l~:reS

INotes

callon :of ~ers•.p~.nUon

[nstii~ut8IDf Standards andTe{hlnol\!Jg~.W~fuingt(m,.IIK. 2,o@:i'}. iIbE: guidelin51l1idud~ WiFC!willLs ·lliiI~ s!i!palra~!;!RIFIi) cbtl,Ib~~ [r'~!T!: ~!h:~r!!!~ti!tI~~~.~~n~llllll~~lPtign. ,~i~ih@!'I~·

01 UMIiI(homedlalc.t:eSS, and

1. \'MW',o.ffld~.ool1l.!'il!!lrpo:rilliflp~.2(l@7J@bJorfldg("u:fll tnt~grallOf;lhun~

concerns

dun. the
i

lJ1.5UIlli]

procednres ·c;<a:l1mntp mmct

an indi-

'!,'~du,ars locanonal priv.acy. Greenstein has ide[lti fied variou s research (;h<II.~emgesin de:;igning wireless systems thnt ~n:pdvl:lcy~ aW~lIre,~). 11te, challenges i.rnc]ude. for 8Xil,mpl!e. 9

2. G. Gilider;. Te.t:eccsm:How.lfIJ~nlleB~d:wfd!1l Will Rwo.ful-fanite ffi.~ iWorld (Wit"e,e~fe§~; IMewy"oj~,200C})I, 3. G.lT. Duiilca:.rl. In jl, Slil2Lnl;'l,). P,o;!!ie1,t3(, t Leone. Eds..,A I t;m£ Klfirl':lli'~I!''' Ptilim'y. :5'ffU~antl Public
In/r:ml'rtJ#.oo'

IlIg Idjsposat 110' Cle,~I'0~~lM~t~e data. :M. M,. Llng:heinrirn, in PwreBdillg5 Tn.ft611metnrntilJJ'ii'6l '{JIJI~l~if! Oiljl U:birqfJ.nl)tJs(f}.mp-utlIr9. G•.AibWld, B.. Ek)ymil"!, $, Shilr!!lt', Ed~. ~~prLn!Je~ .ruJLiw!ta,.. 2oon,pp. 213-29L

AfU.f

5€ptemb~;r 11. 1({!li!lI'1ll1r~ F"~!mMi®1II

cl!"yp%ognlphif.~ schemes to prevent tile uecessary deviceaddresses frem being identified

MOLECULAR

BIOLOGY

to eJx.isringPll(JtO-' for a device to, discover and bind. to reOO~WCieS\N.~dMJilUt revealimg to ~m 1e;;]Voes<lropper [11m~tis doing so.
l'olslform.edi.!il access, and ways '~.fr"Oing~sire :;l!:!!Ii'g.ery~!". esrunared .~~occur bettveenl300 and 2700 rimesper year iID:1i the United States] UJ},.'Wiil'h ~]ID RfID ~aganached ro a.pa~iem ..a. pilysi.ci!H1.in the eperaring room No",(.od~iI1.gl m~c:roR.NAs alli~ Ii'II~cMsary for the slurvivahJlf jpalStmitotic in Paukijll1scm's and other brain diseases,
l

wirhout bua."d)ooso'.me(:I.1La!nges

(i@llls :5t1C~as,neurons that die

canreduce the num~eJ (lorsucherrors by verify~ng the correct p(].ti·em.procedure, and site, The U. K. heal th m iui ster Lordllu:l11it ..re)c!~Iiul:y !"'~!p~mri:ed reeormuendntions for such strareg]e:;

.T·~ ..... ..

ie h'.l."".ln.....,t':. n. .0.: rue .seq.~.ue .ng c.].~.ort g ... . .ncl hastaught usthar it takes rehrr.i.ve:iyfew
.ilI

could pl,ty

a role it'I thepHlhog~mes.]~.

of

f~_fkin:5!O"n'& disease,
SU.mUarro ,c]~~s·s:icalgl::.mes. 1.,,~giJ)ns. of tbe genome lilila!itenoodemiRNAs ,1Fe' t~lll'l:>cribe(1

genes to buUd building

hnnian being, Com-

NHlion,,1 In~~itme of Sta!ld~[ld$ luu. Fe{:'onil~ ~::n!el:1Jd~d. rUingent piI"ift,ct'i .i ~,'Ji d~es igll~~,lg st ct'::S nn

U l)LE!oec~IILtSe pdV~I)C)"~s airEecled, the us...
5y~te]H

plesity ""ise~ fr"(rmfile eombination

ofthese blocks i.l:':IlO genelicprognu'Jlls that m-.e f~m:::'lyrnw.l'ed in space~!.nd l"ime dJu:ring cell.

IrF[D1

(/2. B), for e'xm.~lple. only the

su rgeon and ol:lll~rs\:l,Ii.Ll1i[l!.'leoo to klj:~)\~1 "youid. h~\le ,1)!cce!'i~, O.dy ~~11I~uG,hll{j;1301~.~ d~lt~ ~te

ct~PllJred as ]5 necesS&[)'~[h1ll5" l~CI,81gSWOlllld ofmiRNA funcrku:I h~]:s not' conhli n persorm I fiflal.1.c[;a.~i]1f~lrmf]rh.1r1. ~en]es,Det;eguhatiqrl last YC~1;B:ir~¥Ii:ng~.lal:J1i~]~al··lrn~mcl5 fIQ~,p:i~:~lill. been :ili11p~ji,c~lted in hum:an d.iseases ilncludr UOC, oegJElJil to f;XP"l11d the U5e of RF[D in.g c:mn;er~U"iI!d .heHr~ d~se<lse (I, 2), On [l,~~e. 1.2.20orrJh~si!i:sue. Kin1 III al. (3) suggest bracel:c'ffi to !ldI pati~nlS onf~'Vc \:vru.·ds.1 inki ng,
l'lfIem~o adi.gilfll.

and tU::;:-lm~d1ff"erenti~~tilo:ltl. A l'iI'IaJo:r I)an of this reguhu.io~l .is pedb!.-Hlleti. by U.1iCHJRNf\:s. (mjRNAs). sl1ru1illRNA n10~ecules encoded by the g:enmiJJile. th~~lt I~O:~ ~rnlr]s]~!~ed pro~ ure iHio liei,ns~ rn.t'hell".. they contl"o~ d~e ex~~m\;lssi()!n of

in tbe cell nucleus, Nasce.ntmiRNA. rmmio.liipts. me .i!1iti~dlyp!\ooess:ed ~I~:\to I!Oin,g(up to t>eve'r~d k.ilo,bas·es in ]!;):lI]gU~.) reculI110rr :miRNA:s that p
are then sequ~;mti.~lny dea~d by t'lI\fOeU:i:.)'!lleS" Dmsha and Dk:err. i,nto smam,] li~I:l:CliOlI.lal RNA.s. 1(-22 [n.l!i(,,';]e:ot"idf;:~'ll, TJie,.o;;e I:g~~R.NAs re suhse~ a q1!1cmly .imcorpol.1:ued ~1[IJIO an RNA-i,lldw::ed

~i ;:!1J!dng Q'Jmple>.;t Rrn SlC)t, "vlu~c:h !'.jup.f.)fe:&~s: k lite rli1ms~m(i():nnd/o'li ·p'mn:lmes (he deg,md~l-' a dun 'of t~]rg.eit U:li"ieuger RNAs (u1RNAs.)n RNA rno[eCtl~es [bat encode p.ro~eins.-by
billi'lding. to [Iheir 3 ·'-illlrl[['a:ifI::'d01it,ed reg~lo~.l.s; 1(3 j-UT[ts} (4). IlJiRNAs flreabnndiilnt in tbe

phot\O'~~fI~'1 [Id l~leeleIOil'o[iJ]c ~

~.ned:iCEI.II oocords for the~I~: visit.

dl<.iLlmiRNAs ('Ite e.\j!:e:ntini.l:ot m~i:nminirr1g doparll~llcrgic neumns in the IbI:n~I~.1:> tlu,IS ;!lud

To en;slJ.u~darilY and accounrab.i~~ry 1(14). P!···i.v~H;y~~m,;:~re sy!ltel'n~ mu~t imp]e~~le~l :J t dJefini.tio:l1 ofprwvm:j' dun usel."Sfi~1J1id .eaning-' m
fl.l!, reasm"ilabl.e, <'lncll lrans:p,,~Jent A privacy

br.li,n and are ~ssem!l;itdfor dl'identbmin
rrh~<inJ~hlOr~ar,e: In. the Ciei'llA;!r ·!'iiW Hl:ii'i'iali'il (leill~li(s:,
IKUL.ell'i!'~iIl. eremaat49', H
VI.EIand

19.:~~:1C-'

hom. In tbili li'e.lil~Ifd, '~"Xp!~~sion ,[)if~.bll11lirH'p~

LeoUwe)t'I, ~ea£l;

UI'fi'I.

IE-nilan,

cific uli RNA (rn:iR-·I2.4;~.)in l1:Oinlileuro[l~1 c~JI.s.

IlElrrU1e!:toooll!r@.I1'i:~tlL~ll.d~,ij",m,bE!

w\!VlN.sciencem~g"org_

SiCIENCIE

VOL 317

31 ALJG~ST 2007

1179'

P'E RSIP ECTIVES
converts the overa~~gene-expresslon pattern to' ~ nem(J~.UiW'O'!le f5. ,6). AUf.H~~er br~ill~SPE.lcific

rill RNA,mi R~·~34. modulates the develop~ ' ,l7' AI "-", '1ment OJ d-.' .emmne spllle:s-neurona. protru:;i!OH~ that connecr with other n.euron'S--'~m.d tnume:ib.replmb~~bly control s neuromtl nunsmissiou ~mdplj~liSri.di~( Recent ev idenee suggests that miRNA s ~wld tr~n'~C:f.iptio!:lfi~c:ton'\'\1ork dose conin cert.For instance, theRE I silencing transeripti.o~[lfactor C~Il .i.nfuib~t franscription ofrniR~ [~24'3.'~h~lieby !\j.u:PPJes:si g cell dli,lw:renti,ati:OiIl n

n

Kim {;"l al. alongw ithprevi,1lrk in mk:e {J" J()me~ and ()l'~~~ mred neurons (St.in 'I7IIi1ioh the enzyme Dicer was g.ell6t ic~nyf:l1<:lict]vated. Loss of Dlcerleads to the complete absence of nl.~RNAs ;;~:l!'!dI is Ie'l:iulJ1U2) .. ~lowever,. Kim .rtf Cll. shaw tlli1!il:t mice ~~N;:kijng. ieerin spec ific d:O:ll.1_ll.ll~l1e D :m:urOHsare
vjQUS

00' ~ certain e.,";;~~l'l:t by

vn

dopeminergic neurons in cell culture .. ~.",he_U'ea.s itse~p:resshJl[l 11\~r.n."'rf;:glJ~atedi in the br~ltn of Parkinson's diil'ei:1Sepntienrrs. is. hQ iivt,."I,!er, 'I'.H.!Z,.
1

21 i.!l'llg.TIl[S
liT! ig]u

OlbSeJPi/:!Ii~~rn:lJ.ugg.~sts, s

[h~t ll.'liR- ~Db

'~~ve add itio!m[fnlllct1orlisindiolliln.niner;.
di lJeren!~I!Ii~i.(mbeYO~::Icl: suppress-

g,~cueuronel

i~'lIg Pin:] expression, Further work ~;s 1\ei(;'eS'-'
sa 1)'. I.ThO'loldy to. Edabon~m:f~e (:,~jnicaiin'lpo:ri., tance oflillie.'lief'i.I.l,d'vWI!gs., b!.u also to' elucidm-e d]e; 1i:~]1 genetic progransrhat miR-133b 1,'I1oduEales,. i\p~]I!'l :limn t.hepo~1>ibjl.ity lllil!~rr anov'e!"~]1

born ~]Iive btu d.ev,(;dopa progressive

tessof

nell!f'P!lS laterin ]if'e, di~p]~yiug~.Parkin~n\; d~8e~:nse--illike pj.:tell~OI.ype:.'Ihus, Dieer i8 essen-

ilflto neUT1,lUS(!~).KillU el

aL observe

~] siltlUar

tia]fprneumn~dl $wvi.wd a:ndhlSs ofmiRNA~ nnty beinvolved inthe deve~,op:m~llland/or pmgre:5s.inll o::rr~I1'kjLrl~nn's disease {J. 10).

loss: o f:m i.RNAfil,1fIic[i!on
with agi.ng and! could

Ci(jiU

ld be associ ated
to tile age~

contribute

reln[~,OllS;l}ipbetweeu mik- ~.33band the rran!'>(::rlliptioJl]fil~lor Pbx], nlep~lit f(lIi'il'iI ~ <;l. !Ile~l~ ri \!{!hfu:,~d1b.a(:kl()QPdun: l;egu~~t;e.s.d,ol~81g:11 iner~ic nenmn d~fn:~relnarion (seetheflgurej, l p i1X3, transcnbes ~rniR~ : 13.3b. which in turn

Gi.~n UJ:;.'ulili1eransfer ofceUulru:-cle:rhfed! t

.SOlan

suplPreS;~$ .rt~x.3 expression, Akbcn:ugllKimer a!:prov~d1e insights into current ceaeepts in
the 11fl[RNA H:e~d. ndim neu~

d]s€·~l)je,ve:ry SIJ.'u~Gi6cl~lQI!t}c;:tl]~lr RNAs {inc.l~u:lirlgn~iRN.As) p.ar~b.i.ny p.re~ Ai:Z!!I!e~l1ie1i''i:;. served the dopanll~ne'rgicpheniO'(YI)e illloe:~.~ mechanisms should also be envisaged, Thus, culture (3), U is Hke~yl:h.a! the ~bsenc:e (:!J. p(~ly.n'LOlfp:his,lTI:Us ln the g,el1l>elk regiens eneoding specific miR'NAs and .ahcmrtiom;. in ~,JliRNAs. tlIl.1d not rhe hick of other potential Dic:;er·n~']~~ilecllfinn(;tinns,is ]:Ii1/vnlvt'idin t'h~ mclecular mechinery (such as flJ'I[R_NAp I'Q eessi ng enzymes) shon ld be invesrigatcd .. neurodegenenaree precess. The l1.oill';.l important steps ~1re ln perrieular .. '~:he3"-UTR of the luRNAs ~:o deten')rliire~l.especi;f]c miRNA$ ~ncod.iJlg prm:ein:11,such as (j(~sY[].lu;::I.'e~1] 'af

related increased ri.:sl\(: for P'~l:1ki,llson's and

rom} I.d ifferenriari function
certain of

0111.

the i, Ill ..·
Mirdbrain

pl k:at ~.,onthat It:'liRNA dys ~

couhJi under! ie
CilSJE:S

responsibl e Jbr neuronal cell death, the :p~ilrUcu ,genetic lar PI'OgI',fUIIS nnd bio~.or~ic1~,] pro-

mny]oid Pl''eJc'lus'orr protein should be scrutinized. Becairse d.o~,a,geeffects of these

prm~in5:

iiIIR:

sufficient to induce Pliukirli!i1on's

spoir<1Jdic

D.op,lImi rUlirgit:

-_ ..... -!"---, 'Tarl];l?t IOWA
P1t:d

1110

t

C
<.

·-.-.
""""_~

nellllFon5

C'e!Sses regnlared

bythes e

disease (13) and Alzheimer's dlsease (14).

O1RN~ Im.wr.
Pc r~-mi

n.. ron .go,,",pm,.om

rcs'pec[ivel y. fu:rllhc,'a]u::mr ion sthat centrel t:~1ei ,ex.press.io,.i:iIl1Jli.ghl. also coutribute je r parhoge nes is.[ udeed, theneurolog iea ~d isorder TOiUJren.€:'s, syndrome isassoeiated with

R"B 31:1('nQitCOO if:! g 1iI11l:roIRNII\l'

Pib:3 ~.I'i",'

'Transcrij:diol'l fador m ••• ]

tl v~II~.~~ionin binding site fora specific the mfRN.A in the j,~~UTR f}fm:RNAs encodingtheneurcnal proteins S]it and Trk-lise l
(S[JTRKI, ) (15).

Thework by Kim

et at.

and oth ewrecent

:
I

"

-""_

studies I( 7. i.l, herald a newarea of'exciting [i1f;$~roh in the fie~d ofW!eurodege!1e~c;:~itiv'e isd

IN~lI!llm~I(lj~ su rvruV1:! l il!i!~h~ br~;!'i , A!'1alll'~olFeg u ~atOJyree.a ba ck loop oolT!tpooe.a QJ~he '~nll~:S(lr~ lad~r n plion Alzheimer's disease; however, li.itt: role of Pit'(3 and milR.·B3b iSlmplk,ued in dopamiilerg~( neuron m!u!J~;'liI~ionand s.lJirv~v;'!llin ~Irn@' brain. m]R·B3b~s dlefiC:il@l1it.il[lthe midlbroil]1'I ,of Parkifl1rion's di~&.'(\ase' l~:allienil!; ami ~1fI morne' mode~.s, .elf dloj)ifIl111l1irle m]RNAS:!l!s a porenrial therepeuric tnrget
11t1!:ur,OIl d ~~:i(.ien,c:y..

eases, Clinh':~1] mdieswill mpidly delera::lfl:i;nJe s the extent ro w'hic.h miRi\lAs, contribute to [fuJe pathcgenesis of sporadjc Parkinson 'sand
rema ins a eh~l~e:llgin,g. ql~lC:l'sl:hm ..

disease Is. profound given tb1:~ ::~fte:r Alzheimer's d.i!ie',~l~.f~~]rkinsnn't>isease • d :ili th~ secund m,osl pr~V.arneml age-~!'lsoc~~ted neu!il,_ldeg:ene;rative di.~rde~-. The gn!du~d loiS,~ of dOipa:minerg:ic (al]}deveDtu~dly (lither) ueu-· roi1~ve~"lI!h~ ~e~f1e mob~.li.ly ~Jt-.c.):bl.f::!.l1'1:5 ~wd il~ occ~:smomll~ty evolves; immofuU-h]c~"V]l denle:n~· l-i'L As Wi~Jl A Izlle~~.l!1ersdi~eHse. g.e!lH:= miUm~lions, Crnlri resu~:l'ill ~m~.1Lel.~~ed of ~u"k in-· fo:.r~:lls sou's. d:i:s.~]se (9). Although. tI.~'e~tudy uf these . m~"Cfanfli.]j!l~ fbril1IS llliis he]poo. el~ornlou5~.y .in ul.U!d.erst<ILodli,m,g, I[~eij]' ntll.:ll.ec ular p<u~1JlJogen.e~i~,. the re~1 !chal~enge fO:1I" -!intue resei;lf·ch ,in the' field i.sthe'lJ':;}st mtl1::1JOer f no:nfiulli ~jal cases. o 111!e hypoth!esi ~ that a]l'emtkms ][1 mi RNA ~::tet'i.-\lQtks.in d'::teh:min cOlll:i[ibtH.c1O 11;~UI;"(i(~egen-·
P~Hki[JJ801111S

mlRNAs. .ml"l:d: (I~e e_,'HXl-1U10 Wil ich these nr!iRNA:s pThilY.jj!~rek,"l,I1l!ll~ !nh::iH lh,e neilJmde~en" er<l'~i:vephlol'lli()iI:)1J~. I'~,'le ~vi.demoo presenl:ed by Kin'! ,ei cd. ~s~)~"!lewkrt .~~J'!b~guoll!~ H]w ~l,iN~'e]"' as> ev~mce' tOll!,mrodegel1£rmioll.. Sc.ro-eni.l1g ~he e,.>{[l!'a'i~i!muof 224 (Iiner-eil~tmiRNAs 'ob[m~n~d ITDm br:a:in SZlnlples ofpatiems 'wldl '~;I"kinsom's
d~se<J!se~mdcom~~wl ~t!bje(;tsr-ef'i,f'e~led il;aJb]e IHl

Plef1Elrli!:rn(1t':!!i

in ~ snmU nun.~bc:r of iIfb1,iRNAs, ]mduding miR~133b. NOn:'Ji!~~Uy. miR~133b i.$ cm·kh~d ]])Ih:emi.dbra:~n~h,()\'l.1Cvcr.nt V'!l'.!$, sur~ pris,~mgly def~~ellil. i_ll~he br-dl:irl1~nfpal'uent" \1i.t1t:h P~lrkinsonts di:sctlSle. The' rebuuve number of l)2Itient:s i:U1iwsdgatliSd illl[~is study .lsloosmaU to changes
dl"~w d!efi~'l]~-e c::oJ!clu~io!1~~bol,i1[the ,din ic;::~~lre~~ evance this obs!::nllil[i O:Ji1.. ThiC findi ng d'Utl" rtrliR."'133b suppreSHej; ~he ~iJI i d iHerenlTIl<]tio]i1 of

L 16, It C.a.1nn,C. ,M. ClfOCe, Nat ..Rev; (mueT 6) :8,5,1(20lM) .. :2 .8. Ya~gIII al., :N'i!l:l\ted. 13, 486 (2:00'~'. 3" J. Ki!lil1 ot\! 0(., .5dmlif 31/., l2Z0 {2007h. 4. ~CS. IKD5i~" R~~ l'JeufD~d,7,. 91lL(20(l6). m~l; :5. l~; 1L1m 0[. Nat(JI:e~3,~ 7,6,9~2C105t ~I.' 6. ~. '!I. ~~,ll. Zlili31i1!j,M,.A. (;;nr.3500, 11.. a'l:li:3ti!:"I:\fo.I~ M (efl27.~35, (20(J7~'; . '1" 'G. M. Schrall t!i' ,cr!., NQw're 4,3'9',. 283 (2:006)'. 13,. C. (.IJIiii3m,. s,. OtlD, ] .. J. Halnt, G. MillndE!~ flt'm;:. M~d. Acad. s.et UlAi. 1<03. 2~.22(2{l06l 9.. 'IlIf. l\IIandem[d:.et~, V..A. .r,i'iI~~I. DE:Slroopel, J. nllSa. E ]0. A. Sd,!i5e~e~ cl.•J. bp. -"'fed. 2014., :l!.:5Sl200''n. e!
lrL :ll20,:D07 t2Cl()7.~'. iii. ,6" Bmlil@ll, ft.. Iril. PiilillilllilD". 1iJ1.~Il, Banini .•M~. (el! (;4, 15r (20Cl6), :1!1" E..IB~riiiJl"ei:F1et ai._, Nat; GfINN. ]is, US (2GCm. ll, It 13, ..Siogll11oo eto.l:,. S~jfmU1~Q.2,l3:4Il_'(2003). M. Ii.. Rovelf:l·lJ;:(fUiIi e/;' ,~/.; Not Gene!!:.3:a. 2.4 (20061'. 1!5. J. F:.Afuot!lsout Q~ , $riirn.[,e UIilI, 317 '(2!OO~,~

J. 8il.@nI" ifil., Liu,

orr

efi~~htedise.ase' is .]ppea~ing all1tI ho;tsbeel1lDesl'{'l(l

31 AUGUST 2007

VOL 31'7

SCIENCE

www.seiencelnag.org

PERS:PECIIIVES
STRUCTURAL B~OIlOGY .s~rudures 011'pHntei ns.rlO,r[l Nil. repticstlo nifil an::hge~ SUl9'91esl UlllfillmDn 'rnedl'~ni5Il1'1S \lIInth slidillg damp leaders and [)f/!aAbslicases.

form

T

_ _reg

iOm:!. f d.oub~,>e'~SJt!f~mded o DNA U.l' a'I small si,ng]e-sl,l"liHldedIDNA bubble

.~.l \.il~:li.:i)~.El.::i~.ll~~r~~~~.~t.~!~r~ ... ~~. ~.~.~~~~~~
In b~I(:'teru(~, ~]n1;;~mtj:a, and

\'vhic:li:! nl~\y uuderjie ,comm/l.Jnication and cooperative action ~1mollg subunits of an
AAA;+ pflJlein terhm1l.
Q~

~go!U'Uer.

(aee the [igu~.~) (.!)"

DmlA. the reptication .initi:io1IIOOll"in lll'le bae.l!sc/leridlia coN. is; !!rnlOl:nomt;:]'k: in
upon bindillJig[o

differ~!u~c:h~e~]; Ore- .~. OUlctdl to DNA b from AeropYi'umperuix. and the Ore I·~ .~ -Ofe 1~3 ht"Te.rodi[!1.erb!)l!,!!I']dto hitiO in ilia~Qr sites (W.itJlill one 01 i,gomuc!:eoti,dle) from
h;vo

Sn(f%hus

so(foU:(lrlcl'l.'OThe stn.lctures reveal .•

]lY\:lf!l.\T eukaryotes, the un"<\iinding process b~i.ns ~t !!I ~eq~te~~G~ ,c.iJ·~edt[lete'plic~nioll

soluticuand Q[:igoluecrizes

ongm, which contains several conserved

rnulltilPl~ ~~1!utkUot~i~e!iaa.l:a repUc,:'i~~orl ,nri.,g.ii1 (5). By eonnast ..rheellkm)!()il~,C in~tiaJ.mrnRC

several unexpceted teamres by wltich ~11.lliJia·· t~otsengage DN A. S urpr.i si'n!g'~y, ij:mthSit udies

show that. on~,yone Ore moncmer bindsto

...._
Single-5tlrtlllloed DNA bubbte

Et! d r(JLi~,g aJ!l!:d I.! nwi ndi ng DNA. R,oeplknioD11 origi 1'lI'~ iiI'! bacm~ri i! a Ad ~r(iha ea 00 rnta]I'! 5eveir,alitl~ti.81[Of bl ndi n g ~ite:5 a f1!d ~111fA a I"ld T··rk~ WI D1winding e'~efl"el1!t. he f..coli T 'Oriigli WI'is tlll!!$trate,o as an el<amp~~'. Initiatiof b1nldii lJ1i'gClod hVdlro~ysi:s 01 ATP J~S l!lbi ri! ,oligcnnerizaUon of ini lialoo ~ prot.ei M ami fQHiflatioH OIr ar 's;ing le-sna U'!.a~dIDI'!IjAbu b1iE!,~nt(! :Mlfch: Ull~ iONA rJ!l!pl.katloA macniolepY wi It a:s,'SI(!rnbte.

sitesfbr a pI1D~e~1:1i ]od the iniriator, cal Binding oflhei,nithUor results ][1 ~1 nueleoprerein complex Um~"melts' D'NA.iIlornlli.l~g the
bllllJ:di,ng

(orig~~lrecor.4llilio,n 'COl,I1pl~ex.), is a lightly ~1&~Q= elated heterohes <1 mer both in selutionand when bcund to DNA;, five ORC subunits

each ini[[tlItoll" site. Eaeh Ore forms a c:omp]ex
\li..'i.thadlt:flosioo diphosphare '~An:p).,as seenin

are tho ugh I to 'be .AA.A+ preteins (6-(~l .. DNA bubble lnto whlch jhe repllcation machinery assembles, The i;li~'Chi'Eeoml,feefthe Moreover, the fep~ic~tiou origins 0'£ hi.gh~r mlk~\~CIIes lack de:f'i n.edinhi~]m'O.r bindl~mg Sltlf.;:;'S .imhi~u.iJr-Qlrigill DNA llucleop[:'oleilr1l co m.p Iex is .Iaa.~e~y unknowa, but reports 'by Gaudier ef (9), Bl,n ~i:kethose (lfb,~cleriil. the replicerion al. on page [213 (21 and 'by Dueber et al. on or~gimrl8of archaea conrein several conserved page 12] 0 (J) ,t)f~:i!' issue !Solveh.ig,h~~'eso.IH~· vlrJiit~~~to:r neli:ng sites positioned near ~~'!A and bi l io n struetuses 0 f arch aean init i:!ltor p roT:'r.ich lm"N:iU'ldi~lg element (!O). .Arehaea usual ~y contain .11 few dlm:erenr ]but rein-origin DNA. complesesthat reveal. sev-, eral uneJl:pected and nove] features ,o'f in it~m:o.r imn]:ologol.!sAAA+ initiators k~10\LVIJI as Ore ,. pmJte.uii1Is.Li.ktl bacterial DlJ]~lA, archaean On: pmte:~iJ]illnct~.on.

Ore strucmees characterized in the absence .of DNA 0 J • .i l).l1::te winged helix mottfeensists ofrwo DNA h]ndi~~gelt:mloo~-n helixtmu-he]ix
bOlth ~Uld hairpin ..The l"'~l} ~1.~ DNAbi.l:wti.··

i~'l!gelemenrs 'O,r the Orewinged helix. enter the major ~nd. minor grooves of DNA. wi.den ing rhem.. i!l co~un!ilt to tfue typk;;~~: case in wh ich ,only one element of'the wingedhel ix
<11

enters

groove. and the other contacts the

',.

~:)hoS!plhodi!esle:r baekbcne.
Anoeher unexpected flndi ng from both studies is llmt due AA.A+ domain of Ore biuds DNA d!~l:'emly.:r,Mile:r rhan si.ll."IIpl.y edim a ti rlig protein Qligmne:J!.i lati O:Jfl. ~uteraetieu

lnitiator proteins

]~TI ~U three

domains of

proieins contain

.Ii fi~ sh ~r,(:';l.l0m.ol,ogy :~Ittli a reglon that bi nd s ~th;:g;U)5ine tri.phos'l):lmte (.ATP}.pl:~c:.ing fhem. .il::tthe AAA+ family ofadenosine triphos-,

region connected to a DNA b~.ltding d.oma~1r1I and form an

~ll[! Al ... A+

phatases (4). AAA+prQteiu$ are asseeiaced

with diverse cetlnlar ~cti.vit:~esm:ld lypk~:a]ly
functlon
i;IlS

g~:~gnmer u]Jonbind ing Ibeu:e]J'.1 i!c~'trionofi,gin.. Uhe areh~ecl.llOre ON A biindin~ dOI~lI~!iH has ;;1 win ged hel ix moti f
'NJaIlY l1!li.~.u.,gt1d1 hd.ix pro-

i(lli.gonflf;n'~ th~t remnde] other

[1Il3iCroU10] eeules. Once bound 00 sireswirhin !!I r~p ]ie~~ iOWl ad ghl , 1I1llHI~l)r pm te i~\1 s ollgomerize and use ATP to $ep~1rateONA
strands in ~.I.'le~fby feg]On (c:~mll!edUle dup~ex

reins bind as djmerstc

~~e~r~p~! U~1d[~~il'lik:site~t
{!Indi becausearchaean DfII] ti ;;ll:Gr bindi ng sites

unwinding elemenn that is en:r.ic~led with cOlu.a.i'~::1a eeuserved adenine (J'\.) ':111:101by.I.IL'lhm (T) m!,t(;~e'o:~i!des. symmetrlc dyad~ it has t been pre~umedl.I1LRJ[' two ATP b iud ing ~[ld hyc.bornysi S 0 CCUl'S at the ill1il':ed1~oo bel'\'\reen .].[U:i:l.l1e~il .inith~t(.l,rproh~in:s.. nrc IPl:'l.neins; bi.~:l,~,to,
eachiuit~!:]lVOTsi.te,
The aulho~s. a r~~1'! ti1,~ UJbar,!.itlo!)!, of ONIA Reg!li(al~@'!ll, ~@Wll~ thiJglbe:. Medk~l ~li!slitYile;. RQc~e'l~ller U!1!lversit!l', New ¥ork, NIli' 1006'5" 'US.A.,.E·mai~ od®ln'lu!~:@mail. I

ro~('rdrew,e;dlJ

Gaudli.er el (,11 ~md: D lleher e$ dJ" preS!en.~ RiIl'pl~C;ii,fi,~l1llillfotehl spir.]!il:'l. S~ru(ttiJres o~ two AAA+ pmte'il'l Ql!~'QmEC'r5lhat l:~e iSU:llCi!UreS off OrC'~ bind 1.0 DNA durinl!) repl.iI(.;Itioll1 o'HI~ ~b,gI4lIll:~ne yeQl)t RFC clillITliP ~o;;ut~r{left) DN.A. com.p~exe1>.~rurn and ~he P[ll~ill.lollila virus El hellki:il~e(rill!:illliil,t).
SiCIENCIE VOL 317 31 ALJG~ST 2007

Clamp IloJ[l.c:ler

w\!VlN.sciencem.~g"orq

P'E RSIP ECTIVES
t1hieOl~]er rop~:icoJ~i.\!'(:lAAAi" ,c]as,5.e:s:-chunp ~n,ad:er~ ~~rldcertain helicases=-have been solved and may peovide insight into the racrs di.smrl~U!H.l.lJe[ildi DNA 2n to 35 an,c1 arrangement {lof ~li'lJidatorsubunirs withinans untwist their respective DNA sireswlrheie complex, FOF ex~~:mp]e.,bQUl the ell~karyobc: ~]cru.aUy breaking hyd.rogembonds between RfC clamp :lo,M,d:er(13) and the papillo[~e nuch,'otide bases, S. s()(fawrk:N:~ Ore pro,.. rnavirus EI hl:hc~l, .... 1,14} fo]"D1l circnlnr !;[[[u::.. e tures (see the second figure), all!dt:he,irAAA. reinsare noted ter rheir sparse sequence~pe(:if~c:(:{l'r!!h]ct&. hich ]S 'ql[!.ite' W!!ten::~thlg dkm'L1l~n~ mrr:angecl. in ,ill ~fljfiJLl fh;;~t contacts w ~ are given thaf h,ig[~er eukaryoteslack defined DNA .. The tlndings of Gaudier e.tai.tlLnd feplic~]Uo!ll! erigin ~equeH{::e$,naudi.er et al. Dll!eber tIT al. Uloat t.l~e AAA+ d!om;;lins of suggest th at l~he eukaryotie .oRC ml!ly recog~rchaean Ore b~I~::td d~rec~IY~iQ'DNA suggest iii nize specific DNA structures [hat o~ullJbe close functional rela tinnship of .ini.ti.<;l!t(lr~to tEe.JiQirIDnedto fit intothe ORe Thi 5: metho dI of other replicarive AAA+ proteins and i.tup.ly DNA .rec'~Jgniti.oll h, used by ~noth,e'[ ,(;~~]S,Sof (]j],u;l archaean imrnti~itmi' oligomef:=i 1ill~l¥ ~~I!'io AAA.1. ~,i)~,'m'(;';][Is-tl1e replication clamploadencircle DNA Indeed, cireular and h:e~~icm.~ ers-wlhricbrecog_n]ze DNA structure rather arrangements ~!L1nHe been observed ~npre'Vi.~ thml sequenoe. ous $1 r uetu ml studies of.i Ir1I:itmo:r 0.1 igomers i Animpnrrant futnre goa~ ill. the ::ltiLt(J~y of ]n:lI the .]bsence of DNA l[bacl1:!I~~I.DrnaA (J j 1, im~ri~uorpfOle~.m1!S ~'O understand the archiis aJl:1d f;!'libnyoliic O.RC (/6" 17}]:. "fhe present reeture of an ill'lilhlt)()f Qlijgom~r bouud [.0 a fi nd ing!i bring ~I:S oser EOreso ]v.ing how the cl c:oHw,.I.e;[e rep~ic:~]:t.iG'ro ,ofig.un and hovv [he replicat ion a f DNAge'ts started aml how nucleoprotam cOI1L1ph::~l{ couples ATf' 11ydrll)ly·, conserved or divergem the sn·.at~gu:i'SSaIB sis t~) the u:n:I\.vind:il1.gof DN1A, O~igmil:];e.r~ in O1Jcru~'>j species, between the .AAA.+ morl f and DNA imposes a.uniqne p~i~Uiuty On:: on UH~:.iniHa'ro!!' bi ud,of iug site, These mu]tip]e 1,~!·Dtein-'DNA (;011.G Q

Rllf~l1.lill(Jes; ,!1!lf!d INQ~

1. It Ki'.II'iFiliel'g, li..IEi.a.i'>er; OlWli R.eplf.caliml (Frreemam, ~ew :2. M, Gaudli,er, l s, SOhU!!!iiflh., s L WesIOO1!L I[)'. 8. W1g~, stience 3:i!. . j2:t~ (2.007). 7 3 .. E.. L (jlJlilillngh~n'i D~>l!lber,.). E.. (0110., S..I). BEU, j ..i!ll.

'ilIJrk,

1!'!IiI. Z.l:~'!l'2).

8@rgef, S'tk.ri~ 3ill7, 121.0 (2i10']). ~. l •.P., E1ib~rgl!r; ], M. 8errg~f,. ~!.I, 1iIeiv; 8wphJ;I1, iliomo.l. S,lllf'1. 3S", 93 (201iJ6). S.. B. E.. IFI.U1meln" 'Ii'. A. 13.a1Jreir~, A..l<iornoetgJ, J. SJOt Chm. 2612:., 103.27 n'i!81). 6. $, iP IBlitm.lL Si'iUm~n,. NatU!f! ~,S7, He: (] 99.2~', .. i 7 •. [11. G. Lee.. S, p, [fI{!',Opi1? Ce[( Bi'01: 200 {2000t 8. B. Slilh,m:alil, fl85letr; .579,8.7 7 (Z.Q(!i5~. 9. L], ~III~, fl.W. ilrawlil, .. !r:iil'l!i!. Rl1v•.8iIDrhsffl .. 69,829 A

eel~

'mz~

t2:()Oot
10.. P.Lo1Pez. It ~hml!l\pe. MyU~kamo. P. FQlr1Jei'!'e... Mol. It Mill:wbiQiJ. 3.2:, Sa.:1i (t9'!l1:l}. 11.. ). liu f't aL,l\\l'lil Cell 6, ,fj.1] (211'OO}. 12. M..R. :Singll,to:n .~,f;It, t; Mrll,B'if}l. ~t[~, 511J (2fl().iI.). ( D. 'Go. il iJ;owntan.M, O'l),o''Hu!11.,1. t(!'!!ri!!,~I'I.'Nature 42·9, 724(200,4),
14. E.]I. 8n ~1!lil\31:k,. IL ]:(]5hw<l-lim:..lIItJ/~tf!442, 270 '(2006). ]5. 1 P., E~~rg!lr;

M. LMCI'U, l M.I3i~rg~r. N~r.. S!l'!lIi1. M\?J_ Bfol13. &76 1[2i006J. I6.. M, (i..(~il~~,f't ai., Nat. StRl'rt. MoJ: /Jiol.n, 68.<11 .2006~:, { 111. ( .. S~k.. Z. (hen,HI. U, iI..5,tiUmiilil, Mm". 5,irurt ..kM ..

.IlIkil n, ~6S '(2)O05~.

18" ~UppC!l1~ by 'NI HI '9lr~n~GM3:S839-

MAT:EIRIIIALS

SC~·ENICE

fo[ym@~sam fiin:din:g inw~ils;iil1g use' as drug), both 'in de\i'e~Opme'lil,t ;P!1d'in clinical pr,actiee' ..

owing totheir usefulmechanlcsl PI:OP'" erties (I-J), but\Me!"el()n!g; l~~o:ugJlt{X) i.'l!et;e'r'O~· t geueous for use. as bio[l,ctiv,eph~]rl.mmcellf~C~ll::io
jill their own .ri.ghtllo!\:\''ever. the ph.Y£,ica~ prop~' erues ef po]yu:ners C!I,n,o,f'fcil" istinct advand

P

I

o]ym.er5 1J:i~~ve been used for. decades as drug-delivery vehicles iil!nd ]ml)~a!'[ts

In SOUle of the most dev~~,opedand clini cally appli ed :JIppro.a!C.hes. (a~e drug OF [ntell'esl is dhe!U'!c~Hy ;;~tnl<l;::hed i to

nglw~,. bottom. p~lnel) helve also been. widely used
the flrsr cHnh,;~]ly lu the

ernssl inked

Form. of hydrogcl.s (lif'

t'l'le ]'H,}~jYI]flerscaffcld (see lhe flrst flgure. teppan el),~these polymer-drug C,oiJljug~nes: lead
to ~m.pro\l'ed dn.lg

res][ls" t11ltdng ad'Vtl.lua,ge .of t~1e~.rabU.ixy ~(J remain .i I.UO'Ict

critical for rreating human dli,s:efl:se, including improved drug trurgetOng and. circurages ~ation"aI~!ti. polyIl'ler dr:r~g;shave l~~US entered

u]ii'get:i mig,

in U1.egastroimestinal
and llJl]}(}tbe.tb50rood.

naet

circulation,

!J!H.d

solubility

Anaclnnen (, of'" t:<1t.rg~t ~1~'1g ~.ig-

into. rgiu~f!ie dif!ic~] practice (.fl. V~tr!ous srrajegies have advanced the biomedical ap pHcabi on of polym.elf~c drugs,

~t~d~tnthe polymer offe~flur~

rltrough the iMrJle;sui, nal wal L Co:it1Jl!'n~1 (heir eleetrostatie of chasge !:~I1;d ·hydr1(l'phDbici~

tfuJe:r ooh.ancememf ,i:U1Ji<lrgeri Ilg.
"ncl judicious
]iil11ike.r. between

choice

{If l"I:H;~

:imc1udiug the chern.ica]~:ttac.hme:n~:of drugs. to
a polymer ;~C:tlnQhltht:pmdu ction of po.ly11;a[~

the dlrug and

thei:1i usefor re'nl0i\1~.I.of ions, hile acids, fats, and other toxins (7)..,Fiar
has

permitted

mars d:imcUy
fJl:Jeruse
()if

[OOinl

,apo]yme'riz.a hie dmg, and,

1'I[}~y~rJle~~n ~ql;~e..'*~P' .~]imi ~d

pOI.)'!lUlT 'e~lable~~,~JgetedHb~ eratien of drugs. in response to pH. e~izynia~ic, or r~d!QiX~

e""~'.!llple, Ren~gelL;I.Cl'n:-;s~ ~. inked bydm2e~. with co 11:"'

l-r..pU~d (}e~~si~ies of s:eh::c;,:t
am'l ne i
grOILl

toxic oom.))Qullid5 .. Po.]ymer drugs of these Cf.ll~-· e~o!f]e:s ~]rein or ne~~w cI.~lll.~C:i:l!I. app~~C:~it~on. Ne'!iv
~~Il'lj(ro~cbes, nfl~I~,l:1lyat the :I'BSCU'I'ch 5l3ige" ex.p~nhin]pU":o'ted ~tmcl.erl'l!"~nding aiI'!LdClontrro] of po~yn"K:r 5trlL]ClUI~' i_1lth.c' design of POIYB'
me de dl'1.:ug3 wIth brnn~ugi.c<l~. cti\i']HesCOIl~· a ned led. by l)ol.yllfl'l;::r ~u1ch~~teCIJl.Il,~e.
iTlHl<1ILlt:ooris ~llIlih~ Dep.arlmelil~ of Malt:enafl .. S~ie:Fli(je' <1001 IEllIgii!llee:r~!'Ig, Uliili!,ile,r~:ity.of De~aware, INewark, DE 1:97 ~L6.
US-A..E"mail: ~.iM:~i.l911l.!~1I1i!l

respcm:srnve Il'Iec1'ul!niS:1I1H;(4,.5). In a di:~Ielr"~['JJ ~ppm.a.ch ~ ..ce.rtain drugs: (::mch ~S' nOllsl'e]",Qi.da.i 0llJ[;:tt~~ ~IIfIJl,M1J1tilll«t(Iry cllrugs ~[nd tlnrwsepi~:iiCS)cnn be po.lymJ;:]],~
uz:ed ,di.l'(lcHy to yi.eld. drug~

])is-~,~as heen.

used! clin i.caHyr>l;:)' ~eql~ester plhOSp~.lute ions .in l)liU i,el:lts w ~tbdHn~:1 ten~l f.1i 'h,I!I,e,. ic

Addliriona] scquesu'.rllUS ,oon:~
Hr:lr,ophob1~ ~J1lIg T<~~~!J ~g~!~~ T:1P.i!l11;ilF.!lIel

ba:;:ed PO:IYllle:I.'[C clrug~~dun C1N~'l be ea:s.ily proc esse d and Ihm dJe;g mde to direcnyre]ea~e th~
b~oac[i'l,'~ drug (6). Polymer seque~~lT:1~n'~~ (~ee

laim~.]1g h:~f'd.n):X;<l.tr!l:iG 'l.d.d. groups. can mn:st ~:beintes~ lilud ab.sorpr]o~:1i of dietary

~eq~esletlh~ 9'OOP -rdyIJ!er

V

Po LYlm'er"d rllll'g ('~ll1jllll:glat;~'.s gl!f!d polymer Sleql!les~iI"all1llt:s.

31 AUGUST 2007

VOL 31 '7

SCIENCE

www.seiencelmag.org

PERS:PECIIIVES
iro~,'l nd Inay find future use ]:[1 IITh~ treal]::nen( e nfir1()n~(J'verh~wj condut!iol1$. PolYJirlerk L~UgS can also ShiOW thempeut,uc ae[~ml'llbybinding directly ro biologicel targets.
APP!lt'1JlldleS in devdo:pmeWlit ~!I[!c.lmije CO~· ~j!o']ypep~id~-oo:i~d, pn~Yilille'ffi d]al c,1.Iil'lJ srnm:vth!.1
~)I,'Ogl'ie~siom] OrHlul;tip~.e Sder1(1~is by

Line,u Il"'Cllyrnen ,of C2cmtroUildl li!'I()h~(I!.!I~J' w~igiflta!1d ard1rnte(WI1I!!

dhe.refore be useful ~n the treatment of n'IJtoi.!.'lln'!!u~~e di~n:5e~ and in j;'1djuv,!uH ther-

'tiutl.lpeti ng

'ilvirfuJ:3UI.tOOllfi.g,en.s end p.re,wmillg sensitizauon ef T cells (8), and ligi;'!!l\ldJ~deconll-e(;l [lD>.lyrners

tE]rn!~ind el,~;:tdently tD toxins (:9). b N ell!'! and e'x.citing app,ro'~clli1es in the diesi,gn of future p{}IYI1l'll.ea:i,c rugs usel igaud·, d [JfIodif~,~d s~alTo~d~w~th ac~i.'!,fijtiesde:r.ivt:d di:ilslincUytrom controlled seatlold suucuire ~]~d.con seq uent (:onti'u:Hedpi.reSti:llt~iliQ!Il of ,iig~nds i(see lllil,e: second, figure, top panel t Deir,,:dledlk.now.I!~d,ge of the b i!CI~.ogk:.dhu¥'et. iU'llbu-u.'lI1ed aeronselecnlar m desi gn, and high levels of sYIHhetic control ~]reall necessary to' prodnee such polymers.
W~[~h .ap!)roprhne
l]lese

Z

0

6 ~'6

and vaccine development, There ~rrema.lly [m,.her opponunhies in the de'\~eIQpn'lent o:f polymers for these ~!rp] icatioms.[n'V're~~::l~l1gly precise Ug.lnd placement wi ~II erm iti[!dep erlde~1tman i pnlarion of ligp and r.lilumblN:' and spaeing, ofI'er.ing oppormnities to tune lieceplor or.g;L!li;catit'lna~ld 'oe]1 aC'[i:v.i(y.~io[Oj.ynthmicmeth:()ds.allffol'd unique synUle tic 'c~pabilif)' ]$] thi sregard, ~]II.(.n;\f~ng production 0 f per:iectiy dJefim~dpolypept ideil]py

based

with specifk hadk.b(]in.~ cenl:Om.la.tioill:s and wi th one or more di:IFcren( .1 igpO~.yIUC;:B."S

ands hi sl·'u;iC.ifij.c;:p'DsiliulfiS

(!iie~tHle S(l>l,:,O:niJd,

figure. top panel}. Suchpolypeptide-based macromolecular Hg.]nml~ bind bact~:r!I.a~I:o.x.[ns (.15). and e tIer substantia i p>o~el.u.ia~, formanip"daring 'Ge~ls lgnal ~ng.1ill:ld .m.]ppi~lg unknown

design and synthesis,

receptor [opolbg.ies. M~lny challenges

well-defi ned p().I.ynu.er~,C~1i1J be used tu, study and manipulare cell-surface-receptor .]S~eIJrlJblie,'j,(~ee tb~ seeond Hgu.wet[:J(lu,om panel },. The organiaarion of cell-surface . receptors i.IIM) arrays serves, as H kiey signaling mechanism in processes snch as cell .]dhelliem.. irnm.l!Ule responses, and b,u;ler.iillJj chemotaxis. In some cases, receptor dimerizntion aetlvates m<lX~t'JJ'IIlIm signaling, but often, the recruitment of a greater number of receptors to the army .11l1Jpl i.1I1 es or otherwise a~reTsthe resuhing signal ..These reeeplor arr.ays eceur

remain, Centrolled t!f~lrnck~ng, of a given. pulyn!1JerdWg. ~wiJd

minieoization of .i't:sinna.n1l~,nawry~u'ld i.. lltHi]JUH:lJollogh;:~d prol)en~es,. continue to be' cha]ljel,1.ges~n the design oftherapeutic
m~Cffm"J;(lleGu~es.Imprnved mo leeular-l evel characterizenen of Ul e inreraetions ofthese ImilllCF'fJ;mo]et;I:U~~r dn~g$ ,;l,fi;tl.1L their tafgets-

M,a'(1I0m,~I~J'HIUIW,ar Lmgalm.ds '~or l'I1IallilipllJl~,atiol'l o~ I'@cepto~' ,anay.s. mo]eeu~~~:I"li.ga:nds. Leukocy'r.e

rain ,a carbohydrate-binding P~l()iidn, lseleetin, that regulates ]eutocy te rolling ami ~"!fray~ and nne~~ enormouspromise in ,t;"h~~r~·iildhes;io!:l m: sites of ~njHg'y, .i.niti.~ljng 'the :nnnamn::uatory response, Moleceles thaJ:~mod~1c[eri,zilngcell surfaces .. targeting specific te]l types, ~'ilJ:ld.reg,u~.~lil.lg,cell activities, uh~~e Lselect 1.1l adlbesiul'i. .may thus be useful They 111UY serve not on lyas meeh ~n isri c in regulating the inflammatory process. L - Se,I,e(;l~j[] bin c;,ll[ng on t~;u~surfaces .of ~,eiIJkI©tprobes, but also ~H-! therapeutics dun control eytes een be em:g~ged via ROM f'~der.vved 11],[11eel lu lar !.FIes:pO[1;Ses" uniquely suhed for manipularlon of'the
A v31".ie'l:y of
cOli'lilll",o~.~.~d poly.n.l.e:r.iz~nion

~on IU11l.. Macrame lecul ill! Iigauds

en ll'l::u.glh scales of 1 to

surfaces eon-

are thus.

for example. with advanced in:1Jaging technique~ and. single ..moleeule charact erizat lou methods-w ~ ~.I~H:l~hne t,he~ design, The ~ i~ r eo nt inned development of systems biol ogy ~~pprQ~!.ches a~!>Q· in the prediction 'Of will aid cell ular outcomes upon dirtlg admi n i.str~tio:n. With convergence of advances jn these areas, the prospects continue to be brigiltfic)If the use ofpoly.m.errh,erapeutk:s in the h'e~~t~ m6m of'lmman disease,
Reftel'eflc:es
:L lit l~illg~f, A. lirr~~~ II),. ilI''!)IWIf!!! ~2i1,~a7 C~O(4)"

2. M,~, wlJOlf, J.I!!.liublleU. N,Q't(Jio~..:h'l1oJ~ 2:3,~,7

methods ~~~ve: been used to ]'lmch~cewen~ definedpolymers for receptor binding, with 13 ri~1Ig4rlJ!e!li.Hg met.iuhes~s po'~yn:u,;~d.t,;;Jl!~iom' to manipulate B cell l'>i'!:p!~Win,g. cells P~A!)~ (RUM.r) (UJ) showing nmc].lrec~g~,tpmmi:5~. dUiC 6Hilt ibo di,e s in respon sec tO~~::lt~g~"nbi;l1ld;Gestwieki and Ki'e::;~,U~\lg havesl]owJli thilJit ]fIIg, Puffier et al. have showu d~alli110duhlt~ DlfIIg [be org3n;iz~ni()111 of the BeeH receptors ROMP~ derivedpo]ym.ers ol··d,ineru~~t oleeu-, m 11FOducti(.Ht t~)f~vo~emter h!f \~~igl~l~ li~,ve d:i~1~:l'el'itp:Rlpe~:1~itie....fairhLd~· @IU'ell'S: ~~n~lbody tiat1ing cllel:vJot3:li::nsin ha~ri!l, (.I 1), B11.essllJr et aJ. [01,crance Q'1i inmnl[l.ity U4J. Bi.nding of ] (J\""~\la.l.eill]>Cy ] wg.ands pr'QnlOle~ W] e nm.C:e. have used ROMP~de~ri.ved. l.Kl,.I.yme:r.s (sJt.'e the seoondfigu:re, top ~)!:lil:1e]) smdy clrganiz~l·' \ivhereas bind.ing err ~lIi.gh-v~llel,'1c'i 1igands to
i

lhl",l~eIU.:~.igandfi1,. Ug~~~!ld otency has been ~1I1.d p ~bawHln increase '!;li"i:rh. Ilm~,tiv,,~ency(I J). MIL:tJltiv~ll.euT ligauds have also been used

3.
4,

c. Fismlm
'~2(07).

~200St

hID,

J. Mooi!ll!)l;8ihmoJ~ls

26., 2.0M'

Ii [lulIDClIn, Nr1,r•. R'~v. CI!JJ'Jre( 6, 6843 (201J'6~'.

5, C #Il'eXJnder,K, M_.s!h~!c~5hr,:~f,.M~ M'Qte'l 18, B21 '~2006t 6. Il $cl1rneltiler, IK. s.r;hm~lmberg, IK. E, UIi li'icih, "1. P; K. Dhi'i~ s, R, H~IfIl~5:-"ade-'JI; C, C IHlllIiII'a1;i. tI.,lo:re~ia~,
Affi;<. ,flttJym. 1;92, 9 '(2006), S' :;:~ II~~!l$ ~~"P1~r:, l'J~r/,A(;(l'Q, SrI', USA,. 1Qij][,:U.749 BiM;i\!1[fmJUl.JPmlft 6,. 359

wm'5~',

9. (V'. 'G~j':ilIlye-UII., ,BiomlloomoJMlIies 1,2(1lB,21(2006).
1L0, R., H. Ulu'Dbs,Angsw,
f2(ID~},

'~2C11O~t

g,

sa.

Chem. lilif; fd: 45. 3760 IKil1Sslilfl~, 'rJ,tme 415. !Ell (21002). ~

don uf egg ceU~surC~ce re£~I)ll:oni during fertH~·

w.Gt i VOll: te s

g.el].~~e x. presskl<[1] ,~hnng.es l\lt':'ces,-

1L1.
]2,

J. IE.'Giilsiw5dri" 'L L
P.IIki~

izatiom. F,ert~,[izl::]ti{)n c.a.1i be i,l'lhi.bitcd by
recepitD:i

sary

(0

!':linlu[mlliealui.body

p:rodnel~,o:n.,

dJllilefiZlltifm. by end-fl[l1.ct]()n.~lizeicl. by U:s:j~.1ghig;her-va[eil1Jcy or

ROM P-der,~\{ed ij(I.I'ynlers~ inh ibi,[ion ]Jolency
is noti.ll'l1pmved
!{)n~e[Fp{.1Iynler~ (12)" Sig;~a:lling ffL;lI~,c!:i,ons Q'I':inlm1:m.e ce:lls can ~]h.o be ~llldied ,,[nd con~:roUed. wfltbn'l<ll(;m~·

Tfue~e ·d~IJere:nce:s are 'tlhiouglhlruCilfes1ult [[,drm CO!~lrolled diffiere'Ucesin weceptor aggrt:'g;a~

14. E" lB., IPuMier;.
]5.

n.

K. A. 18i1!eSliI.!!J, ,{.I~e. K" S" Robe!1;~, M. ~om~Ff!, :5am~!iI, (JJ~. 8(01. 13:.,2:5'1 '(20061.
e,!'aL. (hem, Bio.tU.

NI, S.

tiouby tbs 'w,e]]-clefined polyn:IDerk~ ligm~.'lJ.l.s.
~nd ate nor obSierved~li,riHl tmd~l·irnUII~mi~ bodY'-b~sed ~~ppro.~~.ches, receptor ,aggr~'10
gM.tion.

Y. W1!n!l]. K. L Ki.l~k,J. Am, (km. S(]{. 121" 1639 ~200St

J. t(. f'o:ntre:!Jo." J.l,., ilililefibeci;, .~.A. t(nnk, IL IL IKif!5Slin~.Airs Cbi1\lil. Eliot 2~ 252 wm7)·,

n:s '~20c!~).

Stich polymer <lppnH1Ghesluay

w\!VlN.s.ciencem.~g"orq

SiCIENCIE

VOL 317

31 ALJG~ST 2007

1183

EDITED BY EDWARD W. LIEMPIN EN

Cill MATE

POLilICY

Sir Dalv'iidl KingllUlr,ges Glolba,1 Pact Ib'y 200'9 to R,ledlIUIC Ie' Greenholu:se Gas,es
1

l'm wry much hopi ngto see a clear Ic~,dc~-s:[lippo.s~Jknr:l
from the 'Uniood St.'ll:CS"· on the climate IsSliJ:C'. I.ndecd, King CX·I)!·'e1'~ed rded OP[ imism ,glm
~tbOln

~11;O'\ieOJ."w<I:rd to earl.»' m::'x~.ycm.:, f

l'uJ.l'lu-eprniSiip.eds .. Leaders

in tlit

enc~gyj

W~,allhy and develcping nauons should j'~in H'I ~u pr'Ovc ~gl.,(Dbml r~ c[. by p 200~) to sharplyreduce g reeahouse gas emiss ions and avoid "C'ata~tr'~p]~ic" c;linul;1!C' ch~ijg:e, .s.i;r Daeid King, the UK ..::; hief sci'c cn[:ifk advjser, saidin ~1 leC'~,lIre~!AAAS on L3 JlI~:Y.
Sp,caking to .U1 overtlow audience, Kin,g, said ll:uulhe Earth is tl.[n:<Idy fcc.~ul'Ig

"We need atwo-track ~u1l!.I;egy:' he cxph~.ined.·'We
~ll]u!>tN,:d uce e:m.i!'isiolls~[I!di-

c'I~ly LO SI.lbHize G.HGs in our
aLq.1"Ioophc:ro. But 'live also can-

not avoid climate changes th11[~rc ~tr~}ldy ill the S)~'tclH fi:mu his['oJi!c emissions, W<c
mus[~:hcrefD~'e,<ll the same

fllnanc~, and :in!illnm,l."C ~1rC joinlm~,g the efTort. to mi.ligalc glob:fl~ change. l"h'C emissions-rcduc1i@H efforr :fitly. in 'lime. stimulfUw the \'\'0]'1101 ~woon1!Y. s~id. W~thre~h!lol~gkal ~dV~U.1,(;CS, he improved solar power C(),~II]d ~1IlJccl 0111,[l"f,[lIJJ,~' energy needs, And, he SflllO, a ncwglcbalemlsslons pact could beonthe horizon, with the Ul1j~cd K]ngdolH,. thoe Un~tcd S~:::llesj,aHd m~~crlne~1l~ berscfthe GS group of.indl.l:sl~t.iali,zed narions

.tgr-eeing at their June summ.il. au the urgem

emissinns. Agreements between such ;!IS we cannot avo1d and \'\'C: ~.~ave this group and key develcplng ~~ati('ln~ 10 do so c!oll!nryby c-ollmllry.:· China and India \\I(}u]d bekcy [0 !'UPllOl!l the
time, adap~
U)

I.IH!SC

impacts

need

U) CUI.

destrucrsve e rf;ect:-. ·of human-caused climate change. But i far~go.rou:fi,
newagreement could be ~pprnvedin 2 yc(!rs and Sir ID.JYiid King ~~:MJIiS

The European Uuion ag 111.~cd in :2 mn 10 cut GH G
em iss icc) ~H)by 2[~,oA" by 2020 comp[lrod~{} 1990 l~'\,t~IR Hnd by 30%1 irp3J~l ·ofawider

implemeuted by 201.2, he
said, ~lilmOBphc:ric con.~l1trmkmiS of gfi.""lCn~:i'(lHse {gMCS could be ti:!:3bil~zcd between 4-50 mld :550

jnt.cm~tion.~!] ,~I.gl'iC~f!le'!l'~,To pr'[Dvide leadership, a drafi

rou'ma~ United Nations Framework COlili\'en~ t ion on (,~:il1"l<~!c' Change ncgm ia lions, he said, '''Wc\rc got 3.k~l1(1p~~y for."KiI1l,g COJlcluded. ')lg~clllhink l';,,'e can do ir," Set} a videa ,r~fSir Drwid King;, hi!(;:!i~jY2 ,(i~ II~III~ ' ~l(ft;l.'i .aJ'glgo/kh.~Z(},f) 1_

Climate Change Bi III.S:Cl forth on I,3 MariCh, reqrlJl,i res [he Unit ed K ~,ngd(lm10 reduce CO~

-Ginger Pinholster contributed to this t:ep'Ort.
SCUENCE

~i)~!t~p.ocr~ninio~1L "Theimpacts at 45Uppm will 'be "dangerO'LilS."

emjssious by 26~o J2O/~by 2020 !.mdby ~~ lcnsl
60% by 2050
'!J'iICf

&. SCHOOLS

K.ing

5uud.

I.990 Ic¥e:I~~.

BllJltifl!eve.~:li were to

.1pplf1)aC~;~

.550 ppl1I:li and beyond, lm£s]b~!c'oucurrem h~n& by m~l1L(\Ollllwiry, impacts which would become progressively more severe at hi!,ghcrlcvcls include: rednced C'llO]] yields in many areas: redueed supplies of freshwater: stnrms, drolU.~hHi. :am:! Jerest rilres of inc~.·e'lsll~:l.glmensity: species cK~inc'~i.{jn:: ~.c~ludem \'\~.aJ~ics~and h coastal flooding linn c~'u:lld erearetens of m ilhO]lS. !of n:: fugeC's" "WeamIS[ get global agreement," he saUeR "rmd I'm slllllcl:i:u]ghcfC' 1:1] Wa:shinligto.~:l[D'.C.] gay lng: '.We needit hl a very ::;hOli"l period

The U[lJi[cd Kingdml11'S: policies to reduce GHGe~'1I1i:i;~ion~]ndL:ld:: .ltlUl~uir~neIu fO'f elcc1r11e1[Yg'L1'lfIrllier~ to

predueo ,11bif'('l\;\fingpea.'CcntOl,g()

ofpower rrollJ1 rC:I'lf::\,\!t1J!~~ sources. In ~dd~~ion, Eneasures ,an: in place 10 promote C:::!lie.l'gy 'C::'jrici,e~:lcy rU:H.!su ppon. d.e'vel.opme~u():r new technologies, ineludiag

G'e'or'g,ia les,ch,or Wiins Ne'w AAAS Edu'calion P'riz:o'

fhc r.:lS1.1bBBhmcm oHhc:: Chris K.~lln!i:;dy's class Encq~yTcdmologie~ [nslilure, ,a pl~bl~o·pri\f:ll.le started w~lh some colPf~rlncr.shipClUhc: tJ. K ,go'VCmmc:U1i~.R~ldindustry. ored peucila mIda lislN (jitinglhan ~h~.ill\u;:il:s wi I] p:lilY (!J cemi lUI iln.g 54 elemems IbUo~'Cdby

mle, King called C"k'lrbon c<]plure and storage
·'.kt:y to lit ,all::- A cep-and-irade be esscmial to contrelllng

bew.ild,e:riL1g strings of

of~i.m,e.···
King

~.ppOhlle:d rh e U.K..'s chief sci enti fie adviserin Oetobcr 2000,<1.od serves also ,1IS director of tbJol':: Surf.~.ce SC]W~IS:

cace Research 'GtOUP a I. the U niversl I.y of Cambridge Depertmern or (,hC11fl.is~1!'Y. He

;;]ddr,es5lcd the AAAS. Annual

M.eeting
spo,ke

h~
[II

Seattle, Was.~:linglon. in 2004"and AAAS headquarters 1m200.5. I.

AI.mosph~gic ('O! ~.cvcl:8~l~{lnCa.:renow at ov~r 3:8 () ppm and cxpoctcd to Nach 4{1Oppm.
w it hi

n tl! dec ~dc.. ]ho ml grec n h mo,s,c:; gn.scs

(G] ICJ5j' oCl1'l1i:SSlons pc'ak in202'iD, I.evc~.s:Ukcly can be h,c]cl be.low .5 SO PP~'']J:iJ NI'UU'!,!<li I cui. COt KhUl@ !iiRitlin hi,~ 13 J t~lyiaJ Ik,

s;:'lsle.m jlJJ~,~(D'~71I.ilil: subscript 1I.n,dnumbers. cmlsslons he By the tlmc U~,cy had Jlnexpi~l ined. In simple t{;:rm!~;,. ,cn·IHlnd-t~.·ndc' ished i:heL~niquc pedodic a scheme ]mpmi.llS :lliU;tC[ l:inruts on emissions ftem ta bl e 1<1h., the 5l.l ud ents Chris K@J1iIMay a group ef ~,1.1.dllSHi!~s.~.fu(Jngt<]IUSpCnll][S for were debli'lting the stt<1il'lgc emissions; a. 111l,ar.kclDs cn!<'I!lcciul1 whichthe pl':~,-electrca conflguenien {I f copperin th~ h,1I v<~ h mils C1lI'ibe sold by [hose who emuless ~.r~,d afi:cr class, The suceesslul lessonia ~mb~(\itl1i[ic oflh,c ~hol!gln-prlQ\'oking teaehiugthe; made bOl.itgiH by those \"~H"P' emI!l mOf'C. Oveit' lime. ]hc .Kennedylhc firs] winner of AA.AS,!; Leaderl]~~mber 'oFpel.'.milsis: redttc'ed~ Such a sy:s:~cmis <llre,ldy operating in the ship .in Science Education P'FUZ'(:'for High Sc;hoo.ll'0a.dum~. Eur.ope.:m Ulil~on.l:rl the UI]IMd STmcs. e.ighl bills pendrg'~g in COJ.~.grc:l'lS:~\i(f~iki fol ~ :%l,il. ow The lalb \'!,'(Ij8 an "old f:i'l\!m.'i~,c'" Kennedy. fba'l. Do (:10 .iln~y h !H'e@..sul'C 'h~\fe a d~(l!~!cei!l ]he: &li.tC ~ vel:eran 'che:mi.~,[.ry H::achcf a[ U irmn llig111 SC11O(lo~in II.ham, Georgl.a., l'oCljivorkcd 10 mael curren[ ~X1li!i!Cfl~. dli!n~~c?"l\s ] go dl['ougb Wj;t~hinglon [ne]. ~.lil!eara wiJli!lgIrWlSSln 'ltis;~en new slaw s.land~ll1di; .fDf high stfuo(D'~sd.emce 1.0 l~ss{),U1J~\!','O'VC!' I.'~<lmcd" i[l the U nitecl COlll3el';, wh i.chm.t: b.tl~d ~.np~ul.on AAAS:s .Pro~ Kir.l.gdonl. sal;G. Ki[lg, L:iIi~,~r. d!cd.~",A'J, \"r'e head j~cl 2061's BIJ1'lclmlmt.w Jm' Sdf:llnl1.~·i(fraq'"

us.

31 AUGUST 2007

VOL 31 '7

SCIENCE

www.seiencelnag.org

"M~J~y ofcruf:litmlc:fll'$
CI.'et.C m:1 ivi ticain

:J!.rcu sed. LO do.i n:g conse:i:IO(l,t se this WllS u. 1ink: ]nOI1C

SCIEINCE

P'OILIICY

and Almo'sph,t:ric: AJin'!Jlrni.stratiou for :iixllsHmce,lh,e: ·[Di~ll lnclndes a $60 m~]1 ioniuer~Rc in UlC. ~ASA budgC'1 ~or sC\fCr~11 new &;'lIleUitc m:iS5u,rnlj';~"Oconun'Cl~dcd in I!l 2007 study by tlte Nation'll.l~.c.'SC'i:]H:,;h Council (N I.e),. "Given theenoruaeus cha]lcngc::; fOlicing Eorth Science am;'AJJplJcaNoJlsfin1U .)jmce. science educators uxhty" itis esp(>lda[llygl.uif)l~ I.n .'1 SUIICI1'1Cil,'1[ issued ]1:1 April. AA AS in,g~D know Ih,11AAASig; noweble to rccoglli:t:,e BOIil!rdof Direciors wflrncdl~un bl!ldgcl'C Lllo;,;; and U~e efforts of La lemed in d ii''!'''] ~~m li ke Mr. d ls :!>hi:fu>in rese"llch pa:Jioriti.C'$[lt NASA~u~~dOt\A N report offers ··i~1J 1.'1 productive ~nd in ~l fO:l"w,u."d-]!oa,kingw~ly somesohsionsto sO.me Kennedy w.ith this new 'pdzc," said Jo m~.e~:~. COH~d lead ro ":)1'l1Ijor g<lllX" .in the oontimlily and Ro~cm<ln,d]rct:!.or of Pr,ojcct 2061" AA AS's q~ua.~i ()if the data 2iat~wlli..-dabout [he E.anh ~['(Dln Iy perennial pH::nb~cms."O~.Fici<Jh,invo.lvcdun the rc\liC\~lpm~g~d TEesscJ:l fOJ moving pj"'O,lCL~vdJl space." Ih.C' board pralscdjnc NRf·'s. report asa science ~iJM~rn.cyiil~jrli<'l~]Vc" The C~CC;UI(nl een I'~gm:'~l ion lab is ene to !>trengUten [he hl!Stiuue. 'bllR'rfil~t for:resw:ring~lc l>:alciH!~ progrsID. o Kent~edy 's inqui ry-based Ilcs:HHlIS thal At nn I 'I jH~Y ]~,ea!t"ing bcfofClhe llS. Scnme, "There ls ~ liUlc dCJ'l!bllh~l ~.he] A r is f!iSimporcl1:t;ouragc saucJe;nls to !;Cl,lve pmbioeu:ns ~mdl00 rue Commerce, Sci.e:m;!C. audTU',anspo!l"~mion Com~'Int~oday a,,> wils\:\(hcn the g.oven.luUe[!lts of the H ll~lWUt.h [heir own quesliom; ,IS they explore a :minu:c, S-Cl];a~QJr8iU Nc.lisO:r:I'([)c-.FL;, said AAAS . Amt';~"UGHS. f:Ur:sl created it," said Vaughan seieatifle topic. KClm,~dy fir~t encountered andotaers had "raised concerns HOOlJj~~:le .!OSiS of 'luresian, AAAS's chit'filiLt'rmuio~J'I!I1 offices .. "AI' \VIC :~o(),ktoward d'l!,e future needto take cl imare d~I;)I,and d lmatc mm~i Iml~lg C'~'I'p~1b1 HltcS" fhe a 'ppr'Cl~lch <1!~ a III id- career l C'~~ehe r, "but ~he;r~ nol aim of !'lituWfo'ULU rerc COif higll ,~ho[]]'~ ~s~he CllrllGm ~mitdlitc neel ag~s aJlldis rrcphlced s fl!l!"~he.!" $tcP$,'~]o p~'ntHfl;tc :;,l;Ijsla imlbk dcvdop~ che~l.~,i::>1 noti .1 ike a recu~1!C ry, hook QtU [here to do by less 'GiII;prlb!CIUOdc::k The Senste will take up memo and well-being .in the hC!luis.j::lhere .. the ~..AI i]1l ,'lppmpl'.iiui.on,., bi!] si.~uij~uo the [-[oUlse ~ne~t'ii- willll<l.ke on ~tn even mC!n::ir~lTI.pontlnt. role in t mom irl(]].uil·Y 'un my classroom," .Dc;:spiLe thb;, lure \.vilen.Congn.'t'SSC011IV<!lI'Icsin ScplemlJcr. infonnim:g g.Dvernn1.CEIII <leD iOJ]." hefol'gJr;:d ahead. .Hid now ~1::Ien& p.~n of eflch )'~<u (milling. Etc'knee liIJ:ilc.ihers :in.inq~dry~ The: .f1mll,~ bw:!gC:l. :fut U,!f' fl31eUiws tl:cpat:l.d ohlPresidenl (ieol:gcW~ B1J!Ish,!.:vho hil,S U~re~tl?as.odlcarning" ELECTIONS In .ber ]eUc:1" 1],m]].hli<:11l!~gKenn~dy. P<lU ~du]1g cn~d 1.0. ¥Clto ;mya~};p:l'Opri;u~,on:s tlml surpass his Comlity Sehoo~,s sC.ien'cc COOlie! in<Ltor D<l:w~] OMm hm:lgi!:t r-cquc,si. As, ofmid.-!\ru.gjl.t ...l. COJl;gn~s:s FK'Id iIllready pusi]c'>dU[S o'!!\'n dOJ.~,'l.'ijgt]rcgpc:mH~~.~ ~.ll!d~or:lpn~igcd Konncdy:s '~",,'ork'!,~!irthollr:l'~r [ ~iC3cll.er8. "1.h~ h."ls burned 'COI)iic~;(l,f discs \'·\'m~ phu~$:2] billllo:~~ the 'presictent'slimi!., :l!icrorupain h:ii:-; ~bs" kSSO{11'l fllnd unH p,~ h ~ns. and other iflg 1,0 a ~lc\V repoJ1: by ,MAS ~ R&D :Budg;c'l, fun! The 2007 AM5 ellectf..oJiI generr:a~ ;s!r,:I.d SIl!(~OIlii of Poi k:yPmgra~,.':!, tea.ching dps-one per cFK'mi.s.tr)1 W~dlCI.· i!'l office.rs wi~ be hekliln Orcrober a rilld NQvember. F.{~r w()r,(:! R&.D Imdgef' .('!J!{lI)1.~i.". :':i.(!,e'; our di.!!I..ri,el;" she !;~lid. M~t:u~y~ilJ:acher.sn lh'e i A~ i'ilemD!l!rS wit[ Ir~(el~~.~baUGlt f'Ou e~ecliolfll dis,t ri.e l .~relry in,g h i:s tcC'h~:ljq,ucs"lbc(;~lus:c I.h!~y ~r"~'1<1amJ ....w-ghpphrJJ. : of thepres,]dent-el,ed, membe;rs Qf~jheBoord 0'1 iicc~.he impac'l.illl Chr~s':!l C'~.a8u'Oo:m IiIS ,a lDilr~ctolr:s"aI,lI1i!l.l'IiI!emb e:rs i()If ~~,eCommj U@@ on reR'U!]t;' li'udsou~!ldd!ed. INollni!1latilolls. Melll1lllJen re91s~:er'edil1i one tQ 1NTE RNIAT~O NIAL One of the b~ggc:\j;1 G~]~lHellgesun t:e.u::hiing mree s!E!JL'tionswm fe\':~iVf MlnQll:sf,o:r 'sled.i.Q:lll of high !'lchoo~ sl.llue.nTS "is .'lon'Lelilnr::s cO'lwllnchlg thE! c~Jail'-elect. mE!il'!1ber-~l'..~arg:e (d~hE! SectioJll ~.bOa]1I1h'Llthey ,C;,Ul d,o the sci.c'Ilcc., <I.ud [hal Committee,. a:nd members of~l~re Electl~rate !he y "re gO]t,l,gl,o ml~.ke il lh l'(iUg]'l, I he sc jIC[lCC. My dCpilW1!]Cnl eh::!ir 'cans ~t the 'buy-in,' "., INo!l!ilii fig ~omli1nlt1:eefur 'ea.c~rsection. rnd Oceanic
(NO/\A).

ch,":~i!c,L'lgi:~,~' Ke:nlled.y s.]id. "This is one of~h~' firs~ '~i file)'" ve had to dea ~wi th mbsn,a.cl COI1].a rues (oCp:U;;., s]noe we're laUding abouuhese atems and melecules lbfllll~]cy C?lH'[ see:' ",[ a'Clu;d ~y.1 ke ~icnc~ !~O'W Lhm ~.IC h~clhis i \ class, .. said M.~ris;sm Ivl:,di:hc:ws'l a Hiram senior w~:Jotook ch ~milisl.ry will] Kenm:d y 1<lL8l year. "]1 made it easier to learn because .Y'OU1e a.cmaUy doing :S[1,;!Jf~;.¥oure doing.il yours.dr.'· The annual prize of $ H100. supponcd by 11. AA.AS donor, reeogn izes a hi,!~h school teacher \'i,1~10 has devdoped au imlO'l,,i;Jttl.vc and effective cla ssroom s] h1~iCg'y. acti \I,lly. or prog ra a11J '~,h.,.n comribures H.i lhcAAAS gonl of (ldVlllnci1ilg !ici,em::c du(:~l~ml. c Kcancdy ::>.lidl.h,e:pr:i.zc '!,\'<IS "a bit (If ~ 8 ho cIt£! nd humb Ih~g roo (0 lh iuk or t he number of PCOpIC!i)'lI1 there reaching and doi.ng ~lbsollul~ely womdel:fwJ thingi'lin Ul'C]I" classrooms,"

Comg;res:s A.dvan,ces Funds 10f' Earth Observatiion
FO'IJI~:~1!10!Mh!>~1fWl'

a r'cgion o'I',~"(ua(llrdlin!lry hio'~(}gic~.1 divcns]ty .~~!~d climarc v,arim.ians; tbin is besetby gn~n!il'ilngl'lOjP'uilati on andserious env imlnmC:[It,d problems, The review, commissioned by the U.S. National Scic!lcefOlmd~l~Oml. was dcliivcred in M<III:I~·ll s, I3I:'azitin June In [AI offieials repre!>(';:~H.i~~:g ~. urbcmbcr nalior).s" It Ibuucllhm the 9
.LSPec; I:>

AAAS je ined. a eal ~.[rO pI\esatcl-

se,FVC Ll.S. fut[ldling 1.'OrEarth observatiou Iires, 11'1.£1 .S. House of Reprcseilt<~I,~V.eliUI1 U restored funds to a sOllre[l.~1Cnetwork

July seen as

of I.he institure s :SCi'C'Ill ifie work '":have, IJQcn imeITi,uiol.~~.I~yn:'Ccng;ni~d; airld!supported"
aUlldth~l 11\1 short-ceurscs.workshops, end

essential 10 wC1ullcr forCC~Slil1g and clir~UI[C'
change

rcscan:1h.

rhc House appropri,)liol18 bill ::;l'Kldric<1,I~.y lncreascs I\md il'ig rorEllu"~IH:lbscrving :g~wIHws and Earth gCiC']lC(';5research ~;~the FY 2008
'b~ldJ.brelS Orl~.~e N~l~OI'1!a11 A~!I"OHiltlllC8

mJppn~]llj'c'c·.. ips are vital ccntributious to .h re~<u:'Ch c<ip.n.trnty .i 11 the AnTIeri!6.tt;,. T.h(:I'J;,,,,{i~w>c'[t'lalse offered some glUid~~ncc

fo,t!:~]c: Jnsihutc's

future evolution:

Mo,re

and SpacoC

Administratien

(NAS..A)

and the Nflliol.'1~1

n~c

research should <]Il.a~yzc "~,]h;c reciprocal Jlnks between humnn :i!I~I~"lv~ies:and cnvi'ronn~enl~~ Ch~I).lge:"Sl.lIong~r'tamm~nl~c~l1km olilrem::h and wO~lI.ld help positinn IAJ "as the bro.ki~r ofn1l'o\v.rty dialogue bCl'~C~] H1Cscience Rtl,d decisionmaking, cQmmlJ:~nilirc:s[hro~~glmHI the region," And it. c{luld bQls~e~.·ts. 1'i1l1m.noes by !I~ekin~5iVlpi lport :frmn ~~:JdlJl~iry, nO:[I~overnm~nt,d groups, and (nhc:r so'tm::e,;s, IAI D~;rCClO[[ l~o,lm Tiessee, who joinedthe insi.iliM.C':2 years <11;,'0, S<;l!id ~nan il],tcrv]cw~hat jhc

r

,\1m,

MAS .A.nnual ELectioln: Pn:!~llilminallryAnnoLi nc:ement:

RelP'Otrt O'Hers. ,Supp1ort tor
~nlll!r' ..,Amle:ri c,aln Insl:lil:ule,

Kcmledy q:ul,irrn~d,
bts[ yen, KeJ!]rll.,:dy m;u:le:!I.hc sode. F-or~he The .lntcr~AmfYFicim hl.~tilllJllC :WorGI,ob".1 Cb"Ulgt':' first tim.e 1[111 ~2 yoars, none of his 95 sl.lU.do~'l.tg lil<!lS prodtLl::cd '~,~i,g'!Hlmlli Ly se.ucnce"·and. ~~e Ipet! mis;scd tho IOHi!"qt~csUon~re,lla~iCd h10 d,e'c~ro~~ 'b~~ndesc~l~hcapacity inlLrn.HnAm.erk:l. ~lJldit~ r irnpru::l rot! Id Ix: at~lplirkd if ilimpoor'!lCS com('l~}.n~1,g!.l!.ll.tkal]s ~UU:.l~,rse~'~neSllerC'~nt O ..... fiN' m,ore il'lfi')J~nr(Uion .a1'1 fhe IMAS L$'~Gtcr'IJl1i.lllkation '\vhh POUcY~Hwk.ers. says a nc'w •~:hijJ r. St';enc(! .Ed!Jctrtim~Pri.:e Jor H~q,h.&'11001 h rev icw 0l'W1 nizod. by AAAS • Ftmncl<xlll[l ]992,I.he .l:1Ili1C'H!\nl~ll'iG:O'IiI'l.II.1!iI:ihlJ~l': TfOOcllel"s. see' ~1~ll!'..llltas.a1gl.'J.u/scief.i..pri:;e. (] A I.):[ibc~~esOJ.',the Ail~.cri:C;}.s fH!di,h~Olli1Jbe~m, -Becky Ham
W\NW.scleno~mag .org'

.M-ll Q so eloe..~. (lLL.(I ye~g.EhES.J"'!NJJ5!,~n.,njC· a.. !.! -"l'~ . R ...~. ( lit -II'" ~ I ~,,' ""~rn ~I~ n>l IHI~rn5pllleri[ ~d~n~es; 1)e:l:'ltTIs.t1'lj and' Ora'l Healti~ SUelllH:es; EjduG1Ition; General. l!:iit€,~estill':!l Science
C .

M!Hrl b@,['S.'@lIl1r(l~~S!din~h

@'ftlUOVlIl n[l 5KHoo~,

a n;dI Em'l,g~II1le:Elring; I Ulihllrlll'latio 1'Ii, (Gmllutn rlgI. and

Linguistics iCiln'lld~!'iI91J1i g~~c,i~ l ( S IfflIC'€; fI1'armill'(i.eu~iu.l Se;mm:-,es; SGd~tfl~llnm P1U::t:;, of SCilence and Engirneerting; and ~t.atisitiC5.
(Qlmml.ini(~lfh~l"I~

S.CIIENCIE VOL317

31 AUGUST .2007

11:85

Canolrid.ates: for aU OmrCI~!i ,13re list€6 behH'I. Mdl1lionalnames m~y b€ plfllud llrl, nomr'n~tJ1on fo,r am))! om'!:,!! Ii}i" pe:ttitioll1l Si::J:bmSttedl tll the Chief E1<f!li:utive OmCifo!f 11'10 l~terr Uum Od:orbifo!r lB. PetitiOI1lS ~onm,\nal~ng Ci31f1d1ida1tesfror IPwe[ident-e,[eCit. Irnermbe!ir'S ,of the BIll~rd. or nmemlbers oUhe COlll1l1~ miU~iE! 0.11'1No mi na tklnSt 'IlIlU£,t bE:ll'u t:lm;e!£igrn;d'lI ~E1&

the ~€dil!i)'fI. A, pet]tl0n t.i0 p,lalce allill a.dditio'l"Ii1I1 Il'lIanmeilfil,!I'IOIl'II]na,~ioJl'1Lfor a~ oUke mbiSl bJ2'acwmI~'all'lfed by the Mmi'l'I,e,e's, eurriculum 'IIirtae .3ll'11d ~,t:at~me-nt of a(i:@",~~nc@ (If Il'lIli!l1fi~ i'I~t:iOf1I. IBioQlf'oillphi £rllIlliIflIJ'(:[I rrm~tion fer thefo IIlJwin9 tantHf!Jait~ \'Jim be endiJlS!!!,d ~vlrththe ballnts maned to melnl~ers 'ill'll Or!l'Ober.

or

Qf all leastt 100 members of ~h,e AssGdatiQI'l!. P,efitiOflcS mil(Dmlnatirng (!1llllrdld{llm5 for aoy ~~ctim orf'fio€ must bea ITtiM!e s.~9nratYi r,es rof at ~ea$t SO membef5

Slaite of C,andida:t:es
G E.NI.E RAL EILE.rCTllrOIN Prflsiaent-fled: Pe:~refC Ag~, Gl.liike U,n&'II. Scholll~. o'f Medicine; P,e,~er]. '$l:ail'iJ:g, lIil!~jiv. of IUt"r~ fjor(Jtd oj.{)ired'o!s.: lNaru:y [<;nov.Holl1l" Smitth50nlall1l h'list. lNaH9J'rb3r~ M[;Jr~eum Oi~ Na t61 r,a lIHl~s~Clry; W'. Cad linei:ber[,ger. Unnv.. of (o~orado,1 JIILA; Thonl!lS A. V!JOol$eY, Wash~ngjtoll1l iUnw" $(h;Qo1mf.Medj(ine; Wm. ,A. Wulf, Uni'!!. eif ViIR;il'lll'a LfnTImiUn on Nomin(JtiQ,~s,: :R:id1:ard CA:IlkiI1lsOl1l~ Univ. O'f (a,iWQmna. Dieg.r>;: Jerome II. ~ried:m~!lliI'. Massl!3cilu$'erUs lnst, ofiechnol.G§IY~ [l'fi3I11iE Hlcks, Geolrgia lnst, ofirechnology; Ke!f"ellm . Ho~bflJok, A ~f'it'!!s~detil:~Ei'r1I€!rita, Ohio St:a~ Unhot; Eia my J. Hruebeft. U ni'll. £If Hawaiii; Pe'wer H, lRallrel'l, M]5.W:U~] BIJlall'llical G:anh~U'I,; lydia 'l!Illla~lMJmeJmH, r(ytono.m~, .Inc.; AobatH. Wi;!lte!'S'!loo~ Un1!v. OHlV~5hin9'toml

sail

Eledemle ,N~m.~'.n,a,f'j,ng Cammittef:: Ma r~ Linge;l:'I. Ulfliv: of Chi~aga\ Fran k (. ~idma lLS !J,f'1Il]V. Off (o.l'iIll'ul!dftlld; ]anei't: MrJ'lfadia:lI'Il·r()ldiillk, Univ .. ef Livio, Sp.G~e Te:l!1!scope Sderrt;ce Imtill!J1E SOlJthe~~ (al.i:l"tJmia; lHans,r:Petetr Web,er. Hr1:!I''!,iiard Membeh!1:H.arge ,ofthe Se'Ction (ommitte,e: Wrri E. Allen,. Srrdth'~onian ASihoph~i~€ill OI.J!ie'l"II!a,~o:rv; :School ()f Oenta~.Medkine Coundl fJ',elceYClrtll." ]a:c:qcu~$ E. Nllir~ lJ'lI'Irl\il.of' Mk:l~rn~ Nam:y ID. .Mo,rrilsan, Univ. (ilf lolJedo Elecr,orote fiI om ina ting ([om mitt:ee;: ly1fil.n It g'an; SlJrsan Reisi!'1!:e.U:n:ul'i.1', ((:mnreQ~c:u'l '(ol1'1lr]nsky, 5mlOI1nar S~fl~e Un~v.; M€lluga ~t ,MEl<1xnelr, Ed !!tciait:io:l1l Space l'e le5l(oper S(ienrC!3! lnstitute: Tammy {hair fleet'; Jrl.Jd~~:hA. Di1lt:s., ].~m~,NL:adi~'n IJniv.; :5l1'1'necker+~ane. Univ. of ((lllifllMll;::J,. ~f'IIin!l; WiUfam Eric ]. ][llll1{, :Sd~;ll1ceMld'S'eum of M]nnewta S. $m,ilbl Jr•• ~dil[Hon UllliVerll~'ties·f~ir Rese-arotn M'e-mtier- Dt~,l:Gf.lj'e' o{ the Section ("Offlm ittf"~: in .A~~nOJny EUrzabeth S. Bay.lalll'll, Barnard CoUL; Robert: T~i1I'ke(, Tj~eConcord Gon:;ortiUHn At1mos,pllileliirc. allild IlliIlyd li'Oi5rphe'lIirc :5.deln()e:s flertrJf(.Jte "'fJminoting (Qmm;tf.e"e~ ] bl!dy Choir Elsa: Kernnetn H. Brlln~,. We<ods Hele [)ialrfl,!l;Ind" U!rI]V,. of U\l,ebraskal-lLin,m~n; Adall!ll P. OC!iI'lO Ql'ra p hi c hut.\; Mall'ga Ir>l'!it. hi nlE!0, mmrO!I. In(~ F~~en,Soard! O,rlillife SCiences.. NilItia'nallReseilllFch rW~IfI;Cl~ iK~mliri Hillt~ta;, S,tlllnfoird Univ.; SUS,flll H. M'rifnIJ€r-at-l (jfgtl! 01 the Section Cowmitt€€:: lftixSQ:!'1I, NarttionJ!l SCie,!'1Ice Froum:ialthm Held! (llilUen, The W~.alher Oll(ll!"lllrn.el; Eug'l!:lnia {oum:ii rCJ:ei€Jg,(ltrrf:RlJdg~r B:rbee, IBio'~ogir(al ~i';Illl'ilay. Un1:-v. f Maryland o Sciences (urriw~um :St~ld¥; Allan 1. Flried,m.aln, Electo'mtrfl Nom inating "offlRi'iHee~· iDavldM. I(QnSluTtant, ~~W cYcrk, NY rGLOV-ef, WOGdls Hole OCl6anogr.alphic lnst.; ]reall1l LY[!i!·d"l~S.~~e.gllit~ •. Ge!o'~'~ria hut. oT Tech ifIQ1~~gIY; EII1I grineeri l1I:g' :5Y1!'ku w M,a,I"II~ be, Prin!'.:r€to'l1I U niv.: Terry (twit f«u::t lKelflne:th :F~'Gallo~~. VantJerrbiilt: U't:1i\f..; Wh~'tt(!dg(>. Un1i'll. of .A:~a5r1ta ~belr~ M. Nle.~eiIH, Georgia Ilrrf!;t ofliechnowgy Ccum:c:il Deleg(;lte:' \IlhImla R. Felre~~ LtSI. iD'eparrlAJ.lI- ··~~r.·I'."a"- ~ oJ ,I..e Je'ccm me'mve. ~h.L ,g,e' . ,ll-h' II',- ···ti Fmrtl/,-· bee, om !1f~~flIt of IEIl6:lr-g-y,AtmJu!ls:ph.eric. R~dj~tiol1l .MflllSlLl~~ r'lrfitill'lli] H. Alnoi'1~ Unilv. o'f TomntMJ,; Kel'llllll@:th R. mealll Climate Researdl filci:Uly; Claire LParkin~
j

Astrol!ilom~», Chair fied: S t~en V. W. Beckwith, J:ohm H!opkilrlls UnhUSpac.!I2r T:eles.cope Scielflre Ifls.t~~llJr~e,; Mario

Mang,all, IJn~!J. ,of .so'uMlem Ol~:f(j:mm
I

w.

m

or

w.

i,.

son,. NASA. GO:ddal~d1.spaclil' :F'~j'9lht Ce·lI'tif~,r IU,ollo'!ll'h::a'l :Sd en()es Chair Elect: IBa rbaral IL. mm,a!l, IInstttute for MinobiaLand BiochElllllif~ll.Techll1,ol.cgy, u.s,. FrMest Sewvi 0:; j ~rnes A. :Spudidn,. S.t~nfo'rd U niv. Niember=~t-.l'(Jfg(5 oj the Section Committ.ee: Mamie IE. IHJZilprer,IilI'~amegi€ his,ti~llJ~o'nij~ W~5h~ ( ing'l~r!1; [lri'all':lil G. Myles, UlI1ii'il. (D~ rCaiifomia, D-avis E.l[edr~lrate .N'omilflati!1 g Committee; (harte's; A. HtE!:tiIlsQI~III'Ii, [almlllgi~rE1M'lllllol'I Unhf.; David R.
r

m~le'F, Ulinii'l,r, or Te.'!;a~
Eledomt£ Nomi.rwtin!l .A!I1I~@th,UII'I~Il., CotocadOi €If

fan~mitte€: I1\:ri5t~ '$.

(ii9id¥ .Alman~ Uil1ifv. of Wa;~mI'n9~on;ChriS l Hendfic~~on, CaFll'llegie Merl~ ~.o:nl Univ.; john W. RlU] in~ck.i, INrortih!y.'e:Ste,rl'll ILJli9~V; l(iem:elfa~ IIiI~elf'estinSchllfilt1e and EnglnHri'ng (flo'r EJect:: ] Qm1itha,1I'I1M~ersrmifhij ( Texas ,A,&M, lJnt\l'.;' r(har~e.$ IN, Haas" 1E)lrexell UrnrriO!''; $IIJ5,ijlrl!ll,a HOl1l1!iligPfite!lt" Ul'niv. of INevada,. UI£ Veg[~s ,Mlember- {Jt-,l {J'r!1'~' U~e S,~r.tion I[ o,mm ftte{!; o{ lalf'lry [rieU,. Museum ~f .Sdem::e,. [3ostol1l; IEdka C. ShugaJIrl, Malria'r'il ~Mh [~n.di Srieinlli:i!' Mrus@Ulm off the Nal!jo~l'IIal Ac.ardefl~!I'of Scierm:!s Eled~,)(Gte IiJrJminating (~rmmiUe,e:: ~aNis L. Moye rs. Nali ana ~.Sci e'flICre FCl'lmdathJ!l; J (,"lra:nrn HUS;OrIl R:oo~:ers. ]cl'lrl~ Hi!J'llklns: M.ediidn:e; John l. Safko,," S.r;, UlI'ilnv. of :50uth rU!r'olfn:a; B~I~V~lld,r;I::, [jt'llparrtnlltenl of IErierg:y, Offi:m'Qf S.d,en(~ Cf.HJ.n'cir Delegate: Malrilee l'rJlI'Ig. CohHBMlo :5tab~ lUnd",.,,; JILJ!hrll!Arm MHLre.r" ILL .sc.i~n(El

S,IECT~ON Ag'ri.rIl:ll!! ~t)u re t
r

'lElECl"IONIS

Food" allil d Rejl1l@wablle

IResOIUrI:eS

C~wir f/,ect: [llilli'lriel.R. Bu,sh, (o~(!rado Stam Un\v..; Nea'l ~al1! Alfe.!l'l, UIlllr\r,. C~[if'oMiii!, [)alf~ M€fl!ibf!N~H.mfJ€ (Jf ti~ Section COJIN'RJiftee; SaUl{ ~'Wic~niZie~ l!i!:llrlv, Nebia:)k,~-lLi I1colll!; [leon D. Stutjh Imlii'lli1~ Ull1ilv. of t1i~inml:!l.Q'ta E:i--~~~~Mon:rioo~n .y (iJlm-:nilil\' -..... ,.I;.'IL.J __ .00. L~ (illlli1 _ ..OC~"'H'!'e' .. _ .. _ ,'"' - _..'''\'''' ~~~ P,tjI1J[l;,.rIfi Llniv. of [Iellawa I'f'; N~ I"I,~ P. Keller, Llniv. Qf Wi~-on-· sin..JlJt.adisoo; Thomas. ].adk ,MooMt Urnill of Nebra5<ka~ Unmln; O:arllec& Rke, Kam~s; Sto;me Univ.

Mcflay. Duke Url~V,; ichael 'W.Nach m(llri, Univ, of M
ArriZJOi'lIa; B'f!ldom~m"Tot~ ~ Oli'l.l'erra. U'~f/li. of Utalh

or

w.

t

rCh!emi,sk'y Chaif E~e't J\l\ade.[e]ne ]:acobs,~Jlunenc;arn r( hernllca& Society; Geraldlf1e< RrichnmDrfr'ldl. LJ 1I1~'II. of Orego 1111 M~t-ijH(i'fgt' 0.1 the Section Comrnwl"ee; Pe'wer B. Annelilt'iIDu~ litll1lr'll.rOlf Utah; (iuo~A" Fleli~e. Urni1ll'.

u.-s.

of MiclJi~:an

Anthlr~prOll.Qg~ Ch'oif floct; MkhaetA. UuLe'IIBn~g~ramton Llmv.; Mi3Ilrll!tH'e:~ l. Sc:h,oeni'n~r, Un]v. of (alif:amla;-San

G:lil;go
M,e.mbel'",a hl (Jfg~ Qj' U~€ StJ!'ctiel1 rC ommi!'te€: (lnfhucii ]. lolly, N'iEW YrO~k U n:liv•.; Dennus H. GflR011J rk~.U"1\1'. elf Utf!ll~

Ei~cto.r'(Jte N()mil"u:Min{l fom.rni,',f.ef: A,llisOWIIBUlt~!ef,Univ. of Cdfor!:llia. Sal!'il,~(1Br(llrbaWiI; D.alvid E'i~~l'Ibelrg, IJ niv. of CaUfornna, IJ3.sM.g~~.~; M.ark A, Rah'J;er, Nloif'lh~'!le:;l~rn Ull1lil\1,;Ed~\i\3rd L SoLbmron:, :5tlll'il,rQrd Umv. Cllod Orall Ureall.'th S(.'ienL(;eS, Choit Elec.t~[)alvid SI, Cadso!1, lFe:-~als"A&M H,~akh Srdell1ic:eCentm; HUrl F. Tn:G,ma!t, Llnht. of.Alabama Delliltistfy

Writers A.ssoc.
Geobll .• ·and(i.e~lra.IP~Y {li,rJir' Eli:ct.; 'W, Beny lYQn$'", OII]~'rJ S:ta~e Unliv.; Sm:a n [rumborB, UlI1li;v.of CaJl.U'Omia" I ~V!lnle Mle'mDer-~t·bif9rer of the 5,edifJn fommi'ttee: lilll S;" Baron. U.S. Ger:J,I~Qglical rS~rrvey/(Qr~.orildo :5talte UlfIIlrY;; ]o~rn C MIIJMe Columbia Univ. flect-ortltf' /IIo.minotinfi. CrommUlE'tr: Shuyl Ll.!lzzrBlddler lB,each,iG~rro~g,e M,as:o ~ U 1I1~Y,; Mary lynrm,'(l Bird, .A11'llfHi~fll'n r~()9r~phka.~ Soci~ty;
r [,

Eiocl'Otai;e NomirwUIJ'9 C{Jmmif.ree:~imy Haruiso!'!~
Ne~1j!¥Qf~ niv; Wijl~am It leooant NQ'flh_!item U Univ.; IKaIUl1!ifii R. Roofnbe,rg, U niv:. of De~li:'I:v.'aII'E!'; Li!;fI

at Blrm~ rugillam
M,eil71ber-~t-ttilfge oj the Sedion Committee: S llJ,sal1l\1\1. Herri ~,gl. U 111'11'. Wash in'9lto:t:il~[)eli'llnili F. of

~.atl~l~s:~jelrijil,1. of Mis,~~UIi·[!lllumbia U

31 AUGUST 2007

VOL 31 '7

SCIENCE

www.seiencelnag.org

Kalll1o;biu ll.illl,.lOllMisiall'ilaS1a:le Univ,,; Enen Mosleyihompson, Ohio, S'Il['~eUlI1Iiv. Hi !it,ory an d IPhillQ5~plh~ of SdlN'll()@ Chair Elect WiUiam Bedlte~:U~. ,oH:aU'rOrn~al.san 'Di~go; A!an ). Rocke, Cas~ \l\!el5.'f:-e,I'IrIIR'e)!erve Ui'lw.

IGl,lillbi1Sky, Univ. ef Ho.uston
M,~mlJ'eraCl't-l (i,rgil. of the S,ecUon Committee; Al'e:!x(lIlde~ INa9'e~, Unlv. of Wis,co,li't!iilll-.MadisM; lNalrrarn Pa9i~', CUy IJniv. 'Il.lf N~w Yank

TedUiJ{l,logy; Avnolinene noni) Taylor, Los Ai:a11ll10S, National. Laboratory
-

M"Ii'mb.fr~,(Jr:..l(J,ff}1'!! (')1 t'iUl Sedion Co',mmit:tee: [Palll Lawrence F,lMber. Qregon State Univ.; Silvan Sam Schweoor" Brandeis, UfII1,v.

E lectvII"a:M IIJ Omi,rlDtin'y COR1:mittee: H a,ro t~ f. B,oaJs, r'e,xas AIM UlJlIiv.; Maul,a-Calrme 'Callderev,
UlIli'l.l' .• G,f Minlnesot.!!; [)@bIH.ahl F" teckhart, National S(~e'nlce FoundaUiLon; Avy Soff'rru,

,Psy,boILog~ Chail' Elecl: J~nre Stewart~ '(ol'u~ordia Uiml'y,.,; erl~vardT,a,LIb. Uri t'l.l'. of A:t:ailJ.a m:ar a/t Elmfil! i('Il!lharn Mrmber-(Jt-,L,Qrge of the Section r(nnml~ttee;
Susan Go~di'n-Me'i3d!m1l, lJniW. oHI:hica,g,o; Ellissa L N,ewport, U:niv. of R'Oclnlem:r Ele:rtomte lIJ.omiaOF';I1!J Commitree: Jeffrey R. Alb@Jts .• In-diiana uniw.: Jolln IR.. (aPcilanio,. Unil'.!. of (;amomra. f:lavi5; M,'errUL F. GarreU, Univ, of Ari.zo,n,a'; ]el'i 5:. ];a['!J,ow$k~# OfegM HJea lrh &. Sde'lI'kce U niv.

RutgelS U'l'Iiv.
M'i!ditaIL 5l!:iieh,cf!'i

Elect,o.ra,te Nomim.l'ting Committe',e: Iames R.
:BarUrolomew, Ohio State llIl'iIi,v.; RachellE! D. HalIlal1lder, N~ti(lll'l~l AUI,deIlil!Y of IElffigineeri nglLJ oiy;, of Maryland; Brian 'Hyrms, i!Jniv., of C13Ufcmrn,ia. Inine; Phi,lail) R. Swan~ IUniv. o,'f Notr:e,Dame

cbotr ,fled: Christine

A. Biron, Brown lIniv.;

[I'ooaild S...Brake, lI'nT\I. of £biir~burgh

M'E'~}bieNJ't~I(l1,.grE' Qf the S,eelion Co,mmitt€e:

Ilml !.!l5,~rilall SdUiCie 1,lIId l-edl,ll,ologr),'

rho ir

]ay A. levy, llni v. oH:a,~if(i!,mia Sa n FMndsc 0 S~I~oo'l of Medicine; Alr~ene H, Sharpe'. Harvard
Medric:al~. chool S

Elect: LalUlira A. Phi li ps, 1nd@pende!l1ft eonsuttaJl1It Nle~'11 Yllrk. N¥; 5,. TCfll Pkraux,. LQ!i tAllallllos 'Nalitol1la~,Laboratory M,f'",ber-,a (-l (Jorg€ of the Section Qn1f1~ittee: 'R,ay H. iBal..lgluoan. Uirn,hl'. of Tsxas alt [la H,iHi; ~,r0dorIReid, NatioFllatA(;(!dell'llY of Eog]neeri,rng: Elecmrat;e ,N.omirl(J'ting ,(;OR1Il'! I:n:f!!~:i~ilnl Ben -ZVi. Bn::re,khaven Nalt La:b.; Anlhalf1l¥ faillll!oerg. lnstiIt,IlJIWTm I)ef@ilse Analyses; Ting-yt 1Li"ifldepeI1dent c onsultta:l'1rt. BO!!J.lu'e!f, (0; Rebert W Spril'gjI!1Ie" Ra,liu:lio Pa~o5 Verdes, (A

Sodal. Ec:om:olm~~ ind IPio'l,iti(a t. Sdenl!l:e51 Chaif fleet: (rai'9 Calhoun~, S·ocial SCie'nce
RI@$eareb.coul1ci'IlNew '\fo!:k LllI1Iiv:,: l<aJien 5. (oolk, S'ta'Jl1ffQFd Ulliv. M',e.mbef"'ot-.targ,e 0/ ,th~ S,f':ction (o,mm{ttee: Ro'bert"]eNI5:. Columbia Uili'liv",; Juditb M. Tallil.u~, :5UINV Stony Broo~

rr

fle'dQ(iate Nomin.oting Committee: HalFlry B. 'Greenlb~rg • Stanford Llniv".School of Medricirl1le;
Mal'9an:t K. Hlestener, Yale School of Medicine; Thea D" llsty. Ulliv. of CallHm,milj',aSan F,ra.m:.isco

S(hool of Medkine,; M~rsJtNi!'WmS-Karl!i1, ChihJren's" H05pirta:~ Medkal C@r'IIt'e,r; Li'M\iI:, O'~('il11ci n nat!
N e·u NSiciiem:e'

l

Chair fied:

Mahl.(lo11R. Delong, Emory Univ.,; J.
New' \li)rk Unilt.

.EJeaorotf Nominatin,fj [ammiUee: Henry E. BraJGy', Uni",. olTCalifomLa, iiBerk!elel1; Nam:v M. 'Gordon, U.S. (efl,5·u$ BI;J,reau; Felice,]. weV'ine, Ame:ricaJn EdutalUonaUi Re~ean::h .Association;

I!Jiil.'thoJ1Y~lil{1iI1'l

Joyce Le,,,io!jler
laocmrmont, !NV

MOlod,ij'u::lIepenrdelnt

ad'lli:solr,

Illnforrmatiou~ Computing" Clilmmuniici!I'lion

,aUld

Ch'!)ir flef:t: SOI1nie C. Carro'll~InfG'ffi'I'iI'l:i on Inter~ IFII illt]ofll.al A'Ss;ociat'e s,. IlfI'~.;El~I~1j1 [). lazOl,i'l/sk"a. rd Ulliv+ o'f Wasm WL'SIltQin A\'h~~'mbel'~a'-l(ug~tJf the Se'ctioR Committee::

J Ipllna,GeUa 19d, U.niv'. of CaHfOi'iFlria"

,MemiJ'er-a'C-lolge of the S.f!ction Committee: H,i)Uis T.. Clin,e, Cold Spling H!arbor Laborafory,; [heryi L. 51St, Mithig:tm 'Sta'fe U'ni'll. Ell!dom'e Mom'flloti,ng G~'jnmitf:e·e: 1R:,o.semalrte B,ooze~, UOI'll,. of $oU~I~1 (amlil'lla~ IEliert Brerrmwitz. U niv. of Washin:grto",,~ lo'nn F. Dist~.rholt Nortlhrw-e5i:em IJnlw.; C1talrk!5 [l GHben. R{)('kefetLew U'mw.,

:5odeta~ Imlpi!lcts 'olf Science

and Engiineering
{]1'iJir(~ea~m:ran fi:,amf!il~~. U~iv. ilit"CaJfrfOlrllilia, Univ. M'fmier-(J't-Lorg',e

Berkeley; Cam~Jmlis. ~91nefj Geo['g;€WashiElgJron o{ the seaien ['ommlrttee:' ~ni~i'ln lones, indeflendem .consultant, Castine,

Irvi Ole; Benjamin

1~!Jipe'[5.lJni1!l'. mle'liiiliS atAILIslin Electorate liJominoting CiJmnl.ittee: WilliB11!n Rkhalrds '(Ri<:k) Adrion, Univ. j)f Ma'5sachuseus ./onherst; lames :I). f)oley, Gem'g,ial 'i!nsr. orTe,thnol09~; (~ifford AM lVnch,; r(oa'~itioll'llf0r :Ne'l'w!:H~ed Infor~l'!;alion; E~~~el1e1:.'S~aJffoud. Purdu,e! Uin;I"'. 1 Ccnl'n'c;1 Deiegatj~: l:~:IwisM.. B,ra n Si(:()'m b, '5 cri~iPs, .IonsI'of Oc:eal'log rn~hy: MaUlreelf'll C. Kelty. consuLt-

PhalrmliU::elYd(.aiideJ!'u::e 0111/' I:I:ect.: 'Willialm E. E:\I'.ln§. :SI. Jude (hilldrell'~
Resear~h Hpsp'llal; Kerme~rn TiMumrni, Uni'll'. of

W'a;;hitlgton
,MI,E''m bCefwjJ'H. ~rr;re of

th e S,Exlion Camm iure:
:~a.rn FraiFil-

( .. An~!I~(jmll HnJlnt. Univ.oW fal,1ifow,ia,

'~uipers"

U111v. 00' ThX:aiS ,a'tAu,$tin

dsc:o; Dhi:~n lhakker. lJIniv. of North Ca1rolill'la. Onape'[ HiU
PharmrS()ll!lu,titall ~;,ciIi! f;'IiC@' Ch'a'ir Elect: WiUi~lm E. Evans, St •. 1!.Ide' (hilldr~n's Research Hos,pi'lat Kennerh Tikumme'l, IJnjv. or

EleaQra'te Nominating foml'1l',Uee: 'Williallill :RkI :arl'm, '(Rilcik) Adrion, UnrlV. of I\IIiass,achusem Amhe:rst; James [), F~1e,1.Geor'9~alln5:t. one~hmd~ oilY; Oi'lford A" LYfl~h. (oalit,;olll1 'FoJ' NIilI'Ii'luHk:ed Iinform~tion; 1E~!§Iji;r1eIHiI.Spafford, Iflulrdl1!:e Urrniv. ((:lii1{u'il Dei€fJ,(Jt,~: l~e'~'[j'is BUin"i.c,omb, ;Sc:ripips lilt Inst. of OCeillnog'!i\aph,y; Ma~,m~eli1l. IKe~ty.consult( Blnt, Ha,ddollfi,eld. NJ Ungwstlc:s,jJliIl! Langlilage Sc:i:enc:e C/1'oir Ele,,!: lIi\aJl'ktiberm~n. UII'I,irll. ,of !fl:el1insyl'vanf1a; Annie Za.eIli?fI, Palo Aho RMea rd!. Cellile.r

Washil~gt'on
MI,f!mbe'r~Qt-t(Jlg~ o{ tIle SecUcm Commift:e~: C An~:i,cmy H~ll1t, IJIil1liv. oWCahrrolnlllia, :5i1il11 h,gJlllId5i.OQ; Dh~.ren Thakkeu. IJni!l. Clf lI\l,orfh Cfllroi'ilTlla,

'(~~pe:lHiU
EI,edorote /1Iomifwtrng

(ommi.tt,ee: F" IDo!lQlbiis

BQ'ud~lI'IotVirginia Co,lfIlmonwealth Llniv.: 'Glhl' er H,oc.hlhalJ!s,. Ul1iv. or Floridal; Ud~y 8."KomIP'eUa, Un]v, of Nebr,askeJ,; W~i-(hi!1Iij'i!g Sheo. Ur!1l,iv. of

ME:; M. Gral1lger Murgal1 .. 'CamegrieMeUon UI'II,iiv. Ele,ctomte Nominating (ommi~: l"~leJD. Blair, Nationa,! Res,earch (oun(i~~ Ihamas 'Dietz" Michigan Stahl! Unri,v.; Mi~l~t€l Gadn,M:l,.J,. Cirarig Venter 'i'115t: D'I3l,\I1 M. H~art GI~o~ge' d MasGn Univ,~ ([b'3[~ou'e I(;uh, rrIJ.ati'o"r.,alAc:adrefllllfe~; Wi lIia ml A. . Sri les ] t, ronsulta rm'l;.Norfdlk. VA [Kern-Ann lones. indelPende'll'1lt ,wn5utl:al'lt; Castine .• ME; M. (l'ranger MOirgal'l~ Camegrie Me~lon UfliIv. ElectQrate /lJominating (omminre: IP'eter ID. Blaill"f Nationall Resea ret! Council; Ihom,ias Diret.z, M]chiganState Unri.~.;M,irnlele iiarfin~1l. J. Oalig \!entl!f limit,.; D',jwid M •.IHlart; GeoJige M:a50n Univ,; Ota'IT'~oUe Kuh, fIj,atro'rha I ,Autdlemr~'es; Wi ma mr A. :S~ I,~s]r.jwnsulta nil:, IN(!!,rfdtk, VA 'C"ufJci/ fJ'~~e9(j('e; ~pbert ((lok-De',e'glim, !luke Unw.;'FraJ:1lk N. Laird,lllliv:. of Denver
-

.

St.aiti sti [5, IDaVii,GlJ. M~rthette. N!avalSurfalce' . Warfa ~e (enter; W. MireI;J'fileL O't1ilUO n" Ma,yo School
(haif

M.embeNJ,f-larye

M.ark Al"Olti,O'ff,.~tMy B,rook Univ.; lOon Ringe, 'U!1iv. of Pe,I'II'I'iI~~'Vil,ni~ El~'(tofatlFjl!J.omino,rfng (ornm'itti!'f!:]oan ,Malill'1lg, :National Sdenll:;e IF"qunG!atia:r-; Sially Mc(onne~~· Gi:net, Comell Urn;v.; lames IP'lIs,tejG'I!'Slky.B~andeis Unilll.; E,dwara Stab Ie r. IUniv. 'of CalHornia. rLosAngeies Council De'{,f!gate: St~pi~len 1ft Ander'san, Yale UrnilV.: lKerel'l ,i"(ic'e. UniV'. of TOoFClTllio

of the

Sect~oR Committee;

:5()u~h,f.!rnCal.i~omi,a (ounfiU)el'egoie.'Jim
]. SinkG~. Rutg~rllUllilil1i',

He't:

~lLo, Temple Univ,; Patoi(~

o,f Me.d~ci rl e
Mrmbeh!~t-l,~'r9,r Q/t'he Sectlr:m

rommi~ttee:'

Math'em a:lti,cs
(ht!ir fl~,(f:~ith lJ~i!I~il1l. Sto1lllJlford Uni\i',~ Maritin

Phystics Cfwir Erect.: Ap'p:l.ete.li'l,. I..ilnriv. of F~orild~; AllalM!(hodos, American Physkal Society Me'fnbf'f·at:-Large of the S,flcticm Committee: C le~vi5 (od,e, Kansas Stab! Uni\l".; (irene I). S prouiSe, Ameri,c:a n Phy!iica~ Society Electorate NOffl'i'Ulti'flg Committee:: Orl,{ulI,do AILid ell6. Argo:M1r:l,e rMa.tioiMJaL Laboratory; ,Iil;i(.ham l. .cohen, indle:p.el~lde'ld consultant, !NovatO', CA; R,obert P. Redwine. Ma'sosarehU5"eUs Inst:. of

8m ~..

(,. )ogesh Babu, Penllsyl\l'ania Stare Univ,; Rall'ldiaU i{,SPO:E!!rl. Gerner (erporatnol1
E~,ectQ'f(Jfe IIi,QI.lJin,{liing (Qnlmiff,e'e: )Q5ieph L. (jiiHih'llirt'h. Geo:J:Jg,eWishj'J[gltOfl IlJlliv,; ¥as,l1:Iiin 1-1. Silijdl. 'Gleorg~ Mason Ulfliv.: Fritz S.dneurel1l" NOR( at IJniv. of rChi,c€igo; D\6vid W. $'1:0[1.

'Rice Urnlll.l'.
C()W1(#

Dei,r!gate: Qavid IL. DeMe[~. U niv. of

1.M:sco~ls]neMadi:50,n; Jona$ H.IEllenb'ell. IUrnliy'. of 'P'€;nm,ylvani iii

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S;CIIENICIE VOL .317'

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apiPoar to 00 ~:lltily rospcn s,fble (Orthe i~lili~.dC\lIClopmem of U_m:1J1iS1:r! m Bir.Lk. h d seems lU~e.ly ]h.allJlroan]jsan~s; allc~st. in] prutUle lJI~illre!ldoo l'CWU of Ole aC1:iQI1!."of mn'0n~!]1JOUS , coercon
dOC8.IlI~L

j1ason A. Ur.~· I?hilffilP

IK:l!lfsglaalrdl,.2

lO'dli:ll

Oal~es~

W

cp:rcrexn,t here ~hc:Je£:L!lllsofa ~Mudyor

ou~cr

10\'\.111

th.e,eVOlmiQ~ OfW'b.'.'mliml ..'.flt,lhe,S:i.k:O.f . _ Telll Brnk. m !ljJrlhc~srefil~ SYria. We a;p~fO;;1:d:vOOl de:mogrophilc scale, de~su~Y.!I:[JJd pQ;litiOli'I~'" ofgJfiwrn by using ·~l.e Sp,Uj:flll dislmiblll.tifiJ.l,

fQlflner~y

&C]dc:mc~]l Cl\::pmlil,dcd ]f1\:vat'dl. M:.1II'J:)' 1J~s;cII~lod aro.:1S wcro~l~cn tmUed.The

and :mJ:Q:Ud.lit,.ill!;;h~e~.ly ranked ~OWl.~S. Al 1he end of the f 11th 1:a.1j n.erm:iUll'a BeE, a spa:l:ia[~y exretM!ive~'[lcmcm C1llcrgcd m. "fcll Brnk,
aIO!i~g.lhe ~~o:n[~l :are' ():rl~]e Fertile

ren~ml mound [~osfoo~iS!rgehldus!ria.1 stn!c1urcs and ~ll~ .. st one el:aborntcty d~01'i1!i.t>d l~lple~. The L:alal. L' J.~o.4 senled area ,gJe\I!,'~O .130 into We

Oesccm. U d.iffb:cd fro!tl the dcusc!y SClJUed and f.!~lea[oo

~:m~ of the fllnm_;

was

SI.I!.o~il]g B~~ Age: inlil'41tit c(KlT\I:JOOed of muhip;~e· (H~reLC rtOC:1keL"i. of
S(.'tl!C~:]:l:ei1ll Of' Sfl.lfOCYI!l!I1i(]OOI

by areas ofh:rw {1~siLY

nose~tkn~oot

Uf-

~1LJ]i~!n all 1!;::]I Brok beg;m iinasptltia;Uy (!,\romlisivc farm, and hs gro\Vithpa:u.em~:'!,Ia .. 000

Qfinc~.si~:g dMSUy ,:._,.it]] s!muiJianooooln\1iI'ffJd

cXp<lulsion This
1Il.§lt:a!er

ptltcrnl ~~~

~I.c .J:br nonc<m~rlll:~:ze.d

~;nooos~slin looifi~·Ii..~ll gf,owlh of Bral !ltlld
Icsscrimpon,;"'lllQc[br
c:e11i1.f!lI~zed!llUlh(llrUl'y~

.it also 5ruggeSis llwlt.

."

.
'WeI

!hc !\tlldy of Mcr;op~
~mhm ~ibrn1isl'~,~ must

fig .• 1. l)ii5tribution of surf2!ICe' artifad~at TeU Blfak,~fl JIlOO-mllsherd coUectkm units, (A) LCZ (c, 4200 ~B) L( 3100,4 (c, 3'9!()O to 340'0 BOE~ >ceralmf(s, (ir,~y balckglr'OIl1.n;dl irepre'sen~s 11~~I-sI1!~dedlt'opogr,aphy, of chfOJ,~Qlogicany SCIl:i>llliiw surface ai:1laii,1clsasa proxy :iindi.c.'n.o. for me dil!IDibullionand densil~y 3J1;de~lt 8e]lIC'~l (I). Our i:\'Sl!~1S 8ho,\'\.' BtrIiI_k's. 1.!~11 (l!!"igillS lobe oonme~npo['a!ry w~thh;: ~)petu'<lint(l

aceommodete n~.-..d1]-· 39'0 I) iSeE) ceramn!(S; pIc urodels fO!"OlC ori~hl!S ,gf (;i[i~,
IRii,h!:r'eIflCi!·::;; ~1ii~Nlo1J!!$

or

sol,lthem: lraq, Llteregioilll gel1:i;!l.lI]]y ,c:o.l1l.'iiidieredto be l~.le b:~rm1pli11c:e of M''S{}~lam~~ln ci(i~: hence, [he em~1"gefll.oe or llWmnlSrDl, ill flilLe Ncar .East \!VoL") .<1 re.gional]y
in

,af eities

dl\'Cj'L~es fw:m1 the oou(Il~. Mes'Opola.]1'li a~ model, wulhi:mp]ic~l~Q:lU; Ib:tr mldcr]yin.1g :s(miopo]ilri.Ctl.~ r~t";'i. p UmruJigrowth at E!.mk begmil I.llillhe Late C~l~ooHi1i~(LC) 2 'period [[circa(c.) 4200 LO 3900 catllIdar y~. belb:ro the CQmi1U)~ era (caJ BeE)]. Ce'mmic.<; tmmIJ!Hu!.in:D.~~,yere found in six di&-· C~lt'(} Chl:'>~. of2 to .4 .htl~'n.mugho~<t them,l~TIu ~nl.e:me:D~1omp~t"X.~ffiI£!mny 2.00 to 500 In front c
]IS .gJ'I}\vfri, hO'\IiJC'i,'Cf,

tHll.:!iI[iretltric 'P~s

(1~, TIlle speJ:iJ~:~ ·pp]re!'il~i!l.g of

linlLcrpr;Qledt~~il!Mllt.1;daitloo of ffiJIf.[ftOC oooomics as anindkm.o[ ef iacreased d~]]c~;iLy f OCCupilllicm. e ll]t]s,!5ctlk:mcllt d.cnsity U1Cr:l"3S0dalong with spa]:i~~ Cll;lcnt At this time, the hH'Iest of Brm:;'lii neighborS reached only 15 ~~~,<'Illd on~y one COJ.l[~]1j.ponlJ:ry se]tleme~1 in s(md.ll:;:[ll MesopO'~a:[noa, Um:ll;. t'Xcoed!ed itiml: Sl:ize(I). Tb~:isl:mj;Qctm:y 0 r lIDbain grow1h from ·42.00 10 3400 calOCE rnast reflect changes [n under~yil'n.g SQd~] andpoU'llca] S:1ruCIUOC'.B. 1]~c; :;pa!:fud ~r.altio:~~ be~\'I/'\:le:Pl ~ej)H!.::n.'1cnt c;]usi:ers 5uggem~ social distance betwoelill discl.ele ~1~locommuni.ties ... ln thissollso. Ithey rese..mbfedM ~xplodoo fQfiImi tbe .1~lCrnucleated M~opo:l:an~'ial1il city,. ,-",here l1iId~boorl1:oQdg were d~\'idcd net by spsee bUlt by walls md ~.imil:oo ll~$n~ gf~ss, Al

.11110liFlethoI!!Sil!re. availi!l,~1E .as wPlPo!iil:ing maiIDiiil. Oil 5U!!llf:f" Orn!llllli!!. 2.. ], Oal~ A,. Mdillahmt.. p, Karsg13<:1rd., 5, al.·QlIlIbr. JI, It, 1,1" Ami~!)y at :58~St~O!i)7). L Material:i
1

3. JI. OalM,P'roc; Bnl. Acad. ']l3::E.. 1 (2005). 4. It :rink~i:nlilr,. M., Umk ~ampagn~3!5".17 193:C-1984.~ Dif: AlltJ!'i'oolagiwJ'f Ohtq:l&l'lmlJt.i:lmri.[lljj~ ~fVey) 5, ~] •.M(nnt.Q§h,M~;~r Mj,rjtJl~·lII'~~ Ufb~i~ {)fU$ ~m;. .'lieif·OtgG~il.iIl.~L"ndS'Ci~~ tCambndgi!! II!JI~i~. ress; P Calmb'~djJe, 20(!l5~, pp. 2:7-441. 6 .. ]1. S.• Ilariising', Anlil'U .. Sm. AJiJfh.Qj:Ja1: 32, Jail {l{!03~. 7., funded by Ih~ lB:ril:1SIiJ :l!rw1il@my,lih@ ,MI:Ii:kllillilld 11I~liIul!;! r,tl~t!l,clir,;t~I09T(;~l R~~11Ch,!ih~ ~di!ll~Y !!if .Am,~qI!!'4I1i1!:~. UtI! (ha~lo~:!e llonli!:am·Cal1:er CJna,If!~,ble 1!~~I. !hi! Ulilill'EllI§;it)o Mi(hig.~lfi,. andIIHiatVim1I!JlillllVllrsi!y. W,e thai:lk fir tfue Oireol®rate' Gli:ntralo~ I!inli;l!IuiE~es.aml Mlis«Imms of ~~l! ~iall :AraiD R~~~bUkt II, JlImD.1IIS" ,~ .. ,ilt,Maqdiss;i\ L Gh~nem.~l1idH. W'fighl.
(PIil~I.~p Zai!<E\I1Il.,Maiinz 11m lUn~irli.lL99nJ. pp. 1l9'~:il9il, WnJ

or

Brak, cll,l~ierin]g mRlJ l~iII\~~ IUSIJJIII[I;:dfrJom malarenance (If oodat~di~lal]ee by
]mrtll(gT;I'l'n,[

gro:upS,.

Siupportillllg

On!~.ilile Mllteria~.

lh:~ col1rm'~ mound (!Fig .. tA.). A IS'o tLt tnlflit ~.iil:n1.e., 1he cOilltral mound \:l,!i\.~·~i1I.~jloo:]y ctd.od,.:aOO~i'i1 s ex-

E.... . istul.,gs.oc]aJ~
able
I!O

mm::]KliuicsllJitS

mny

.l.1I1NI.t!5di@Il(:ema!ll.iJ:rg!~gl1:1COI1lI@iilVfIl1l!l31If.jI3.t1.2JU88/.Ii)C·1

llQ1hiilve ])re,[i

:sustahlinowast'i!

cl'oi'iSilyin

amic:!oaloo

M~teria'ls ~ M Melho~~. Figl.. :51
'12' Decefl'liber 2:0Q6; acCle:~d15

cavaliom hase ~!noov,ered .m:chilt'!:::·~ltre and ani:F~& fMln sugges,thfC of :SOO]!Jl15~tin~ti.o.ll {J)\\~!e o9.kJU!,-· This: d:i~poersed p1llfil!ii;:m siIlggest"bo:th dopen~ lirl1'()d '~~etotal settled area .;l[ 55 !la,at. <I timewlten deuce on bun some tm~iO.llIolny fiom il~epo]itic,<l] rev;' (lOnlC1H11;J)]<l!1)' ~~t~el]]enlS exceeded 3 ~]a prn.ver Olmum.c Ce]m:DI3~.lool,lilKl, .f.l1I':v.iou!> ~!i!aoch Thus, dliri:IliL~I]].c .lie 2 p~ri,od Bt1l1k\.\ril':inl:es,._~dl.he assumed l~.~atcoo,tmli2lea;m;(1 ~lienlirehiC<l1 soeiompl.d tumn1:lrofl of 3i spiui~ :~y,~'\te.tlsiw ficttlc-· poil~tlc,al h:tl!!,tinniott'icroau:rl dlks as. j.~IlllUlClimlJ.'l:~
tl~cm oo~acb;::ri:~d by ch.lsrersof (lccupicd spaoe ~!l~C'!'Sp;:rS'ed wi~lm \f!lC'.amn~!1es i.n lilc olJ~:crtowl'!. .l!)ijrill:lJg the carl)' 10 mid!..foul:th m~l]ellnmil,l!]1. BeE (LC J, to' 4, 3:900 to 3400 ,eall BeE, Fig. ]113)1

110. ~JCi~nre.l.n U:2

fins

J!.I!!!e 2:007

.1\'\I!i!lllJlf!·,

adaptaJtion!8. toproble:!llS ofpolhical
orgwi:.)'..altrm. Reccmly;

a!ld.,eoollOm.ic

how,C'Ilt'r. al.. haco·lJogis~, (ambridge CBl lER. UK.. ~ bO:tlOil'!fHJp. or <.mlccr'" "'[0 w.\h~m (!(fme~PQ:mt,fIll(!f1 £ll,ou:~d genl~ ~J]Juperl:~ ofrutetcmU seHIi!lih~[ilns;S, .6} Eli:re ( iail:OnUI(li!rra$.i1\3.~...a [llI.e!illul

IDepalrli~1Q! .Alnlh~~p!ll~IJY. Hal'll<1fd LJ!1I~vei!'s.;~,llIDii'llli!i,ity G1rnbrid'ge:, I!II.!!! 02138;. UlSl!\. 2I1rdl<leetog,v, lIni~-miry or Min'DtJl'lgh, Oltdl H~91t1 S!i:1il00. liI1fimm8.~ S'll'eet,. ~tlinbIIJ'9hlIlEIiIl 1H, UK.~.Md'llni3ld mMlUJ;rti!' ~m Al(lhiI~ @l~ir;al Re~~rdn, tI!'Ii~i~ ,~~ ~~b~~!Je, [)Qi'lflll1g Sum.
bec{l:dH1S~d ... E'·malt;

~It~a$ing]yappnoc~;atenhe

111Sa:

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.orgl

IEpoxide~Opleni,ng Cascade:s Premeted by Wlst:er

sotrt:llI1IOrI. l1lQ:l"cfD.re.,[ljKltlg~ ,lmcJi~abl:eieihe SYl1['I'1e&~s f oen..llinpoilycll1er rjng sysle~m,~hi:.'Se o u'1et~~ do Iloil provide' e'vide'Jnot;:'~rusul~POl1lof or ]:

aJ~ain$l:Ul:C N!llkaud!F:h:ih)'pJthe~fu';.>

prefi.":l'Cllccfortlte ~m~ner :1i[Qg "!~croCimC'! En:zy-, O
~lj,c'

Thus if ,e:po'Xid~'peilung reaceions <lire used in :~lldd.erpo.ly,cthcr biQs:Yntl1C;,~~s. ~h."lm, hew is this
OO[1.trfl] is. aloglcal

:sl:Ippo:l!ition,. but ~h:ci'Cis ss yeo]: no evidence f'Ol"SI!l:chan intervcl1lkin. WiUI th\: jQiil~t: aims Qf!ld~dJre& ing this qV!~slilOn~1I1.d s SeI€~ti~lt,V I1'Ii!! les in QW'QIanf.chelrn1fi5try na\)!e beeni mllf'e!irred Large1tyfrom nonaqlUleOIYS envlironmell1llts. 1111111 c <Vl1ce~.eF'd'mil~];g syDlIh::~i$; or ]i[~dd!e]!' p(1~lyelh'Cl's. the cennast, 'e!1zy~e5 'Oipel"iJtein water~ I!1Ilrld the melmiralleHect oj[ the medium I(lhangle remains onty WI~ have row sed ouerecenr ~ff~rrts, i~ this ;:~f.'C<llOJrJi P'8Ir'~!~U:lI~ll1IderrM.ood. S~r~ctulra~~ (nllra(~'eIif!UI'~Ofl {J,f the '~lad:d!eI'U' po1:yelh.er lIIIfIarine rl1l~l!Irallprloduct5 ··diroeti[l\g"'~rtY~p-frcc."n·iI.P-sel~ll ve cascades raised' a puzzle that pell'Sl$t~dl for 20 ye~l!Is: .Althoughthe slereocilemlstry ,00 ad!lacenttellF~itydropy,ran (10). OilrapPl:'OO:ch Sl:c'ms fronrlat1 :flnslysls of (ffi!P) cy,dle~ \!iloutd S~ Mto alrise Fra;m iii bl0sJrlll~lM.etic '!l:asll:'ad~ of e:p;Qil:ld~op~i1I,ing 1~,e:fldTIons. ,e)lpe;ri~nlm th~ po]~ti,,~.I~ctijl:"sgO"!fcmin:1:g th~regipsel~ctiv~in organic :soILlj,[lent:sOil'"lglUledc;o,IDlI5i:stently ~hat :Sl!l:c:lhl a p(l:~hW'ay would be l:i:ifletkallv d~sf,avored.W"e wepQ:r~ , ilyo,f'(:ijJQx.ide openi~.lg ii[IJ these nmclions, and uses ~hat. IlI1Ieulb'aJl, ~ll\ail:er ads as,a!'FilI o ptima,l, p.m,mote:r flor the re.q!llIlis]le ring·{lpellmling seledi~ly~. nce a S~lI1glle o a ~empla~~to medulste th~m ]miJ tb.c desired tem,p~.ajtill1lg mlPis 8ippendedlto CI d~'ai~of epoiddles. Thfl!!!ltraltegy ,oners C! ihrigh-yielcliirilg ~olU1teiwtlh~ [m:f'll'in.ef. nalurillUy o(rurring Ladder (ore~nfild ,illigl~l~i'9,i1t$ tD"ne,]ke~y'ilm nce o~ a,q!Jeol.lls·'!"l'ted~l.!Ilm, efWem,ilrl!l I plw~ We ooa~o:i'n.cd'(him ilfl. S, "!,l!,I~l.(;rc ne n:.m Pis o uli'ilderp~]nnili:1Jg cejj'ta~n not~ilVodhif ,en£Yimi:iltk s1!![~crtivi'li~5.

B
CV]IS.

rev:eltox:im B (Fig. 1,. l), yl:Sooloxin (2), the ciguasoxins, <l!ndrehu.cdladder ~Kllyethef ]';Iilll.!~l~1prod.~.els are theaetive -OQtaSti~Li~'

1[4..3"01nona.m;: ,coyrnn;:;tp@rl"i. mmd wcn;:·l]:IJis dif.· feflelmoc' in devellop ing Iring stm:im reflected i:rnuUle tffiDlSlllIOiJ;i:smloo, tllri.enlllm.C des~.wdl'~-lP P['OCtlllct (6) gC:II,l;;m~lyrC'~ardc.d Lobe di8~1VOrod. {Fig . .2:B~ ~ll:liglll be J~1.vorodin tbis t'C;mpl~,]oo S;Yl'it~1tl~1 under CWith f'e'iiv c,'I!.ccptio!]s. cpo:;dde·opcpJng re"a_ctlml$ ~h{)itipploopriamercftClioll oond1tio.1TIIIs .. ofii1.i!5~ypcr~vo[' (he sm~[lcrhererocyclc [c.g.• a 'W'at:e:r iliSaJ Il'eadn!l)llII IPlr'ij!m,ote!r. "[:0 ~CSI,these l'Clrah;rclmfl!:lr;an (TH:!f),lihly ar.ising :from n SPll'Q hwo'Dhe~e."~l!lllC :prcpa]ICd5 and exposed it to a ttii~~lili.otl ~t,ue]. [lo;t t1~c rl~rger ,one ~[l. [;::rtaby- w~clc mllg(:o,!' eO~ibillJtllD~~ of Midis" bils:es,. dwpyraifD, (T~.lP), [f,om fused tmnsilllOllTh Shl!le] so]lvCilU'l. aad o1h~.r3(k11111,i.vcs (.lJ). Bases tended 00 ~~vQr the T[lF produc;[7, whereas acids c.)\hi.b~ (1fJ-.IZ). Mom oft~~.e~]JproflC:hc-s OClp[m~r:totelhe s]i,g)n preference lor (he; desired TH_P desired o:!Jmcomcm;c "direCllil'lg, gIiOll~ps"l~~almllJ!.st hcda be c'Ovalc~~'tlyam]3.Ghedi [he qpoxid!~, (I 3), I~ IwOOill!Cl (16). rCombinmli!Cl!ls ,of ~H;;ids and bases [:0 l1~OOlt 'W'mp~~ socoruj~!y '!netaJ~oii~C$ver ehare fmJvo:re:o. "7. To llieUCJi ;lclcrim]J. aJU b.u]:cl!er po~yetl.lers 1'JCi:S$ess: aJ. Slime..· oo:n:J!lrr1i.~:!" cal<l.lytit ant ibod:ues {i4) t1ind ll'all~i~i.m.1.- {Lewis or BI1~n~led}alS!o n]~t~~ oompk~xe;'j; CU. l(j) ,r,~u be panicu]arFy 1J!~deffiliLn:dLilli! reql.l:i~~:~,1~Ilt<;for ac:tiviitUO:r.lofi.he him] [J~lienl and sLtre.ochemncal reg.u!;iI:rity that ~,ll1].d(>()philcarnd the eloclmpfu:i !.e,\;vc t.';'di1'J1lJinM c(JrI1~r UI[]I()II~m.el11 <11 ttrla~1m, dl::gree' of sHmp'~kjly. efl~l~,vein ttrmn,n cases ~,I1.'fuivi.ng a ,,~i~le event, "[0 da[,e, hO'''vc~l". all the pH depen:(Icn~ of TllP'.,to-TllF' 5CJecl:lr\'i~y A backbone of n::Pe<'Itil'l£ oxn,rcn~c-a:rbQl1.~c.adlOn cpoxl.do-op~ing qe]re'livc ,ca.'1Ca.dl.cs~lal ope~m~r,e 1['i,fll!inQUI~ bulleffi (e.g.,. plm~plnue. ~ri:):, Hl!.<;)alll.d (O-C-C) units extends fmm one end ofthc po~y-' existing 'IllP... iQi1k:~lrel,gU~s T]l,Cs.e cxpc'rimcnls mroo]oo II. enher !lelwork 1'0 th~ ,[lI:lJ~~ (e.g." g.~liJJliOC;~flB ,[3)~ I:hllll'~lle 'f:~?'Oxi:dc:haV()~qV!ired ~.direC'l~:n1g ~rolil;P ai every epQW\:ide V 7:_.j9),. These dia;;ctillg group~ clear ,1lnni prfJ'roca.]j,veb:e:~d (Pig. 2D); In aU fig. 2A, ~:cdbonds and Oaltmm. 1., oogJl!lld:]c,"lIiof oithlCr arc ~1m 1hll.llmd in the ]1i11hJ:J!rll~proo.l1cl5> cn~s. tile scl(:,'ttivily oor~l!e de'Si:liCd TI1P' pl'l:doct the size of'l11l1.c l.~~lervenun~ ~in.gs<llIl:dof any fUllc-, tio['Jfllgn:'OlaoPS pros.CiI:iI.t onlllin.ernng.~,. Time ·'.la<Mc.r jncreaSi~ stlb~lanti<1llly as the' pH of the n:,aCl]OtiJ ot~ler ro:t1iSJO:ml deady Cftl1ll'lOt belilillei'Hlflllnd ro.pogro,phJyis (he l\onooque.n~()c 0'1 oom~:ng.]C:lu]y trons sle!\''':QChe:mi~!!'Y ~cr~s,>;,!ilin:e 'c~fb{lq~..c;~~h()n IPig.. ':1"'., hp'rlf.ls~nt,atilJl'e b~ds ofdu;d~g jYf!c1l.om:;>cQ'l:Iiplecl~!filh the I~,ad,der polYElI~hielli natural [d ,Jl:ii~ syn ()onl:igU~d.]io:rJ! <lfadjaoem jl.lllc~iO:mls. prodIU(~5,. Me, methyl. [Iim@ INa'kil!ntshi '(aJscalG.·h!!, hypothesis. More lliif)fl 20 yoo,rs ago~ NOlIkJlalishii put.furLh :a hy~· p01h1..'!silsn]lIilJtac:cOdj['!t~ for there st'i\ICl~umJOO'iid. slCrcoclleln~.C<1~ slmilm:ities-t[~el;ra]l,dor:ma~l.on of .. pol)lc:ptJ.xide (e"g" 4)il]I:o a ladder polyethe:f V.i'l. ,;] ~eri,~ o:r"rnsC<l:de" of ~pox&dc-openi.n:lig OVCIl~ CFig..2A). (9J1 rbo o~cy~~1'1Ointl 1.\\'0 C.11:ibo~1, .U£iJ:i.1S· of each cpoxcidc oon~l.ihire the 0-(::"(:'

phenomena {Il~o known oollbcti,'!leiy ~s tille' red ride, Si nee the T.sohHnOI]!md stl11'Cl1(~m,l1clucida.tlon of l by Na~ln:iS]~i ,[Uld C~<I!rd.y~I] 19~H (J). the dis!·i~i].(;I:i 'VCfIIl1:ol!eci.II~[ilJl'Chjltl~cWlre :i[1.t11, e1{lI'Ci'J'ie ~dh=:!i~hy msriae nrc oft'hc~setoxins continue to to sthnulmcd:re cl:c,,"CI(l'p!l'D.el~t ,of H1ClllOO$ fortlldr chemical sy!ul~b! (2'--4) andrescereh rn.]:olll~d1i' l1100e ofaelion (5).. ,~~O'M !t:lifi.eSiCnio~eo~~les1ite assembled by the djnoJm:~gdlaH.'S. t'~!fIt produce :nhC1n has ,]'100 b6Cc:Jm, an active t1i~ of in'l!e.\l,1J:g.nion (6,..,8) and to be: sure, specuhnkll1!. ,Although l~y .are amotlgl,he:

of Imu,lIY luum.!ida.lg."l] blooms, marine.

backbone, ~Uld w~~h11\1.0pmviool1illru aU of the In:EThg Qpe,l'IIilll,g.1IJO p:roo~d wi~hiillvefSion of eOJ.tfl,gllJlm.lioiij, Ute Uillif:i:S-Syttl. t:ap,o~phyig cxp~lii:iiiil~d by thi~ meehaaism, llUI~thcreislink ,cvidc:l'WClll

~lremJy ]f! place, e.[I!tooptc ~su~ 1.h(l~!ll]ghr m:wmallly fi:lvor the undesired spiro tl~1msi;~iQ[IJ slaDe wou~d he m.inil:llllized II.u:I.d illSI:ead en-ul.lm.lpic (:O:[IJ~.

[ribl!lt'Dornils so the energies (Ifl]].e ,(;:o.mpl!:tjng t'mmlr si~i04i11I SI;l!es "\li,iOii.dd p!:;i:Y a.molreilnpoorl1u1ll role (.F~g,20.· r.r'l;'l,.~~~bicydo[4.4 . .. ]d~!U1,C dcr:iVD~hr~ 0

SUPI)(lJ~ th~s lW·(D..d.ocade~().tdh)pOlhes'i!8 has nO[ dc~errcd ,elrQI!'~to emu ~~lCsuch 'c~~ol;lde~~ Despire illS :un'l:el]eCI!Ulll.~ <IIp'pea!l" ~Lo'Wever'~le hypo!liesL ro~j~ u:po~. ~. rhig'"QPet1ling proces.'$

are l'ypk:t\ny~ess sfrnillOdlhaJl ~hdr IJun~"_1hkydo

J.

min,

j

,

D~p~~~!f!fI~liIl ''''~l1I1!iISM~', M~~~(h~~lu @f IlfI'sti~I!I~~~ I!)r Technology, Ca!mblidge-•.MACl2 ]39, LISA. "'To Wii1®ffill MI'f5PQI1demle ~h~tJIJ be ,lldOlre53!1d. E-rnai~:,
_t~@fifilft.~(hj

I

RESEARCH ARTICLE
FIg.. 2.. {A) $l!!!riuKtur.al a ~\'l![JI Hi!tf'@O~ S
ctiemn((ll[ palUe-;rll1llS exp~a]ned 1:)0/ the

Nalkalniii5hi

hypotitnesis of ladder
~I~

po[vether

bios;yl1ithesi s. (18) The'

two tra ni~itio~, 5~.ai~(i!S (f~'ried and SP]ro) and (OWl'IeispoJl1ldil1lg I~H'Qduru. ]or cydizatl:on Q:f an exemlPlla:ry epOlIfyah:iQh (d. via epo.:dde opennlftgl.

~~

'O-C-CI~ 'Q'lH}II~~

,epox:ide-o,pening cydizations. (OJ iDepenJdelnc'e of iIIHP::IH Fhi:7) s@!.edNHy 0111 pH 11l
«()

Temp,lated

'~.I'I«iII!!!!IY~

.PW!!!iI.,~

I~~~l

ii!~~

cydizailion ,of 5. ~E) IEnlilamement of (jomj\er$~iQn o:f !5aiiil:d o~ THP:THF se!~e(ti!fi~ H20. by

II

']~:t:l [
.~~.

c
~. ~I

H

riI!i
[

.

]*@ ,\•® .
..

,

"
-_GL -_

'o'!; ftU'

~

'I~~
&
1--1

_

...

nc. ill' ec.rrft!A:Jllilndl"'l

J

on,,,,,,.., ~ril.
G

~
?.Ql Wl

__/
0-111 ~

.

..

i.

"

.

~
Ul

~.~.
....
ri"'!!'

"f !i

\

\.

-.
U
&.II

UJI II..Yl

J_g.

1:.Il'

~--~(I

-~--~---

~

oLD

HID

fH

e:nlviIlmmem a,ppf~}~ches n~lrn] ity"e'VCfl, exceedUrl.!i,l0: I TI-[p·:n ~F selecf vi.ty near pI [ '7, ~. Sev~ml ~jm]J.(}s of evidence cle;};riyilfip~it:.Hewater 'in btuhlhe aeeeterauon arad. inerease ll!;!l. ~dlJc[iv.iTyill tlilLcse reaeuens l~n less ])ola.r sel-

vems {e.g., e~~];!c~ af~d,!oll!Cfn.c).~:o>v OC!llVCiI"-' siou (~f5 ]S ebscrved, (I:ndin po](Ir ,aluQtlcool.vc:ms: [e.g CH)CN. d~:m~t]1iy~u](oxide. and s
N,.N' -d.ilmel:ilyllb.rnl:(ll1l1idc

(HMF

h ~;gher eWlV~i'Si'on to i6 iilld 7 OCCOI'S, fhes:cllec> ~hrky is grearlyreduecd ,(":53 :16 :1}., FUfIl'hermruc,

H.

altho lJg~.

strengt~a!!1d pcroel'Qt~ge ,gfhnpmitic5 !,!I!re'~lea:r ZCfO'. pl'o:vidles the ~~.ighe.:'ll sc~.c;l1:tivity (>IJ: [ TllP: InlF). The Q[)jly o~he:r pron].o~e:11;'~l<'a:1 we have fomld ~hat~p:~:mC'h(hfJ: sekctivi[:y ,lllcl [liUie C)I.:i:JJibi100by wat:r:ir <'lr·e olhy 1C'.blCgly:co;1 (9~.1 }ililli.d mtl~1f!!110] (8:] )', \vh~chalon.g wiLlrl 'l;,'r'a!i.cr calill bfj!lh pm\l:ide and ~ooepl i:~)'dl'Q:gcn hr.mdsl' Wat:er"'IPImIlfl()!t@d casci,des. Having d~l~fe~.oped a TI.-[I?·"~C~l':C:D.ive ,el]oxide-apen~[Jjg method,
weh.iJmtid ,our t~tr~o:illi:!.io.mil [he possibi I i[y of lisimi~ to

TIle i'iy.m,hesr~oft:hc·~xid~ JA and e<u:I1JU~i11l.cs iIIn>olft'u~r ~peCI

i~slm\~~ninfi,g..
of NakiiUli.s.hi.~s

hypO'Dh~".Si~.,polyepOi;ddJ,ui!ol1 a p~),~yoo~.A]~· of
Ln Ylil.el Oiill in high yio~clby il[kyl,areio:u:i w~:!h l1m~3pp:ropria:!c propm:gy~brofl"!~clc(U tI1mlt2:., FCl'pecthrely),. A~:kyt1.() Sib, in whidl the ~[yclroxy~. gn)1I;]1l is pro[ec:~ed as a s.i1yt ethenwas convened It) alk~es 9il)imld ~.ob .in~]e same !CIIl'fllUlcr aJnd similar yield, Dis~ol,"'iligrli]eL'o'l~recllit:::ti()l] (Li!NI~.I.15) {')f ·lh~pm~ vi(kd a skipped diene (13) t1.1iU,\YaS lm:si:a:lJlc enough to prohibhpro~.o~gcd. srorage, The OOITC'I\yIllC 13i was extended 1M diyne;9aMdl.

tilis .~pproad]ifl epo.'Ilidc-openi"g cascades, f,~O\;,,ever, we
''''CfC

both i:~~cr.~tld TNP:Tl~[F :ld.ectivilY and ClC31:C'd cO[J!vOI:siOt!!0{5 eortelate \vj~hil~~scd

]fli-

wel~ a'!.i'i.illrelhm:'l our Q\:vn "ivod.. and

warer (:onrell[ ][1 U~Creaction rn~li]ielJ!,(Fig .. 2E), ,Fl,I:1<l1Uy. dC'.U(1I1ized llzO. iin:1J '1Iil.ilie~rn. hll:h the iioliit

[rolf! case studies reponed by Q!A~rs~halma~y hj~h~y$c~ecli.ve ~oxid~ ri[Jjg.,ope'Jm:ing mmelhodlf; f\U1.l1m1iri]y f;'j~;\,\iI~CJ]cxliClld.ed teeaseades (2lJ).

spondil1i.,g tnene (not sho\vn) lwm UJih \\'1:8 even lessrebust, roql,li,ring ]rn.ydm~yl.protecti!on ~fore
reducti(lDL

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

SICIENiClE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

RESEARCH ARTICLE
11 _/'6!'
1IO'n

I

'~~Cul!'4l!1

'O'M. A .., It ~ AIi·m&~

[~

...,., fftlll ~

'~!!III~ ,1I'r1 'I

.. )...0
~ 1~1"

c/'r,A-ol

.... ~<,r

PM 1"'"

)(-,.0

,~"-'ilI
Cw:_~
~=H fIi'-'f8S

1~

tlIJ~ Nal DIlf
,~ ,~

IIiP

I~

l14"'IY~?'
Uj.(4'1 Cl~1 ,~ ItoI.J!IId'~1 '115;!lnI.,,tdl~F~iTi!II,imdJ (7';;' yiali:i ~I I~!!I.,I~IV~!I

~M'T~~

1ilII1~'Cit

[~p.tltjr!ili '~I"~_ri!frdpiil' ~~

~~,

F~g.3. (AjIS'Y'ritil'l'!!sis o~ 1p<J1~.~~p()iX~d!e:s. ~,pol(n(h~",oplen~l1'llgsscades c

b:tf~~ldim.ethyLsillil

un

IHomolted b~ H2'O. dr, d~iills~E!r@OmE!r~'c n'3ltio; IJiMF, diim:ethli",~formamide;l1B:SI

terl=

Pi 'DI.4 • M.od eols o,f ep'Clxi deope:lI1IIing wea,~.tio:lmIS,p.~omo$€d by

~vater C2: I and ,211l), meU'n,]JIi'illo~ (~22~',ai1lld eth~@nle 9 Ly,C:Q[ (2:3.).

I~I I~'Mill \_ .••. 9 "

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.

,

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..

...•...

,Mil,(jlilal'l:isnllland im,li<:atioIIlIS., Just fig,~'i~ d~vdo~:OC:lll.], ,(lfllU- TH F 'epcrxjdOO:pef~i!'!g eascades (24., 25) l,s ul]k:cn as Sfl!i;!)port of tllD Canc:-Cc1mcfWestley h}lpmhcsi~ of mQIlt;:;n]sinJ l1iio~yn~]~is (26). we bc~.ieve [110111" the:' all- niP cascades he~'in repros:Cr1iI, :!ong~ilo'lighl evidence in fil,\rOt of Nal:i;:tlifli,shi's hypOlbc.si$ of buioorpo:~ycll~,er bio8ynthe8JIs (Of t1llC:iQ8t tho fca8ibml~ l~fiLcreol) lor several reasons They a!iiC hi~]_ yicldi~M~d ~:d~h~.y i.p-sellocl:il\~~' n (yie:~dper epa~~dc:;. 85% in all CEi~~5i)~r:eql:~llire d~mti:~ggKnUpS 'Oli[i[~;y .no Or~TI,~ ~~>(,idcE, and [uCm~ml: Q:ff~lt",dypto-

~

/0..H '.

. H~O:,
~

1'1·

moted by 1-110.
E

__

An epQixidatiOIl met~:~ood:Cve:lopedby Shi. fh<lt hiamges. upCDnlhoc.;liO:::.t!"deriv{.>{Ik!m.one14ru:ud. O~cnn~ OOflW['\'Cd the diene ,<m:d triene eo the corr,espond:ing ])Olyepo.''l\,jd~ (l:5,andl,6) (2.n. The ~t(lde:rat~ sl:ereosc~e;lCl"ivllily aJPp ~rs ~o be due to ~,l~e ~1I,;~ne p!XI!il:~ma]lolhe byd.!lQx.yl. g~I,Ip'; I:~~o:re1l1ln~.0'Ie r alk!I1:IIe5do not sa ~~rfmm 'lh]sITDI:i[D]\1IIlchoddouble d]astCJG{)8!e~ec'll:oll1iJ. Bi.e;po:.1id.e 15 ~:ttld [fi('p~xi:de fi [a~~:cr re'.I'11'IiDlval the /{tr'l-, of b1,1!~:yidinldhy]silyl (TBS)pf{HOO~ivc group] '""c~ (Jhroi:n:ed in .:50% and .3$%g\re:rn~1 yi\:]d., respec[i vely. lMIH 'Ib~ d~Ylm (!!Jla)am1IDtuyne(101~), Tbe s~llbQptim~.] stereoehem'cal 'plllrnty er 1S ~mdI' armed out t.()1 be ·of !I'in~e eoneern (!flg. J8). :H~lUi ng ~5 1.1l deloni z:cd W:UiCt For 24 hOlirtl: ,~t n;,oc '''1'1''0 ' '1'{'IIIII)' .\1 .... .] 7 'y . n '1"'.,.;1 I· ... ~ .r' ~m\C!~nl' In 6·· l'Ij~1 '!SOlll.tC!.!i..A :!Q~'l..!ielc~ 1)
r

pe.r-cpoxide yi~M", of8i% {for ]',8) and 89% tl'm 19') ~1![-e In .1 inew:ith the -10: [ scleC:ll.vilY seCI1\.vilh m.o.l1()epo.~fclc: :5fl~.d d~ I](lit ci\i\\1.ll1.goas a fim,c!,iOl1 of(he mlmbef of' lejjoxid.~ or~le !l~~lfIber fl"f]f o ring$' ~'lU\)c::eding a ,g,i\le~ ep~~jd.¢. In a.d!dli,tion 1.0

'Tlhc tcmplalc tUa!Y be rt.!d:K:Lionilmg as aI. SW"-' rog~re Cor QOI1J'omlflltiona;1 com\:!.Pi!!J~l1lSi!]1~fl'O$ooby <h[l enzyme aetive sile, ~[I(I b(';!Co:1U);~ Wai.te'.ris. 'dl¢ supe~iQr p['offiQ:ter ·of the ..I~.-TI~P C{lscade)t" nis

valliidartinglhc "l·~unp~tllk;·by-ill,~Tl·[P'· CQflcep~~]i:ii EI1IV<I[1am:'(l' would; St.'CIU '~osupport <I lnodllflinm!>l1llJ f01 the cascade lrl:lvo~vill{!l anaek of amiaetiv~!oo
cpo:;xide by l]Kl hyd~xy~. gro'U:Pm:lac~~oo ti)(!llH! pmcedi~~g TIHIP .ri~~g (ri:g]~~.-'!,o-~!efl~ dmwf! ~~ ~. :Fig• .3). The alterma.b",em.cch~!lism (a!Ctiw~ro

t-e.lSonOlble: to propose th'l:~such cascades weuld 00 promoied by hydro.gu:l1t':l:mnd O\'lctiv,.\1iQlrJiOU1~ e,rox!dc in ~he namra] sysLC!nS (2.7). MOflcnsin and relm;ed. PJlyelh~, ~..re pfOduced v:i:a ~i.ide r~ng-QP~~i.ng ~adions prom;ol~d by ~p~ui,i:cle y~ h drolases (EH:s,), and on (*~C basis O'f s.eqlJ.ence
homo logy ~Q other fiBs, l!h~ epo,J(i.d'ellPpc<lrs ro beactivarod by h~drog~WIbonds d()l'I~Lcii by ~wo

'1 ~ckl (75% yk:~dwhell oo.n:e:o~oo for thc;:;p~ril'y ef 15). Simi~arily, 0lL THP~C!rmd (1'1, :represc]!]tative ,of 1~:1~1 found in more thm:llml:f oHhekno Will
:~;;udderpolc)"t:thcrs {.f'i,g. 1)1 was obmitl.oo
ill 5J%

epo.xid.c anacked byl1m.e ~~.cxlt'lj)l!)ixidc) haslbe opPQS]le din'JC1!iQai<'lilily (lCl1l'O rngl;i[:) .uKI l¢; of~C:riJ llalvoked. even tho~g~. lt lnvelves a highl~ 5.trnlmud cf)@ii.:,oni.l1Im ii1i!~unooi;}le (1'7.20,,23). 11~eC[Jecl 'Of tC1irtiPCfinJUiIX ~d:lc reflc~iQfI rate m i!S subs4sml:ia.I., bur its impacl on setec~hr.ilyi:ii minim ....I,. eonsisteut wW:I Lh~lien1!r~.a!1c 'CO'l!loC::ij~ ef mjl'l:ilffinl~uiO[l ,of enoop ie oonL'I'"ibu[.ioml ~olhe
oo:mpernllgjJgl~r.1mllsut~.o[J Stfll:CS. For lexamp~l!C ~bOlU •• I. monLl11 [28 da:ys)ll,:\msre<]uiOC'd Ihr comnrpktc oo~liSllIlmplio'!l of I "I at l!'OO!!:I1leJnpc:r.amre i~ pH 7.6

t-Oiu;crvOOl~g.inere-s;khlcS (28). F~..r less js k!l()!\'vnaho!un ln~vctQx.Etl~UU!, orherla . ddcr polyetheTl:ox]I~'" in this regard. but it is l'lirniSilble ther ,Hf:loflagc[l:aJtes PlS~SS t1I. sind blF g,el of P~)~ykc].iJd,a synLllil.as~ on:rym.c.s (8), t:~,oug'h with c;poxide hydro:lases 1,ha~: selective fot Ihelo1ili'gC t arc rhlig.
o

Wail:Qi is olle ofthc moot hoo.vily :s]tJdicd. mal21iJ]d.

ecules,

i~s co,]~jg.ltivc

~mct.mt:' ~nd 'c~(;jJj~ytic

1'l\lfOJ..'l!Cltie:£ re smil.U<Isu.bjoc[ of .in[ens.cu[l\'\e$;I:i~,<I~ a ticnl. (19-31)". TInJs:, tho me;;1nS bYi;Vhid:iil affects

]OO:iillil:ed yid,d, f71 % when cerrccied .for the; piuduy ()if 1 '7).
f3!i hig!11cr-ytl':~ding lhaam l!hose lhal.~]ly upon Cfivtl~.enUy atl.<lthedl d~rocl.~lI1Ig gro~lipS. The
jJMve'

eades

TI](:,,~ TlIP-se:ll\':cl:ivc'"

~')oxide-opcn:u~g cas-

S~kclivi~y inlJh~Dcucadcs and ()rganic n,:.')CltOIlS in §.e~~croJ 12-6)is nat wblmm. ~n:cC'!tailly. 0J I phosph~l:e bufl'i:r U ,0 M), blJL]polydlcr trjfld~;v~Ii." M~roo~r. mJkhough till;:' reactions a:~p~;<If :obe : ~ we nom;::U~~~. ~frbnied in :iclent ic~~. i~oOl<ll:ed ::yi(':ld ~~Qn~mg,ealOOUs;. C;;lml011.u.le: ~ut S:u;Jir~ra.ce effect" (6QOIQ}. o:rlllcmmii'iltiru'l of mi.oenes, I!lmti!l iaiIlUL'iiltte' 'die

COl1lfOntr'lfirlionand rca;ctiv~:~y of tILe e.po- x y alee~A .•.•") 'N" I· 008, . ,Own ]~, '" anti ,~ . .I .4;:\1N"I1C: I···· as 8.he fig. ,'I {2{1}, aeuvadon ofl;hel1!(!clt'Oplul.c: [O[lffi
Ie ·I·(··~ ~...,. ~I,O S .~ .• '. it]i

g.IIOUp} and e]~lclrop~llllc ( ep!!)lx~de) may be 3~hievedlby t\\i'O '~~lcr 1l1(l,tecl(IlC$ (rod,a~d 'blue H:iO~respecliv,ely) in ,~,,coop:::r;]v~ve net\1i,1Q[k of hydmgcn oo[JJcj~lh;r~ would OOColmt. J:fir I,H:DI ,on:~y the enhsnecd regioodccLivi:ty inweter (rol~live LO o:thcr SO~Vl;:nL~)·lliut aloo~H~ nlJarginai eff"t'()fs rem~r,(nure O,_~ seleclivi]y. AiI'IO"du::r ~sl:bi]!ity (2.1) isa~~~,ogP1.!l1>to' '~lIe diU~I-.I~I.bomn:d.ll]ode of aclivlUio]1JJ (:rod H~ lin 'I!:poxude ~:~'(h()~ases" bu t y because lflc~ivalion ofl1w c]oclrop~jjl,eis. di~oJTll-· nected 1fi;om]ilat or~u,: II:QJlldcophUe,lbis £lilOO(L',] less CMiL)l ,explainsUre sc~cCiI.iv i~y. iM'",,,·,, ",,,_.' ........ ~'.j'I~'.,y" J,~.. ".'\" Ill" .,••. ,.', V"'"' ""'I·l·'p-I...., ~",~",,;-I", 'L"~,,,;· "I'l'gi"" 'ill'~' "Ii.,,,; ,.",. huil:m,(}fl!lu~e two models C;Ul also be l'lOsiledl, but <"11 t!:iis~lage wC; .Ii'lVor 2,0 for s,i(rv~]n.~'O:I:l!S,'. lil\~ rohlt~IV(!'f1h:np'll'ieiLy (i.e .. lo\\te;f mol;oCiu:h1U'ity) 'CIl1Ill,~ :;iihjmCSa ~n,ore~asily lC'.'!l]ablc slnlenlfa:~hypmili~,~' esis, and theresu[ts~b~ervoo. 'livi~h metlli;;lflo,1 and e1hyleno g~yool: a[\: 11.1510 adeq uijt]cly exp!]~ned •.un the Ihnns of 11 a:mi 2l,~pecliv,dy, FI,I11I.her~· more, as. iIIh.1&ltr<'lted in 2Ll. ernyle'ne glyc,o~ rep(',ese:l1Its<li'i ~ltt~lcbve~}tilft:ijj1J,gpoii1iI,~fOrlhe d(lvel!oiPmc~1. of sm~llmolecul!cs HliWt acUvatc the IlI!Jckophilc .:lind ck:clroP:~i le ]n such 0:1 way ;liS to

l~felTtelill(e$ .i;I!liId NQres 1.'UIf, Uill el Qt. J:AIm. [Mm. SOC~:101), 6173 U931h 2. K C'. NicolJaoo .et at.). Am, O\itm., SiD(; 117., 1:113 ~199Sj. 3. tt C. himllaou t'J' ol.. ,flrltiJrf 31~2:, 2164 (]99'a). 4. IVI. IH~riiim<l1etal, Scr€IJl:.€ 294, 19()<l'~2!OOl). '\I.'. L r~alimw,.Il'(l;. IB~d'Il'.fI. W. lib CillUlr~lI, .tBiol ("'{1m, 2M', :ll99{14 ~'1'9'9,1J), 6, M. S- lLee, Illl ~1lE'~. K, N!i<!k~liIi~h~ 'ell Zago~skn, ,M,. 1. Am (hem'. Soc;llOB.7SSS (]['9S6~..

23. S. W"1il, H. GllffI\J.~il'l.. K, N. IH{!W~; P. L nOO~iRtig, J. Am. (!wm, 50[. 12 51', Ji'il'l5 f.2®01.~. 24, W. C. ~S;lm, Il G. IRm[l~HJ;, JAm. (lrJill7il, :Soc. '!llIDS, 211.051

s,

2~5.

(:l!.9$~~. L :~cjhfeiberet (11'9'a~).

s.

oJ., ;: Am, C'Mm, Soc, !l00c, 2:10·6 (Ii em.

261. 11 [
21 .•

s~[. ]')O!l,359~

Gane:, iN". 8, Olli'filef, J. iN,. We-5!1t.ey. t Am.
'(1~a3).

or

7. ","N. Gnou.,'rf. SIiIi'lIi'Iiinl.,}. Am" Chem, 5:Dc.l0,5i'. 2::w4i
(:]l98J).

tille1ne r, ~'. ,It .Sdhr'i!~nr;:r, Cl1ll'm. i(amml!Jlll. 431S, (2(1106). 28.f!!. It G!a,~lim(J1'Ie ~Mai., Chil'ilI'. BloJ. 13., 453 (2006>.
29, f .W.e.mE!l. -ft
31]1. JI. IIlI. :5mil'h eJ: ai, 5df.1Ktf

c. .M.

8. R. V. 5In.~!l'r .~ftl'.t. Pllyt~;d;Jemi~~1}' ]16 'J f20IJ5~·. 66" 9. K. Nal(~!i!ishi. TO.:l'Jccn 2:3:.• 47 3 ~19a5l 1.0. J.IVI. '""",,gn. I'll. f. ~~I1:shGfn. w. 1111. Swa~Voli'j" ,Alisf,'. J. (ham.. 2 5 .• 2'5,21 (1l973~. ill. B.llclw~n·ls ru~E':!l rO.f rri~ dl1'SUr@clla~ry the ru~d and ~plr(l'!Ir~ nsilrioo ~l<Iles ~~, e I'uilo ~Ilid ~)[O !pN)~~e~. r6jiEC!We!:f. lHo~e¥er. bmllJ.5e' the: e~id~ (-0 !roM IlliIt breallii~ owuidetlTlt i'lMly (lllflmti!! 'linglrn ootnl [1I5l!S, ~13[h may 1I1Iso Im@ CDlMirilw,lld 'ED b~a IfI li!i'lii)IprmlB:S md@r~m.@ s.3,rme '~(I!Ili~lru[t IS!1!Ii!'U7.lJ ifbu!>, teD <i'llOld f!Q~elill~<"!I. oo"fl!k.kJFI~ we P!l!~@~ the di~li~el t'@lm~ ~f~@dl·
1

ial., SclimCf'

H.

~,V~rirrJgilll'·M~ ~in~!lt (20lm. 32. 11 C,Rjcl~o·ll!t R. 8r,~~tGw,J. Aln. (hrn:l. 50(. 102,i816 (1l9'SiJ). U. M. I!.tndstrom". OiJe.m.R€I'~ Ul2,. 2'1'51 ~olJ. 50, lr\iI:u~n !?l' (lL, ~"9~l'\ Che.m. fIJi/; Ed. 44, 321S

,304, 995 (2n~M}. ~06, 851 (2:00~), ~1;,. X~{l~J[? .!3-115,119:;!,

u,

(2oo~,

<'!Indl~sp"iro.."

(2005). 3'$. C.·l. li. l, (hen.. (lil~m. iU. ReII'; 35" 68; '~2!OO61 S 36. Z. Su..V. ')'Jw, )lJlJ.ga\\,. ClU!ffl, 46, 6163 (zoon. ~7" ]'. It ISilI1IiIwin,,1. Orem, .soc Q!lt'ill. Cr:m'lmtrll. is, 734
(1l'\J'7,tl).

12. lhe rij$edJ$p1~ao"oilll1enc~a!!.!~ is lCQil'!m1Wt~ ~s«il ~!\i ~lliipropalil~·op'Miii!llFe<d etlotiS:till), 13. Many etredi!;'e dirli!tli'ng 'g.roo,piillai!lli!' been d~p;!d. FlJ(r .~ Iilim~~ringl work. in this, <lI'l!<I, S~ '(39l 1-4. K. [I., J~!1!da. r, e, sne¥ii~'.riI:. A.. tem !!if, :Sci~II{-e259, 4,90
15.M. r~ulfIi[Igil., J. F. Lan~,F" K;al~iw{m.i,IE, Nt. Ja!Oohse'f1, Sd~fl,[!I! '2;.'17. 9'~ 6 (] 9.91). 1.6, M,~. Wu., tL It H:i!IiI~~n'. N!. pooh5l?d1, o'ttJyew. (hll,,,", E. Jh~ f'd. n, :aU2 tl~99), 17. 11'. T:Oki!wan~, K. Fllijiw.wa, ,r... Mi:ua'F. S}7l"leIf :n.5 (2000). 1.8. F. IBlla'!'@, IF. '~ Mlfihuilah1W, A. IN,ll:Iwerl,. [lPI 1'(,. I, H~rct<l5:tH@, Gig. 1f'U:'S, 21L23 (201B}. ('Ji,9\B)'.

38. 50,ll).mi~h~J~ky, .L O!!'lli!!~,E. "~lich, ,M, ~mO!Iil'\O!(!;. J. Am'. (I'!fm: Soc. 96,. 1256 n974}. 39" ~"C" Ni(ol:ag~ rI' al,., j. Am, (~f'm'. So('.l1'll. ~mQ
(1l9ag,. 4(J1, ~inal'ioial
~nstitule

Sl!JpPDrt ,,",as poololidfidl byllitl! NIHllrllatifimll '01 Gelflllril ~ Meditoil Sciences (gr~lfIl IROll Re$ea~c.I:l
<II

GM-72566~ and Ib'ji gms (l\Om Meltk

Labrn31IDties and ikit,Mnge~

rngeillheimfi\, I.V.is 'Q!talf<lul

cJli'ool cydizaljQ[1\'iial!1ld C<l&C~des of '~Vetl hi,ghCl" se~ecDlivi.l}' D.d e:ffi'eienc:y ...~n the' n1~:rIt~mc'.tenp:I[".i[oo.,. \¥;r!e;f=pitOJ~,~.(1ruoo" TI.IP~~lJl)ecti\!a epo:....id~· OipC1!~i]I~C'!1:iljCfldes[lirov idea stra]ght fOfw.a.ro,
means fOf cffickmt ~W1drnpliCIassem.bly of ladder polyeihers, crl~blhlg hl'1rcsligmimul directed (ow$!Jd undel.'l>mnd.i'l1lg the mooe:: 'OfOClil(l1l ofllll!l;:Se"
~':.XIi!.1i.cU!dllm13iry :tiJ'ilh.llm~:pi\oducl il.

e,

~il,lihi! J!lJ.aS6a.chui!!~1.s 1~S;~IIII"i~ of ifl!(hnolloo.!~ fur r\I~d:l(l~ .fJ!.. Mi~ ~'!!U(J.'WShip...

SIUp'porti1lili£l

Onl~.il!leMaterii'l~

is,

(j,

t, ~irnp~n, T. IP. 11iI~f:lrM:m,IE. l'IIIem1no.
i

1[.

I'. ]alili],i~n.

~WI'l';5dir!llc)el'l1i1J!!i,or~giikQllIll!f'Il/fulliJl311(S;M2(1];8,9/DCl

f,. Am (IIii'm, SO(;. :1128., 10.56 (2iO 06t 2~. 1. IP. ;ltiIef:if'O!\, ]. ~ .lam~~Cij!ll. 5yn£e!'t :2 329

~;;m{l6l

21. Malllfiais andlmelliods81("e av.aila~le ,!£ sWPPoii1:ili'l!ll fll'laterial. on Sdmc,f' Qnlilll~. 22. Y. Till. z.·X.Wang,'i. ShL j. Am. (Jrem, 'So,. 1113. 9,~(15,
{11.996),

Mate!ia'l$ aM MlelJio(!ls, $~h~m~,$:ll w5:$ laM~S,ll Rgferenre!O

13 JUiie 2;(107,a~(eP"led UI M:r2 Q07
IO.In 6.i'sril!lnre.114M21

A,llf'venW,lv'es iin I'h'e Sol.ar C·orona
AUv,@ n ~!laAI'@s.,~rans\!\US@ in[olifl pr~5ailb!~~ mag rIIE!'t,k oiscillaJUo ns., Iii al!i!'E!'be'en p,ro pOiSed as oil p'()iss:ibL@ me,ci'lanisllilII tlO heat: tine Sun's (Cm.Hl.!i1to mimIO,ns. ,of degllr~e5 by tri:llr'nsport.iingl ~i()nVtllctij\!f ,enel'ig~ from ~j~le pl~.Q't{)!5plhje r'eiilr1l~O ·~he· diltfus'li: CQ ~Q'~a, IN',e' repQ'M: ~he de't:ect:iO!i ,O'f AJ'fve!i waY1es.il!lilil!ltei!1l si~y. li nf-Qif-s;ight: \it !cd.itty, a nd :~Iinearpo lalnlzatian imag,es 'of tltme sQ.[arCIO'r'ionata ken ui51n9 the' 10174,7 -n.allllometeir coronal~. emis&io n l]ne'wHh the COIFOilllli!l[ MI,I~ti-C:hanniel lPo'~allime~e r (GoMP) iinstlmme[ir~ atW,eNaijioli!il'il[ So!~ar Olb~er,,:atory, IN!!'IAI'.MexioQ. tlbiquUous ~lpwi3rf(1 p:ro;pa;glatilIilIQ wave:s W,El'I'leSif.leWil~wjith prn.l:!lE!speeds om-1 t'O, 4 meg,am~t.eirs; P@"~s:e>cofld ,amid ~rajf.ld.orie$ c~:li1Ilsjis~eflt: with tirnle,dnutE!dion 01 the magi"letkr'ie:~d inf'E!rred frem ~hile. inear ,po'Larizatno~1 meaSUlrlE!m.ei"ili:s. A1fii '9',r;l'imat:e L oftbe 'r:!ne:rgy '[.auied by~hie' waves; that \'ie' sp!lIltiallty re5(l'~'IIed ind~lcate5 that they ,l::!reW10' we!aJlk to, heat the sQtar (Olf'()I~:a; however, lJ!1re'solved Alfven waves, may G.lrry :5IuiI'iicieU'l! energy,

t-e.d ized 'l'Iu:at AU"L'Il\Na:V,e::; cmuld Lrnnsp(nt t.1H:rgy from IlIilC nUblll~e[lJt :sola]" phow,~h:erein:tto~l(;,'; s~l!af' ooroml (2'., 3), :andndgln c'N]~~ain one ofdle mo.s1 ;~mp()ij:t.'~1[ pu:;czk~::; l,11 ~olru"ph')I&iccs:W~~,y

does UI~ t~'mpemture of the :solal!"a.i!Jllospj,left!;:' rise
limn 5000 to :2 millim degr~ K.eI'il~[1 £001]1 ·dm p:lm()~a~phcre oru.l'!.:'YIardto fhi(1 comJ~a?

Over the ~lSl cllJcack, the v~rk:lyof 'Nave p,1:~.cnomC:M i(ib~crvod in tiK': solar oOl'Ona lims
increftS'ooe!1!O"rrnm.lsl,y. "fmns\rerne dIl'5p1ac-emcnl

f'exm

lH~!lIlIAlliit!ll(l@ Obs~iNa~Qr~'(HA()), lM!itiQR!!l C:t!nwrr@r .Atmosphe,!ll' R~<I!Jdh (NCAiU. jl·o:ol orlfkJe ~ looO,. Illo,ulcler. (!O 8030i;1'-300a, USJl "Dep.arlmel'll ®f Spilc.e SltHliie.s, S!liJ1lhwesll!eseBIFlCIn Insitil.iJ~e. iliOSOWaitillUi~ Silreet, S!J~lie3;~lO,Ilo!lllder, en 80302, USJl ~N3ili:lmal. oL3i~ Ob~ S Sl:rvMcIIY, S,Ulrami8i1iki, fNl~ IO:t..sff'val()(ll. 1. lLoo-p [lri~e,.

A
111'92

-

SYIiiSpat, NIM 563'19, ruStl.4P.n~~1~$D~!lI!Irtlllelilt, Un,nt.~rsilY @r No.tri! Da!i!ile. 225, INie<uw:l.:!!nd SCi-en~i! H.aU, N~tr;e D.a!li'l~. IN ,465~6 .... .s6jO, USA. sH,ami~!JIl<lm Hiilgh Sd~oo~,11'5 It
:i~ffiet, ,Fcir.amil~il~iHI'I, ,M 01701, USA. '~e<Flamnei!it or I\tmospherilr, (}()~amie,. i3Jlfli!l Sp:mOf! S!ri~inilc~, IJlniilr~r,ay®~

If\rCll (J} first ]lootll~ailOO the cw,Jlstencc of 'O~cJU~lro!~$ of ~n~g.net i~d pl~s!na .~~

oompre.ss]blc ,aile! ~'!a5ccp,tib]1e to dmnping. 111~ third .w-c~ncdAI ii\~!1J ~)fJJo(fc iS~!l iIlcomp!.,tssible
tr.U~l>ve:m;: 08iCilnEl~.ion lh1l[.pfiopa:gmes H~on,g .ficdd Eille.~ wilhlllO):g'[lclic le't..ioIlllS~].e ~S:IOT'.ing force. .,F,ol~h')\vil.lg .Alftret'i 1l; il1ilil:ird wo[k~ [ie:~m[1chern SO[U:l

1942. Of ~he![hf!(:c pa'i<,'ll hie magrnel.O-· byd.~y~~mic (MHO) ~ve moo~s, "l.b.c;:' ~]o\.v ;:i:~]d ftl~tl,~~li'Ign.elooe,oug:!.ic (Mit) l.'iflOOe..~ i.Fe

~i,(U1Ji~I'I!,. 455 !cI~~'~ro $l~e!~, J\rI!If1Jl\noor, M~ 4S·J09b 2 n.II'::, uS/!.
"'[0

,"h~m

(!(fme~PQ:mt,fIll(!f1

£l1.ou~d becd:dH1S~d,,, E'·malt;

J():JlI'Iqvt@u(ar.ffiiJ

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw,sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
o~ciUatiOffi],s;asscciaed w.illlll 1r.\'1~. MA kink w,a¥'Cs, have boon observed willi the Tram;;i:1]oJ!ll, Reglior1l and Cl)roi!]~_][xp:]orer ~LCHite (4, 5)1 ffi!lllCnsily n~ccmaili.QllS as~·cialt,:ed w]l.h pl1)[~galtil1g slow~· l1~OOC IvlJj\ 'wa\'e~ l~~\'e IM'.:em1! obS'crvcd.~ urll!h. pesieds between 10' aad I :j~],1in in pollfir ~).hnlleS, with the ,Exl:re:me Uiw.wi.6Iet 'ImagimJ;g '[-eI.es!:'Opc (.E ~nondle Solar end l-lclio~l1.C"lic Observ:uQry (SOlIO) ,(6)amll bl 'C(I:IU!lRlloQI,ps w~th ~riod'i: ne-;;lr':; 'min il'l the exueme I.I!ILmvwolet:( i'., 8} and at ",as,ibl~ wavele,[!gths (9), :1.;.I~gh-t,eq'lll.ency ill[~l1si~ ty i(D~:illltlitiorl5 have beenseen dl.uillm,g ed~;p:scli, (10. 11). A.I~o. obscrvaucns of 0Qrof:lla~ v,~loc:ily Jluenaricns (12, 13) have :rel!!,,re,al1d wavC8wit~, peri,ods tIro.Car 5miil. AI:lVi:n WaVe:.'i·~l'!i,fe been deteci),cllilioough. ]n situ Hlt'lllSlIremeniis (lfI11J::: solar wil~.dIIb:r several d.ecadcs (14); ~:to\!j,1~vaf;,Llm.ehr de~],]iljitive observetl.OJ:U.il:a. coml1~ll!p~;t1Bmas h!l.cking for h~reaOO[J!'I. i Fiffil, AI.fi,r;oo. waves are l[j,o(j~~pressi'ble, so they are not vk,ib~e asintem;ily 11IUctu.atio!1s;the ~rncnsity irnPlgers used for [litO;';']eeronal (lhser'!J'~' rions win nnt see jhcm. Second, vcim::ily nIl,];CI~!"'· [iOJlUs infe,[1l!.'ldfrom .Doppl.etr" ::;]:ui:!l'3 ofemiss;I.OQ1, :lli[l.~ roqlj~,]1C gp~elmb"fl"i}il~ Of ir1Ii~fW'\i;,i..bflild .m~ot~· gmph mcaSl.!fC:mtms: mast ,coronall "1i\I'Ol"k been: l:1~5 F~ 1. IF,~,om b~ft~o g.. righ~, '~IJP~OlJottoim"f1@· CaMP obseiITvalllions of [imie--Gl\,lelragedl ]nlell!~ity W. 1[I~p;ple:r~e1ocily (18), t; jj"j,e widilti ~C},l.5~IiI1iHl!:

perfomled with :spec'~Fo~phs '~.1<'11[ aIIllrlol observe over a l:fQc Cil.oUg'&'I fce:l!C1 ()fvi~v h:l atsne that. is SllfHckmly shon oomparedto~hc wave pc!i,o(Jg, ~lcre. w,epl1escl1i] ~'CS'~llllSfron'! l:he Corona]
Ml1~~i-C'~ml!i~] PO~iI!!"imGler'(CaMP),!! OO!lllbjrm~

d~,yw~[h

til

,c:rOYi~oo,r::re,~.n]Oliill:tedll[l.ique:

:.tm:ili

I

~rnnsl~rodlhe images ~oa OOm1r1'lOn ~~~il. lili$,1:~y,. [llc images were fImcrpolatoo i!l~]mcOO~]O a grid
~ oonsmlll" spaoi!lm.g of 29:::., \Mc':'\'Cltccted a 1lube:r:roy Or~le d1l[~O~ dIe ea~llh~:1b for furihcr ;;IIIi'I.~'y:si:s,.This n:g;iiOlmi .indiJided,oc;tiv,e: [~,iQlil. :toop:s, and a eoroaal C<1iVily (Fi;g. ~A). with

tion hl~lahlefi,~ierill![].d pJlarimeo'!:er dUll 'Can m.c.lslJlrepwp,-rluCS of imfvan:xl oowraal emission lli[1.~ across ~ hlr~ field of view ''',I,iUI[5110'11 i~lIle~r~l[ion limes L'Sl.Ippol'iliJ~g Ofl~iJ1ie Mll[crm.~

(SOM}rext]. 111c CoMP i!lS;lmmen[ O!ooe:r.rcsb::: oompleltpobriz<1tiOI1. SltalC 'of right tl.1I!lJugha O.IJ"1111f.ih~r biEllliI:dp<Lr5."'lfhfll :i,~ 1.[IIllIed~ol t1hree
\~.'I,re~.~ng~m8 across ,]ille at

For each PQmt inlhc selected subO:IT.aYM!.dI e~cl'lIilnageiw~ them:vme senes.tne Gelura] inlC!'!si[y of [he ]i~le,['ll:ccenU1l~ W!lVC)CI.gl~l,!!1tld the:iinc
w~d[h~~re
inJlfl:01!s;ily(Sln1kcs, I)

dbtn:ined. from ... Oau5Sian iiI ~ui'he :a[ thclhrecwa!vlC:~O~]gJ~hs,. 11m

tIThe f~XH]

ceronal emission

lin!o'"of.:Sigln (LOS)\fleJodt)'

BH 4. 7 nm, Tlm.e nlOOglJrerlp,o]lairi~a!.~O:[l state is. ~romcltcr]21cd by a Sookcs vceter [1, Q" U, Y],~l,Ih~~ .lis du;:·nrellsi~y~ Q ~I:ld U descrik Hl::l i llil1car pobui.mtion stflles, and l:"d~~!Crioos ~h.enet

was d~l,cfil:tl1linod from th~ Dop;pl,et :slilIlifl:of!be .eel1ll:ml ,)l/acvc:l:()ngt~~ from ~hcw.;[ wavch:;flg:~l of 1hc ~fi'IIissioni inc,

A~sg. the deg~e of 1inear po~a.r]~lti!o[!l, p, itD]d
the diirect ion of 'dl!C: Dml;gm:!~n.cfi.eld (<Izirl'mth }in the plane: ·o.f~he sky ('OS). $<,were oblaillloo [rom S:!ok!~,l. '0. and. U tHs;ing ol1lly!hl!: cent~l:11 (W74.65~~~:in) ~),jJjndpags from thore,I~I;icilS

ciretD~<lLr- pohu"Uz.1tiCilIl. Obse:wmioJ1S cO[l~is~;i.nag of llltl<1;gos, ofiho cowllflbetwoon .1.05 ,Ol!llll.d-.1.35 = ro·]~r rndjii (R~mJiil ~hc .Wollr Stokes :lultl'lmm,e~ at the wave~.e!1gtl;ls; ]07452. l074.,65,. a~.d ]074,78 n~.1tl: we~ oblairH;rl every 29 s on 30 Octiobe'l" 2005 be~~ell 1.41. 26.1 lime! 2:3. :)62~!01J1,['S UT" witha sr){f~.iOl'lIs ....npliil1g 0 f 4.5. are see p1r pi.x-et AfIDr dc~eel()t ca'liibrn!lio,rls '[90M ruxt)t. we dc~emlincd dlC ~VI;oi.ion of U1C:image.,8, dllrbl.glile

(2)

A1.IOO

0.100 .~ ..ltJ02,OO Po CdMP Mear! Int€'fl!sily ~Og'H[I, IJ· B]

·11100 .5.00 0.100 5.00 UI.OO BOoMP 'Mean ~lDoppil\eTveloGiity[kmsJ

20.0027,~)

c

35,.001

42.60

00.00

(:;oMP

M~I!f'I1 lJl'Il~'Wiclth

[k'Q$i]

ifi~t.eredDoppler v~l\)city sni3lpsho~ (E),I1I,liild !'lOS:

i3~muth ,f). In a;cldffirio:n'I' we 'shO'!'!I the SOHOIIEIT

uW!i~of brig hlblrus).(B) alma (E)~ndl.lc!e~~.e [0,.

19~5~ff1lm hmg@' 'fi'!i€l'ag~d ~rth!!' saJiIil@ 'timne! (D'). IDM, datal numlbeir (!the'

]ng di5tilm:es of 5 and 250/0 ef :Rl'lIIfI ea oove~e' limb) ttla,t are u~d as lillil11il:s ,to OlU i3il1alysls.a rs
~indil!:'atm~

cation (X) aililid s!~IT()'!!!Ill'ld~ing st!lu,j'ue regia n!!ll~ed ~in the ~Mmp~e o£ ~he' ~r.av·el4]mel anal[~is,. Dotdashed lililil~S f,eprr1eSelililt-

o 200

5(iO 1fKDO ~:SOO :2fil;li()i 2600 3'000'

~1.00

0' SOHotEI~ :BHr Marui

"(k50 0,00 ~1!50 1.00 ~ C<oMP Doppler V~~ooity Imag@«kmi6]

~0.OO"45.00 0.001 45J)O 9(UIO IF OOMIP M@,<\linAzilfr1iJII!n, n.)MrQQs~1

o

·aoo

·~ooo
-1~OO' ·~OOO ·;6010-000
SoiaII' X.l[~s,ec .. ]

•..!U)O' ·

-1000

- HIOO'·!):OO'

So~lw:x ~,a~osep:J

·,6100

-1200 -1(lDO -800 ·SOO, ..~{10 SOl;:lr X [arcsec]

I

REPORTS
where !:II hasthe VI.<en",kooc\I\Ir,a, .;'UribligrUl,ityo,f 90~' U 5), w~~:icl'3, net aB1'cct t~l()concl:U8iOJl~sof'l:he does foMovving R3l0Jlysi!S"
!!]1rJ S4)rev'ca]s 'li;J?bi,q!,l~lc;lIJ~ q~~si'iJCriooic~n.l!()U.lI'" a.ti.oliU.'S wilth :rooi ITle:<IUS;:sqnJ<li[1e: a:mp]!i~ul.dleof <Ibout.

CI1}s$,.()orrelau]Q:r:I mmp .anile m~:erod~il~rlt::'seil"tes at a r~:r~I:.~lC~ 'piJ.:;(li '\\Iulh ~-rearbyplxe\ls sUff'iC'iClM i~ ru.nnh!i:f [0 capture ~~~ f1J[\ea\> fuiigh CCll"Il;d~t:ioll. of OJ,km s 11,. The time series of illJjM~~]:si'ly ima~res. The cmss-carrelafion fllIliiction li",~th nc;ig'i]borumg docs nor re\r0a~appl:cciabllc 'var~tlli[~on 'II'll itlt pmc;~,is a GaJ.lCI:i ~l;'avc:l.cl tha.t. yicl& iJllfor.matiOl1 fnu::[iofHlj nt;lc:rua!tioll~ sst« :3 x .~ 0-:1. A Fourier abO:~l the ,group and 'ph't.<;IJ8e: t~\~e~time$ Dfm'IJe ~l:y:s is (Fig. ofllC regijo[~of bri~;n:active :nucmmkm (li'}.. Wi: see ,(Fig. 3A) l[~~l~he l'Cgi.o]]loop~ :S~,1.O'W511 5i~ni :I:1canl,lb:ro,rlld. peak :iin obt>~d 'o~dUatimlS c~"U]bfIJ\le\lery IQIil.g DOTIle,. ( contain of tl~e POW~$pec,tr:Hm of ""e!odty uet ILl~niol1!~, llalion ~.engll1;nsthe ~.eng~lol'[l:Ie oblo~:~g Il]gh ('fO~"()OI:llXlIa:I:io:l'])' and detectable \i\.d(]~jDS. ccnteroi] at ",,:3.5 m[rh ,(.s:·min period)~l!.!iL' a width of abeut Lmllz, SueJm, a peak is, <'Ibs~t ]~, The ""islaoo" ·of hi;g'h cro!S.«;():IfiI'C]ation ,(CC ;:. lhep<owcr s:pcctrum ·of ~tu:cm:ily flucl~l]cms or 05) ,ajoo has a dr~[i~.cl direcUoll thRt fo]llJwBlhe ]i ne widJ~h. TIle' backgOO1,ll.1]d, 5pe~U'il.l!.m<II low ap]l11!:cl1t lrnj,ect@!)' 'oFlhe propalati.r:lg 'W!l:~, ~!l5 rieqller.u::ies, rises .1.'1 ] Ifi"f.'CllIC1:LCy'l dm~'p~.,m1.~i1b]y seeniamoviesSz and S~., By lJ:i;li!IJngthe is];iUnd ,lJ)f ~.dgb cro.ss=()orrolitliotiJ tlO iilTL~tnDm~!al. noiseand (;O~OlI~ c"ol(e~il()l;n. w~ as a m<lSk~ we L'011~;!flJiiOO the COrrclfll:iiQ]Jlk,';1];g~l. filtdl~:uu tTlilCiobscrvt>d spClCtnnm ·of "'~k)c'ilyp'OW(i~ k'iiOOmilncably :s:imilat to .~m.e po,,-.,rcr speetrurn of the 'oomilmkm. width, the phasespeed of:lho phQ~i()&J]lheric5-m:in O$cHlado:m" and we l~Oiei.h~l prt)p~.§ali]oo, Md thep'm~g(!~i~n mgi.e reh1!1tuvJC io rhe ~beqllJlency disJtl:ib1,ll:tnoo of vdoo~ty ~1O\'lii'(!(r is. OO~fllrnonth~.su~nllh.,.\<Vcu sed dte' GroSS~Q.rrel a~ion \VC:iglllcd lelll'it:~sqmm;:;8 l'it~iO the:po,in:~.]s i.n1:l'lDde!hc nearly idc:F:I.~iIC<l.1 both the mmrl!;:l.l1 cav:il;Y m~d. for lislnj'ld~o estimare the:' p:ro~,g1l!ti.oJ1. <Ingle and i~s rhe:' aeti'/(:: ]00,1" rogi.ODl~. We adapood a phase '1.f'~j'i!,f(lI':limtaa:1aly:s,is, asseciared ii:'rr,Or; .En addjl!~oi:lt, by igo:llili:lingIhe (16-./8)'1'0 chamc[~JiZ'C the propaptiofl ch9mc .., p~1~~eir~vd dm:esi!lmci81!l~ld and oomiPl:!!l,i.~lg rerli$tl'csoflhc wave medes observed in the [hie distaacc ot'eeeh piN:cllO jhc refereece pixet. CaMP ve~:O(';iLy ~.ime series, The dRIil VJCre \ve ~f~n~~~t])d~!ncph~Sl:::: '[a:nuj slEllldaDd e'ffO.r) speed

A nlov~e ,of d~e\'le]oc:iryim;Jg;es (movies S2,

.Fourier fihered ~.1Ji '~ime. \?rII:illh ~, Gaussimlj fi~t.e,T \"~Itha cenlnul froque:J:iI,eyaf35 mHz asd !l\',\iidl~ (~/c l'b]d!ll'lg) of O.4mH~ We ~hen fermcd lhe

of the w;}ve

iOIl], thel.east.~S\lllI<'IIl'eS I:it ofdlf distm:iI.ooarad phase ~rn.,,rcj, time, In 11~,c CJ"ffii.~1,ple shown if! fig .3 ,we oQmpl::!J~ooa Cicu'rcLa~iool lorngth of45 Mnl•• .width ~ Mmro, a pmp..lga~]Oin~

:;n

,.O'l'l).a~d a. p~~5.C speed of .l".3.1 (±0.:2:4) MI.n s I <'I:tthe :refe:re~]ce 'p,ixel, NODe ~hal the measured phase speeds ~D"C POS projections, ,lul:CI :fljJ:c thcrcfure ]01;.. r Illimilil;S.This .e trn,,rel.;~iinite mll1lysis: was ['t':p~LOO. S!.lJ~'(;~shlc~y SUbSLilUI] ing ,!lHp~"\.c~s bet~!>lJ!I)C'n.05 ~!ldl.25 t Rsl;)f.l
1(.

[:mjec1J;)ry'of 4(i2~

on

n

Figl.. ,2:. f;~ul!']er power
spectrurn o~ ~~Ie CoMIP' liloppler !,iie~ocity (bLMl!l:!),

[) as ~iM.erelblJ!::[1~ ixel, p to extractthe wave p'I'O,perl:~~ each ~'.IQiiIlll(Fi~ a![ 4 i!/nd 1:.1bJ.e 1), S 11.e ClOMP' ilTl;Stfiu:tI.~I1iI, ,eanii:,fer i~,lC a'2lliirru(]~ of []he ,corom:al: mflgrlctl:c fUddlhrol!:l_gh the li!le~r poiW'il4l1tio'll[ll~~I,,"'U!!~~en~ and .6q, 2.(Fig.. tP), '[his <IIn.g~'eis: oompttmd wid:m. Il~.e <IIugk: of wave p:mpa~tiO:lJlinflm'Cd fro1~1JJtOOI.ra w.:.~4ime ~ll!ll~ysi:s: (Fig" 4B) in. Fig,ilF. Despi l~nhelilet ~h:.'lt LOS lillt'Cg~t:iom:; mayin!]lijCi1ICe 'Ibo u:vo Iii1ng~coS d:iffercntiy,ilie high degree ofcorre]l~li!ml iJll~!:is pial dentons,1ni]x;s thall dmwtl\~c;:s pmp<lgalle a]o:l1:g fi:e]c!lli nes, \lI.fe bc~jeve Lhru l11ln.c Wl.I'!,f(lS. we observe arc AU\rcn 'l,V'a:-'lCS, fm the r'O[~o\7!1~ing, thr,eu Nlso:iiQ1il. The observed phase speeds (-2. Mm:; !) flre [lI:Iuch ~;:l!~cil"Ihf!n.llh,e 80UI]d[ speed (-o.J: Mm s ~1 and 11lncr,elorc the '\~\~Cs an;::nmt slo'\v MA mode W1IVC:S, 111C'sp~liole'mp!l:ml j)J'CIpe"rt:ics: of the \f('j~.ot:ity cse inflli!c)llS ilutd the liDWiir poliantiUilo:iI:iJ

(dou-d~s~:~ed iuFig. lises

:ros

I

5,ign;lfkant'. b~o~d peakfn ~~e Dop[pler IP01.wr s:p.ec:. tnrm CJenter~dl !CWII :3.5 mHz. W'e aliso s!how'me ,]I;,ppliedilll

mnren!.ity (grr,eenl,andl ~ine ~d~h ~re:d). INoticeti'be

~ .~

I

I

VeJO(:lily FOw8r [~m 2s~<2 Flz.~] - __ '10" ImlBlII$it.y I!PO IlFIIz"JI --UmUlI Wd~n F'tJw~ [1':!m .<2 Flz'~] p·mmf:e ~t!'i.'ler [km 2s.<2 FI'f~ J

~ill:l:eaSIJOOmCI1iIS shm.v~hm.Iili~,c!5c waves, ~.rop!lga:IC

F!n't;!r -------

.
,r

I

along fidlld lines.which 'I;\iOlllldnot

bclJrw case fb~

(S<:!3lted) Ga'lIs5ffianmil~er

If

~

f1:BSl M_j\ mode 'W5!W!S. ~. oodition, the associated i:~lens,ily ·.~nJlctlJlal ~on~"'a!ll: vel)' SI]~l~1.A s.ouree of W1l.'i/CS dislrihu.t.cd aeross th::: salaiIJ sIJiJafi': wouM 1:U,()t prcduee the oo:~C:feilt spal,ial strucmres ;]lllgned wifh 1he m:a~l1;el~iC:~~lld.w:~ilic:~] iur,epl,(:sent )]1 the \fC~OCi'ly datR.

Tfu.eprc~n:ce of a 5';!lli~ sigmlt1l:.ll:!le'~s nm

the: ill1I.atysis. (doit'daS']]]!8,d! blad( Ililrile) an.dl nH!' €!v'E!I",age IPower speclrum ow ]nmrnmed]aMl de<grne phooo!spheilL os,. db,ijon~ (sa·~idI~~I~ IU ni~.

o L................ ~~'"""".;,i(L.O.

.1

~~.h..,""'-'"'~~""""

...... ....:a.. ..............

~~~~

periods

4

Flrequency

5 l[m:Hz]

7

8

!lll'1u.isi ng bec.1IUse Ilm::xlIat iorras ~n h<;:c:m1:II1!A.with ne.;lI1:.;> min ~laJ\rt heen wide~.y ObS!l;:lWd. <liS djscussod above. T.h~re is a gTI')lwing lUIlSi:lIlSlI5

thflll phoruo:SlP:i1Je:ric 5-mm aC!YllIstk oscilU<'IllLon u\l.Qdes(I' modes)e.gc~pc ~~1it·o h~g~~~r~a:yersvia i:l1i~:ero('l~OM wlllhsll1!rfaC'oC ~~~gilc-1ic:fi.d.ds. I:tllhe

fig .•:3. im"'l!il:'~llirMHlno\ll~
ysis of CaMIP
[)IOPP,[ieIW

velodty measureme~lts for the' refe~;el'lce p~}ijel (m~rk.ed by me );) over
the' oomdl~egiio rI ~h:QliYn ~n ill. (A) TillIe map of :~Ig~. crossr(O,rr,eLaIlOII'llI coemll~ deffil,'t; \\ijj~1 ~I ~:OJ1ib:it,irof

2Q

0.5., whim]) used m define ~e reg~on useci
~ dete:rmin;e~e

prOipe!l''" ,\", ties of l!he Miilives,. ma,p olf mmplJted !phase l:l':i3.wm times lin ~tce ~Im.e regf:oll I~he s!..!r1r'(luoolingl -00 ·40 _:;!(il 0 20 40 60·60·40·2.0 0 :20 ·;20 0 :2:0 pil'!lsls are zeroed for darr'" IPhase Tr~l·lime [s] AXI[Mm]1 AKI[MmJI ~ity).. (C) The Nillatic~uhip of pha.!i~ tri3i~l timE! .ag:a'ii"lS'~ the d~~ta.noE!' tIii~ ndJere:in:c.e<p~~e!t; tlh e phalsespeed '~O ,of the w1I.v:e in ~hls 1~~gro'rI 'E!:S't.i '~~ malted from .a, ~ea~hsqu:aITie'S liliiiear 'fit

mnhl.e

,;

.... 0116,2

r··_·_·_·_V
Mrn,

,

0(11

111'94

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE v:Mw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
eanveesionmechaeism :is~,ot lIndel'~HOQdor CiL.<:;il!y modeled, gi~. the cemplex S!TItChnc Or~]~e fr!1lCmcitwor]l;: nonmagnetic ch_romo8phcre te,-n(~. iime'rl"aoe between the: chromosphere end oorotm~. to QSdJIIa:~enear 5 [0 7 m.llzin~~pmlSC In We 'ob~"1I"ve :a dQrni~l:J!,']jc:e of '~u[tl\:vard !O\~r c(lf!1V!C(;!iv(:driving. lu [he uetworkiu;cI:~ the dowm:vardw.ave Pt~p~tiO:nlJ, Ofllill ,(lf~le p.ixd!>
peri.od sm~.i closer to ,3. I:1:liH,z fl.,. {HJ),.We observed (.Fig. 2.}Il:u'[~lthe C'oM,P ve:lloci,fy power S:]l!0C'U[Ul]l. peeks mear 3.5 mHz,. b1.Ure~aJ.i\licJylittle of the 5.:m~l:hl 'POWIe!"l!I:tal dOlmi~~res ]he inrt~U,i"'I.I'()'.!'k c]~ron~oopht'fe w(!jflevidC'~1it PCi'hap$lili~c W~veB, (l,b5erv.oo wi~h CaMP cnig,inB.teri'om \?j,l'uiJhin:the C:hlron.10£[.l~.],eric nelworn..:~:~tIIlli::mn5:i I:he ~bOlpLji111~, of' jhe observed eoroaal ~()oPS.. Reroln l!!iork demoraS:hrted ~lj~liIilp modIc'S Wi1:h r~qucJllld,es. belew l.heDlom1md oocrusLic cutoff frequency can k~a,k imo~;e ~pperd~,t\')ml15phe:ure ~.lJon.g,ITl!l(g1m.ei,ic field ]im!s.lhait <lire ~:ndined tDlhegrav~:it,:'lt:iOJrila~ fiC':Id, enec1~:ve~y~dilldmIilg·~te clIruoff lreq1u.cncy (1,0'-24). li.e 'bu~,k(If the 5"\mHz plI'\i\Ie.r docsnot pCfi:l:)tmmedl~ olnro~oosphf'tk;c~i'iop,y as ,CQmprc::i-' sive o&~i~,lai]iQf!1 modes {J 7;, 25, 26), ~!1d so these .weq~l:Cllci,es IHffi:'y 1'101 have <I strong signaMtl' ]n [line ,c:oro:n~m. The ~ves we observed we:rc on]y l!l~ooe~ih.:1 c!)uIJd:"~unner' t~notilgfur n:.h;(:ccn11]J1!~x . ~:hmil1.oopI1.C[~m"!n~lli.O:I:i lrogioil a.long the'[Jn:fJg~'
11e;I~c :l'kM

qltiet Sun.~.1,ese rOOit.'d wi.thulTIL the v~rt~ocs ~re .rn:lid, llfJn~ ddjjnillg rEhe slJl~Qi!J'UIiU~.iiIf nC1'\!IO:r!<. The

l~i;efluxis-l order.g, of mE'lgJllityd.e too s:rnml.:~ to balance ~he-mdhuJrv-c ~!OSSC8even ofw.e qui~!s.ol,ailf corona, -lOOW m -2 (l8) .. The ~mp~imdCofdlC A~f'VCn w,a.~ [ham we cbisenroo may be sig:un.iij~ caJnt~y ~nel'l1i:!aJLed by aw~:raging o\!'(:~r !]lJ!JU~y
SOl,

I

vijrl:h aocepmMi.': ~mGlrn. on~y - ~% had. a negative phase ~edl il1!dic.,:''l~hreofdo\71il1\!Vitrd p:ropagtl!tion. This: &l..ggats lffi~m'dlC '\~VCS iJI'..re convened 0.]" t11!eLr cl'llerg_l'i:;: dilsgi~[~d bC{Q:retlley rea.chUl!e Qppos]b;: fbotpoinl. GivmdlClal!Jc 'C:l.Xrv~m!IC of 111'efield lines o/VCr a. typicru~.m'\l'cle[lgd~. ·v.'e\,,\ou~d (X{peCl 1]1li'~ conversioa of .A'llrv.....~o MA modes t \"t'()ll~d be c:ffident: (2n. ".Po eVall.J!flOCl: the ab.ul:ity ofm(;'S1:;' waves ~o heat the OOIOOtl a, we C1Mii~Ulirod ene:I!Y ux as ihe

lJill1.ll:s.o!.vtxl wa.'IfeS wii.hi u cmr ~\ElltiaJ~, [~S~)~:LilIi:uO'[1 eleme]l,1 <lind i~~,O:~ the corona] LOS. The nOEl~ [hel:'l.':ll~,]Icompon:em of 00 rona! cmlsgicmlillc
\<vj()]ths lis lypj~~ly ....,30km

i~varimmj which, if due

10

s;-~ and~~~!.1fany lmreOO~\!oo Alr\'e:~l

w;)veli"c:Ol!llldprovi:die a steady e-~~crgy n~u~suf... fUciml: to hi1:flltdl(~ C01Umll.

n

(3) \\~1!l'!re ,Pis 1hc.:'d.e:r:t&;ily,'~lis [h~ v~loc.ity .u:nplllir1Ct.de:, and CA ~g the A:llfv~il speed. Ags;~mli:ii1iS fl t)'Pi(;a:~
• . -. -Uii

Thesewaves are ~Jbiq-uilo\!lg space a~~d ~n time, 1]l~S, makes them .id~~ ieatl.dlida,1.~ ror "001:Ion31 seismology" r[29, J'l,ij',whc:rcl:l!l lhe: AH\rtl:I}, ~ed (wa.vep~l(nh~O speed) 'COJ:rl be I.I!sed to measure lheSl:rength tOf coroil1a~.IU<lgnclic nil1]d$Il;ro~h tho ro~tlilio.n:

value ·of the eleclfOlil diensity of lOs 'em-l, \-\le
e'iltl[]~:atep ~-2: K

(5) wh~ro 11 ~rslJl[emOl,@,n(!tic: st~i'D~]h and p isdlC 11:01(1
p'I~I5Itulidensi[y

11)'· g QIU • The I :~X01 cn:e['gy
W~.Vt!.~, is

-:J . -

f1

pl.n;p~g!l~ilfilg in ~hc observed

the!!]

lines ~ml then be cO]w«l~d ~OC'-aii~hc Irj= !,fll!l!rJaoc.where 'Uhcpla:m~1flurec ha.la~oot~f
&x:a1;I~C \\'C on]y nt'tl>e:NOOI~]C LOIS. \lIe:loculy)I~~.Il'i e;,uilfloolC ml!l:D.be muln.ipl~.odby a f'ilcID'1' ,of:l.lEv,e[l

..The' P~,1~liSC speeds (lbl:<1Jiil~cdilllIh,is !n~i:dyarea proj~cLiori .oilLOthe pas, that is•. ~'i~ speed mll·~I.lplo~lby sjn(.i),\v.hCi:~ i is the 9ngle i

between the LOSal:'Dd

the d iroction of wave

sition1r$ fro:m g'M domi'~bnl~d 10 ~]~~gnCl:t'CJk:ld, dfi'JI]flJi~l~rod~o AI Erell l.l100)eS. U:nlfOIJl:l!]JlliiiIDel:y. tnhe Fig.•4. "[he results; Qhhe
CoMP~aveit:-'timrle::HlI;a1:y· S!II;:in the 1.0500' :l2:5 RSliin range- .sl.lIperim po.sedl onl the SOHOffiI ~nmilge

pmp."l(gati01!lL. Thea, givC!fil! an esl.hl]~le ()f the o.cnsi[y, the moo.'>l,IIredphOlKe speeds p:mvilde.;m

2(1 <1iO 00 IBQ~ 00 fA 'CaMP PilIasQ l~aHlmlll [:0] .200 .......

01

-~~"!!'"""-"'"""""""'..........

200 r-'i..--~"!"!"''lI'''''''''_''-~~~

O.GO 1..'002.00 a.oo,uJ.O rO 'OoMP Piflats!BSpell!~

5 ..00

1

~rom Fig. m (Ate IE) The
~!i~e!'rr'ed 'lM!'1e'braveXt:ime,'~ p~'opa:g:a~o!'l ,arri!.glei ,phiE!se speoo~'.Qm~!~itionlength •. elnJd ()orrei~attiol'il, wJ:dth,

respeftiiV€ly. ()n\y points
whemleltJ:e !errfil)'J]nm.e

p~.a5e ~peerdll~lrlCl!lr the re9lress:l0n ,;;m(lJ~lllill.~.E!']5 tnalrn l~lS Mm s-l. andlJhe eJ'-ro~'Irq. the pr,op.l3;gatlo rl
1

·1000

a ~gl.e i~~~lhaIFilr )1[0''' a~ p'~oUed ~IF)IThe ,~o:mparri.~ •. SOIll ot the inl,f'em~dwave
p:rQpagatioli1ll l!:Ingle a nd

the measlJ1'ed Iiliil'o:lglletic bldl alZimut.h {fig. IF),,

:2(JO

o ;Ji

00 40 flOlBOTI 00 CaMP Car~efa1ilotmUlliIgth [Mm]

Q

IE C·oMPOarrelaijofl~11i1 ~Mrm~

4

8

12

16

20

o

:

·121lJO·:1000 ,000' -flOOI Soiar [l3.rC$OOJ

x:

·400

-u:oo

·50' (I 50 lMagnsc[c A..:z~ullii llDegroos]1
·10001 ~ElOO ~OO ·400 SemI! X (ali'csec]1

I

REPORTS
e.sti~ru.1L~of'the PDS ,oo~npQlnellll, ofdu: ,magrlll:,tic fi.ckt As,sllmlrligfllypi,Cill electron densil~

our measured pfu~s;e speeds bOl:tVOCl:l ~,.5!I]]d 5 M:m !,-I ccmc~polld wprojoc~l':d mag~' !lel~c field, ~llreIlgth,~ be1.wcc~8a:ml 26 G.\\le :nol~
th~[c]rcu~ar I1QI~ri,zrui)o1l memmr-.ern!l:rn,t:sof
CQI1r

w~(:1]1-3,

or

corona wn~h a hi~,l degree of ~cc:mDl.cy 'lhro~.gh oo:mnal sci sn:uology ..
Re,f'llfl',E!IiIICl!S oi'Illld Noms 1. H, AlMin, MatlJrt l!il~. i1l5 4 {1'~4n 2. H, j!IJr~Il, !IiIuJ'J'. :Nar... fl, Asbl'Ofl. $oc. In, .2'1.1. (1.947j,. 3, D,. ~~r.bl'QdI::, A~(~p~y:;; J•. ill34,. 3ii7 tl96:!l),

20. lit IDe PiJ<F1tiBU,R, [lfd~n.!li" II. OIiMioorlel. A!:t\iirjpfi~.

21 .• 'ii. H.IH,~llIs1!!@1I ,~r.at,. A:!twph,1'S'" j. 1647. U'3 (2006)1. 22,. S. \l!1. Mcl~1"~,S. M. ] LlHHeri~s~ !i"~",hp; '. 64'7" 1L77 M J (2oa6~. 23.. S. M.lEM1er~e5etoJ., A$tmph",. j. ,6418,U51 ~2006J. 24. S.. Oe IPanlnell t/ iIlt A5trophy!:. J. 65,S, 62·4 ~2rn(m.

un

J. 6\2'4.

(2®o.5~,

I.utl emission :~incscan pmvid!e au cstulluue ofthc
LOS compO(IlClr!J:l of ~hc magttCl.ic: f]e]dl. Notlllb~y" ~e:ns:!"1JlJolo~y !!1dpo ~a:ri:met:lIYp:m\l~dc: cOlnple:m~' S t;1ry' projections gf the oorof!;\'!1 mflgm:I:~c, fi.eld, whi~h ca~lbe oo:mb~nl~d.LOpmrv,idoe1)[1 'es[illl(lJlC;: f o both [he sl'Uitilng[hm[d Illc incllimlltuon onh.c magneue field. bill rmllrro'~iQrk" it wm, bcpassibfc to estliIlllll:I:CU,1Ie:P:lfl~lilcl'a doL'l!li1y \~Ui~,Co.M.!> oosQt~ \"aliom;:~uQ~h '~le ffiiUcnslil.yi:a!tio of the reX] 11

4. M. J•.. Pisclliwanam, l ~l$tchev. C.1.Sch~i!tev.

G, Ai!e:i:,ai'liller,

25 .. Q. Wi~sl)JiI.P.. IG, .ludg~'. V. Hanil~@Ul,MJq:ili~,. t,
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Al:troph~ },.5Z[i, :88(1 (1999)[, 5. V, .. rl!I.. "ak;arniil.~!J\I'" L fJifmiillil, ffi. ~, O~W[a.., it RoOOir1\S, ]. M. D.iI,"'U~,$c.'(;I'I(e Za:S, 662 {199~.~'. G. C [. DI!IF~mtl$t J•. 8. Gl!!fmafl!" .4;iJ"QPh~ l. !SOl CI. 9~B:}. 7.. I. IDe .l\!Ioorl~I. J. Ilm;al!i(t It W. Wa'llsh, ASrnm. A,S'tmphp,. 3liS, 112~ '(Ol!OOO). 8. M.~. Marsh, R. 'tV." Walsh, .flll;atiph~.}. 643, 540 ~o06~, 9 •. 1Ift. M;inIarlo,\Ij~!lJhgt 01., S!i\'~Phys. 2::113, ;;!i69 (2'Qo.~1. W. II ItWiIli~m~ ,ri't a£. , M.atl.. N"~ R. i1sU';Q1l. So!!'. :32,6, 4213

~n7

26. P. G, .l ud~"A. Pi!~arilLa,Al5tm:p~ys. 6'(1&, ]255 !200<'1il. J: 2'7. [D. M!!lro:se.,Alt.I~f. J. PhYS'. 30 ,M7 (197i),. 28,. G.. LWitlhlbr'oe, It w. ~oye~,Anf1.u. IttK As-IrOn.Att~liys.
1 •

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3

.A~rr'¢!ys. 446. :1119 '(2006a). 300.• M. N!a:kariakw. IE. VelWklilte. Uving Rw. SfJJ.Mys..2, (2:0(15). U. i'll,]. P.~li1n t!1 0(., ${NJf€ 5d. Rev. 710,. 1;80'5(1994).

v..

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12. U.
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.fhlLli: ofllp:~W1rd.l)tOP[)g<l!I:iog ~.O\'V-roequ~n:tC)'~V<lves,

:solar corona. These ,li,iolilV,CS prop-' a~lC at speods~yplcal of A][\~~ wmies, ~f!ddick d:i~lion .of pIUpi(l.§a:tnon mirmrs the measured
thi'O'li,gJ1D'LU .~~~
nlZlgnel:lC

16. wcresolced 17. dn [l0]1.1a'l,l(: ,(:~].cr~gTh, cnC'.rgyln ~'aC<ll the sol:m 1.8. Cum nIL We conclude Ihrll fhose ub.iQ i!1li[Q'UlS\.w}'\I'CiS, a;re indeed Alilvenic and o:l1e!:'the real p~IDilily 19. 6, W. b~s.. Bl.Rl.!I'h!IiI,W.,.~ll!!ol'~, Mf(lpJ:lyJ. J of probing (l'lep~OlI!8ma CI1{viro:un:mcJ:a']. 'd.~csolar of 3~!5U:993),
l:wJ\~
I

lield direcli>r:n The

M. fil1~~dhdfl. F. A. B.abm~k. iK. D. F.!uSlIt:LI,D. B•. 5M!JH, Sol. Phys.; 207, .24111.:201Ji~~', { 5, K@ulrl1Jn:-~,~.I] . hugmd~. V.Iltoc~I"Is:,A$.IJ(la. A~~hY5. •Z 1201 185 {l918:n. 11. Si.atlirai. K. Ichirm01IO\ K. P. IRaji!l... J. :5i!lllglft<. '$lI{, ffly.s., Z[i9', .265 {loa, 'I, l '!iV•. E!@Jd;i'Br, Al'Jmp.n,l5,.}. UB, ~1l5 (l!:9'1l). P. (Ii!'mvi~,AiIlf:!. A$tfo.p~~, 871 (19'65). S. M. ]:eIWe~H!!'t Q!1.. ASrJ:,!p~Yt j:. 434., 79~ 1(1'9~~)' iN." FiM~erl~ oft lui•• A[iM~phfl. J. 161l., L185 (~C104). 5. W. Mchrlosih, It n~d:, t, D. 1ralrb81~ .M1TGph~ J. 6 09, 19S (200'1/)'.

p .Wli~T~hlJ~ r\Dr OOmlfi'imlS

0!iI tl'!i! manlll!cript. COFl~1lruClijen (dllhll' CoMPi~lruliflefilth!!l;aG Im1tIN ilIyllhe NSF thlTO~hl ~h!i!IN(AIiI)trdlegk IlIiitl~IIi\rlE Fl!lnd andl iioomCAIR 'blilsefun,do, The effillrt of :S.I\M:, was; S'WppDrlecil b~ gJiarnl A.li.rr/HJ51l1567 Jmm NSF .•

w~ld li~eliO,lh~n~" M, K!nili;!il~ ,~!'1d

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R~~l'Iein~

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2 .Ap:ri~200\1'; a«e,pled 27

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lui!;' 2001

:10.'112 6IslCience. 'l'li433M

S upereon d uc'tiin'g III terfac es IB,etwle en n Iinsullatiioig Ox,ides,
.A;t liliiilt~rfBI(e,s

umtJ~fIIs.

<lJ

snpcroondllct

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betw,ee-i'l, comp~ex 'OIx~:d1es~. e!llectj'Oifll~i(:.:l;yshmiils wUh UflU:iNJia[ el[e(tron~c. p:rOIPe,~ties can be gl@nleraltedi. We, repcrt en :sWllper,(~,ndWl:G.ti,,]ty in~he ,e~.e:c:tJl'Oi'ill gas formed at tl~,eint'er·f·a()e bebweerl two ilfllSUlatill'lllQ di,elec~ric per:CY'Il'sldt:eoxides, laAlI.CIill and SrnJ,. the behavier o~ i~!'Ie el@i.c~m'lI'II gas ~is:~hat.'of i3I ~\!iIo~d]tmensi:o'nal superoondlucoo!r. ([mf]lwn,ecl!t.o .a th]n sheet. al~ the int~rf,ii:I(ie.'I"he supefIJClndl!cting~riI1il5iltli.0I!l!1 l'empelr8tun!' of 5: 200 miU]ke[~]n pl~(lv1id'le:5a sHict: upper limi~ lOme ~~l~':knl~~~ (i:fth,~' $i.iIH~lf(llf1du~.till1i:g layt!1' of ~. llLO narlQfIIiIleb!!!f:!;,

~i1iI.cnoo d.dha~e on the origin of tlte oonducl,lli!l:g (1). The dilBoo\~t;:wy of t~~isde!l;'Ilf~H ~ .. m the Ib.y~li. '11,1[~ich (-(luld c~ther be '~trill(Oic" ~Ild dl,J'C ]nterfbc{: between t"''''Di!"1igl~1~tQJrs 1ls g-encrnted ,~i!l: to 'rJxyg.~~ ~c~T!;cics i~ ~heSrll03 cryst~~:01" h '~Iltrim;~d' :nd 11damed~o lhe 'po~<IIr ntl~Uf1e()ir~~l!(::: a urnprcssuvc m:mo!J[ll( at 'l'!:'x!pcr~mtmt<l.1 and th(101~l~ £Cal w(l.r.k (2~8)., ~i[l.pllfil: bCC<lIJ~ii:'dle 00311fil]Ji!~x. laAIOJ, ~lru.Chure.[0 (h.e po~ar sccnaT]o. <lI liQnie Slmemr:e Oltl1icl p.1ll:ilkJUlfI3.]'inler<lct~Of'iS f01J:~nd at. potel'i!t i~,1dI.c\ilC:loPiS3~Il;n.C L"lAIOj :irrycl"lhi',ci."ti,I)S£ SlicJ,1.annnt"i'flloc, <'lire exptcLC{1 to pRM~:il.a!Je: iliLovd lin\CiX:cllSe~~~~iI!l, may lcolld lo.ailru '~dCC1rollie .ill? ~xm.i8'1imcliol1i'· above :l!OFI'te rntic;f!~,thickll~s (5).
lDe:par~~I'I1:mt de 'Pl1ysiqlie dl~ IE Ma:IDi'~r~ [oMell'h§ee, Ijl!iiv,eF.~~)' ~f .- =.2:41 (gu.!l~ Elm~bli,t1~r!im.tt 12.n GeJl~W Ill, SW1lzer~ ;p!!lrimenlat IPhy;ics \/11, (mOOr ~~M IEtecfrook (J(f:rrebni~maIM M<lgmlil5m, InSl~~u.~e.af PiI'Wfii(ll, Ufih ..e~ly iOI' AugsllU1g.. [I-Bcl.B'5 tiiugsburg, IGellmIJ'l,)f. l,Sdl~ool al Ap,pljecll c.M !Eng] lI)ferill!!J ~h,~Sii(~ICorll'lel~ Uni'Ot:r5iy,. Hlm(G,INI'!i' 14,953, ~SA~~oo~IQife-d'~ P~iql,J~~ 5>Otig~., B4t 510 1II11!i¥~!lSite P~~is>:Sud11 Cen~re ~'OJsa:!(, 9']<10.5 OJsal'. Cede:;:. Fril!iloe.
1 ,

1

~.'r~Olleefl.'i~:~g 1\1 ..• work,. it w.as d'em, o.m;'I.'~I~ed t1iJill.'1. l\ui~.lLy mobile electrcn system. can '00 ~:l'lcluocd 3illJ,a.,eilfl~Cl:'i~ec bCD:\:l,I'OO'~lar\tO:l 3!nd SrTiOJ

~~!edmnic phases Ih.tl are nm [I]W<lYs :Yt'iible OllIS, bulkpih'1lSes. (9-lJ). Tlllliis IiCS"Qlll a ]50 getl(nued ;t[JJ

gen]crateci a.~.the SrTiOli sur Face (J 2)r. ~l"~ ~l!so poinred oui n'l~t t~ pollln~iua]ion Q'flhe StTu!Jj. layer~may c~I!1J!~e [00 dlo(;lmJ~.f',;all 8rTiOJ Slnf:aee.~,1(1 pair and. {onil'iJ at '~~lish!mnpemliiJ1f(lS a Sljperooml.llcJllragiCQ];I~ densate 03, 14). I'n!hi!'jro;pllr!.wt'l ~p~o:rodu} g;ro1illindstatic onbe U!AIOl/8rT10\\ lmcrlaccaad cl!n:~ifywhelm~C!:' :il o!~dC'!':S when the K~!Hp;:rawre <LIlPOOl~du;:s;ab.~olllll;: zero·. Our expecrimenls pm~ v:iclGl e\lrde'l]~j!l1~l theillvestigated ,e,Iii;:cirQlmgascs condense im[~oa slipeloClrlduC'Di:rngphase, The C:hm:11.cwm~i:C8 olf~w ~m~glll.]On are COJ;lsJiS'i."cnt \-vi,tll~hose ('I f a 2D c~ecuuln system 1i:!J!ldcrgoh,g a B:e:r¢zil"lsJl:ii.~lGo\~';~~rl i[z~T]~.o1JlllC~s (BKT)~r.a.m,il~ tien {U-.l7)\.[[! 1~;l~~j(y'ger! \I'~cm~cy~e:~lldo d're observadan ofsupe~n(Jndllc,tivity pmvidesa str.ic1. uP:lJCr ]imil Lolilllelhickn~s o.f rhe ~rnper~ cJ(lnduc~lng; sheet ~'u[he L"IlAIOJlSrHOJ ll1i~ert'acc.

{2D} e]cc'Uun gas !nighlbc

n'l!'o-dhn:::-nsionall

Th.e :5~lnples\,,,,,ere p:!"q)laliQd by clep(l~~~ing Lat\.lO;llavcrs ~,!,Ihh ~hick!1es~ o,f2, :S"am-d ~5 ~:n,:ulo~!~s htc) ,onTiO~;.;l:crmintl~(',ld ~OO.I) sur~aoos of 8]'T~Oj, silll~.ec·rySI:fl]s (5, IN).. Twe fi~ill'll1S ~re grown by p'lllJlsoo :11~,~er dt,:posi1.:k.m f~!. 7700C <lflld ..

AngLhCf'keynssue

QonCCltllS

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s,uth a ~'JlSl1ilnll: a:llowlClllpcmitUres,a. dlatge,.. o~l'.ed,inlcr,mec Wli!h ferrom~o~fle s1Pin,di:.tlll:i~ ITnJ.. l.ll w,as predic:led " (4). ilE.xperim].l.m,t'~~, evitl,enoe Ell! :r."l.vo.r of:a fCTI'om~gne:lk: ground state was, recmrt1y rQUJ~d (6}. Yet, mther!b~,~ (lroer~ng f]l~g:I1:~[ic.lly~ ]hc cl.eclron :!i)"slem mfUY also .

6 x l (j! mb~r 02. dlCil (lOQl!ooroooom!/ILWilp(i'~ al".uxin40()ll1b~r of 02" '!;lii'tthai -hcmr ox.khu]OI~ step ;nt 1600"lC, The (aelt ~hfll ()!l1i.]Y ~]eltf!os,t[1lJlcl.u~s witbi <iI laA]O" th~ckrlcs,s g:re~le,r than].~h~c lIC COmiloUC'I, (J)!;vas [I~cdlo ~<tncm Ilm.e :S.,\'1I'11l·p~i(!.f; (19)., Wil:ho'i.il exposing lilitu.': lil.AJ0:clfS:(TiiOZ! :ijJjl~·

terface t'o~he en'viroJ]mc~I" brldg,,£'w:hh '\,vfchhs of lOO ~m o~ldlc!'lgthsor300 !l~1,m~d 70U IJ,m
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31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
T mllL~missuo.[1 el:e<:hl'J\lra, SllLtd:ies: { Ji~} 'Were pc:rfcmr:J;od on reference s~mpl!e-8 gm'lvn under OO!1:di nons idc:mk{!tl ro these desenbed ;~bovc" Cro~s~s~OliQnalcfJJil" WI;:]lC' pl'Op~r.ed by meclliSin.ical. poli5,hing f~}~kl\ved by]ow~cl~crgyj' ]ow-<lling;ll:: ion miUu[I_g<1H;ild. illv,e~:ig.;)t~ed by seann:in!'l t~:llismissiorn. elcctITon ~;lIJiicroooopy (STEM) (18). F.~gur'~IA showsa hj~INI['aglc allIlllDlar dark field U [AADF) STEM image of ]he sharp ime:rfac-c bCltw~n a 15 ...uc-:~~ic'l!;. laAIOlmm and [be SrTI03 ~~ll.111:mtrnlte,.TIu,,: ~.nmis fOlllnd to be cutU:l['CIl[ wjth.Iili~.e subsrmLc wi:lil[JiO ab\l·.im]~, d.e:fCC1S or dl:sIOC<l111:Of}S :flit tI1:(J nnt:e.rfaoo. re'Su:l~illig ]rl bifl"Xilall 'Ie.nisile strnin of.::2: 3%, as, measueed rrom T!EMin~g-.es ( HI). Ihe ol.u-of.-pI:&ilcla[lloc:

CO[JJmant" offh>e LaAIOj :fg.l:mis,==~3.78 A, which f,~close IJO 1hc bulk vailrl!1Cand Sllgg~ffi;S. cither a raId[cr S!Tl;)!ji~Pcissonrano as previous[yrt'U)0l100 (1m Dr Qm..of;:'phlflcrcl1~'i:afun :j:~lth'!,: thin !llnl (In. To dOUI.in alil uppe~~limi[ O!~ the ex~r;:!nof ded:mll ie :!l:iruC'll.Ire'J:I1dcomp,osiii!onal changes belew ti:tc'inLerfacc, doo~rone:rntergy~la&'l,S:lP'Oc,,"" rm5:C0py (IE lS)inlil:u: STEM was usedto probe the chemi!'[!'Y o:fUH;-: ~CreR.)SlruCllIJre at [~le ~liJlmi!c

a'~laY[Tom the irJIt~rl:hre. []re ch3:~cs ~r.a,~]eO".iE<. and T:i-l2~3odgcs. oomp,arod -":,"'illrn. k S.rTiOl :fan bul below jhc :!10!&e ~.c\!el «l % O'xygcn \I;aC~!lcy OOI1Cl!:IYllZliClI1J)\ TIle: :f;,rnaHchafl~~s (~fhe' TI-L4:J t edge> are OOIlSi:;lelH with a i}~i~fu[iIlcreai}oio Tr+, either lrom OKY gen defic~.clK:Y (2.'2) OrE] compen5i~lin.ginlc:rf~.oe' Ch<lLr;g.e 8}. 0 l\:vo S;flfil],pl.Ci$were .M1J.1ill.yzed by transpcrt measurenlellflS .alnld [round [:0 be oonduc[i~g (fig. 2A),. Ihdr 2':~O-l1lick 'cO!~If{)11SIrI!lCl1i:!i!'CS llid~.g in."~~I (1.·~:>iS~"Ul~R' :> 30 M~~,),flft" all t~mp~..!ti:[Ig "'-I"'''''' 't' (""" 1'11:"" <7< .J ' fil, itt) •. .A "... ~ •.~ 4 .-'1 ,Ill\.., '011" "0.til lr\.., t.'"'1u 1: _, "i Ill' III ,.", ,,,,",,~,.1 ,-l.L, ,~,I\.. ,I Hall ca:m.~r densities ofthe 8-,uc<lllW IS-HC samp'I~8equa:i .~4! xi o! lt~~ [lJ)lrl .~ 1 .5 l( ~,O]:Iib:::m~, .
!ll.I. fLII,

I

seale. S~nm~m~oal!gUyn'CComoo 0-]( and H-L"2.J oog~scj'm;e ~oand :filJ <II\V(IJ}1 fron)!the in];erll'lce al:~ s!•. wn ill F~;g. t B ,1[1;(1 . By 1.5 nm away frmn o C

s

th'C hucd'a>c~, 'lle Ch,l;lIil.gCS lin til(;"!; O~K edge are vC':1)1sli~x. S:UM~(i ng aJr:l upper limit '[01111: oxygen V:aC'8iIlC),oonccn!InLioll of 3%. At 6nn~.

and the mobiliitics ~ 350 c~~?IVsand ~ ]000

cm2/Vs,.resp ect'Hv,~:ly+Whclili1erthe cl:i trerenct'Sin the SEIIJll;ple prop.elities pl't... aniulri nsie eflbc:t "'>Cnl
t]]~(

\ .. 1.·.· '~.'

"
\

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[[Hanre~st~!lce Ru(ltID K)IR},!(4.2. K) := 0.8
0,95

liS csuscd by the 'V-arj~tknll 01'111(: L.~IAiO] lhic:k.n~ss romai~,s; to 'be ~xp':lol'ed,. 11he H,aUI'~ spense is oi1lly I;vcaJdylcm,pcRum:e dependent

15=[1[;sOImpies,rn;spe-.::tiv,e,. ly]. Ma~el:ic fidt~s lO !J.o.fl "" !.\'; T 'Were applied up U) the g~U!':..:~I.lick sample, rev-ea.'I:iill'1g a posit:ivc m~"FficOClrosistil,im'cC. T~.c &~i:1i]W!lesiilvcsh~ICd here do not ~d~o>v hy,Sl.crel.ic' rnagneroresisranee •. a No mil]imum. i,slolilil'ild ]n the :Rt i) c'hfJu:lcter,us]l,c-s oftliic 8-ltC sample. such as W!lS :~p()lrtcd l:cce~1!I]y for L!IJ'I!.IOJlSrTIO;j. sarnp~es.fillbri.'r:a]J:::d undee d:iff:erolu OOi'idiLio.l'iS: {6). ForLl1c I :5~lics~lt1.ple•• 1. shaHmv I'n~jnimum inLliThc R( 7) ~.,tHV~ was (lb-,

n~rlhe S-UG a!l]d I

.~W:]

served

ail

4 K.

At:? 2flO A~ a:..~d:1E too m_[(. re.spetti\1c1Y.~lC 8411C snd LS-uc ~Inpl~s u1l~.d\:Jgo alt:UliSilion inlP a Mate .~nrw~:tiel.1. .~s'iiS!1ltim.U:\iCO'~illdbCltie.lfillred ne '
(Fjig. l.A) ..T~~.ewidlhis, of the 1m!lTIl~~l~.O:I1!S, {2iQo/iii'to 80%) of' rnea·uc and ~,5~~IC samples ;["u-c:::16 mK :

and ~ 51 InK.. res.p0c-1tvdy.

lhcrcs.l.s,]!aJJtre mops

A

2.0 --_--_---_11•5

by !llOn;: ]h:rulifu:roe' orders ofm~gflitli:tde'to bc!t1w [hili: no:iscl.intil of the[J11.%lsu:ren]~.en( {18}. Appi i~ltion. ofa :ol<l;gm:t icfield !-l() H "" [80 m'F

6

~ ~I!O ~ ..
!i1P;.:. _ _Ij,IliU.Iii.J Itwt:: ",14•.L "li"

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"-1.1

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1M

0 miTe :3, UI ,. '118 '"36

pcrpcr!rl.ic Ldf.II!J."l,ri:te :h~!e:D'f.:lOO!.xnnplel-d:y :SU,p" presses ~his zC:IIO"ws;is,1:ru;tOe' sml~ (F]g".2B) ..figure 3A disJl~3y~lllile v~Jilagc ,\'Cf'SU:f;· 'cU!.rrem (V-J) eh.. 'iirac~critst~~ of a briiCIg,cin ~]\e 8-ttc sample, m:e!lsurod using ~ d\;; rec'l~~~iq Al~ow~mp~~ ue, .rllll~.,~~e JI-J C:hm.<,c'tcrLs:tllcsshow awell-defined c:ri[ic.1d Olt[J["BjJ]t l~.,·nle OOCIiil":rellce; of l.ItiJ zerore..:sistaVlCC: Slate; and ~hc chamc!,erhnic RfJ~/1)~d 1'(1,11) d.~mlC'illCr:e.s p:rov lde dear evldenee ror
superoomjiU!~luvi~)'. TI~e1;;[H) dereru~cncc.where r~,HS.donned! <liS R(Te) = 0.5 x i~~ K), :p:rovidcs; a measure fordle upper crhit:al field. l;/~(T). 1l1C H.r;,'l,(i) curve is
1

~ '115uc

..

.~!

-

" .54 .. 180 "500 "9~ 411"
ii

(I 1:1-"

~~~--L.:.;.---':':';':+'

'-:.;,:,:j--

--C"

is

50

100 15Q1 200 T (I1I1K)1

-.=~."-. ....

shewn in Fllg. 2C:: Hd.,O K) ~ 6:5iUT ilnd ~ )0 tnT for l~]C ~~li!.C flml ~. 5-uc smnpk'-.5. GO,IT'C-'
spoJ1d31Ilig~D oo11eooH>eeh::'lm.gfhs

200 T(mK)

300

and ;;;:]05

g(O K) .;;:; 70' nm iveiy, FigU[ie' 313:sl~owsdle H".Ill~pera:lu['e dcpcm~enre ofl1l~e CF1I~ic.':dcumea:nl... per lilli~ \"fidl~l.'the :m~tiITI;j'jJ~Wl~iU.C.S: (If.~c ~'I1fe 98 ...
I1l1f'Il respro
j

Fig .• 2 •. Ti'~1'Q5pOIil: measurements en La"Alo~SrTiO~ h€fH~iI'Ostll'lJctures. fA) DeiP~m:l,en(.'e of the-sheet resli51tan ee on r G,ftlh,e 8~ lJii': ami l5 -'l!(,5amlpi~les (measured with i3J lOO-!1A. b]E! 5 C!.HTenU. 0 met) Sheet resfi5ta!1Q:)il!veu!!l!s~empe\ratl!r'e' measured beMeen 4 Kand 300 K. (II~' Sheet l~e5istali:ill(e; o~~he 8~lJic sampie plaUed as afuncmonof T fOIi ffia'glnetic fiieldls ,applied perpe,nd:in!l~alr to thei~~rfllce. {C) iemper,t)wIFe dependeflClE! Jaf tlhe il!illPiper' Clf1itic::ill ,(iili~dHc,z of '~he two, ~ampLe-.s .•

Ir-I Akm

and 5.6

J;I/\JCL:I1I

forthe 8-;~csnd

1.5'-!,IC

V(I) curves dii;p~~Y'ed bry [he' 15-u(; ~~~mp]~'(not !lhown) .indical~es~h:;}[. 10w If:-ef thi!l ~:mp]c is the' ttlused byiiilmlillt.l:rtuJ.geTill.eilies. Jli 51: belo\l\! i~ 'die

$a~J!ip~c&. respec''II(l~y" A

8~cplikes,truclu!!'C ij]ldlC

I

REPORTS
San:1i1p,i~develop a snl<'lll vol,!age drop\,\~hic': ;11$ ]~lo",vd:lick is tlll.e :SJlIipcr-(;ondnctin!l, I~yct?' If the hC'!~rosnl_gclljros, '1i1irc-:ro D Sllp~]-oonduc;~iofS,lhe 2 ptO[p(l:ni:OnOfl~.IJ) the CtllrrCTlll 0]00 increases witl;a, Ltail'nJi;]lioJ1! ~~tl,} jhe supero(u:uJil.l!mfro_g SI;;J;lC \vou~d rem,peraturc. ,AE, fig.~A :sho'!i!llSfQr~he S"1!Jic-th,i,ck be a BKT t'mllsitiml. chamc1e'l'ized bya lTa~siiilio~ s~llmple.iJl 3 OmK.Uu: as..'SOd<l!lCldrt;!l':[s,tn]lloe'is at lcm[l~mll~ rBK~r it[ which VO:l'ilC:;;;-~!'ItuvoU'~ex l!eai>~: four orcle!:$ IJF !l18lgniwde~n~U:er d'lalu the 11OM1i1l11 st<lt~fiCSiSlm:u;e. \-1h~1.T im::,l1eil1;ing '£1:011], p8l.irn 1~l.l:Ihil:ld(2J). .A. :~;Itn:ple estimate ofT I:!IKT' • .:~ .~ A" '':fut~l 30 a'il,ItKro ISO rn~K. the resistance gro'lI!Se"X~' <1~8m:ilr;lJlng hie S'1leel Sll,~eroolluuctmg C<lUICJ dc~~:ity equals ·4 x lO~31t"nr. would suggest that poaemial Iy from ~ 0.1 Q to 1'(1 Q..Borween ] 80 i!~ samp~es:. [he SKT IlIindmeallrnc field. ~cmpert]~c !1~K aind 'l,.. t1~cSiK::11 .altJ~di~Pljeal:'$ ~r!d '1~o\"req:~ atl!~,!l.lm~[ eaincide.However; in caseofl~rge llaw type [iJ} curvesare i!'J!1;ea~urod. Is tile' bul k 'ofih~ Sr1[',i03 slJ,J!pen;:ondl'!,cl:i:~g \fQ!rIe,'t f~~g<Jt;iD.y, .0011.igj).tdensity ofVlollie.."'9'lnli",oo!e>i erisit QJ:~Jy a t~rniinS:!:Iool a:l ~:hc]1~Ucr:r;),oo hliycr'? p;'Din'! is mern1l1!a:Uy gen:enued imd.'i:11iI1 i(nti:V~]lik~ 'Vor;tex.~anti¥OIJl-e;,;c~;:;m~!i~~, , : fcrmed {24}, For Slidl a system, (he me'lti"g ofthis, lauice :represents the 13KT D!1Si]m, 'livhiclThhen occurs m bJli1liCfl,i(.'!npcr-· t alurc.'>, At I:he' SKI bm~hi01!~. tile' Qu~n ..i!ldlUce:d La~im!! frQrec caU~$ d1islooal iotHllnlidi~l!ocan:uCi!~'l poIi,rn [;0 unbind, res&~lting~n 01 II 0: l" behavior,
w~1h .,~(TB!I'.cr)= :3.

sib.rnamn~ .. of s V ec lc pO~"ler-'l~\v depe~]denlCC (P~, 4AJ As,revealcd by fig, 4B, m T"'" I. SS 1l1K.,i!he ~::q}O[1ellll ~~~ppootlche:> 1; t~]:is

'll.c samplC',s.illdccd.

S~lOWclear iSi..

[he BKT bch~vior. such as

r

It.\l1l1;pI.N'lIlurc is;

'~:IIe:~,lb:rc id{''I'Itifi.oo as T !n(T. 11m V(J,'T) d:li!lracoorist'k~ (fig. 4A) <tre \'Iczy simnlar to

A
2.0
-

I.'

-

30mK
'90

!

!

..

18:1

tn<!cmflMlts ,of 8i~.~.lllllaliDfIiS ~rea!]n~ fill:ljt~.s.iz:c 2E) systems (25). ThCio[u;ni·c regime ObsC::r\1Cd below
TBKIl' at small curl'e'[I!t-s is cx.pecrodfbr ,fi!l1t~ siize immp~.es.~1I1.d ~<I!b~S Gt[JlilntilMluwly willI an ",~'illysis (/8} based ou (24).

190 19~ 2001
1

-----220 -1 n_ > t.v-

I. .1
80 r 40

1 1

E ~

...

--1]160 .,. 1,7'0

300

i.

,i

..

• ~Iao
11:85

1'15

-

En adclriHo]1l, the R( 71 CI,~~:riM~1.erilslic£iare t-Oilsisten!.~:l,l'itllila. BKI' tmnsi[ioTl. fbii wh~ch,.

I • I.

:20 ~O.5=-=-=~~='==
-0.4 OJ)

• •
I

104 ...

--

'.,
200

. .... ..-In·.. ...." close W TOKl', a R "" .R~~p{ -bt -) dependereeis ex~')Qc1:ed (l6).~~erl';:~Ro, <IHU~. b are maierial ~ralnctcrs and i "" TiTB~r - l. As sho,wn hy Fig 4C, the llu,':<Ji.8 luc,d ReT) d~p'~~]dC'nceis oonsistetl!. willi U'i:is. bcha:vior and yic~.ds7nl<1r.~ 190 mK, in a:gtt'lCra:l,cm \"d~h (he ru~h ofdlC (.~-c-;{pOnCUlila[ln!ysis. The [)t'IIperoonduc1i[lg lID[lS]-' tien of I~]e $1JI:mptcsis dlCiCfQirc OO!~s.iS:lel]1: witj~]
J

[him .of a 20 s:upl'}yoondlJc:~:I~.g :f~lm.1h,':l1fl::e,dle

sUpeJOOlldJLa.elilli_g :Iiayer' is ·Iilln,nilil.etr

t]~:ar'i~, ~. 70

:nlil1 .

1

O.:B,

50

1100

USO

II(~.)
Fig .• 3i. ltV} meaSMweme:nts
i

T'~"mKl

or the B"t1c taAlO3lSrT~Ol! lhe~erost:ructlLlre .. {A)T,em,p:era'~lJre~d!epeifil.dei1lt \1ilJilil.agle- CII!)IUenl (h1lr.ac~eristics ,of iii 100 x 3(N} l"lmll br~dgie, tEl) Measll!)IJl!di teil'rlpej[a~I[!III[!e depelliilden'ce off the ~]",ear critkal w~r,ent delrnsitYI· as obta:mned from 00',

.An~lyrds of ~he ::mpcroolldllC]!l~~g uru:lshio.n W:!iI~:p('t;'l,1:Uropnlvi des ;'l]i1lin:depcndcTlll bound om [he laser lhtckJ]'c'''S. [fthe s~pcroor!dl!Clivity were due f~) (ll{:rgen1 defeC'ls in SrTuO~i" il c~u'rit::'i de~lIsit.yof ~ .3 :-: ]OI'~/c:~nlwnuld be [\equi.red fora 'jf~e of 200mK (2,n l'h.~ mc:~sliiIOd sheet C'a[iJj.mc:r denslties ihus give an upper ~Iimh ro:rdle dli.ckn:ess of ilJ1C' supe:rc()~dllct]mlg sh.eor of ~ ~5
~'nlln. COr.!Sidc'ri.llg tluu l1hecarrjcr Cio!lCenl~lion of
[he
31;;;

B

,

"

Srno~_x I.tycr.Cilmi1()~be

cmn:sl-'1'ln[but h<iS to

oonifOlUli ],00~pOOifHelh~.Jowing Pois.o;;omn·squatucm e

tre,l!tcd \"..ith

OO[lS~de]'1I1:u(1I1~O

tbe fie:!dJ~

:2
••• a .......

~
~,._!'.._,."._ ._---_,

,0 1:60

-,.n. ~i 2100 240 2:80 T(mK}

d.epG'l:ld.Crlll StTi0.l sM~ooptib:i[ii[y (28), one can sc,] an ul~'per Umi[ for the thickness of the sl!pc:reondij,jlcting sheet of i;;tl 0 Rtlf'I, !l \,I~Ju:cJnW:::~l sm~U~r d]~j[la't :suggeslOd in (7. 8), thrdle

[bi£.krnl'!S;;; of t.h~ 'condlUcting layer in n:uliJ)Cc-di
UIAIOJ,/SrTiOJ!:I.cLc:rostmtlluus..The ,car.r.ier d£\nsUy prell lc m ]il]l.);uofaccs; i~l rOJii.Y.p;-deHciclll SrI.Oli-x has a:l)so been ~k~~]liaoodiil (8). As. a res~~h 1i.h]snmd:d ,a :>hce! ca"i~r d~s~ly;:;. 5 x (If ~ ~'l/cm::l:us needed ]fli prmridc' a ,c<!I:rrner c'Once[l~ 0 l9 1 U~llliOI1 of3 xlO /c:m • Because t~(H~ll~oet .:1mc,f c densities of our ~'IInpiics: equal onJ! 1.5ro4! )( y W ~;;/cl'il~. ccvtd:ing M~,~iSl.moddl ~11:c: slip(:reO:[I~ a du~t]\"r~ Qfd~c uA~.o~1 SIi'T~03il1lrerrmce ~!ll1m be C::~IIU~d. by doped SrTiOJ,-,'I;'. ~~Q]~c, The e....periments p:rCSi1:ll:t:cd hero do :nO'l aUow . us 1.0 d,~u~[mj:uile 'l-v~elher 'Ule observed !mper~ cUI'idutti'!;rily is due 10 alhil:niil doped S:uTi03 sheet or a novel phcm);lnclmru~ cecutrlng atthi.s anificia]

T. =1'90 '11!!i!T. ' - -

mK -

190
T(mK)1

200

fig .• 4. La~"-I(ilmp€ratun~~raJnspo,rt iProp€rt~e:s; of ~h€ SaW: l~aAlO3i'5rTiO~. he'~(ilrostrudure .. {A) W)
curves on a tOrg,illr~'~I~lm'n,s:cii!lte, .. the celor (jode is Hire Si8lf1iIU'1li s ~h<!lti n F~g". 3.A. TirI@ num bers: IP'[lOI!i~e the d 'talue of T, messu red .~I mK,at 'wM~:~ ~lhieCUf!J.ileS \'iil@retaik,@n .Jhe :511ITu[)1~1.II)~adtin@'s.al1@·ms Qtf 'th@ dlatill Irl fi' l ~~Ie Ira rl:sltiG,II'l. 'WIl,e MQ ~O!l 9 bl~i3!ck.m~!lle~ (lOn'€! s;pond~r V = RI ,2!:nd 'V - i~ dependend es a ndl show lh 2lit '18·7 m,K, <: [SKI <: lIl.90 1iJIlI'K. (I.) Temp'e!ra'~!!I!r!e depelilltde:IiM::e of the' pO?JIe'r-liJw exponeWII[ a~QiSde,cllul(eal ~lrolil1ll ~hef,ils!ihowl!'l in (A). (C)R(l) d'l'liPeil'il.dlenoeo~ ~mtie"!UC$lIm,p~(! '(,I"", 100 ~), p~oU:~d on a,[d~n{R}Jdn-l!3 8 scale. Tlhl~ :!iloUd i.·nn,L'!! stih.e beli!:aill'1ior exp~c'~ed '~Clr aJ SKI ~~ansnti(!lnl with! TOIKT.~ 1'90 mlll{,. ~

h!lrell'fare. A]thcJil.gll ]J1C .~ Oflhc ~~Cl:Cflos:b:iU.cll!res lal]~ in 1.h~' tml1s~[io]l ra:r1P!J~' 'of JI[)ixyg-en""dlef:ic:ieru SrTiOj_!f' the ~ta:I1!S[:lOri [')rGip!':lties onll~esa:nllp~.es d:iffer 10 :Same: oxlclU ~ruuillil.l.e ,Oll~S of doped

111'98

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw,sde:noolm.ag_.orgl

REPOIRTS
9(110). Wh~:re<1sin oxygen~de~i,cie~l[ Srr~'o~_x
and N!~dopod S:u 3 fi h:~ms hQ Hall COllQstant 1]0 ~ flf1:cre~ses !l:D.!l!!rked]y below ] 00 K (29}1, ]l is rcss,
9. 5. AlJ,len, L 'PI. "i'j.'lmg, lim (200m.
(j,•. ,11, .. Saw.3ill~,

Thin .Solid FFJftI; 9',

10. 5, QhmolO,~,

rem~~ipcrahJre dcp~dc.llljnJ LaA.~OJJStllO~ hete,.~·

1,1. ].!M0l !f!:nh~mI;, !ll1lin "

slmil~s.ln
the

addiHon,.

the"~:ppc!"criti.c.;Jil 1iekl of

.MtiWns,. Nt1llN(!!lI:2:B, ,63(1 t2®O!!li~. fl~$ ami Heler(l:Stf!,I.i:t'Y~~' jtJr: r:nide ~!fd{Of;jics:, S. iOgare. Ed. I(SprillQllr;, New York,. ~1OO'5~,

an Q[«r of maglll:lude. smal.ler~:um tn,,'d ofN&:SrTIO;lwilllmm.c same~.
he'~erCi5~]:UGtll[\e:;; ~~

HIU1J[ly,

our dbse:~tloll ofboll1i sup~rol!)ndl!ctil1lg

iUl!1 .ilu:lI.llmti~g behavior ,onU1:e saillU':: sa.:mp~~, d.erendil'1lg Of! '~hepreclse laA10,l ]b"ye-r '[hk;kness, i'8 vely hard to rewm:ile 'with a pure 'OX)Igem
v~C<JJrilcy sooIl3:riol, IR'e1e~el'l(jes
<'11111101

W. 2:5Ji~271l. 12.. M. Gufllildh, Itt L S!UrIlitw. R. Co O';1lle~ ]. M. Gr.lill!fjeal D., C J~(oosoo." in, Pf:rKffditlg5 of i:ne MRS, J. ~~d:. A. I. 8Iriigtnsff::1. IEds, (Ma,~l?fiill:s IRie:;earoh :)o~i@\y, Warrl~dal~. PA, 19i86J. pp. 117-49', 13. V,. [(OE!IIi:til'lg. 0'. '(!;fan" p, J. Hil$d'!leht r. [(op~.]. Miarullilii1r1. Phys.. Rfy:, B 1:1(, ISQ.Sl10 (2005t 14. rt ~"iI,'o'I!'i!III00, I, Ko,pp, ,r"hy;, ~f'v•. i!iI '1~ 11'4Slli6 (2{JOI'l).
~. 'o,J'. L. ~~~till~ij, lh. £~~ ~r. Fi? 6(1, 11,AII t.1!9'r'~, '1,6. '11. L 13e~~nsk~, SOLI• .P1I_ys:IU!' 34, 6UI mn2ll. 17. J. M,. ~OIs!!E\r~11.0, J. 11litO!JiIII 5. J. PIJfs. (!S". U14 (1.97Z'. 18 •. Malfrials andl ltIeihmhare' a'ilil~laiJ,le ,ii1S5!l1,PpOllililitg rn1<iteniill CYl Sdmc;e CIlnlill1;l\ .. 19. C W. Sch!l!!lid!e'!. s:.1IhiE!!, (i !ii,lIr,mmer!, L R:i~hter, l.Manf!Mrl, .Appl. Ph_ys. Ie'lt 89:, 122:l!O!1(2006)', 20.kil. JINllJlnue !I':I' ,aJ•• Pl'l~. Stat 5'0/,. W,20i3, .22M ~2(D06JL 21. M. M. 1,iiFl!I!ICj, J. M .. Gibsolil, j.. Vue, Sci. Tech,. 84, 1145.ilI {11.966,),.

iE. IlL pre~ff~r.Phys. ~t'1;(, li&l, 3 eo, (:1196n. 28, K. Uel1o, lihes15, Un-~\I'N5nl'f m Td!l'fJi amJ). 29. K" S. Takahol8ni i?1 (1/., .1IIi!l!trft' 4,4'1ll, 19'5 {2(06). 30 .• 'TIl~a!1lthors 'i;dOO'o'rle!i]:~ fmiiH!ill distussiDn5 and ~n~~raQtioo$ ~'ili ID',M<I,t!i~ and [I. '(li.Sdlt-cmm, liblis work was .supp:mei!l by t~ sm;~"alio"~ !itieoo~ FOuiR~ljoml ~MiltE!riia.15'idJh Ni)!tel (leotOOfl~ Pro,pell.ifs" an[j tliJ:! :s,~5 ~ol,1fiotlliil ri~ fowdl1i1frlln IDiI!iSi'ool IR, byh S IIllundlf!$mill~~riy~liif ~!~m!i !!ncl: f"grlid!1Ulil9i ~~~!iI
[lekll"m~che KO>1e~liOl'i!!m!rridl M<l9~~1mU!, Cll3iN'691S}. byUhe Ilerui~ IF(lf£(jnulJJ~EWnern5(ha~lfitrooghlfu~ SmdMIJ&l1iuilJl500rem 4M, byih~ IDwrupt,atJ lIIfIi!J1fI tliliToogih,~beN~~ooal (lllllirre ~ (~I)!I!I.m:ein ~SMit!h

25, K Niedlilld:Yl1v.1i, 13,. [. rrGm, il', MiliiFlliagiiiill, mys, RiI3r•.8 ,62, 145n '~2000). 26. 1!l.1L H~~~lin. D. lit. "e~1II" J. L~.v rl!nlP..a:6, 59'~~1979t 27 .• C. S; KOQf!ce, Nt. IL.C@he,iil,. ].~, :)clh~~ey, R..1rlC'5~er.

I

w.

ItII'o,tes

1, .A. Oh'lanll, 1-1. Y. Hr,mtng, N(JM~ 4,17,~;23 (2004). 2. N. 1tI.j!blJ~~', Il Y.liiw~n91 ID, A. M,ulter. ~t M~tlN'. 5,

~hrrooglhrINiloo.:@jl~,Ib¥ 1~

81l1ID[JBiin,

s-d@n~ FCMlHlldatioo
~l1l!lIra!l\

20~ (2:{I~&). 3, M. Huii.i~ tl ill" fflJt. Matel" 5, S56 1(2!OO6). 4.,. II. P'!2lnkh~a, W. E. PtidWl, ,Ph,..... ,Rev; ,B' 74, 0.3'5112 (20o,6~." 5.,. S.Thi@'~, G.. IfilOlmrnliElfl, ,A• .5~hmI!HlI, C W. s:dh11l~i~r •. 1 M~WiI1l~Ft Sbi~(~ lB. 19~2 (~)OO6,). 6,(l... Brin~_ma!il a' cl. ~/: M'alw. 6\ ~9'l (20(17), 7, G, lTierr,[lIin;f'tal., Phy§. Rev. M1t, 9'8, :216803 '(loo7).
S.,. 'W.,.5iE\ririltlln5f1 (21l{D:1}.

t~glhlh~ "lihU"flm5ror N~II~de ~~~ andl b~ the 1Ji.'5.,.~,Uiwl (jjef!l~ fQ!j'!d~MCI!'!. S

~;upportlng On!~:ilile iI~~ria~ M
'~ww;~di~n~ie!'f'!o1!g,Q~gW@l1Ilg1l1Vf~!!\I1,146001,)!IOC~ Ma'teffl1'1$ a ~ M~lIllj)jjs,

01:,.

f!tJys •. Fliev; :tfff. ''1S, 1!.96:80e

,22. 11. A. MuliEr, IN.,. Nlab!lll~a,A. OhlnmQ, ,~. L. Gram~ It 'I". Hmmg. III:~H~' 430, 6SjI' 1('2004,), 23. M. It IltMI/ey. J. :E. Mifj~L "I'. P. O~~aMQI, f'hys v .R'ev.£eu: <1Z.1;.HiS (Jl9'7~1·. :24. M. Gabay, .,11. Kapnlltilnlk,. .PfuJl!"i!1el!'; .~'f'trl,n,2nill
019'!13~"

Refei\eiilM 4
.~,I.!!'! ' .2'0!07; aC:Olpl~25 e JU!:ly 2:0(117' flJl:!liltie,dl !JIFililM 2: I\Jugll!it 2007; IO.l:1!2 6i5riBna!!.1'1l46006
1j'I~

I~ILOO@' ~hi&iniCfITllaitioo

d:tin:g '1lIiis !l'l~!!:~.

M

CiJN SiJrt'.n:oo bY' ii:iI'JrulI;ip'lI~-ati()a.""lid] a ~..mllfJ~g mlJ1nd iilln.,g ~lfIkroi$COpC r( s.n\1:}lllp. Our cslcu lat~Qmi indicmc~lat the:fc and Mn mro!lf!§.!U'C' embedded inll.)am.A)leo.Q]m' nc~;\wrkof :p.o11I], oo'vaICl'l!liy lml1doo. Cu and N a~(lJ~~!S w.il:bin '~]eQlN Stl~'fucc. CVlrlllS F. 1H1rjibe!inJed~Ii1r,1Chiungl-Yuan UIIll!.l,~.Alexa:nder F. OUe:, .... Ma.rku5 'if'ernes.!.~ ,,3 .h:'bootpornfi,['ul ~:nli:~D s[urf..ce :roSli~t'SillS[uhs:n"'1Iii1]all lhe ill Chrri,s~~ophelrIP., ILuU!1L B,ilfba.ra A. ]IOleSf 1. Almldr'eaJs]I .• Hleinlri(lill chal:&'"Cln1l1s:fur and dLnstributiol1o:f sp~npoiarn~aM.agne~ic ,iJnisQ~I'OIPY ~tUo~vs. m.a.gl1ds to maintain tl1m:eir dirre:dh:m o'f mi.lig~~tiz;at]on owr t~il1lln£!l. UiS.]IIi:I:gl tiea awwy :fro~,]~j 1.1,~~lSl]~lvc:;iUOITI ~;fidinruodle the 031 sea n !ling~~,[iJJ~J~.lijllng mic ro S(;ollpe liO obs:elt\1les;pin ,e1(dtalilfkl!'!s.~~lIe dete!il!'flilfled the erientstion ,and u'lIolccul,ar network, We rOfmdd'lal ine]a1i~ic stre:liilgtil of the' ilI!'i!lrtSotr(lpi~s of imjividWiali:mru ill!Jl!dlmang·alne:s.e a10mlS 011],altlmn [aye£'o~ (OPiper exc~W!tfo~1i.~. tJUhe fUlOmic S:P~11! 4. 15) ·are· \lC~' (J nHrid e" l1~lerte !.atlil1e ii1I~eonsiti;es ,('JIf th~~neLa$tic '~lIn rle1in,g p m(~s.'S~~ al~e 'C~inlsl~d.ei'it 'Witihl di,po'la~' p:rnmi:fI.cillun I~he '!iJI~t'ID;:imiJ [urunelirfi;g from an S'fM ~intefad]o'li'Is"a sseen for ]nelas:tic neutron scattelITing. ,~rst-prrindpLe~ (a!lcll~at:lio,.rI:S]i'i!diic·ate.that the tip i:hrough ]he il]d.ividul;l~, m<lgl1e:i.ic :1'I!mn:omm;:'" unes, Clil<mg~ J[I the :s,lflin..;e~c:imti,on (lJ,1.(}'rg.]esas at magn e'tk a'~oms b@J:,omein!(lorporalted in ma palla r (iOrval~ent s;ur~aJcernelecu La r ne'hllo:rrk:iIMiI ~Ih,e cepper nHride. Ihese s1:nl(~I!I!UIl!5" w:l'nlk:lhl plf'Ql!,I'ide atom-Ib)f·{lJ~(»ma,Ci(;ess]bilily~ia loca:l probes, ~:arve ~liNlgn.Cltc fldd \VOlS mppHed along f~e OMC!<gO:l:lJfl] ~fuIep(rtenlial~'Or engi neeri 119 ,IlRii5Qtn)pi es Lar'ge' e\lli1olugI1~Q IP'JQ1dllilll.ce&ilibile rna gnertizatij'Q:mJl at low s a!::>::cs direcUy yidded bot'~~ the ::;;~c'nlgth I.mel t'e:mp~lrr~li.ir,es foi' ~I $~n"lg!~~ ~It~iilfl]( ~p'i[l. Ol'icn[~ti(ln .of flx~~l ~I1d 'Uta:!lilive~e mmgne~k ~niWlropy :For i!J!. siIi!.gI~ nUlg!l"a ..;::ti.;; atOfVl. The <I,b"lleiliCS;nruclufies w.ith. only a Ihv <lp]llTOiCu::h of I!his SlIp!::['p<lI'amagnletic nmi~(6) relaluve .inlCll~l!ies ,of these inclmslic exdlal:uolls 1l1IretJiLenS to Illlll!t th~ d~cad~l()nglirrendU)iW'llilrl are ,.w.]I~.escri'bed by aJ ~irHlaJi1JsiH:onmmrix o:m ..i.. sP.Jim.'ls C •....SUd~ .. as s;in.g.~o. I.0,. s,. .. m and Ck~~roffi ol~mcLal su[{~cg: (J. l) ever hig,~er- smmse dCIl:li,i tks in n~~g:l:1ict elO'mcnn:1i~~l.~ amkl!ous ~Q I:hal!ou~d~ninel!lSlit'; i,e: n~oo~ory, c~de,,, '91V1> ~<Cl,;hJ1iglogic~.rclC'W1IlCe, B ~d moh~'cu]arr !~lag~~el~ «J-S). 'Ci!!~ exhibi[ ~~eulro:J1 8cmt~ii~:!l l1]~e !~~f!gl~1~.gn~li~ s,)!$I!e~~~ mi8(1lropi'e.s ~l~li arel~r:gc enQugh to ~lL!1Itai IlIl at~miC-fIC!I.lem~ netk: S'h'i;!d!l.!~ fl~:ealoo ofgr~i .. g oomb!il'!e~~rge m~~~tic rn:IiOOlropies \lv~i1hdle sc:iej:I]]fkinl(';I~'] b~~ise~u:y ,c;:'x1n,ibi~l ~n~d~.u~ng f]c:.xiblHry ~n~b~espin m:icntatkm.atlow temp~i1:mes. The cQrn(,'SI~\1m.behrtg f1o;:ess:uble !.'lna ]arge <'IIn~oo~ropi.es,per each,l~om i,m~. t[U~iW: SUl.uJ] qlJanLlflm Cff-eol"5:(1-9) ,[Il:a.d 1.~.;ll,l1C' U'lc pm~mi.<llll) be surfiM:e by ;]1 .100cal: ptobc (1. 14-1~), j)J[nd~le clusi~rs ;;tr~ofin.~et~! :as~ pooSllbl~ way '1:oS:hfj-~lk h~Jllc~s.ed fo:r q~i!lJ;;Ufilu com;pn.n~Il,g I( I 0.1 J l). In poN:ml,i<'1J1 for oolMroll ·0:1'thclmgru;~tic ~ropC:i,'llit':S m'agnc'lfuc bil'S be:~C!\v ~ho gize iu\v.lJruid1 d,Oi:n.1!a]itJiSl ~t1, AC(lOSS 10 il'idivi.ciUl.'l:1 magil1i.!Jlicnil['l.ootruC~li~ by p;n..'V]oulS:ly .a\roiilalblc Otb Iyii]. ii;iI'l:(Ii~jj!ilr I~~~,CI:S. C'llJrronl thifl,"i!1]m ~li1'f!gn,etic mmcrials. b~oomc: dcaOOlmiclm!1S1pM m~sl!remcnis is possibl:e 'f'llilh n~ishlas great pn:mlise bcCt'l\lse.indl!C' .ah5encc of ul]sl8b]e; ,lIltI10[)mliennperol1iJI'C. 1ho impcndinlg Ute 'tDSe 01' cl~crronligrati.olmjtll1c[i'[)ns I( ll, lJ)am,d [ramW{lr::.--c ~IlU5Qtfl1)Y" [hi;: singk: Fe amm OJ] CuN l'o-cOil pluiJes, (2,. 14- ill). \~/~~e:reas lIm()sc~I,~: WQulld Th'ilVC :U] e:rte!lID'~!Iie'i:rcrs.tl.1b,]:me:r ;sjm.il~lr i:n1I jl:metaorb. d!ev.i~ may be motc1.t'tJti:il y <]daplccl ~ln~.gJliLilILd~ to'~,l''i!l o!~e;wed, f'Oir ;rtnxn~:it sp'.iil'kSindlil' IIBM R.re:se-ar'dh IDi\lisr:O!1!, Alirri'ild.e!1l Re~i!rd~(ie:n~er. San jlJse'. CJl9S]210, USA. 2(et1Iter riO!' ,P'rol:fllll'lll1E~ NaIllM(:a~e', S'tan(m>cli l:O pru.ell~i.iJ iilpplitation~, smdli,~s: !u..:li]'~~ ~,Qo""ll ~n:ost .-a:niwtOOrpic oonl1gurnl iOIl s> lllllill11oICt1lii!llilf UliliversRy, Slali'l,f:otrd,. ell '94]1~)'9, USA. ~Ki3I_rUIlt9JI1I Onn~ probes provLde all undcrs:l,oodiflg Ihc mrn,Q<U1lflgll,C18 (4) ~l]1i1on metal :rurfhce:.s (.1).,. La'lJora~li:ril!lm, UIiI~!I'l'!'lf$i~~it l.e~d~l. :noo IRA ~iden, NetlJiermflgnc,fs l!JCfl~; ~lvironnlc,n!l.tl~c crucial dct~F:mi~ c Biperimenrts \vc:re OOllcluctoo '\:l/I'ith !.dlmhjgh~ 8!!:l ~~~~ ~1~_iM de Pi1;,sitwe- des ri4!1~ru.~ ~Q~ Po\)!'" 'l,iia>C;:UILII.m~{)w ..tcm~JCrn]Hre ST.M win~ a b;l!.">C ~.CI.U~ 11<l:[fJ1 i!llJ)mtc"fica~:c of an isotropy. lecllillllquE! f!!d€~e de ll.au~ill!lle:,:W[5 L3MS!3!1100, sm!!emnd. ~Hcre \¥e descri.l.cK: :m~~~cLic lla;l1iO$trucrure.s ll!Cra[~n:'e f 0.5 K. We !I':Ji1:easlJLrtxl tiline dif1i:rcm:i~l] o "'To Wiimrn MI"f5PQI1demle ~h~tJl.Jbe ,llddn~53!1d. E-rnai~:, conduemltt'C· dUel V usi:n:ilg ~:ock~:ilr'l deleetumi 0.1' 'die he:i "r.i(I~@.alma~ef'l.1brn.c®1iIil Vi~lm hlrge :m1igu,~~tic <'Ia:iis{l~mp'Y~mat emil be iil:l.at.
<l.

ILarg'8 Ma,gnle'liic Aniis,o'tlr'Olpy' lof a Siinlgle AI',omiie Spiln E,mb,eldded iiln 8 SIIUrI',8c,e IMI'ollel'CIUlllar Netw'ork

d.ivid.1;I!f1~ly cm1!s!tTlQullXi, sl1i:ldie;d, and !nani:pula.lro wi.1h rn!IDI11i(i·~ak:prec~8ioill.lndivid'J!.]a] Fe ar Mn~ ~1(]1mS were p]a£ed at 1hc d(SilrOO .IOC"1!~iD[J,~,0111 a

rum

or

I

REPORTS
I by ;}ciiding a ,iJO"- ~o 50-lNr~'IiL~ -SO [I [r:lz '10 the semple bl'.fl8 vo~mge If [we used Olcrom I]_~cru:l,square{nns)mmpHtude for llh,(l mOOli:lhl1nQrl \l1)~na:ge] S'TM. bead~I!,I(b~; l1~o~l1Iledlinm(: ,cold. borc;:' of a ~p~il-ooiIUlagl'lct wi~hl,l~'fIguwticl:irelds [j' lip to 7 T. The Oriren]l;};~JDn Oil' Lhema,gnet (iOlI~d be chasged so thai! the I]'il~g.llclilic ficld.\:vilS applied d~hcr pcrpCllldicul;fil' ro 0[" in mhe:r!a;ne QfH~e cll}~slal surface (19). Wi(!'used iii s~~gic atomic ]:ayeJ' of CuN (2'0), to df;OOl,II;plej]n,e; ~in iIJ~~the' nl<l,gnc~~,c aion:HS fro:m tjhe c(nl:dutlitln elecuonsin [he [lJ1!def'~lyia]gCuUOO) stlrfr~oo (15). A~ma[l iS~'ilJoo,of Gj[~N \%d~l .UI fe atom, is s1mQW[!I£1'1 Pis., ~~ , ..J\.s SC'Cn ~.lI!IIUhe A cross section" the: Fe :alom has a ii!i;i'gc ,a,pp.~OCTll hei~1,] of 2.6 whidli indic~k.'s tha~ ~llectnuic hinlll'd~:u:JJ~tfuJmughlhe<IJtmu is aJ~mosl~lrne' orders of [I,1~gn:HLiildc gromor t\IJ.1'nil~i~~ltro':l[ugh~he bare OLIN. Ibe: ~ruialrooo~:lI!l.i.onof [iiii.'! SJ.M llrtlilgCS, p~niccLllarly t1ill:e obooMl.tiruli. (jf' single rows of
hnU:Le] clJ[;[cnt
1~:'lOC~U~ 0l,1:1x:llITi,at

.n~e

wrooo

oo~

A.

(161 J]Jj~lC frame~v{~rk 0 ~[ilJ.::l~!Si]icelectron hmne:1 il1~ si1ecut)soopy r( []:.TS) (27)\. I:Itesc' sn~')il> i~cQl~1!dlJ.!l((IDnCe :tl~l:erpre~.oo$, 'I!l~c opc,t1ill(g of .a;re an ind,3st,ic 'lmlllelu:!:Jig channel <l3SOC~aIDdwilh !he cresrien orrum. exeiratiou ~~l enC:L'YY er~t), \\~l!CI'C e isjhe ma~l1rnldlc {)if~hedoot]iOncl'mrge and is []~e eemer (lfU'l:c .s;rep. Cl~aJ'l§~s h~ energy and i.~lt.'l1s:ily of these ~:;.::cimli!!)nsm.:;a MvL~tton of.B ,a]low IWI'S ~~s,igll 'lhe'tm[o :opi~ to ~d:!,n,~Ol~~ 4,. l 5). .for a s~ing~e nr~.c'l!;(I.kl;!~ U of .8(, I.h01U:Ol118 \~tC'ro placed at dil,l:reronl C~I sites 0fII Lhe::furfaoe so i:h~lU;I.C I:iekl was o:n.~nloo <lI~O:[J:l~ two dil1~n splUi alldi~liot]s: tile N di'i\i"CI.io~

Fig. 2. A aad B. At. 11 ... O,dlree elear steps. are sccrrccmcred i1it I VQI ",. 0..2:, 3.8.f.unrl 5.7 mV

.]1:1, .fig,

2, C

fUld

D, t~,u:eVO,I[UlrCUl ofdlf
F'~g"2.

r

energies OIflhc lETS SI~8 seen in
13.is

AMI.d

:s.lh.o\:v~~ TIlt! changes ]mll're

CXd~!U]OOl

ene[1i~-s~rc m.')lTh:cd[y difl:eirentwl~em1 the nmg~ ~~etic 1:;i;l~dii1i apElHcd i!l'[[l're t,... ditfore:n~1 di[uC'~) [:imlS; Wllcn l1 is, along the N d:uOC'Cl:uonFig. 2('1. (
al:I of (he step energies in;c:rea&ewii~.l. B',\;\il~.er:eas &lCPS decrease liI1IC1JK':f,gy when 8'is 3:PrUcd ~rOfl~ ~he llolJl.aw directiQn (Fig, .2D), At a gh'e'.ul ]m;"pla!l:c'!na,g,J1ieit~c field" il.wasp0:8l'·

"-0

[he nest and 1hhd

si'bh~LO mo:~ <11.1 individualFe atom h<lck1l1l1.d Im"IJl between tin: h,m d~~rinC:l indiTilg shes rf~me., b Si.lle8 00 that B was orientoo .. dong eil~hc:u[~e N or ~,a.o]~O'\i:i,! d.ifCcticm) 3!l1Jd cbserve tluu. tk oxdt,u1iol:l
SPCCi]1U1M

.s!!.vitcii1.cd

co:rresr(')mHro.g~y.nae~ dHler-,

(fo!!'h~~ucnl ~IlFig. 2A)r and tile J~ol1bwd~recl~o~ em::e.;;;,cal"! be~nambi.gllcn.ls~y ol'>.:;elved oo.ly bet (fig. 2B}. Tim exis,tenm:: of zero-tield Cl'l:C:itm:I:~on5 eause we rmu~prom: imlivid~~~~. 11l,~gne[ic <tDnmsin
a \1!I'~IJ,ch{lr.'lC're:rizod euvirenruent, A thhd diSl:l;nct behavier is seen '1!1,i]~~m the mOlf,"I"lc,tic H('!.I!di~ appUodin (he O,t~:H)f-phuli.c djroclj;Qi'i en a dif-, thc!Ibscnre of ,I} m!l~.~llie: fl.dcl. ;8t:1gg~l~nglhc presence of st:fO!lgma~e:t[c an iscnropy i:!l~le f'cre~.~, atom, "s IU:SlnlltOOin fig, S] (loB)!; [~"l Fe Sj/:slem CV,~'ll Jer a sijngl;e !!]omicspin on the CuN t.his C<'lS~, V(l[Y ] itit le C:halllgt: ofthe ~[rtl1lp ,eulcrgues is Slnmc.:;:. SUilluisimhglylrirge l]}flgllCI:t{; ZIIni:!>ot.mpiie,.;;; oh;l!icrvcd.. TiI!~.i~, ~r'ong dieplmidcm::e of the spi~ s ha v(!. also been ob.~ervt>d fO:l :i~~olatQd me'la.l .UOJm,'liS, eN.Cil:,di'(mson field di:roC'lio:nl is fulillC[f evidenee 011 Mr.c fiM.m~isjj~.'aces (.I)., ofs!:ruii'l&, f'l'iiigllctie atij~01ft.()P'Yfor th~ Pe~ili:1l, Jindtica:liCS

lqufllntn.ufi. number m) ~re' nondcg,erl:caJ!lc

nm~ the

dm~re.r;M spin oli~.DTht~lions
~~fCa:'l

~;n.

m.issi~g N~no!)J1i&s~!Ch m;d~03e sll@wnin Fig. ~,A,
al1!owed us to ,o\!1el!li!ly~:~e ~;i:]uijo~ slmchJI{l and determine the bitndi:IIJ,g SUit::: ol.'U~al:Om Mid i~sl()cil!ll ItlJlvliro:nmt1Ilt: In .fig. LAo tl~ .~,·cs on to[p of a Cu i

n

!l1J.)l~,~1 \l1,~iU~. N ~~vo

oliiLo,ms ases

h()rizollm:~

[lL~.reS1:

''];0 l:Jindc~I,ml:d lite SIrocturo formed by m~-, 11Clica!to!m'OIl fhe O.JIN ~;I(~!'fa.oo, ca.1cu~~red the 'We elecoonic S'ru,Jc;:llme using ~herul-eleclll.'tm fru.U"p(j'leilll~i"i~ I:nneru'iired <'IiUWil'ii(lllIDOOI laoo tWlWItiC'UleJ£!, p 0:1' dens:illy :ruWlcLiom}~thOOI) (])iFn (12), wIth ]hc. C:"iid1a!"g,o-co.·m~]<l!tl.Ofll pol~ll~alin~~.c gen~I~~d .~(.HQrMa.ppr(~~iJnlm:I~(m(GOA) (231. figuxe ~B s31(YW';)l cro....... i>CCltiOl~.,o;fn'1e calcUi,ilIred cl1a!;ge' dCllsitylin a !illiJg~eki.y('r ofCutN 011 OL]j(lOO~(24) ~~ l'!;li,iO o['lh!O!bro.lfw~ dlircc[io.ltiI~ i1lili"P~MC: (i) the

nei~hll();~ (1.n,

dircctio:m. dc.na:Jifjdbyll:1C axis alotl:g two nearestncigJ]'li)ol: Nilit(fimS, {\;;,'hiclt·we :rofcrlO bc:.l.ow as illhe: N di~c]j:on} and (iv)tl.e dh1;}cljou al'on,g,~~c nx'~g: d.el1u:ted by h:vo ne~'U~llcigu~oor ~;~Qn{l'\.v (the ~ites ho:Uow d:ul!IOCtioo). At> s~J:lilll[1.e cros;~cttons, tl.he N al'OITIg;rue :sllghtly aibU)r¥C 'dle plaae ,oflil:!c sm-fo1Oe CI\.I, ,monlS. In tldd.ition, there is a nm. ·ntar-lisfcr ,of dm~:e f'liO!u O~ah:mm~to 1[~C moms ('?5)!. A tl~e N Co!ll~riOOI1! r~:hhc cha:~e dCl'!!Silics :!ill.ol1gll1.c [\:l,IQ

orie:n'Daji@l'!sshow,li~lill1dn: !C~IN has fomll;_\da nctwolil, nfpnl1l[' mvah::1~1 lOOmis a~()ng~le N OOW,5, ~h,:,-uis.diSlll:D1C( from !~he.umlcrl~in1g Ind.k Cu .. p~aci',g fill feor MI1I IlI10m on lOp ef'a 0Lu. atom 1n~hc:CuN lilurJkc Cm.!!SCS: a sllb&1.'aluiaJ :roamuli,gC-, moot rofthe a.tomic 8"lru£llJl~ .. As s~ in Fig. ~c for Fe, the Cu ;aDiOlll dinJ!jtly Ibdm1ll [he' msgneric a:tm.u has [U,lLovt:dlowo:tnd 'nbc bulk and i~]lO~(mge[ part of 'U.H'!' ~],Q;I;]:[ oOl\lll.le[JJlCn.a.N ncuwo[k. The ma,gooticiln:O~i:I~m:E11grei1l ,charge 1:0 the CuNs1J:I!rface !lmlc:re!UC5 l;oftc..115 with its !],dghlmiring N .fl~oms; [he :Inagll(l[k: arOUI is: 1hus il]OOIT10mlud il]!fo 'Ihe ex.lenclml:nolecll~ar nelwork en IDl':' s'Uritu:c,. 1m
spi~e ofHle~c' C'Jllen\'ij,i\1'e SlnlC,tlJf,lI dlO!Lngts .. 'we C1I1Il.

Fi:g. :11. I~e'altoms on (liIINJ·. (4). (leU) P~,cll:n!ied 0'7) ICOiiii~talliiltCrCulrref1i:tt:ClPograplnl (10 mV. O~5,!'iii\) rof' 'tW-Qr lIId!j~<:~n'tCulN is~~nd$ with .~ ~hl,gLe ~rdw~b~d IF~ ~tQm, The ioopoglraph ~~ n~g~'~v~"'~Ji,aI!\l'~:~!,ire'(higli1Fp~$$)
r

IfiUerred

rovernibly mlaeh, ;i"U:'id :r>ei:il,],Q'Vc lJo1h Fe .ilD:b.d ~, M fu.oms ,Frornlhc C~N ~if,t'lOO wirth rthe STM:~]p usin~gap!:'C\'iously describOOlechnvque US}. The oondu.cl:atnOe'flpeClrn obfained 'oV~.I" h)!,r'o djffe'~I1[fe an:onTt1 m diffcn;:nt CuN ~]~I'!ds at o \lii:ri.01jfiHn-'p~:Ulle :mfigmu.eLicfi[::lds; ,are ShOi\Mnllt!,

lOr renhan:c.e OO'nIllilSrt wiillh laItti~e' positlions of CtJI ()eu'ow dO'ls) and rN(green do~) ;alooms ov(l~~a~(ild. lhe ~ight ve\l'~ca'~, featJ!llfreS a:r'! the :Ieft: sid e of ithe ]m'age arertlrmed b)r ~ei.IDb:~erl!::e' of SlII'1QIr.e rows of N ,a~'msWroim tlhe ell N SI!Il.rf,ace. Tl'ne~opog rraphilc peak o~frIe Fe' ,i!!l'rQ!ml(bwe ams) ~~I(M[s,it:5, bln,dingl sn~e: on '~op of ,a (Itj :si~'eir1li~lh N atOMS, aiS hOrTI'zJ(J'l'Ital~ tl[VO l1Ieighhol"s. ,(RigIhiU Cooljsiecti:on off the ul1lil~t.er;edtopog'l"aph aloll'l.glUi:e dashed ~~nelind]cated ~n ~he ~.@in.. pa neil. (IBI) The (ila rg@de.l11cif1ty '~()ra (ulN surface OJII (u(1.OQ)! calciUllalif1d willi the[)F1 methods; de.51ClClb@d~.r11Itm.e .a[ong ~~eN (I@ift) amlllmo~Law · te!l'lt

(rig~"tr) direl.:llh)I!'lI5. lhe Sl:2!Ii.e f'Of th:e m!:l!lg~Uude o~ the (llimarrge density is S:~0Ii\r1J1 a!t®hie bouomi~ units,m ela'o~l. Solid yeUtJW' alna rglreen f!n:::le $ witih gray' edges ~abel, Uhe ceil'illers of 'Iil'ne! CUI and N aro:m:5, rn.spElctjfv~ly., ThElI'iI'l!Im~er5 ~n5'ide~fub@. dl'1c1~siiMlriliicil!tle ~~iE!lil'I~t ct1i~l'191e se~octled atclms,jin m~Usrof fJ· {251 ron ~l} S.ame illS: .oJ) wit~ ,8ii'l Fe atom (b![ue)' adso~b<ed Oil thE! (uN 0,1111 top of ,flslIrifolcre (u !iri:te. .
i

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sdenoolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
1:0 :tlow'CSt ord\.!r. ::lpi!11i ~.ci~<I[iol'lsin .il;niI;]rnll,~· ris01rop~c envirof'limclliI]: coo be de~'ilC:riboo by the spi_ij Ha_111jillO:n'J!i.a~ (5]1

and .S~=(S~, Sy .,Sz) is; '~:Iespi n o;pen1!tor. The second and th]oc~ terms are IP!tcn(J;r,1Ii)en{):logiCt1:~
reprcsc]1!lal.i,QD]5. of ~he~J\.i~1 end transverse mag-

"

A

A

h

ne~i~ all~Qtropics, d~f1rraOl:eriizl;!d by :stl:cngll:~sD

0)
Here the 1.1rs[1en1'Ji ls the Zc:eI~a!1l splin ing of thc· stares i!l~u: presence ,of 031 nr:mgm:fic neld,. where g hr; '~]e g-·.lilcTDa~.PIB i!);.a~e BO¥lr m~_,gneliOnj

and E, :rcspec;tiv'ely .. 'he ax~~I. t'Cm'I :\'ipl~r$b~
degcnemcy ,~)HheSp'.ull-;s:nates on the basis afibe m'1:gnil.ude of the !)Plffil·.S. :t.: p:rojecli,on In, 'il¥ltc.rea\~. lhe~ns'VQI"'&e ~CI:n'JJ mixc;s &UI!I:C,s of differenl 1Ir. By oOl~Ve"!iti(u1), h::: axes .1l1!:'e a.<;;s~gfL'Cd in Eq, Jw !ml:ldmiz~ IDI iSiml ]~~\!iC E> O.

.lDilfligomdj~arl~on Eq. .~,i!JlO\v.s us ~o c<'J,lo~ui~i.e of theex.cillmio:n spectrum. for the: spilf.ll sySl~m. Ushm.g the spin of a .firre Fe mmn {S = 2) (29), a best 1]t or ~I]ofUle excil:alio:t1s .S:I.tQ'!;vll in fig. 2,. C lnd D,!ll!lld fig. SIB (28) yields g""' 2.Il ± 0.05, D "" -155 ± 0)0 I. ITlCV. and .f!: ;;;;;; 31 ± l~lOI meV;. helt::mile 0 ~J:U.cer!ai:rl.tes are thest .. i u:tdflIid errors preduoed by the best. fit D'" 0 favors l'1i.gh~;l11lt!llCS, \:\!hich ~re S dc.<;i!!ili]c for ~chievilng. n~g!1elj.c bislll!bj~lly \:l.Ijtl~ a ku,g ~ifa.i~1:'!C' H!D\V"e'vcr, relativdyla:~e (4). [he ~rnn~\[~ E ]enn mix.esdl'e d:uffctetn :>p!D:!sSl~res.,.
m~lking
tileS(: stnICIJUI~U lJJ]suil.abte

I

B II N directiilon

~bruse

as

b:isulMc:, SP~1I1I sYS~"1ll!s. h. may 00 pos:!lIllJl~lO romOV(1 such n~b;ing by (1f1g.1noo:il1g ·~hem~ ota.vironmt'tU ofll'1e momi~ SP~f1!, cXantlple,. bypo&ilioning JtI~ for n~1!g'l1d;ica,tmn!!)n a. :surf_ru;:e 5Ulc;:·wii:h hughersYIH"
values, al D (oo[OO~ld:ung: to p.larnIli Qd~f1J:d-..f.I.I{is <ll!l;iSCltroPY)I.~1<we been ebsesved in smilie;; of ci:}'Nlals f()fi"i'iOO fmmi~~o~.oc~lar U'1![lJglwt s\n!cl\l!!'eS V!,iij[tsi.llgk:Fea~m~lks (30}, melry'.. SUm:~I;H mflgll1etiC:'illni&llmpy
thOl.g~] I.lSJlI.:'lny w.itmJp:lsiJtive

-10

··s -s

-4

·2

·0

;2.

4

lG;e

'1.!lJ

1

0'1'0

.;8

·e;

·4

-2

1)1

2

'ltoHag;o (mV)

V(lItaB81(mllil)

4

16.

8~

01

lFiglW,['C,. C;1l]1d D • .;Iml ng. SIB (28) show 2 ~hea:grocnm::'lml bclWet'il~ the observed lETS .';;Iq_l energies and !:he. Cxciil;'U.i.cnlJ ener:gllcsc~icuhued

fll:nn:ctkl:tlofB. Inihese ea]ol:l!latlens, ilhe d]roc~ion ·of B' !ll~oflg Lhe N. hQH©wj. and o:I.M.-o:r-plfl~.c directions i~flstroClJ..~ood "i,,llilhdlC: Z, :r,. aad JI i3!1il)CS in Eq, .~. ~spootivdy. A wUlth cxeuL;uicm at. fl. higher em~rg:r is. ;a]oo prudicl~d tn occur, A.ltlol:igh :niLOind;ilc:lliolll. ·of t]~:is.CJ~CihU.io:l'iig cbscrved for B .~JOl1g[J)Kl N and o\l~·of-p·llan~
fu

room Bq. I as

:2: .1l4 M&9ne'llcmlel~

en

is

6

f

d:irocLio:m"a weak (liJ]m:lllC~.m:IiClCsLep iIIt lhe< predieicd C'll)crgicsus '0bserved ;a~~~rgerm~gflC!ic fie']ds ~1)ldncdaloll.g lfuehoUcn·"" d.irecl:io]~. ~s seen

IE

_,II· ~ • ropy !lXI• S (. OOr«\S.:POlI~YI[l ~ I:OM.e z axis• .• .1':'", .. '1 \JIS JII:1. M.U' ~.01.dur(1c~cd Olll:,o~~p~,;mc bl~li!: mthcr tu~.olfi],~!beirJip·I~J1C:N diMCC1J:0JJ1 I[li•. ..•. ]ong the direction .of the ea CuN mO~CX'IU]~r ~clw01i\;J This :resuU]ndli,~n~ [hein]ilXl[1!am:i(~: of nu'!locill~ motec!L1lhtll"~bolldi!ll.g

in fi.g. 2B.Une.. .. ·peclooly,. HLcpri:mauy ru]i~m-·

env i['O:~mellt ~ndelten]1iui~g~1e magn~.Ot:r;ysCa]~ line nnis:aIIL'O\PY. To be~te["understand 1110 indiaslic, nlfln~I]~: e
M89fi1il1\ticfll:ekill (f),
:3
4 .12 G
{.,~.(),{l

-s

·4

VOIlt!:ge

·z

(I

:2 .~. (mi!\f~

S

~()I

F'ig.•.2. 'Gondl!c:li!li:tc~ spedr,lll, of Fe alo,ms; on Cl!illtIJ. (A) .5;pel1:tral ta:ke,1liI1W'lUI the SmM rip, posi~iOned!l!lbo.yea:fl ' f~ atom at r~·O.S 'lI\:.flml,S ~ a ~'OI J T orie,iiilliled ·i'llilltjh.e: 'N dirli!iCttio:IillI.Th e spedr.lI VIfft!'e ,acqu~irndillt ~ filo:mnrl!lIl ~ilJJn(:tiO!nnm,pedal'il.ce' of lO m.egohm UO mY,. 1 nA} alndi were not~ens,lith[e til j'l:llll'ld:iol1l ·impedafliQe· .. 5~iJ!((e$5i'(liespectra ar,e li'ertirnUy off5e~ by O.O~3; .ruvmv for da~illj. Red, 'green~ and b~ue ~Iplj\l'ard ·a~HIIill'S
mndkal~e·the posi~io:r'li5 ,of theflirst, 5eoolll!d~ andtMrd ,e'xJCi~:atn'lJns, res!jJe(ti'!olE!l,y. at B =: 0 T as ca~wlatecll b~ IEqI. wid'! the fit parameters described in the t!e:d.iD:owlrl\!!lill"d armIN'S shollY ~'hlesame t1!dtatiom at B =11i 1 wi~hidle magu:liE!t.][: fi~ld orient.!:!d alcl1gJ the ,2: QiX,llS,of fq. '1. (lEI:):SaJme as W wi~h B o.n@nt.~dl aloll1!!J the hoiLlow d~,~ectlonfol" ~rn;E! spectra:: th~s dimctiO:mI corll'e:s:pomJsrto~lii~ ;M. axis-of Eq. 1.. AIm lindllded a rt! mageFlW dOWiI'lI.\!iiiU(! ;fI;[IT,O'WS ]f1dkari .... g~nlecalculated lPo$1t'ioFlo~ tn.~fo~rtn tra!TilS~tiDlmI at s' = "}iii. {C) IEn.~rg~:~$.fQlf '~~iIlirst(red tri:angh~~),secM:d '~g~~n dr'deos), alnd~~lil'd '(b~~~~ri~lri)g~" .~tep:sob~e~di trl ~he sp·eclra a.cquireidl with .B' a~~orlgt!heN diredion" hl,dudingt1lm,OS'£! sholl'ollri)1 n ,(A}, Solid lines ind~i,ate m excihrrion fflerg]e5 c:ak!!J'lI:liled by :~q.. :11. wiithUle m1gne:ti~: fle!~d'onlent'€d ,aiongthe I a;,;15.(10) Step em::lrg1e5 ~or the spedm .i,lcquirool wlith fJ aiiout91 ·lhe hollow diliecll:iolill~ ~id'l O'JITlespG!n;dis~o the )( axis, ow IEq. 1 lindudinglhoSie shO\lIin ~n {B}. ~E) Relativ1El S'~ep' .lh:e~ght5for the first (red!) •. seccnd (gR'leM},i3!rn:dllhlird (bh.l~e) nc~ta:tIOl"lsaSI3l ·~1!!ill'ldlofl"ll B atang the IN difeiCltlOIl1I. l1AI@ indiivichjal step h@j:glhts. are lI'iI.o~l1IiiI:al~ztld ~h:e SilIllillil of by tt 1l1ldlM:I@d bocause U:sil1ltif!ns~~es are of th:e·mllr@e step ~!ilgtrlS. at I@~ich llialue otB.The m'Ourllrnlexcimtiolrill ~s l1l.o negll19]blein tMs ~I!'I!geOW 8. SOi]c! li:ne~ :dJ113!1Qtf ~Qr!ili1~Lized1!r2!ml5ition mlfnsftie:s (akll:!llia~d IllQsing 16Cj.2
j

process that g_o'v,ernsUlc ~in exdlmiom:. 00served ·\\\,iUU] \&'1'(;318,0 a:11i!i]Yzc:d lllC intensity ofUllenn~itionslI$ ~ funCnlOJl !of m~gneui~~.fidd sLvengdliand erientetion, mil Fig:.. 2:13.there]1Iltivc il1l[e:I1!S;itt~sof lille n~:ooeslJrornlg lETSS1.eps. as a furn.clion .(I f Baklngk N d:ireCitOri:are shown, We f01i:nld th~l therelstivo I ETS SW~ he~Mg; for tmnsi.tio!l8 bchl\flel~ ~!1 i~iit!f11sp'i~ cigenllsl1lllcl!J1l <lnd afill.1J1sipin('dgenst1l1c \Vr 1Il'eweU~ d~'!'lcribod.by

mrs,

1,-",>, =

I

<\!if

I S-x.I'Wi:>l- + ~(wrlS~ I,~~)r +
~

~

2

1('" rI s;o: I'¥i) 1= ,/,

~

[1(Wfl!+ 1'lI;}I' -I- 1{'Ii.1i 1'1',)1' +
(2)

wiu!~h,e .~~ pi3ll'amet.ers disc:l.!55edl~1i11 mft'e)(t. (IF) SfmUilaited spelC~,a; "s desx::ribedin t~ere)\~ ·witlhIBa:~oli1lg U ti~iE!hollOw di ~'Elctijon and alll'ill e'f~dive tll:!mperartuM of '118: IlL .A1'romal\E! ·the sa me< a,s in '~B).Therie spedtira are scaled by an o·ve~·a~~ lii~tan~ and o:HSIelt.~O!ma:~cf~,·thooe shown ~n UI) .• ,fI.u.,a~ibll~ralry I.ilriiijtS•. m

*",,1S, 1'1',;)1'1

12.01

REPORTS
Fi ,gl. :3.. GCllil'idtllc~.[lce 5ped~1 ~I~~ $trlJ@,~e,of lin atoms O!ll (uN. 00 Spedral (blaJck) t~ke~1 ~viththe rttip [pO!litioned abo,vel a .Mn !a;~om !a't '1= o.SIK, wi!h 'U1em'ag;n@ti( ~l,eld orielffiud 'out·o[~ p!lan;e,. A!lL speCka were

It

I~,H
4:

.s.

:::.,. ,i~ ~

~i

0011[1

t;;;~ .... ~
II

,IlICqurilred at: .a llomnlli1al .lIUinctionffim[p~da !mIce ,of 10, megolh.m (10 InlV. 1 nA) and are off':s~~by Qi.Jrl25 IrmNmV for ,dl:al~il;y. Red ~.Iines:

V'eltilQe '(m:V)

~mpeiratme

of

{i\ 7

K, The Si.DU'u.lIaj~

oo~silan[a IiiIdi o"set t'omilil(h dlil"'reil'oot Mfil ato:m,inclkatoo by drd@s and mangtes,. 'llViUu ,6 OnSifill'!:ld out"'of'" pliJil:tE!. CoLo.r~dI ~lil"le£)how tine IPossilbl.@trr,llIl'9s;1itions 'E!ner,gies. (alruta'l.ed w:In:g '~CI. 1 \lI!ith '~hefU ipari3Jm~mrs lisl!ed illi1liilh,e t:e.:d]'Or.B along th~ z d~f'eotio:iiili. Be(03use

spedr.a. WitIMl air! eftf'ective ~he a~lsO'l!r,opy p:afame:~ersa!~:esllllbs~intil\1iIllY:iIil1l<1lU~i1r~h~n tho~!'i fOf Ft le~el alr'e SCiID~fdbya n Q,veliaill crossIngs !(Qm:p~ij(ate theiJ!ssig~meifiilll !I)~ lhe~!Jirl ,el'!lci~tio~is; at: sliflatt !'mIaQlnetllc fields. (C) Charge delillSoily fQ~ a M!'1Ia1tolill1l1 adl50roeidl O!nl a GuN sl!l!rfaceon (!J1(1LOO)' the observed s.'poctJra.(B) 5~ep 'elnergy of mo inel.astk$pedha
,~ntsJml1l[ated

ca'lrulat€!d by IDR .a'IIJl'ilg the NI and i~.ollilw diroctio.iI1!S. Sooid ye!11.mY,gro@n,.and Ib!~ue o1in:res wiiUl gray ,edges; labe~ th@ ce;nte:rs o:f the Cu. N, aJnd MI"I alto.ms, IrespedilJe:llt. 11h.e malrge>={jiellls,lty s('.a&ei~Uh.E! ~11iI'II.eas thi31t. ~~JOlWWllillillFig .. 1,.

ialb~e :ll. Engen!jfll'.i!ctorn ,of the Spilllil Ha mil'lnnl!ilIrn[ior F'~en {~N. A lis~ oi e-igemli\i'lldo'fS, wlrf,~~en as asum o~ IIm,) $ta'l~ and obt:ailFiled b¥ diialgona liZJ1ll'11gEq~ Mth = 2" {1 := 2.1.1, D = ~1 •.5S.meV, alnd ,f = 0.31 m,eV II art B ;::;; T and (ll~ fB ;:::: 7 T orienl~dl alonglih e fritI d~lIed:onis ~~Iown. 0

.s

"
'Q

I.
~dJ

J.i,

,~

~ig€!ns,t;a~e
\Po

1+2}
'0.697 10.•707 0
i()

~+1)
.S 0
1

III+O!},

1~3l> 0
1

~~2:}


ii'

-0 r

$

~O.166
!Q
(I (I

'P'l!
~;::
1j.113:
~4,

0 0 707 01.707
1 .•

OJ

'0.6'97 ~O.701
10 IQ
'iIi'

~.707

01.707
01
{)I {]I

._

Ia·
tq,
~

"
fIf

..
11'

O.:I.:iIl7 0.0'21 0.987
(I

0
01 01

.S "" "l

r

O.";hM
~0 .. r7 m -0.15,'"

0.1.17
0.9'95

•••
,~

ipio

'Vi
~'il: !p) ~4

0 O.lt59
."

0.40'2 0 .91116
1

.0
.0

-{I.9'lU6
0I.,4t(12

-0.036 10
I[)

0 r=:

1

'0.9$·.3
e'JolChml,g1<! inle[1lctimm,

01

10.0:9'2

where oS"

ti Sy ,~hc:lie" i = v- J) and !{ii md'¥r are ,(]btaillfld diooctlylh;)lu the diagoual izatiou ef Eq. r. As t'lh(Ni\HJJ l;r:Ji Lll,b;llc ]. !VO, lUIS mQst (If lli[Swdghl in UbJetJilJ == +:2:) and 1-2) SLa]C$ 'w~~en fJ "" (I 1'. This makes !J,m .... 0
= Sjj .&tnus ti1J!1;: ('iha~lge imil t1w) to lhe ~ I ~~.~lt.ea[!d6.rl~ "" ~ [ tf~li!]si:ti:OIl:~, to,j[le '11/1 2;[10. ~ J :stfllle.~ st:mllig" w hereas trEinSlillo[1s LO the ~~4 sta te arc fOFibidden. At Jj = 7 T 111011.&1: N l11iae

h

10.

The i.llle!li!ru~y(l,f this E!1~]I<lsticp:I'O~S is n:mru:b.bly !,)["g~for a singh;: Fe atom on e[~N: .13';;= O.lftlc~llIe![lS;li(; At C(1l1.~ d,u,elal1cc (i.e.,lle S!MlI1I of the ]EIS SOOP8) is at

IFig. 4. Ca&culat:e;dln~~pin~:,en!lity ,diis4ribflJ:lio ITh f'O,r F~ On (ultlJl. lldont.oiJlrs(puilPle-)' off ('On:;tiB ii'ilt net SiP~n de:iI1isi~ <0.01 as calculla:l:ed by 1D.Fl for
~lIliIl

leas! a::;la:rg~ as the CIM~ic cenduetsnee

(~S f'li1Ca-

s'l!lrfa(e,g~e sml~ '(25). Ori:ll~;y~he lie tlii(tm ,oilliild ~he ·a~OIlfll5i~due (uIN5l!rma(i; layer (l'r:e shO'l'linror dalrity. SrmilU l{@U.ow. gr@i8n, ~rlld; biu~ Ib~~1:s ]ml~,ci31tE!'thE!' pO.$ii~iom ,o\fthe (Iill, rI/J,. and Fe atomii,

Fe a!io:m ,adSio:rbed on

ela./t

iIll (ill!

site 'on

'g,

OJ N

surecl ~l V "" 'O),ReJ;;tl~in~ ~~h~",~lm;ml of!~l!f~ inell[lsl'icflJni:!.d.in,g r'~SI,.II.Fi:u~grom a l,)oi~].cide']1~e f of [~mre'~il:'i,:'iiLmrbi'~1.1:s[[:DaY exp!flun .ils rellfllive o pro:m~,g](l:['J;c:e. d irect inn (sec Table I.),. l~]C :situation! d~,a~&.re,,'), We ean mode] ~:h:efu~I oondu,cumccSj]l'l\ctra ~yb!f,i~:a!l~jaJly:BocaU~enlQ~l of i:hewdgM ]n as 'lhe SYI~~ (il a\~Dnl,agc·ioo~petld:ell~ elastie of 1ij1,()i8~O'lIvinl[1(: ~2}!'IE!.LC •. .o.m "":;I:I u;;I!l5hions co:~d:l!!iC"mIi!(lend (Ii) ~. series of thcn~~~ll~ a bm:ndeJ]l(;,'Ci llETS Lml:ls~.~im:ls f2i) wc]_ghted by [:0 the~2. and 'If) sr'llteslfCll1(11in v~lSible.whereas lhel1Fo!J;lls.iti,(n1l iJl!iOIU;;i~,i(!.~.gU\l'Iti:ll Eq, 2 and by in .AJJ~ = 0 trall1l.s:ilt"ioo!j: t() the: \V.~ and W4 stares '''Jre (00 weak to ebscrve, '[he Am = 0, ±11re-· (he :Bo~,!l.mamm. popt~latioJlil. (lor lhe~Ulloo iil'ii!i!a~ qn]rel'ili,(,'tmL~in'il;plicrl by Eq. 2 is !i:O~SigtOfll wi~l~. and cm;pl,y I1iml~gUj1:~s.. A eompsrlsenef Fig. 2,. previous cmpiri.c'4i!Uy cbservedseleerieu rules B ~m,d f" derm:Jil:1SlmlcS ~he c';;;ce:~k:~n agn'lC\tncm in STMs;p~ n~jI{.cib;ltlo~] f}Xpel::llmcnts (I J). be~\!/ICcn]he m~s:~~d and calculated sp~lm. t The ~pi:uHEnmt<;HLiO:Ili manix ,e:lcrlll1i:l'lit de.~crib(::d Si:uni:lar a~il~ent is ~h;g) ooc~~.wJ[en. 8 il". eriHrIEq .. 2 is the same as the ~.mlt~x. ,e:h;::l:~.Il(:nt. fQUO en~~ illile ,other dioc",C[ions discussed allOIlilC: [fig; S,~Cil'i {28)1 jiii:e:~a~tic iIlLClilrO:I1i se~lt.etiJr'i1l:,:iii:li<l. po~ycrySlaJllitie m~gn~lic systcnl [3.1). We 8ll£gC51 Hun the: ob-, Su'b:smili~,1~~Uy Vi,ica'ker m1l,g~~ciic~Ji1Ili.OOlropyi:s se:!'v,ed inelastic m!lllCUJ1I,g [r(ll]:l s:iO'lllilai O1.ifIg~ obseF\!'cdfO'J' Mn ~lo~!i)1l C~N. even Iho1.l!gh h8

l'!'illl:~,ition~ (whe~

respecl'i~ely.in~'f:ne:surfae,e ~yer.

plane: sIJoc:tm. obmi.m.-d .UIlI [Ill':' lW(lill~pllane diireetlcas are also s:oo.o~.vllliil :JlJ,g.• S2A(l~l Us]]~.g [he SP]I"'II Of!l 11:eQ Mn~mrn (S "" 7:lJ (I j), a best Cit (llf the 'J;'x.ciWlt i©J~ '~ergi~s; &om ~wo di fferent Mn :aW!nS O~~\I!,o'O di ffc~~] CuN ]sl~!'!ds {fig. lB], tn Eq .. ~ yie'ld~, g ""1.90 ± [)',01, .D "" -0,(139' ±

OJ~O'1meV,arld E= O;(W7 ± O!C~O.I me\/. As

OOM

nelitI i[1!letocriom;bet",~e:I1ithe spin of the IJiJIJ]n:e]in1:g 100al c:bcm.ic~~.eIlviro]~me~~] .is very ,<;;imi~aro t elecLm~1 awd U~e~;pill of me m~gneliic3tl:.m1rI.hnl of Fe'. Figl;lire 3A sho\~lsrnETS~reCba oileither diirecl dipclla.r iltMIe[,iiJL'~tial]~ ·~rn.ta~ughiinf!. l'a;im:l\~d'.fur Mr'i 'all 'CtuN. \MiU~, B o:rUeliledi aU'n-o~ m 31 AliGUST 2007 VOIL 317

~r~s<

ill'll Fj~" 3 and rig. S2 (28)I,a~~m~;!. l1Cl'!.~1~on~1C: ta]k!ulllMod <1Indoboorvoo mlrusilion (meJgie;saJad ~he specLn"1!~ Um:; Shfl(Jc::iis ex·cdlciIll diffc:ronl Mn (lJIDms, il] a.11 lInt)c: '!DrJema~:i!Dn:s, (If B. [[I oolltrns~ to ~hc: rt1mlt'> for Fe, however., '~hese ~'('Sl~~ ilmdicalt: th,u thl(: e1lsy aXHS(1:' aJxrnsi.nlEq, I.) IS 1'0:1" il is Ori~IIiI:Mld M mu~()f",p]~jl'ie. A eo.mpilri~on of dte D FT C'fU~,cll~!;.dion~~Ihc~tQ:'lIC1;UreS, .for F~Mild of Mn on CuN (figs. ~C a:nd 3C, rospoclij.vdy)' ~hOW$Uiwl they a[~ simi.lair a~]d dtI;J!Cs~]otSi[lgge."l :;1.1] obvioUS1l!i!2USZY~ fur lihechangein ornel]l3.l:io[!J of the t1ill:iiSOff\oP;)l axis,TIle. .smii~n.si.re (If Dis

oor

S(::IENiCIE \llMw"sde~oo'm.ag_.orgl

REPOIRTS
C'Illlis,iSlftlJl WJld.l.

~I:lisotropy v~llU.es observed fbr

MninmolcclJ~Ollif 1::IIIJr1gIl'aOlic clusters (.to). F Of lbOl1bIFc mdM!1i on CuN, VJC :l],w:i thm the' e~cila[u(;m sp~C'nm is wdl dC$crlbcd. by !l !1C'[ spi~ idc~tiC'• lQnhe ~r,cc-an,:OIn ::iJ'iill {~.e., 51", .d 2~!br Fe and lor Mn) .. for oompillilii,soli'a .•, we per.Wol]:il1ifild :spin.;reE!olv,ed DfT ~fIIk;ubllio:ns for tl1:c~S'c sysR'I]]S and (orlAnd t1un mostefthc net srh1! i.~load lzed on Il~c magn:cli'c aIDm. and the SU!l'or!.nmdi ng hnc'I'Siti.tial regiJ;)i[ (25); S "" l 73 fOr f:eomd 2.28 fur Mn ..~],owever, <I su hSiaIl!ti~ amouIH. of :spin densil~Y ex'tend~ iDu:()~he surroul1ldi:in,g!Uoms,a:s Ull~slfillrudinfis. .o,t fOr fe, \\lh~ro we find that. '~he,spin Spre3id~llil~ CC£:UI'S primarily along theN direction 'if1i l~]e surface molecular Ilel.work. By i.nclud:i[!gl!lu: Sipin ef all 011' the <ltoms, the net spun of the t'cmd sl.nlcllJ:nc is c<ll.culililed to be jhe same as tlllll:l of the f:roe: [i).1~~gru,1;](;a!lonms: oS = 2.00 for Fe alll.il. 2.50 for

In.. M.~. IL~lJie'nlm'91~F, ID.. Loss.. Mitlriff: .410,789 '!200Cl). lll .. A. .A1rdav.an 1:'1 Myl. ~[,I'; l6'lt 'S!I!I, 05,1201 aml;}. al., 1:2. M.. It H@~l!£h~ fl 0'1.,Ph~ Ilirm :I,~m". 96,. 2(M8()!l {2006~" 13. M.·lt h~~. oi., N~o Leu: '&, 2lllF'l (,Oill6~, M. At.]. Hei:nrktil.l. il Gupla,. C IP.lull, D. M. [q£lliw:, 5defice

lIregiligib'ie ~.2,EV)' {(If Fe::~hffelo~~, a Il(in:~.erro U w.a5 llI5Bdi oally for flIn. 2'5. ~r,o:m thrg (ilku!1l1@d d@'r;UmiL $!iIiII1!S df ~h~ oplirtrl~~ ~n'YCl1\l!J.e. ~bl<!jf!edl~,e 1C~'aJgeem !l'.ac11 al@~1 ~ <II we:
Sader an~I{jIS'~ US). We ,d1i!1elilfl1lin~lifIe SjP~ b~ S~8r ateCy calcdi3lliiil~ the.iDlE t nLlIll1i;;~Jof ele.ruOO!i Yrilli, spin up .N = OIl1Iclsjlilfl downrlf = Iii ,Hpecilied wwm!l i3JUj tfuJffinwbt[<I{red~hfm to'J!i~!!:I 5 .., (III,. - N J.ll2.

I

%

+

17. H.I .. lee:. W. lHo, M .. P,~r5i!lJrll Pfirs. R;ev. Ult. 9!2, llIJ 680.2 tl:OCN). ~fJ, D,. flj'II;H];~!\ It lli!;hill1'd!~~\ .I,-M. l!11l1'9\ .Mt E. Hal~~, A Vama!l!j, l'JDtuYe 40112~436 (20C!l6l'. L!.'l. liil~ne ~J1al~y5fi5, of 'U,111 petpendiirul.ar OIiienlillio:n. we llIBglfcted ~I ,-rml orlJiJe :sallTriiple'"1~rlat!~ 1I0ulIl!ittfinom

c.. IF. Hii~itiJ8hooilil. C P.. Lul;r, .It ~ Heilnri'clil. 5.rieIlC:e 312, 1011 (2006)'; publi$ilBd: onlilll~ 2'9' Maid 2'0060 (1lllbn2')6'$ci~'f:.J!.125,~9;e}, 1.6. A 'j'a~~k~ W. WUllheteI, It ~'Iet, .S.Su~, Jl. Itfll"Schne~. ~ R&. :lett. 9'1127200. (20013).
15.

lQ6, 466 {20CJtl).

26 .• Th8Sf! '!l::lirl!~dlln. ~ntfg1~s ,~hilngfldi by I!i!S~I!hilm :!:!5% ~or
Iin:ar~ ~nse ~!Xat e(fj,'!ifmmmem ir.au~Bt1I By stra~n ~olh!;! cJulr>!ii;1.Ui,Q:> 86.1. ~:7.1 ~arni~~. ,It ]!~~t~'Oii:~, PlJv>. ~, 1~~ ~19>6~,~. 28,. Md~nO!ia,~ fte'Wl'ls, .~ r!< .wa~lal)~e 'Oill SCj~l:e IQml~ne. 29 .• M Fe al:Oiilll a1:l5tt~11I on .1! :S:~Jfa~e·could ~ I} s .s s 512. HO¥.le¥e'r~ omiy 5 ;;;;'kS oomsiistemlWitlii 2 the IlIl!J!lJlibf:[ o~ tevoi!lls~8llIIIil!@dro produ[@' thf:IIilT~'E! ob!i@ilWdl !iti\Jlt tiit@inh€l!NIt

Fe ~to!'!l!Sach~ed on "Mre~enl OulM ~I~!!u:i!, nd crn.a:nges ~nth~

rliGm

meawreclwitlidlir~e~l1Il. ·lips,. llliiJisi{arfilJ!~oln

c"

au

llit~ lITla.!JnB!ic~iI!idL. 20, r, M, lLeibsle, S. s, 'D~I:~~~5. It l!3:ilrM1\.i· 'tV, ~b'~ns!!):n. k SUf/: s« 317,. 300 (l9'M). 21. On the (uN su(:jf.a(,~,.lFe·aml MIlri'lUlmS (ani bi(;1d on,lD,P cd
ilither tine
(u

atoms orrlihe IN'.<lOOms,Tliilhi~ work., ~

Mn.

ln

iCOmpi"irisOfl!,

:ilLO SiU!OOt:'-:.ii:U

ial net splita.

coosider~d om:lyllir!e (.u billiHng s~l.e ...PrI:Ornl,~¥'jBre Iplacet! awa~rrDIrrn ooUl,dg~limtsinl andlhE! fld,y€S ,ollilf! (uNI
tl<1Il1d!;,. \!,4~!!r", ~r:g;e ~ '~~!i(ln$iJl

def!i~ity is fmJ~~d for bare C!.I!N Oim Cu:UOO),. TI~:U5, ~y be e;q:.ectedl 22. P. Blaha, K. 5r1iJ;.ralrz,G. Madsen, D. IKvami[~iI" J.. will~, srn:e(ld:il'll:g of SpErl dCnsity,. llCfiC ~:l1m 4. A !tom WIE!N.2~(lie(hlflli;ii:Iir~ Uow. wr~nJ' Vi'NiIlOl, 1999). the Fcbindemg :>:iLe,is similsr 10 'lbm1 reporrcd 111:1. 23" l p" Pe,rd~w, :K. Bl!Ilti:~ l'll IErn~rhoif, ~h:ys.R~. !~.rt . •. n On,etIJic:ul~l~.uns. ,of 1110.I(;(;ul.a:, ~:ilru<lgJ)]Ols (J1'), 38.if,S(l996~. FUi:'lhcr .ano1blysi~. Oflh~ (]jIJi"i:~ilaliVie di:!Tcr-'CiillX:~ li~. 2'1. We sijmula~eclilhis slIliilace b~ a s~ernll 0:1 Jive·la!feu ~lallEi '($even ~'~I(If balfe· CuN)' 'ielll'! r<lt~dI lw eig;hl lhc spa~jlm:J1disLrlbmiof! of the net spin for the

~gn~Uc: !!nj$~Jo,p~'

A. Oza~Wi!!It!~ 1. F~l.'Ser, Co.o\lld. Chem.R:ev; 250 2:303 '~~OO61. n. It C~d~ffo gt al., PI'lj(i .. lli'er.'. l£tt 6\1, 41~4 (19'9!M. 32 .. A. \1.. Pm1l1ii~(I1,I,. 1. Korlu~ M.1it. lPe~ir5lJ:n, Ifllrys. .5wrus Salidi {8}24:3:, 2533 (:;1006). 33, ¥. 'ri"~ili:rn,aMI, S. lS:U!li@~k~, 5~f:f; S;rii, 5014,.200 {,OOll,. 34, G. K H. ~~IM, P. N:ovaf;. .E:rJfOpil.ys.. L.e!t 6~, 777m2 OO.!il 3S .. R. F.W .. 1l0000er,A~I1m.fin Mdfi~l,fS; A ,Qrroilltlilm 17I!l'W}', 301.
1 ,

J. ~jr'!'ySlek.

~citill~ClfIS

~Jt,8 == (0.

~(]arlfind!JliJ, 'o':doridl 199o!l)~ ~(i. S,"''!:'. OJmflo, k. 'i(,lm'uu" It Uak~~~i.~, t::(mo:ri, SUfI: Sci

'5.4 7'.

case of Mil and Fe m~:y yicld~ns.:igh,t
a.tlllnio-scale

~11i~O the

!O'1I(U!!JI1'rn Illa.ya~.

lEadh

slia'b

Ihadihll

GuN lIIiillocl<l.)'i!rs

{Iii!

o:ri.gi'ni!!: or the diiffCliCnces ftl~ dleh'

obse'Ncd!l]li~lrco,pies.
TI.1eg;l~rf.'iC:{N!l'iiboodoo.~jJ,101~tillat[magl'iiMie
Sm:ICUil:reSWC ~H1.VC described 1h!::i

sys~c:m:!jfor
slll:fa(l~,

hero ;)iN I'lilodd. s1udy of m~gnclk a-niisou,ap~ O~.
ti. ti1o:l~lulillL~bo£ldi:n:Jig

11liCSC sto.!Ctli.lIlCSalt: simil.ar ~o!nollX).. ar lnl,gne!:sbecau:>'1.;:· the'il[ldi vidual mag[le,t icd a:ltiJll'iI~ 31t-e iili:eoqIDrnl.ed~nlo

1;H.::lwork.l~
3Jli([

Sl:mO~[lIes. SI;~vdi.oo~.ero

~o [llJ,Oi,QClIlar m~.gne~'S"lhe; C<lllllibe()on:Mmcl('(tproood, mtl~.ip1l.]latcd 3iwuD.-by-a,]iom.. The r~.su~I:S.
'COI1itr'.aSt.

001111 ~Br!I~, andl th~ OtII~)Il!lsjfllb~@@n (fli;~~Ili!~~ 6~ (:UI {ior Iba~e (uNit Fl'! f,lr M!Il alJOrms,were i.tlC"OIil!d1 o-n,lo!p Q! I~"e CIilr4~l!ITIf,ilIce ~,tuU3l 'Q'~ llateral. $eiiMr~t~loo. lIhe CJy5·tOl~!ilrudulfe was '!Jpililllll:reO IiI!ltitllhe· furo~s ading 'D:n any maim 'WiI!'J1~ ibli!low m Il'Iiimiir~ilEirgs.!QJI);o wlit~il1E! i511h~ tll] Bl)hr radil.l~. IFln ~Il!' (IlIm~ cwr 1~~!lUlt~~n! ~imi1oilful' ealiLier OfT lGatcula'liol'!s u5iiiilJ p$eiJdOfiote~l!ais (3).To Iil.teSHgali~ !how rn~h Ul'ongl ItOllTelallonU i~negt~te:d in GiGA. we· 'llnHguR !he· ~e cf' Mn <ltom iiil '!!heloc:al.llimil fer i~5 3i1i1~edr!lIilS, r.n ltiis Ilimil witiioullThytnd~Zi'liti{:m te .litE! ,rl'1IilE!'f.~:tom~ WI! La lir:!!I:l.aitE!dithe m'm ~n llJoli[onml:i en~rg.~ b~ lrm(Mng one e1~l!Jom ("om the Vt'Ilhmcell) the·

37. t H(I\cas el' t1{.,I'te~. :Sci. hUU!l!'itl\ 78, ODiDS ~007~\ 38.. Wellhalli~ D...M.. [jglef rQ;r Ihi~ iiI1 e-n~orilfM.ianll $1~muU~tng diill(us51looS; B..}. M~t~Qrf,(]r Ihis.e:ql!ltrtll!(]hliii:ca~ a~sislElnol¥; ~lIld S, 8Wg:~. 'HI. Br~nl!1. and It S'essdi :for :Slll1ll~i'!tilll9J dii!ru~snoo·5. AH)"l1an~s lL ~n IRuit!!!!"IitJ<e;ekJ(If hi5 QluldHl<l~anCIa(~IiIQwledges ~'UWQi['t fiiCm 'U,t Leic~ un~r~iIltW'llIl1rdl,: (.N.1l. IS parliOl~ry rUllidedl iby NSF granl I'HV~il2Sill97:"U. adknrMt!i!d'~s. sup~n from 1hE! S!M'SS Nalj(!d'l<l~ S(j~llItll Foolil~llh@n.;<111M.]J~"~Iilliink~, rficp .[li~ A Q Na'!'al Re5ea~(lh Ig~ panial. UnaiIKial. :SU,ppOOl.

usn (2003).

m.

SIIIP'POlftillilg Onilil:1e MiI.teriil~
·~I,!M,~di@nb~f!l03Ilio.~gjilmnl~l!!\~gIlll31'Jf'j:842Jll'99tDCl figrS. 51 .aM 52
S ]ILJfl e .2{1{l1, ac('.~pred251I!Jilf
Z{I(i1'l

3dl c~~-e~34),We ~o""m! th~ U=5 ,eV f()~!VI1i'! ~t

iH~5

1'0,111:2 ~'Ci~"~, 11!.46110

pr~llted

I~ere'pmvidea

de'Miledl ·rllcno:r.m::~1O-

of Un'i 1].1~gJle~i(; t1in:~$C!tT!opyFor ,l s!fI.gI,(;:· iDmi:c spun in fi\~]kh<lrnct;eri'zed a envi~· I.OI~Ir1r:uellt Fmt!:lerliIDi:{'''IOn..''''I~.c-<~1 ;mnd cxlPerimollmli SliJ.l~lcS Ofl:lMSC syste.:msl:im.rbY aUo\:1J fOtlhe
]ogica~, P.iC:lt1.1~

devellopmClml ora

ful.1}'miclX)$copi.c-piclure of (he .au)mIc ... ;;;Ci1!k:o!i:gins of m!lgitlclocrys:udlinc:
omi:mtmpy.. (;onlbi!1i;l~gdli~~'!.I:ilh [he ~bil i~y too
coliJiph:- tI.tOffi:tC :>pHn;;;im~c eJ('jen&ed Cjjlmllll"[lJm-spum stmctlJlres maJy~nrulllUy ClJ1Ia1D~,el!11Lc develop-· rn1CtUof sYS:!.ems ~iI'n. 'l'!,~hk:h gi.a~Jt m~ne1i.c~u!l-·

Current-,ln,du,c1ed Hydlrogen T'a.U'tO:mISriz,atilon anld C,onlduc:t,Blnlce Switchlin,'gl of Na.p,hth'B.lo,c:yaniilne Mo,I,ecule's,
ihe biSitabiLity in th e ~oSjitiOii'lil ofihe
two, hiydrog,en ,l3to:ms.ili'lll~~I@ in nell" cllr'llUy olf 'sin gle fre~loo~e naJlP!I:ru~ml.3iloqtaJi'iI~!'IE!rnmo[ecu les con stih.ltesa two··leve.~ syshllm that wa:5 m i3l:iUfip ~Ilai~d .a nd prob E!d by' tOcw-te mpe,rature sea nnli ng tunnel! ng mi Cffll5iCOPY', W he n adsorbed ,on2ln utt rathin lnsUi~alting fii~ITI,. ~.e Ii!IIQ[~wles 'Cal!l!1b~! $illjIib;:h,~d in al !~Q:mu~iI"QI~le.d~~$hl()'!1 be,tw'~elrl!lth~ ~Q ~11tiIte:~ by e~~il~iltii)n~,nd'~:~ed byth,eijnel~alsn:.k bJllnlnlel]lilgl cunel!1lt. rhe tautollner~!ZattiOIri!1 rea,,~]orl (arl be probed by lre~ina!llt bU'ffilll1le~~lill'lg thmugh ~:~Ie mo,Leculeal!1Jdis eX{pr5!led as cOrIsideraMe ,dltilalli'll.ge:~i,iiilJ~he(onductilvilty oUrnle mole(ul€!. We ,ahm dE!i1II1l(D,WlS,tIraJt~d()ljlpl~ni1g ,of ti1li!!iiwih:hin91 pxoc@'ss. so I~hat ~rn!El ~:n\fl(i9le· ]nj~ti:on a hi one molewlle~rl(h,llclld t8!utomerizg'tion iII~1a'n~d.J!a~ient mcl'~ec:ule.

.UsO'lropy !C~n be: complletdy cngiW)corOO at. l:hC' al:Oluic ~c"le·.
l!l'e'fe~~n"eJ]:
illlllilil

1~'oiJ:-e~

4 ... 1. R. wmJ!!l. ~n (fremi51ry rll N(JlJ'O.flmct~!edM~terials" II. Y~!ilg. lEd. ('INarld S4;nel1lti~k ~OO~~Ii1Ii!lig1 H'QM,j K'@Ili9h 2003;), IPP. 2U.-ns.. S... n. Ijattes~h~, It Smo.lij, JL VffiLain. MoIe(ulm

1.. p. G1!m~~~!.;'j, ~~.(ll,., Si;i~ ~@QI· J1IJO ~~(lI(I3'}, 2. M. Bode', 0', !I1ieusch, A. IKwbeUti.a,., 111.. Wi!!5enclamger, .Pli~ .Rl?1t .l.tU. 92., eM·12Ol (~OM). 1. R. Se'mlt [I. CiaUll:5l!:ht A. C'a1i1ie-schi,.I'III. A. IMo'till, lII~t!N'f: 3,6:5, ][41 {ili99'1I):,.

NrJrw~ne,ts,
6. It L \'jIm.ite,

J. May •. !Mag.

{Oxford i1rru. fl'esi$, Odo-iid, 2'OO6.~,
A'I:.af€l':. 2(1'9, 1 (:;1000).

.,. ]. It F~~r.n~n".

I'll. II. ~~~ilchi~, J,. li,!!j~~. !It Zb'llo.

Pllys.

.R..I?i.I;lJE'~t 6, 3;83(1 U.99'6l 7 8.. L Th~1MS fl' (it. Nr1t1J.re 31B1 :Il4S (199'6)'.
9 .. W...mrermorfe;r, It
.S!l'5S0~,

S[i~nee

2,M,. 1133 (ll999~,.

01"cve:llnndi.'iif.idu<li I.l]oleculcs ~e:rving l'i.,'> m.emQ1}' ~.em~M)S,. di.orl\:s" U'allSii.~lo,l;&, ,or ~w~tcl1.{S.1-5). ( HO''!j,'.'(:,''N.::r;.!O~Q:IiJ~:rut\~.hi()re CQ,].11Ipl~".mol.eelu.l1iil'

T
~ wh)]

-i.ie ..oo:nc.a~. af ... .. O ..... da:lroU]kcomp()J;i.C:lr~'I]S '.j.I1g.I.e ~ifj.:O.IC..Lq.-~.". as is w'eI~-cs!a'Misi~od,
~l!ly

"'.'Og

d.(:vi.c~s r~!jii\es lh~ul. c::o:mpO[l.enlSi"lre booiJght tog.ethotan~,d d.~tronk:aily ,eou:pkdin :IlCO;~-'

clI\!lI1lnpk'S O!:l s:maU. flU mbcrs of

emBed

!nOO~llcr.

Mostmolcc~la:!"
~.~

swiwhcs ~re
dmngcs;

lwcd all dirastic 'oonfOfnl3.tUona]

nal OOlllpgl~.ble w~th the j)J,in~.':I ~fc()],1.trollli.]ijg Ulc co:u.p,]iJ:ll.g betl;\~e('!J:'fi moJI~· (he

u1.o~ecl,l~c6:....c9)~Inll~IS (

inlhc

12.03

I

REPORTS
ecules, The: de¥e.~opn],efll of :mol.ecl.I]ar!o.g~lc dethe B3.LYI?ITZVlevel (14)" The .LUMO vlces will alsc requee snng~.o-mO:leC'l'Iki :S\"~I~cbas. aJb,;'!f.!j.lor Qas-y d.cwnninm.ian ofl1!n,cpa5itiD~ lh~u can be ooupl!ed without Q~1l1p:romjs]ngLlltc[F fUUlcl:mOIl rolcl. [ham do no[ inV'l)]ve 'C::~1~llges illJ lh~ l1~olec!.dar·f:ron'l.(l, :~~ere,we ·pr~eM.l ii. singl.e-:nlCl'!~Ctl~e ~:w:~kh
b-3::l00 011 l:aydirogcn 'na!u.t:O'loorizataon meets these rec~ui Icme.uJJts. We; opcrarucdalrn.d charnclncr-· fiZed! the SW]Ic:h by ~O\!j,I~e~~pcr3]un~ sC5lnni.nJg m!'!fle]i~.g ~"l;lii'oroscopy (STM). lhelo",~sl unil]ll1ige

inner hydrogcrD...s:. 1l:tcy impose Dll'i S}"!TII!'!CU:y Q~ the molecule, which :iJs. 1'I;:[lbcredin the· UIMU over

of me

are distnm:;!tny dli.ffefe]iJ:i. fm '~:ilel\1i,10131l~~ol1]ers, the reaction can be dirocdy menieored illllliW,l.c <Cr:lUC'iI'U

si,gm~~ r vC'rllcaJ-lip position [!iii COI1!5tmu.-hcighl o or COMl·1]U1M;:urrcm ]'Jltode:. :rc:specli:\I~ly,.II:! ihe>e
m:eas!.lremCrdl..,~]e 'C::II.Q!l're1UorV'e'rti:Cal~ltjp' posi~ tiea switchesback arud[c:mthbel\~leen [WO ''I\1e1lL dC:ri)10d :!e"fC~s, as sih:o.\IJI ]111 :F~~.. 211. for a. bias vO]la_g,e; ,of .1.7 v Wlioc:nwc ]O\~II;rlJioc: blasaad in..age nnelUMO ~l resonence, the: U'VJQ c!Jrreru
[;fLtiQll

tile

m,u

e'~lIli!le n~o~.cCil,;!Jle. T~'nC "lU'll~~" WV[l h)droge~1!fi show a :sij]gl~lobe Sh.iIJLclwme '~:Ml erd, <1."> opposed ill 00 me nodalp~~ne alO~]g~lC: other two OlvrtlS.. The ,cncr,gyrcsolmi:o!l m UlllwJi:il1!,g speetra
ClUJ

be incre?l~"'d b}iC~t~flg]ngt]~eif!s<~la~fl:g!'iI~!r'I
1.'.!'Wl

oq:upioo mO'~l;}cu!arQd)!ut<JI (LUMO) or <I f~ base l1<l!phthr.al.ocY<lll1lJine (Fig .. ~B) can have twu OrEefiltmiollls, depel1il.dil,g enjhe poo:~Liou anile 1WO ]l1n& hydroi£r~ns. lilJilllc· ceanal cavity (!fl.he molecule (allfrow inl Fig. i B). Byhlcreas;ing the: bi<lsvolklge behvt"el1 ]helip andthe sampk:,!I.
hydmgcn '!iII[d~onncrJtz;Uiio]l: le~lC:~IO]1iCan be ind.l1ood'lIly the ~.[jjrn]eliD1g elecirons llr:lthe ~cwnni]1Jg hu.ltLe:lliil1.g mh:lFoS\;ope juaetiou Jl1:is chll[l~{l·us. roi:~rmny cquivalenrto fhe ral~tion {)If the mo~.-· rxule by 9oPam] COIUSC'8 a! :SUb&Ul'lllia] cha:Wlge ~n rhe tU~]!I1I.cHl]g current measuted [lit 11m SCilillni:[JJg mnnc:]ing micm!lil:o:pe lip posifinned overl.he melecule.Because the :!S\v~~.chingis. we.I~-d.c111j[lod,. h iS~;~]:YljOCfu~izcd~ t~versibte.ifi1 riJiliI,SU.Ctolftll.e mokcuk" Imd does ~otifl\loli"re chongcs.in the moleculsr :h:mc. [l!J;is class ofmolecules cen be used a~ buih:!:i',g blQcks fO:r mor,c ootnpkxmo-· k:CL;IIlardeviees ~mchaslogie gMes. The r'llO.Iee[.j;1e.g were ad~, O:lil. li'~lRllllttin inSl.1!mlI,S 1~llnil8. (N;n:Cii, Rb[, and X!.1) on Cu single: cry~]is. and SI~idgc(l by krw-'tcmpoITIw:ro STM opcmred ,a~ f= 5 K (la-I]), nm:li'i,fk!~maJ,~phlhalo-

10

The djff;'eror~oe-in '~he energy Qf the LUMOfC6;OfQ8IllCC ~!> oon~lred wi~~dlC mea."I!.I~r~~l1s OWl Na,CI .iSCMU~ by the d]iJerollt work fiJnC1iqllL~. of the ~~bstmt~8 (J1~ O:n:iEik'lfit=hc:iglu dlldVkulillglo";S
aeqru:loc'tli w.ith 1lliI:[1l.at~lic
howjhc

responcli:ng to the LlIMO and L UMO+ I omit:..l]~. 11[1 Sj.X"ClTIU1'1. :sJi~,{)wu:u.in Fig. .1C. These o:rbitEllls (he arc oopMat.ed by "'"'0.23 eV and caanot bercsol ved ~le~y in the' dJldJl spccU:mOl1 NaO tUrns.

Rlbi (IJ), andwe

resolve [he pe.al\s cor-

levels 'correspondw a 9ij~ .ootru:ign of [he orionol~·~:u.e LUMO. On lhe basis of the .oFT
nDle:!.o:p!ic:a~

and NMR speC'II'o~l::OJ:Jy (15). this Ob!SCfV ;)Ji on can be ass i,gufI.od to
c<ll~lIl.lItiorl:-1

c:h~[l~re.sinthe posilkm or~chnino
in l~le 'CCIlLl:olli~,.'.WI~ly; l,e:.,hydrop 1

hydro~lCng:
UllJ:.Ii~Dm;(!riza··

tioll (Pig, 2: B). A !)ohlltion ofd~ewho~!e mole-Cl:llie
can be ruled ()u~1!S we oh~t'f\Ic the :s;wulchi.ng of [ur:to~cru~e:5.ut step edgesaad in o\"uu:ys. of moletil.lic:s, '\!\'~1,~.erl!l· wmtion of the rnoroc'l:lk,: cannot a
QC,CUr'. [i13.ddil

[~lP

F~~..~) .m.'u~tnln.~ D
have '~rnc same

LUMO

and UJM 0+1

len,

\'>'1(\ :[1100 obseve :8\'Vi'!:ci~iil\g O[iJ

floda] Slntchn:e bl!J~~re rru~ted by 901;1wirth respoct m caoll other..l]:ICSC· experiimcnt'la:11C ~gaill\VeU cormhorl'l~ed by nFTca~CU~<lJtiO]~:il ,oflle fi:l;le molecule oom:em:il'ig bOlh [he ,om.ila~ :Siruct~IiC';mel dm.c MCIg}' ~['o:1ilioilll between lhe LUMO and. lUMO-t.1

~ Xe mono~~}le:r:. where ~.mUlL!fc!11i of 1he: moleeule hy 900 wouMlbc incompatible wilt.l] the
:ilYfllulicitry

or t1':i.;:Sim.fa{le.

(OJ 9 cV). 'TIte :sep'~l!!m~kH1i of lhc UJMO ~,d LUMO+limm,gesilllhcc;>iporim,cnl is h]npcllmm fm the dirl;lCl aJs.~.igl.lul!emu ord~c lWO di(iI~llt ck~oollilc sfiil~~ with lie [~ diffclle'fn m.'lUltOllM;:l'S,
11,e hyd:fOEiC~l ·~il!i.ltl:omerhllalti.oj]. CilL~] be jnduecd byPQs:iHofibllgl~~c lip OlIboV'ctho nml!cc:~lIe and :rubSl:<mI:iaUyillorca:s;inglheil:!ias.aibovc jhe LUMO ~oonll_$il£e" Because (,he LUMO~m~gC8

The depCl:1deJ~ee 0:1' [00 S'IN.it'Cl:i,i;rug"llC Ornlldu! C:ilirre.i:lilis~inC'i)"~r.lUte! ~he dislribfLUiOj1). of residence timesin jlrelew- aJ!ld. higtl,-currc~l!lS!!U~is expO[lcn1iaL These ,obscr\iar]i()raSflreCOl1sl~,tc[l.l

w~[h ,~ sml!l1!l>t~.c;~l]y i~~ldependcU1Jt. ..ekcuun one pluoes.:... "fhe s;w~lehing ml<: increases wiil:h iutfea:£.ill,g: bias vollage- ill a IW1ughiy c.."PQl.1.emii~ll

l1tsilian {F:i.g~ .2C, moosm:C"]l1!c~'ts
(;]fifOO:ilTILl;

iJi~. COllS13:nliorn. is ob-

~r:tode}. .Btlclll\iSC[j;o~l~urat
]0'£

cyani~1C ~Tfl)rOO,.lb ·weooa.d.~'!J('OOd.ata s"~mplle 'Iem, peE<1lure ofT'"' :S K,Mth~;~e ~~I:nJ)lelocaledu~. the sc'~lfliinglUrll].dllillg micrcseepe, :BiOlS vO~Ulig(!:S.
to thel:up. A 1ulmeHm~g spectmm '[\Vill.h current J ru~d d:iff-c're!l[ial c-ondUCffillCC dJltJf/:as a fll.Q:llct~on of lhc:bims volmgc· 1/) acquiroo 0.11 anis.ohlM-:m nalJh]_halocy.aiJ].im,:~ moleeale O~ <I NaC~.(.] (0)

served

,c:xperimc!ua.ly a>eccssibre n.J~.§eor

refer LO the SflIltlplt1' volllagC\Ni[1:\i:~-pect

b~!ay<:r on Cu(.~.1J) (Fig~ ~.A) s.1~~)iW5¥O 11~0"' h tl3J1:CCS oorrogpolldim.glO ·l1.~e~.li.1JIl!i:1le]ing~~rou:gh the LUMO 8:11d fuJighes1: oC~'l.1ipkd mQk;~ul~r orb:ila.l (HOMO) a~.3! pos~~i\'IC and l,cgativcbi!ls,. rel>:pcct~.vely.The moleculeis adt>orbed akm.g the l.lOJ:ilpolilft· [l 00] d~:m(:ri.on Or~l.e s~h<;Ir:U;.'lte~th~~ :us.
~hli:' most Sfi1ibl~ ,eQ:liJJfi~uro:l]Otl

'-

-2.01 - 1.5,

-1.01 -0.5

biaSl,M

.0.10

01.5

on N~CJ1llfId RJbI
a;~tdtOo

LI1!F;!Uila~illilgnlm$ l1O:lreSPOJ:ld:i',g: STM im3&re,,'), •.The a,oqll.~rod with :li mol,0culc-tetii;:mi~Ui!l:e:d~ipa~: bias. ,e:o:mdiiliom. <lire s;h()w[JJin Fig,iIi.l A~. sho,wJI previo,us.]y 02). lfue m~pCl1l1JJrhed mQl~ct!L'"" :~EIComi.l:als Gaom.be dir'!i!ClDy ]Uf]f]<'Ig(>{j by STM. oli.
in~g<lp

vOIhagesco:r:resp()ml.ing

to

therewn.a!!u:~

n'b:::Y (iOi~li~r,c; 'VIOty ,li,!lJU ~;]th tht ci'lkil!i.huoo. ol!uc-· ~ronic\va:ve-fimctiQ~s of!!. frecm.oleculc. 'fhe. oompUlt:t\d orn')i!~ls $11Q\1IIIl in ng, l ~r!e' b.15iied 00 dCI]s,iry fun.cl:ucm.!tl] theory (DFn caIClUili!l!] irnns at

lH!M. Zliiiiclh :FII~eardil Li3.bo~i3iI~M!jI,8803 R.u~(hWOClI1l, of IJi@e mQ;teoo~. 1]he'!.owN '(M'l:elf pan@![ shOlll'!i llheSlJ](uctrullE'@ m:ode!l to, !leale where illim:!lW li1!MJlca~.eslhe S:wltl~,r~ mO., 2'1i!I~l'itl!l~~ !If IE;I;~(i meatal .a md ttppli~;[JJ mnb:al hydrogen i!!rtoms 'U1at o1!JE!' aki:nglt!he horii'ZlJFII1ja'~. arm~. The SliM images 'Were dbiain:oo with ,iI mol'ecute~ P,!Ir~s,i(s.,Ull!i,~~ity ~I R~g~!Wb~~g;. 9'3-Q4'0 1R!fi!gerrJ~lrg, ~ermili1iated ~IP. (() Spe~'lrosto!py of' napMhalocyanin;e on a RIl!11 bilay,er can Ir,e~o'tv.e loath the LUMO andlhe Gerrman~.

Fiig. :1. :SPlld~'O~~l,)PYilIWild orbitalmrili1(!!gle:s: 'of na:phtha:~.ocyaninlle: ,obtained lby fuw-temTllperat~feSiliM operal~OOI aI: '1'"" 5 [K, (A) $perlJiiOSCQ,PY of llilta[.lfMlltml:otya'l'lilil'lie Oli'l" INaCi. liJillilIyar on (l!(1.11)wi1@l~e the peaks ctlJ1mspo.rnclloo, tJ1lflOOUnI91into 'Ih€ WMO {p3~il1i:IMil bias)ar:ld O~!t ofth€ HO:MO (lfiiegathr,€ DJas):. ~B) STM imge!t art 1 pA, ~16V (l~:tt) .!1M :lpA. D..6:SV mgh~, ..as: ~!Jie!ll. at llow li.alS U pA.. OI.OS'VI rompilml!d wllllhilhe ,~aklJlated HOMO a,iI1id1UM(]i als L

m@

too

"'To Wii1®ffiIl MI"f5PQI1demle pU@~i.ln:(t1jbrn.(om

~h~tJIJ be ,lldOlre53!1d. E-rnai~:.

lUMO+l (sepa:rat:edl by ,-0.23: Vj, (!I,llI" aribi~ary IlInils. (0,) Co:rreSipond~ngl,owital ma;ps ro (O;~nthis ,ca~e'lihe diid!l ~igii'1!alnli. in ~liie ro:ilii:~lajj:ilt"ilmg 1111 .od:e, as oo:impa~ed wi~ OfT t:akUll.all'l:OO~ .. All ~m:ag:ie's i1M,e30 lbv 30' .A 2:, m

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

SICIENiClE v:Mw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
rn:~es.we lI'~ink~h~l the m~otasJ:ble fOflbc 8.wll!.c~ling lls 311 an eve!'! h[ghc.r VoJl~_gC (16). At \1lI,)]t~gc.s,OOITl.":-' sponding to the LUMO ~e1>Olla~~lX (s;WilCh l'('~d{lil,l[},.swiu;hi~g '\,'fa:!) nat ,ob~cn'I.x1,There i% a sEight b~ul. si.g}tific(Jllt dev i~l:iCln ~l!(l!I.njJ1JI:re]y cJllJlonoo:tial deperudcooe th,umary help to reveal the detaih; ofllc $\'l.i'itC'lllingpmooBS illcornjune-, lion wilh fumre thco['etic,aI e'Jlints., U!.e!"e: k; ~ strcag depe;ndencc 0(: the ::;w~reh-, ing :r<lli:e O~l: i:he PO:S:itLOIlof tbt: el~echulli inj,ec:~i.on :unto.liliite molioo~,lc (F~g. 2Dl B"'Icb ~']{ix(diIlFig. 2D eorrespeads to a time U'acc wil:h 100 s\ ..rdtclin.~·
IX:SUil>flIlC()

1.'esolv.;'Iltlie s1!;1i,iitchi ng

S'Wi~c:hing I/:venL~· (;Irver ihe nl.cl.ecuh~~The sp-.,,;ij1i'l.]

map cOITCSporu:!hl@: ruo~he reverse reaclilfl is &i~nilar hut. roLairo by 90!:l" The \\Ihili!e pil!1,cls L~ Fig. 2D ill lle 'cel1t~ir of ~hemorecli:l~e do nor indic~!.1ea7L'j"O :>w.iOOhing mre;. i~!lll)~~d :>i.g~i fy they tlml we canno~ observe the tm:Ui~O[l1:efizai:~O[l
reactieniu the timejraccs, beeanse OO~.'iI. tauLomers. I:'CStl~~.inrhe same CUJ:l:Cmli'of s-ym~"J.OO'yrelTI!rons;. These: n:neaSl!iremC!~~l.ii.w,ere' earned om ~.!1!l'lO!'IBI~rucll!!!'e!umode, .~ thus the 8W'it(;hi~~ rarei!l5 diifl:::ttly proportional i:O the qlm:m(iu~.~ yield afd-.e process. ..flgJm:: 2D aliso s~iu(I\¥S"nh<l;~ e swiLch~:nlIg m probOllibHiAy is disLill~,tj,y dilJJeroru Oll1l the ~\.vo linetlui",ra!c[J!l ..al'1fiS ofthcfillOl.OOLile,. This d:i:~o~,ce

can be {::xp.IO~iredl to oolllro~, the direction (Ifdlf muruameriZ<l:lionrcac:lioll; ]f~ho: CtlOOiU is injcC'loo

I

ina posiliion \\~lC'feUle prc'bffi)i]itics. for S'iov]whixag oo~ka:nd fpM awe \!'ery di.ff'~rent, the f:I~l!ll1posi[iOin~ of the' hyd~Dgell. mmn!! 'CllilU be $icJoott)d w~nh high a p:rob<lb:i~.ity {-..:90%) .. However, iihe s:lirikullg .m<llture apparQJ:blt:in ~hese plots is !hal the ~~Il'!;.rcs.~ sIlN:utchi'l1ilg role l~ ~c}ric\r;ed when the ~i;p is .abQ\~c~hc ~'hr

periphery of the molecule (l.C., >H) Afiumlhe
reacri(!!l&1:re:), This is in! oo.llllras:[wiJt11 tlel:)llk:m] in\!]I~..,]ic elccntoJ:D"'1:i!J[[Ineli ng nltlchaJiliisln if no ins.l~~jj(I:ing:ililh.'il1Iis p:~e:1lI1 U7-2J}.. Bcc<LlIse of d.G(:(Yt~p~iUl(g pro:-vi.dOO ~y lh~ii&lll~~tia:'ag JlJIJl]i1l,dl(; Iiretillue of anaddilioraall clecuen in !l l'iI~ol.oelilar resonance hi, C.J<.pccted t!O be r,el,alivelyklng (B1 l6. 22'). To f;~l,Idy ~his em,!C't ~IU~Jnoa:e dOt~n,
WC::~

]rI£ eveerscn

W!lemge;, ghdngin

torn~. -75,.000

A.2:.5,'·r-------------,

c

sp<l~limUy mapped tllms.wult;hing
~h[("e mcnolayers

rate

CUll 000,.

two, and

ofRb~. On cue Rb[

10 'US time (s)

l(l,Q1

bilayer NaCI~
~=~~lIF"

~nlOnoi<1Lycr (S:hort(>sl l]folil'illll.C),. Hliei;ui~m:es;[ gVVI~:e[j~ iID!. Mrue\,,~as .achic'vod near .~;~.cccnlC'j" oflbe ~noko.de.On t\~· ruOC]d~roe mon~l~yCiS of.!RJ}~j wc· observed simi.liiLr spatia.1 d~eu)endcnc'e:, as
dlOwn

iin

Pig. 2B..WhclIl

thili: m::lolcx:u]cs

were

·104

'1.6 1.8, b~as(V)

=~=~.~dl

directly adsorbed 0[1 a Cut ~(0) :s:ubslniil~,.\~'e

could itOI. observe t;lU;UWiiIillic;ri!Z.alnO:rlJ. 'U1,c sp!u.i@J clcpcm:b::llce 'of the ;$WitiCh~~.g
prooobm1y h~ghlighlS the role 0 j' elecnon Z1imVoJi eneJ-gy n~mspOJ1\1!,Iil~1indlen])ol:00JI.~c,.n:rm!king t~ds
!'>.yslem pfll1iic~liarly i~~eres~iil~g fOir.rel;rl!l::d studies, For cx<tr.np:lie·,. we- cii,lllpmbe LIte: cOilplil:Dg 'be!D.wet:n:1J ~~ci ghbotul'Ig illaplruha!ocy.II'n iiJ~~c oleeu les 'Wb m ~~;lI\,C cOiLipll)d!log;e:lhcrll'J;ooe naphl.~h!l.locYlll!l:'ii:lli,cs by \!l.im~:dy lnill,gln"!!g l~~Cfll ose mgclhcr by S"lfM d latem~1 uln:~ipl,l~a'trjlol]J PJ}~ shown~~ fig. 3. A ns [0 D. lll~.llS COJiiLf'ig Il1Iratio:ri, ,,\~e caJn:\1.'7II:i·~.ch one ~m,o~CC1j~c cu~nl by il'Djocl;~.QJ] t~:lrollgh the lfitcig;h~ ooring ones ..The si,;\i'itd:li[i)g yie.~d in [his ());~eriF U1CIU 15 determined by '~le ck::clrOn~:t~lllSpOi:'l 1~!:iI: iesUwi!:Igh the: !tnoh::('uLeiuw w.l.ddlmhe ClllIrn:::'Jm:l it:; .inje<;:l!;ld,. (ii] [ht! coupling Qf ~rne two ~j<l.ce:l1ll lHo]et:u~~,.3~d ["iI.1O'1.Uy,{iVil the~su~.g n:Ldem~.().J3!(!C'allisc CiI]e:rgy ll<lIJ:ISpClll i]llIl~.te <1b~ ~CJ:D.CC of ek'(:lronl:rampor~: bel'>vec-.I1JJ~hc molecules seems C'-x]remely !.!!1~ike:ly (by a di·po:lar 0[" CIlhcr mec11~il~st1'i)!,slep (i i) CQrr,espom:!:;; 10 C'lCCLro\U~ ~!I@I:!f1e-li!lghehveenUu: mO!~e-cu~es.. In ]bTL,~e.Jil,pl;:!:~ IIl1f'[I,F, the moll':tl(ll~ . are "vc<l~ly wup 100, imp:lyi[lj[g e:~oc;lroJl~unneHrnlg bell,VOCJTlllbe molecules bUl~no suooll."lluin I ellcrg_y-lC\rc:1 hybridli 7.:a1ion . We een (il1.;"tfCilSeLlil,coorupHl'Ig of adjflOOi1t mQ~-· ool.i!les, a5 S~o\V~l IbI: an {lmlY of p.hiJh.l.I~cy..!li!le'

o
Fig .• ,2.• S,M~dhl~ng off 0'31 sfngLe nalP~hllha loc¥a'i:il~ne llirlotecule Iry ~h;e tIUIFilJiil!~lfn,g ,(,~ ~refl'lt {A) (l.eft) CUIFfI'Ifmt·4raloo ob1ia~!I1;edaJt bias offi~1.7'V wheil'l!~h;e tip wa:5p05i~oll'J;ed ,iJ~ i:l'ne eimJld Q,f the' rmote(U~e ~red Idot ]n S:WM ,a mmilgJest (Rig~.t) {JrblitaJ~ images showing the o:de;nllat](m ,of the UJMO oo~l'e5ponding 'to 'the' higlhr- Qr lowcUlTeU!!ts!tat.e (2 p.\ 0.7 V) (I) S;ChemaJ'~~C: ()if~~!e h~dlrogen taJ.Uomeril2lalt:ion Ireactfon respo!'lS,iible£Q:r the s\lIib'lml]ng •.~()lhe bias dl(\!.p.ende-m.e olf UIIEl':sw1it!:h~ng rate< m@ilI:suMd wi~ ill tMl"lnetil1l.g ClIIrre'll1!t of 1 pA Or! ill
a.

m

slope' of 165 mV/decade. ~[U Spallialll rma,p ofUlJe'~HhilriI.g rate relf the :~n![le:nl tallutomerizal:'io.n, rel3:cltiofl

natphlhatm:.yani lili!1l mole!:Mlle on at N'a(] bilayer
l

0:1111

I(Mi(11.1), sho\'l\ing' .til'll o:v~rraU eXPQneil1l,tiall. blend Wililh ill

molewle ~5d~15pi~yedt'G'sea leo
Fig.•3. E;;amp~esQnnt8'~
a.d.rJiglii!! Iilidl
ii!I_~~rmJblie;

silm'lln

in '(6) for a bJ!i!mu~ilJn,g,rurl'eflt IO~~ pA. at a bf'as o~ 1,825 V. for ref,elFen<c'e.lhest~~!CiI.Ur,e·Qlr the 1

of mooew~ar switches. (A), .A mmer ef n'alphthallocya nill:i,e rnole-

liomnle:roctiog

rules on a Nfl,G~.bUayer fonned by 5TM IliTIanipllla~ tion (mlliT!ige ol~talned at 2. pA, 0.3: V). Woo D) OtJrft!nit inje€.'~lonlhrollghi, the l'o,p or' bcdOOi1i!1 m,ole~
I)i~$

moleouk:sMii.lh
il1ig

<I

OO~l'Der40-()el~lerdjSl:aiJl~: or] 6

A

(Fig. 3, ..IE ~ot]) (24., ljl[n

tI-liscase,

1~llC$.\,v:ildll.=

(I~I1,~~~r [y~llow
(a1~1

doilS in {S} and {C)]

cal!l!!selhe 'swi~~hing o,f dle m.(i!lll~ irntime lmidd1le, {l13 shoWlmil by' ~Ih,e WMO . ~rn:ages(2' pA, l~l.8V) Imag,e5 are'll"'!· by '58 fl'. ~E),Arrays of Iphiltnalm:y:aniiM l1IiI.ol!~Clite:!i n ,fI Rbi mon:a!aye,~ •. o o.nl (11'(331)., the lrl!·gap im<lg@ S.I1IOiM mom phl'mlocyarlil,loo mo'leoule'S lin YHlif@ i!;o!jlftedfro:m a talr,ger arra:)f ()of moiefJl!fle5 Ol.~ -111\1). (f) Image a~ gj bias wltage co~resp():nding ~,t!e W'MO Ol iPA \I) (24), (UJir~n~ ~n.~ioctio.~thn:l'l!l!gh Une. p01jnt~lndf{a~ed by a yellow dot irndl!l!l!:)iES fie' S!Yitl!:hing of [he motocule' df:re,ctlV u~der ,oolly the' s~'nmli1gl·tul"lll1ielir1)gllil'lfl:rosmpe tip" asshO'!mil'll1e' IW'MO imi'lgesil1'l (G).lmages·]!1 ~E) to (G) a,~e 50 by 50 &2. (111) lwo ,oi4~jjijt;ai~ons ,Q:f the UJiMO of an l~dlatedl ph~alocyajjijami:e mo~.ec)ML!ii The {21P11\,0.35 \0,.

ef molecu les through ~.cigMX1l'ing Q\lfiICS ·~ws. ~m.ob8eii"'!l(;d, 0vC'i'lI~tot1:gilm. lh~ tom~ disWilnco be~'1Neend1Cinjoc1ti©rl.poilH (dp} and lhc r~cljOl~ sitcwa .. sn~(ii~h;:l: tha:n] iu the [Illlevious, e:x.pcdmc'l1.t This lir.!lciullg ]1l:lik~ oU( ::;)Jll.e~cll~nld.l1ood mc(;Jmalln!Slll~

rm'~le :swi'ne]]lin:lg,
S\~filchi~;g

p~:teDi:OI'i'H~tlfl \.\liUtun

iljdil~'!,~i!dU<l] mo]~

-as;

ceullcs c\Jl'I~dpOiOOl:RiaUy b~ L18:edas :ltoil\lio~:ffiii]lt ~m)e!l~Qry ,"\lith 'c;!1t:rerndy high deJ~s~ty.:flS~lS ooen proposed ~]l]:;)n~ytim.e~ (J.6, 16,. 2.(j). [11 (jQml'fis.t til prcviol;jlsly i.rruvesl:i~lt;ed S'y~lCms.the pn'C~Clltlllp.. lee[~~i'i;r\c!;'itch i:s plma;r~ does :liil.o! i1lVl11v<: oo,.nwl·-· s

12.05

I

REPORTS
mstional cha.]]ge.s at. lltepeiliphe:ry of the moleC'l.llic. and iswcU-su
~ID10lJflyeffi.

4. Y.SeI2N, O. t J!.nar.li,
(20(D~).

Afiiiill' •.

/iI'f~: .PiJys,

(mm, ,51'.

5,93;

1la. Ii. J.
19.

I~B~, W. ~Ol :5m:Il(t
1

28 6 .• 1119 tIi.999~.
1

imed for use ira :sc:lf~tiIsscnlb led.

Allo:th~i!" advl.lJl!l~ge l!S(OOl [he symlnctryinhere'm;[ to Mll;l.system. i:~~p~,ies~]<I!l both po[Oulio!'ls Ofl[l,c s'1i,1'.~kh a:vcdtc:;;ronCOCilal: en:~al]d h
do not

bwnding to 1l1e'sub.'lltrnie. Th~Iii'l, we QOlllIlobSC:D"I'O~liSi :f>wi~cltillg prm:;css, on a v;:qricl.y EU.a '~2006:~, oifimm~ming nl[~~ (NtlC~. Rbi!:. amd Xc). for rwo 1.0. [xpe~iJ1f!L'.n1:s ere ,to! rrie!d o~t on I) {u(illlU si~rJiloe mlih, w HaCI aiM Xe~n~!liilalii'lg la,YE!U;'on (iu(10i!)i) ,~n!! (u(3:1:l!) re~~loo flftO]oculel1i l~phtha]ocyaH:iflc'~d !'!!lJJil1l1il~~~o-· Wi"'l Na(IL !Jill Oll(3\l]} ljifijlil IRill\ and on bs reo(u{1.00~. c<yaninc) snd for dUfe:renl ch a~ simres of the
11[1

dlirro[

5. 11.J. foro, Mill. Noooli~r;~ li3 (2006.)'. 1, 6. C. P. CoU_~er ~t ,a:I•• Sdenc'e'ZiB9 .• 11'72: (2IDOOi. '1. F. Molil'S<o ,et ~1., Phrs. R:w. .tetl: ;B6, 672' (2 GO:P" 8. X. H. Qiu, G. V," Niazili'i, W. !HO, Phys:. Rf!r.<. !.etit;, gg, 19'.fi80'6 (1ruM). 9. v. l~n()I1I, S.-\II1. IHI~OlI, Pfo•. 1Ilmi Amd. Sci. U.5.A.l!J03.,

S.-W. Hli3lr L 8arlli!ls, IG,. MJEYE!lf,,K.-IHL !!:i@dBf, !"Iifl, Rf~, t~t. 8 5,. tin W)oO)'. 20', 1 It. Hah!l!lo W. Ho, ;'twoS. R~. Lel~ a:7. 166102 (~Cf!!n). Nt uslapis ·fit· o{, ScreIKE 300, 100Q ~2(105;1 22. X. H. Qi.lli, G. \I, NiazifilJ, W. l!'!lo, Ph,.. Rm !..ftl" ''ll2, :i106U12 (2DOIl). 'B,. Ill. Mi..E:i~hu, 1::. K. SdlWf'i~fr, lIfmiIJi!'e344, ~24 {1l9W}. 24 .• Ph'lhiltc~lnine m!lI,e(IId~:5on ~ !i1looaiLa)V,fdI RIiJII~lll! , !l!eg1lliveUyCli!';Uig~. Y!ite UJM.O becomes <lJSinlgl~'ocwpie:d

n.

denlO'n."urn!i.(:: :the It'JoosbJiCss(Dftl1fil peoeess, aad giVC[l~.l~lt l,ROchang~, occur illli~'ltem.o.l~Cll~'<1Jr Il',ame!\i\~ork,it ~ be a]~I.]dp:al(\d 1h,u the :f\vitclitl\l1: wiH nisI) \v<orkwit~, Inolecldcs embedded tn ,;!I.Uso:lid-statc devices, a:[Id in m~i1tioO!',11e po!V!tn.yr~[IJ-G~,ass mo]ec~]eli, acting as more oomph:::".. 00\1 ioes.,
Ul~SI,II:'l'!'ll~lit<;
lkiflll~~()1B
~Iili!ll 1~11)'~5

ltlO~tlal!:lles. TI:te~

CUI s~ngh! 1E:li)!Slflls~@rl!;! d@<In!;:d Ib~s@'i@ra'l SllI1IItrreringr

'1, 0" M;[ig!e~, C. f. lLutz. W. E. Ihndi!Je. N~rwe 3$2,. 001) (:1l99:O. 2 .. t.Joocl11m,. J. tC G:lImJm~lkii,. j!(gal1l1l, liJoful'I14lD!I, :SU It (20000, l.A. Nilzan\ M. Ii.. :~ilne<r, Scitl'l(e: 300., lla~ (2003).

tz, l. Rf:pl), G, Mey~. s, IVI. Slo1J::o:'!ilc; A. GOll!!'idOO., (. lQil~him, ~. ,Rev;L~tt. 'rii4, 02 6.BQ:»l t:200&~'" U.l. R~pp, G, ~e(, $. Paaviialfi1!iilll".~. E. o l$son, M. fell!lsolJl, Pl1ys. Rev; Uti; 'Sl5, 225:503 II2!OOI~. 14. A, .A". Gr3navsky. Pi( ~E5S ~i!r5iDlili 1,01 Irlilp:lfc!ils&ll:. dii!jl!llll,m slMillfgra nlgalifllilsmmi@:(;btnmt 15, D,.1t Mail.)!,. ]i. ~, lr;uCing, J, ~f¥PJrJn.rI~ • rM;nil'(lC1_J'(1n!rI~ 5, 2:8,9 (200]), 1.6. l RelP~, G. Me~e~, F. IE.O~!fIi,M. P,ert'5o!ll.. SC(!f!('e 3 05. 49i3 {2004}. 17. B. c.. S1iilE et Qt, fh:~.Re!I. .t~tt78,44]o U:9971
1

ann@'@ling qI'~!lj!s. '1!~(;Iltil:~rlm'1l! 1~""iIpr;i~;1iig:n as II,I~OO; w i:'l) cie,PCliit NO!(i O~ flbl SOi IMat derecl·r~E:, ~'lOOi}·le.rmMn al:ftil i-llandii: of uPlo'~hf,ee ·awmt:c la,yerSh!ffl;[le ~rnrmedl 1'1. It Ilt;nne'l'dlz eto.[,. 5m:f. 438.289 (19991

S~'"

mol~l.iIlar Iilfio.itlltlhat ,canlie pilobedal. e~~hi!rn egatii/e ,01' I p'rniillVB iJJi~, ,~()JI'r,e~PlJlildi~. to I~lfmronream.o.....1 or a:didilio.n, lfi!'~!'i!(IiIIIEity (25'}... ~~. lIR,~,Pp, ~.~~r" S, Illli!lvil!i!~n~!iI, 11=. E.• Q!s~i;ln. M. lPers'SOii), Sci~(e: ]:1Z, 1I.:'i:9~ (2ffi)I~t 26. A. S:1udum,amef Blum Ii?! .oJ., lIlat MmIN. 4,. 167 {200S·}. 2 t, Welhank. Ill:. AIJkI'r!\pt.a(jIi~Iil!ll ,. Grifun~!Of lTuTlJlilil M d~ussDls. Wi! iJcboowlf!d~ piliitial ~lJInclmg b~ ElllropB~!l1
lIIlIio~ p~~ '"(iHII(," "NANOIIMN\," !!1l!d '"N!J!IJPA," ~ Ib~ llite 'Vc4k:Jloil~en fown!ilatiolrlandllhe SiVii!,~N1a~Mal (erme

of COOl,pMen(eo iiil'R,ewrrnlmlroogJilIIl.elir "Wh~enMg~ "lNilooscale Sd~roce'"·' ~rilrm~, rl~sp~rn!l!i!~. S:IJIlIPOrtiI1il9 ()n1~.ime Ma.teriiil~
'wlNI'I',sdi@n(;~mil!J,orgf'l!gnil'ml1llffllJ~uIl'J3lJf5;84'lf12W~1i)(1

.and

Figl, :5li 2'1 Apijl.200'7; ~CX!!PI@'dl ]1 ]l!ily ~OO1 lO.l:l!:2~iCienlOe.lll'" ~366

Clouple:1dl F'erriic IOx!ildlesl IBlndl S,ullfatI8:S DID t:he Ma,rtianl SUlrfa,ce
"UtI.! Mars Expllor,i:!ltion Rover "M'ERt OppOmIUllli'II]ly', sh01NedtilJat. layered sUlI~lfa~1.! elP'os;its in Mleridianii d P[anY!llll]Q~med dudng .a pieri10dl o'f rising addk gr!(JiYfld W!1l!ter, Crystdl.ilif' hemri!l!tite 5~'hew[e·5. mommed~n the ,deposits as a (Q~1!iI5eql~erl'e of aql!e'ous: ,!i!t~eralnon and 'Were 1''Q,Wllceifil~ra'~edon the surf;]lce ilSi!!1 l~,ag deposl:t as wiifldl erlo,de·dtlile soHer sulfate: rocks. On the basis ow Mars IEx,prteSS Ob~eNal'O,ire pour la MlfH!ir,aloglie, l'Eatl" l'E!!l G!l2l(!E!J$ et l'J\divit@ {OME6A)1 lorbU:a[ data, we dtMnOllslr,(!tlt!that crystaU,ine hl.!matn~1.! d~pos,il$ a~,e ,(!s$IO,daltll!d w!i~h I~alyer'ed !:iuUat~s iill'lllolt:iM)l.!rare:lliS arm Mars~ imlp~yil1ligl that M,eridi,i;.ul~~-~,'jk,e roYlld 'lNa!tler 5vs:te:ml:5, '~\rer;eilndeed wilclle!5~:mead and g replf1e:~enta~fi'll'e of an le,Ktl1.lu!lilJ!e,add sul'fate aq!l!lllo!l!l!l sl{!ltlem.

mise in re:~ecwllce up m -l.J ~m (Hg. IA~ 111Cse spec~l. rearu~s arc di~glios!ti!;)fmUle
pl"Cc'\eIlCC of lbrl'.ic ,oxides
rem~ll

(fig.

1.13) (tJ),w]~rc ltJ'al:asJ:D;UO.ITIl~ of

[hi:: ~wo alMO:l]1t:lo~bmldJs, and ailsorp:ri.'()H edge
from 'Ihe S]I]gl~.~ec'IOOJ;l

l;erne iron (5., 6).. Nell,a!bly., plilJlidc SiZCp~;lyS an hVlpOrb:ll!Uook:: i~ the sloc!l,gth of fcrric a:bserpdons Flor cxa:mp]c" hC1V!!UitCCparliclcs with
:~m d.iamt1crslesslllim(ll1l -10

do

nat

have

a

d~iedaM.eba[j;dl]j[ini.][bliln ~l ~O.86 11m, \,\ll'fier~s [nl!rlicl~'!i~dl:ha :~al'k"C(r dill!I[l;e~1:r have a dnstinc'I,. V(\[y deep DflO:admi:liilin!llil:~liJ(6" 7),. POT spec:tlil.aill hcnut[]te p.al:il:i.c:.lcs. 1J)fllld :minimlUlffl Is. s]:ndk~\''l,' ~he

• .M.odi ..... "d, M..-g";tifor T."". I!:";,."-,id,,,
haw' boolluclel]til]ed oreurin wli~l MEG.A1Millrs EXPIt!s..~, O

I

(8). In OMEGA spectra oJfllhesea:re~u" ~h:ed)cpt~~ of [he 10.9-,IJlll .~ll[ie Sigl.l~WlFes re.\'1dllt:\,> .510%,. •. whjJcll~smore than Iive times a'S deep a:;;i.he common fernie si(gn<lt~tiIieS associeted wlth nl:firti~m brl[ghl :rrl'gkms fOC"pr;e~.l1itcclln fjg., IA for
cc(lmpt:!'i~Qn). Some spectra
s!I'!i!JW

m.a._<;;SCld!Ufon~thti~f~te deposillS d~oovcred, s

and nlBippoo in~i(il.~'Va,I]~ Marinc:rns,

Term

lhrougl.'l diistiJ1Cl spocu;al Sil.gDUll!1l:res" l.l.~e oxides.
clo::;c ao;.i'oci!Uao:UlI wi~h :fl!llf2l!lC"rich ~~yc;rod dqlOs:i~ and in ]ow-a.lbedo $!i!lfbd ~l U~e ~'>e (lfrnhe depo~it..,.l~~e ferric I..mde,s n~ydm~ ~~\I\e-foru'1.ed,
OOlll:en1JpOr<l.TIeQ'Llsly W.ilh w.lfa,te deposit's. orr su~ ~llI~lliny (e.g:.., by diageI1ll.eticprooe~),[n e,idl(o'I"

oo1i:lld hl~\il!: been [he &!ime i[~VD]~CS Maril1;cri::: and Terl1l Me'ridi;;Un:il~ :~mcl [ht::y~lik~ly,niun~C!~lif~ goolog:lCC9.1e!ti!1gs~efl s 'on ~h~g:UIOund bylhe MER OpPQiJJtulliilty in M~u.id:imlli.P!<IJ1Uln (1). OMEGA. the irma:gitl,g spC(;ln:)]n~II~[ onbQ!,u:cl lite Mars E-xprrl;,;O;;:s Om~l:Cf~ .!loqu~ros SPCClr!l1 i~lhle v~,ib]e ~nd m~ar irdhucd \lI(1!;\!'e]c~1~th ri1flg.C tf1,35 to 5.1jl.lm) witill~Lhc use '0 f ~h!7l':e~i:ffuren~ derue-tors (0.35 lol.O J;I!:m,. 10.95to 2.6 ,~m,a]ld .2.5

~~r.c5 wnith :[';;llIll~fehydrn.l~(}n ~~lI~l,I['es <l!t -L9~l!1.d -.,2.4 l'Im!Or .-..:2.] and ~2.4 j.!l.m,

feme :s,lgna-

TIire ~c!nd feal:mt~ aJl'Cribmed.loferric ax.ides in ~he OMEGA. sp:;c'nm ;rureOOmnlOJ'l.lO many rer~·
rie oxldbs,. imldrutdli"g 'hCtrm,[I[~lte CiO)), g,(}c'Uhul.c (1~1-f'

l[o-f'cl+O(OH)l! ~.~gane~l~ [Fcl'"O(OI [.CI.)]". sch~\I'enma~Hlite '[~Fe!tOid O~:.w}!'i 'llfl;;tO ]'j, SO~.
Icpido(:n)ic:it~ i[ )'~FeO(O_l~I)]" and ferrihydJri te I[Fe~:10y,SI9{l(20)1] (4),. JIlt';; Sll.1ape,of lJJ;c ferric IO~lit!J:nro distorted \i,~lle11'1. jls mixed with drutSl OJ[' 0'1.

fralilal'. ~llliIter:Il.<l.iooI5l. D)n<lm~~ d!f1'1 a :sufla('E'!'. H!alime,nt 500, 914C15 Orsay Qumpu5, friJIliire. ~NI\5t\ ioIlni9))~ Spa(!f' (.eflttor, ~2'l!O:l [NASA. p~v~~, !iMlQIIi, 1l){?10S 6, UiS.1\ ,r;,~gI,Qgi@~ .kr~l1!te$, ~ Ul1live:~;I)'. P'fo.videooe',. RiI02.9:l!.2., USA.
N<lIille1 (OOEl)!!B, [III\ilFOOlilementde'

lO :5. ~ ~lIn). lIS spcotrn:~ ~ltIpl ingra~~s ID:ll'1lll 7 ca~, '1J:1~ spocnl and ~mlf~~~~gmllarii!fu-sirn1lply ~i~~t 00 20 nl:n~,:al1d. ilts :;;pmlal Sflmpl il1g 'v,all'il(i£l fmm [l1l::l rOfliiiil!li(m.pm~l\¥aYS for suUi]1X:; :at1.d :femcoltide 300 m !D,4 km" d~:.TH~imd em [~~c poo~lim~ oflhe illS sp~cC'Cmft .on its d:lipl.i.cal orbit (.-)t. The lIM~ftljjld':As 'li'1~q~Spataa~.e. 83llme,nit lli.2.1!, 9il405 oJ~ tm:llrl!;ll]]eUU~~~s,~ow In~rped -.90% 'of the ~~mp'u5',fr,a.. " .. ~l~m~t ,o.f~rlh <3~i! Pla~~~a~ S~Br1l~ _ mtIrti.m SiLlJiTf)Ce ,'ltl!l~.e ] .5- 'l,O 5-ln'l scJ~e (3), wa~hlng,lQ1!i1Unll!ol'E!lJIty, St. LOUl~,.IMO ,63 no, USA. UIi!r¥e~lI,t .oMEGA :I1~cttaoom ]!oea~iz'oolt'15it;).1Jls ~'[1 dE! No1!'!ltes. 2 rue HOll.sS11!l!i~re, E!;()ite P,bsloa'l!! 9.22QS:,44322

~liJia1;olt ,cOJl.1:nlbt!i!!ioJi or o:.~ivirl:1:c 'I1y"oXim~.c. MoreOr ov~r> oxide fiigml~m'cs !call change wit]~~ennp~al!.lI:e~altholJ.ilg:h the ~IK':{;tJa.1()hal]ges bavc bee:11J
oocumellDecl

0'[11),

fOir

'We.U-£l)'sHl!IJi~1.ellii:m.l~lItiDe

V."IiI~.e-s ,Mari~eris~ Teaa Moridin'ii,. il~id M~f.lfiD:i1"eilcr;m. Q:fC chm:<lc-tcril,oo by rn:n ,aoom:pl.ioo redge
bct\V'eCfl

~nd"

bibr~1}9_@1.ili5Jr

"'To

Wii1®ffill

MI'f5PQI1demle

~h~tJIJ be ,lldOlre53!1d. E-rnai~:,

-0. 75 .~nl~a .n;::fh;lCclivilymaxil1!UlIU at --{l,15 j.Q.:nn; an tlboorption. halld cCluerecl ~l ~{J.9 IJ.m:~nd .;]

0.4 ~n:d .-..0.75 ".u~'lI:~ shal1!o\:\Iab~o!ptioo visillil{: a> a s~]01[I!dc.r~belwe'Cil'l ""-'OJ) mId

an:t1~~lh~~(l: (9., 10),. SpecLrn~ sigmuurcs ealJJialso stn)Jlgl,y depelldo.l1 o::dde .cty~ul.Miii~.]~y(oil). Fb~3J]ly.dlC -O"9.,,lm ferric baI1d .is~ocal:cd ]l.Car !l!~:h::tectCl:r clul!lgc in ]he OMEGA i~$U'l,ImJZ;!u

(~1 Jim):: TIle' $ignl,al9to~m)ise !i<!l:1:io .is bower inl[lis
w.~vc~en,g'U:~.ral1ge, Sind di ff'erenct"Su~,reneC'wnce belv.~cn the' dc:.t:et~orn tire CC!WltiOll:iy obsecN'M ~u

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolmag.oFg

REPOIRTS
l lA:m. T~rai'I':I::J. we ,crulnot~U. present exdwle the presence of ;ruITy of the fuUlfj,c. oxides, Hsted sbevc on Ihc basis o:fspecU'ml~.Uam. c
We also cO[l1s:idered the prcsencll';' oli ferrie

sulfaw·b~'i!"g pha,ses(~chw~~nnne

is o~.eof

these:)" The ~:ilydrox.YSIJ]f<litejarosite [(K, Na, :!-IlO)f'0j.(S04h,(O~~'~)Il]1 was kknLiftcdin Sfiru. by the MER Mossoo_uc:r eX]J'CrimC!ll U 1. 12), l~~he ne,u'-iillfTarod \:va\~eh;::~]~IIh. ran.~.ge" jafO'$.ilCis d~ lClizro 1iJy!ulnuw d.ia.,g,nos,tic ;alM::orptiom at -1,41,

-1.8:5. and 2.2? JIIm [ie., i.'~isa douilJle feature (clbtlbiot)], w[l:ic'h rue lIiHJI:cI.:urfel1t1y dct.ccood bili OM.EGAspettJll .. feme: Stll][~lesgene:Ii'lJlJ!yhave .!il, syn1.me,tri.c -O:9,JUllilllli$orplLOI'I baJiDdl, wiil.h a 300ng dl;lC~~ in!1i':flocta.lloC' ~lwre~ 0"7 ~.d

I

c
0.8· .0.8

Q.6

0...2 -

1 J)

Wa7ll'eUe!ilglh (1Jm:~

1 "5

_2.0 Wavaiengli~'~~m.) '

2.:5

1.01.5 2.01 WMleing~hb.rrn)

{A), OMEGA s~cb'al of' oxide-rich areas,~owi CilIm:lor (hatS'mal (~ijigh~greelTlll.CIil:pri (hi:lISifli.'l (iJllUe), Me i Plillli1l!~nlil(di.'lrk gW€e;n,), and dustflOf ~!)mparis!i)n (bIJi::u::k).(I) [jlbrary spedla oi ttl€' most pmbatJ~ o:xi:d1esa nidi hyd ~(lxide!il. on Mars (3} f01F00 mpi'3I~SOn, im:lMd~lI'I:g) tiE!l1lEltite, (0:9fE!Il:03) (b~~~), Igoeth~ite [a~if+O(OH)I~1 (glr,@em~,~epid,acmij~e! I[Y·FeO{OH}]1 (yeU,aw)l, a~kaganeite [lFe~+O(OH,(LH ~b~adktmm~Il~e [)Feh ~'.3" Sf9{H;10111 (l'e~l),and

Fig .• 1.

schwertrnal!'l!mre [-FeeO\e(OH~g;504,'nIH2!O] (mage[l[ta) .The hematite mMneral Ih'aJSalS;liIl1laJU co.mponent of~vater in it'. whe,reas, the· hemarioo fiomlulw dees not (OntJilrll wall@lr (IFi€~O~). (() UbraJuy Sipedra [re,~r;odu(edfU'Om '(9'}] of ferrlc and o[i@rOOIJS'sulfat'@s, ind~dlill'ilgl5E()iIillil.o'~nolkitE![Fe~S04. (H.:!!OI)]1 Olwe'). c:op,li31[p,ue [F~Fif"1f ~(SOJ'6(OH)2.,20!H~~]~,ocl),i3ImI~errimJDiaplitfl [F:~ OY3F~"'400W6{mD2·· to(Fi;10)] t~reenl .

F

fig.. 2. :Splatil'!~. i35.wdation 01 SI!llIi.fates and I()xio\e$ 111U!ll%dior C:h8!sma [(A 00 C),~ ,cEmt.eredalt 60S, 75"W) flill!'lidl (apri ChiUIiIliIil! UID' ~'OI A', Clllllr~em(] at B<l<,S"
1I.7"W1. [Wa,ild

0:))] B.illin.dl dep~~1 o:f iIl..9"jJlIM, ide"iliIItifi.le:d 'iliiil ~his cfI:se at)

:2:".1~!.m~~denJtirieJdla$ l<i~sE!lrite 1~91men.~ 2~!b,.rool ::2::5,G/ij). I[(() CimJ (F)] Oxid!l! baiJ'j;dl de[p·ti\ as modeled UsiiJ'j;QI the MGM~aj'alnJ9Ie· ~. 10%, red =::. 31~W.o)'.

WJQ ~;yhydlraled

slWUates {blue ~ 2Wo1 Ired ~ SWo). [('8) and

~En IBand

depth of

1207

I

REPORTS
(k9' ~lm and a Sl:rorag ~I[j;t;'.:~scin
[\NOO1!1I, 0.9'

n:11~I~re

be-

and ,~.] JWfn(I.!i),

w]lliC::~~

(he ''Il!C!!)'!lSj'm!!l~IriC O~"i(iA for :sim.11i:lar a'ii1l11p~.illl.:l.d!(,'$ Of!ftle
~.1yd~ijJ!lfbaJtl,lrt'$' in

m!frtcl:], spccLrn. MOfCO\1\cr, (l','lJ..Jun b<lDld, :th~

doesrot

they are presem~re

the' OMEGA

wmkem:[11,1[1. inl.~m,c

$i['X1'e1lm;-whcm
sldf<lle

]ibrilJ:)f s;pecfn'li ,(fig" Ie) OJ)...1.l:~, ferric o-xides, mLffi~.crhru~ fcaic ~Ltl:fues constinne llc domi~Mt ( .. co!1tribl!1l~ton te the specml]~gn<.ql. To .ms:p the: lieIT.ie exides, we used three dif·,

res!~,lts, In Fi_gt1, 2: u), 4, as . .ve1i .rl:!lfi:g.~, S~,;t]1J.d S2:,. we; shl}'\.... Ithe rcsolts ·of d'n,cMGM-!:lflsOO mJ)t~_OO.lhebt!:!"njl dC!p~1S providcdthrot.ghmu this: wark. reJlre~c~]~iliC~rengl~rn.of ·111.e (iau SSi3~ oo~pol1di!,g [OaKl fib:lTic ,cCJlmpone!lir, W'ld:chi:!'l n:-:..ld.i~y dis[ing.uls~.1.ed fnt:nn jihepyfih'L,Cne signal(ure.S.(IS these are coupled 10. a -211m blind.
Oxides arc

me s(';I.U:ber;u;ul11ost gyp:S~i~]]depos.it .inlani. Chaos (3., ,/ n]. O x ides are more ofiD:niI ~scu::i!ucd wi[b poJyhY.d.11u:oosIIlHal1..;sllian kk~ ~erire 'f,e.,g.,Capri er J~\I'-enl:fle' On~s:m~)'. ExeepC~lJl1iSmam and
[io]~~ lQ[hiii:

[ull,e'

aJIC·

Ibl,JJ!ld, for

~'!..unp.]e, .r

ondl~

[dI.":lut[ioou~.sf(Je 'VaUcs Marinc:rns,

Caudor Mensa depQS,it" where ki.e;'iieri.l~i1l11.d ox,:klcs are .1lssne:i:alOd. In Terra M.er~d,iaffili, oxides
;lll"C·id:on1itficcl b!)th flm ~:le he-Jnarire ...bcadng plains:

fure~~~ ~l;l\:i:lbod;: the M!od]fied Uau SSi!llIIModcl (MGM) (14, .IS), alinear lImn.mbding model (16),
aiiLdth~ slope be,n,V(lcn J.O ,md 1.3 fim (usingl.hC' bl.l:l'1:dratio 'biM\'ro~ r~fl!cc]<lm;ce va:~iU.cs ,il~ LtOru:ud ~ ~m rnu! s:e1«:l~1lg the V5!~.!.IlC-S gre~uc:r 1h1ll1 .•3, I 5%).. T~;l~~hro;::, m,ei:hod~ prov:ide tiOnCQ:rdkln~

T~rm Meridi~:uli,aad M.ar.g~rilife!" T~ (Og.. S1). in Va]lles Ma:l"incris and MS!l:garilife:!" Tetorn, o!.'>Ludes i1il'e in close ~~'l!ti;;ll assoc~:atu!Jn wi,~.hib", S1J~.rntc deil~ils plieSJenl :~~~Ihc-se regions 01'). Figuw .2 8:ho.\"\!'S. ~]fil~e and oxide aS8ocl~tion m
Capri
s!'i~f~lC

a!1:d~n l~U:etcllcd ~e~~1S 'f 18')., No lmambi:bFOOUS
su]fm~ signarure is identified. in ~he ~!C!H!ULlCbeadng 'p1Iain:ls U 7, 19),. COI]]p'lIrl!SOEl with 'the mapping ofhclllt1!tliDC o:bIL,')]fliCd lPy l~~eTltlL1milaIIE!l1I,'liiss;iOfl Spectrometer (IES) onboard !till:::Mru-s motlll.l 'Sr~;l'V'cyor (MGS)

and C!l.OOOt Chas.riI1a.

HO'iilllewr.somo

d~ooit'; do 1l{j:t.h~\!C:~he oxide :Slgn!l[Urc [e.g .•. k~e::;,'e~ilede'j)QEit.') in Capri and G:a~gis

diffc-rence-s '~2'~I. ~n Terra MeIr.id~ilI!ni., OMOOAide'~lm.es '0::>:'id~ thm U,gJ10Ul
fC;VC,a]$ impO[1Oi!1ilt

fig.. 3,. o.ocid'es and rul-

~ates.

(I) n~ft)

'(i@o'

A

g~.i1Ipl1i:ic COJ1l,teMl: witJhl the aJffi\1iI :rI~awi!'i!~' ~e di· met!on of obsE<lf!lIialtiofl chosei!ml 'm'Ortl1ie~nlr,eedimelilllmna[ '(3:D~ Vims;

the mrn'lef positions am
alt 5,"~4rs 74~ ' (l'o"''I. t. lliQ~ :Hll"18'S, 69'''W hril~dl" d~e'); ];O!;!S, 7,4 'W (bmQ

~m,). (M:id~I1!')S [llfute
band ,dep~ (t:o;p;2Jl-f.IlTI

bcall"ldimm k.ie~eri\~E:l';Ifll~dlo dlle'fliiild bOUClfll:: 1.9'"~lm ball'l~ fOJ IPO,tyhyd rated sulfates; bl~ue = 3:Il1/Q.• red ",,10% I.Ulc! above),

(RighO Oxijde bmd depth (ye:Lll:lw =lO~q, ~e:I~ 3(0/0). 1he images. a~
overlalid en til 311) ..wew of Hiig,h-llll:e~ooutiofl Stfll'eQsmpk U!lmer:a im~ge5 ~fOm orbUs, .3:60', !51:5 r alMl .3!3i1rll1Om tl'lP' ~ !bote. ~.(Bl DisUlibtitiof1l crf (I)lid:es !:il!'!d S!JU~tre5 vei~;'

sus at[,timii:'!~rymn Melas CJliasma, The diistril::rutiQn5

13; 0.00
0.:00 0.:00' :1l., .j!!1 0.00
CMn5

,
I

~e been oommalizOO by their aOO'ilI ro.~ [;OMIP:arnl' SOI1l .• Fo~ eXfi.mp[e'I' in '~~.>e SIllJd~.ed alrea~8,O:/~, of the

,

~ertri(o~idesi!lrl3' ,detected
aJ~

I

~le'llaJUons bE!tween

~22,OO and~OOO m. tills
diaJwam~O'i!IiSlha.t M" ~deos,awe I.ocatedahimlilair iutdl~r alti,melJryilh.:.n

~:

1;

~: ~

i: o.G4
(HIlS CMD2

tile

SU~falte5

sm~.e. .

on

iill

g:tofuial

0-,-' (I

:2000

4000

Elewtblrri (1'1'1)

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL317

S(::IENiCIE

ViMw.sde:noolmag.oFg

REPOIRTS
till!:' B~hed 17eili]'<'li:ns, ru:tcl the hCI1'1a[~ile-be1lLrn:nI1Jg Pllfl]ITIlSi,w~eroas 'JES i.dcIUi:!lies, hematite orliiy ]~, (he ~lCmatiitc-bca_rtng plains (18. .1D).. b~ Vidk~s, Mar.incris;~ ()MEGAude~uifr[,1,n;i:,m!F:. Qlal;oh TES idemifj~a.t~o~il: for !;ome ~~gn; b~l not ~U (20). In .Am.m Chaos, the d.ilstrib'blituO.D1I of oxidesas seen] hy OM.BGA.is very s~mi]arMI) 1:tlfC srribnlioifl of di
CUi!"

:linILeriQ[- l<l;yel1,'t! depoo:iil:S (I.LlDs)

mnl estend Lo

their base as IOV!N'!;~bedo sand (Fig. 3). One l:aryen::d dq:IQSi~. i_~ e~i Cbas:ma dI:m.IDmm:ll[1:l:'$ this n:~~liO!l:->hnppanvC:!,.II~.:y we~.l{H~.4}..Oxid~
rich ~]~d dl;!!:n'C::> ollLs~:"Vc,d at [he base of the al'C

ILD£.[[1 Candor Chasl.tna" oxide-rich sand js fO'L.tOOas f~rils 2: 11:1.11':1 a.Wly i:liom th~ base af the

pred.ucl,illg '~.lespedmi .li':attl~iO be Observed by OMEGA.ilmflging :at, l'lli£,i1'aef ~'1titl~reoollJ~iD$l wi~l~le Compact ReoCUElfIJissa.m:c Jmagblg SIXl~ Ullnllcte[" fur MAJt.')/M~rs Rocomnai~""ll.lCe Orbiter might !;parridaw til is pol>sibilUy. Ol1ri~~lie~rela~ [iO:IflI of OMEGA daiaJ f<liV>o:r::;, a di~JcrenJl .fOO.tlati£l[l [][:J;£"C.hal1iiSJ:l,'iL me ferric oxides OOge,rvoo iin ~lC :fOr

I

hemati,lICidctlJliilied by TE:S.. DUT'C:reillCCS can ec.. ] LD$. This ~,gg(8lslilln~l oxlde-dch mm:e:rij)'!& frl! h) 1JJecm!SIC the 'Vis~ble:snd n~~r..:i~l,fr.ared 'i,7I,11a1V!>· sand :;:izcd!Uld is sil:lfl'h,;fiently resiSW~M su!ivh~e l!cngLlhmn:gc is mog:~8e~itive~:{)I red hern~tire, rO!~g-distance 1roim:port ]t ~1I1iS IJ~!U they mre wln;:I1e..~:~fl:Ieihenl]!Jijjinb~d is :nmSi sell~tiiv!.;:' 1.0 arig~l1ia]ly ~stI1!l in 00 lIn;: [LDs .,)]1d!ih21lemsijOI:l . cO,;'I~;-;t.~ltlln:tQd ~:~.el1li:llliLc:,whiclJJ em 00 g,I.<l!y in.l, n.,n.ova~: rsofi suilfo·lte oOJlt:(m:!I:me.~,fb:l'Iric; oxide. o
color fund not :IDCal_dJlly d~loct.9hl(l' aL sll!!:lxt~ \!\.1l'VOIcng~]s 1(8)., ~tji.~~~gO I:u:nall:lil:: ha.1 ferric .aboorptlQill, ~a was id:cwlij,f1ed h'i! the In~T,arod. SpcetromClcr lOr MaJrs/Pi1obo:;2 dam 1(2.1)..'!ivhk:h rnil'wh~l[l~~O'
]]0((;::

dlUlffiOOdm. the localized de;;p()s]!S described here. (J~";,.£o]id ~1!~tcrac1~iCln bce~'lidJelUined as ~~Il!iS.
a p,-)ssibie rnecharusm
10 .fo'!1!u the W~a:~OI)~nU,e

ox:tdes observedia manian bri~l.] .regi.ol1s (3), If gas-solirl imeraction was t:he p[incip,}I precess
tWlit produc(dlfuros.e deposits, '~].Crl one would ex:peel.th01lt ;;ll~I migln~mn.!.\!dc~;i1S: would be .3.f·· d f~~dj' whl.dhis nOI oonsistent wiU'l <lur observa .. tiaas, A~re"l'li~an:~ve:ly. ferric o';.:;]d~lllay have as \'o:l~e;)tllileru:J,d.s.edlimc]lJ,tary ), ,~~mm,ers:iimu~t~ l'l.oo~IlSI.)I with slqlf:aitcSi or as :gooo~dm:y phases

feu.ic' oxldes aroide[ltU:iedby OMEGA over 1:I'lIOm, themartian of surfaee (3): hm~I'Q\I\e:r, tllu.eiilf Sf) eclr.l~. f:Calu~ di ffcr Sl!bSl~illj!l~~Y."fhe {:ern,e

"'<IIlion ohtiae wc-s'temU1'1i(}S,] diG'P,osi[ i.dentifi.od ]1'1 Ca1Ja.cib:r Oa.asm<l.,

COll~;J;I*lrn:~ :Fc:m.e G):xndlc-s,\vith
Om]tC:ii bscr

MGs{M~I'S,
Orbj]il'i"

o!X~di1:sclcnli:ll(ld ~,l~the ~pecillc: and disti net dei pos;ils discussed hese show speeual :sig;Fl.tltnres lI1,p to liVCI]I:'Il!::'.~, as dcqp as n~u,oflho anhydmuiS oonop!1."Ioo o~iLk!s ooll!ltiWLing tllJ: brigJu dust, 3i1d thcyare s~tiaUy~oook'1i. end closely f~s.'i()Ciil[cd \\~,tll su.lt'lte depm:m.We C';a:n:ll",J~. cl1lirel.y role O!.u

Ibllmc::cl. b:!l I1:l~id circulaiicn ,fDlhe :\'ru:rf-aceor sub~Hrfaoe hJJlnan.y dlJi.ffere:rn,l. ::nvht);[Jjrn~lilll:S(sHc'h c

AHimcriCill~ll),

M!GSli\IIllIii'S

CaJm:m 1(2'.11). ~fld !OcIysseyrrherma'i Emission

(suchas dll.l!.r!ng!ater d:iagcn~tic a]tcrl)liO:nJ~'. TIley l
Ci'ln c.,'{li~;Ubi] a Irn'gc variety of gra.in sizes, from naneplrase :po:llJli.c~c.sin cenr::::rUlo h1rgc 'COl11lcreti)(]lls

tll3.t~lC .],i:ffi:[CI1CCS :~n,,~~y~'l1ec[ <I ]ml;l]lowel" Imllgin~ Sysl(;.1n (24) i.m~es ~~[OWS lh!!l,1 the !erfie ox:udes are !L~"iof;ia~ed ,:vil1i~1 !>UI&1~ie..:ri!c,111 oonccntr.nim of £~~IrEliCS in Lhe dll,L'ii,t,In alevel

Pig .• 4. Oxides art!' pre-senJ~Olmlltl~:e IlLDs and at. their base, wheliE!' we (flll1 ob~eirrvl!l' oX.'ide~ri(h sand dUI1l~s, (I.@!ft:) GElogr~p!hll!C [C:I!:,aln:olll'll. The red arrow '~ind~,['ahIS the dirredl011l of obs~r'l!lat.i(u'l used fer tJliiE! 31D vie:ws;tlhe ()ent~,~' posHiol'lhS i3:rea:t 4«l30":S. 7'3QW (('OIP);' 5°5'1'5. 74~W (mlddllle); D!l'12'S.,

46~ ~boU(llIlllil).(MiddL@) 'View.5ilrrrll.~D of areas I~f ~lnt~~esit in O,phir OMla~l1I1aJ {top), Candor O'nasli1l1aJ (midd~e}.and Capri Cilasma (botJt'Om~!. Tihli!l,~ ,oxide band d@pthis .shown Dlnl a .stalE! olf yel~ow (10%) to r€!d t;:30etcl (R.igIiliV MOe ]maiglesshowlli:l!gl that o[:<ides al1~' a:~so to!c~Hedill1ll~11l:~·rilcn areas.

12.09'

I

REPORTS
nll ~ir.:=e(25)" Acid.ic e:JilVirOJ1WiiJl.111'S th~se' 11,11~ne.nllls forrned irrn,close iQS~Ot::lfinon , have beea 8ugges,1~d d~uri~ slIJllf!l,t~ITbrrm.Hion ]~, thfl)ll~gh aptoeess dl1l'l {)p.er.:liloo 'Nit'hi~, a spacufk: MerldiifiJI1W Planum (11}'a~~dVall:es M3!ril!1eris (3}b oogno~'t (lif Mars, "fh~ ~s eonsistem wi'~l l~cir origiJ!rl coupled 10 ~:he'roc[onic e;vel1l~Efu.lh)!!;,vi:~g Oxide r'01'II1~~li(JrIl is obst':f'ilOO ~o,gefihe!1' W~Ul stailfa Ie" proc:ipitm·iQi.!l i~ QQidic cm!'il'Omneiflit~ (26, 17), t1tL~ b~ildi~g (If Thal,'5is~ \1II'.i~.nn:si~t Sijl"ipli~ Hemat il~ and s[df:,'lt~furn]litliiQJli are ODSCI1I't:d. 'OfW:ruler C:e:ll.berHing :!\;lI]1~1tc~and gFO'Wi:Dlg eoadM!U"in.Shy<hu'l.hc:mud ;},IOOnUion ofb[l8<l~li(; tephra. ereiions U). under add..;sul nne 'co.ndlitiOiIlS en Mauna Kca Ilile'feooli1lces aJli1dNO~l!.!i \fo]c~!:l;o., l.hl'!;v,;Jiijli(28). A~,re:ma!H\"ely, ciiflgmesis: 1. R.. E•.A!l"IIldSOOft (}j •• '" 6f1o.phy;, R~ 1':111,. E1251}iB re,",t:!Il[ing [rom iron.:riC]~fluid ,ci!\C!JI!l[~Q$l C~~ lead
[0 laugea:m~lI,Ullll." of Dt'll1i<l!iite oe.vnea1lt or conC:IDCfiolm;o; ('25). Thi~ has been i.I1!l!e[~l~lJed ~m:J1 '[0[111, Me-t1d~.runll lhy~he Oppo:rtU[l~ly r~over Teem VI )1, where oxlde fbl:li:illl!..~tionOCCfl1r8 anllr sui [<Uiic; fbrmffl.io:l:1!(29, 30). 8~lril!il:c;8 areob&erv.ed ]nVollk,'s, M:~nin~i~ 1:)111OIU(:;~ s~(;:'m!]kijlom~n,~r.; ih~.r.k,
lHU1;::h (20(16<),

l,~linl~tric

Nt. c, .MllIliil'i, J ~pfr,.,Rr!~,~O,6, 23:873 {~OO:l!}. H. f. L Ge<i~er.lt e, Siii].ger, 'G<. ~orma!;~. S~ MIi.!rd'iie',.

19. It E. ,At..iidsooetal., SOEIlCt 300', 1591'1 (2005~. 201.• IP. It {hri~tEI1iS!!n, .It V. ,Mo:nils, m. n IUm@', J. L 8.3nd~i~~dI,

22.

J!. N\u~;a1d"

kafUs '1:;06., 38lJ. (1993).

[I. 5m~ihEt iIlt, lIlASAIP1{)[u!tbry f)trUJ S,stem,

M.G~JW<MOI!A.LS·MEIGOR,n"VIJ)

'(200)3).

,B ,. I'lt. C. Miiltiin ~!JC I'll iiltiin 'Spare Sdmc.e Sys1Bnms, JI/11IJ5 ClfbJ~~r ,Carn@r al :ilnag:e IG~lter~''(Iffl'IW, !l11S~S\.CIlm!'

,mcl: glllllJ!l)I\'.t• . 24. f. IR. CIi1:rist>ens:e.n.e~'.aI •• Spa.ce' :5'6,. Rev,UIO, 8S~2 0CI4},. 2S ,. I'll. A. Clilan. lEI. fileiller;.Ii\I'., llPalll)', ]. G:rm, G, t:oma1S!!1,
llI'tltUife 4tl9', HI

(2IlO<l).

2.l."lP. BUbrl~!i e1 Qt. ~peoJI Space "'_gen" Sp«~ !'t!.f:II: 124!0., 17 (2004)', 3 •. kiP. Biibring ~l {Jr., 5d~nru312,<100 {2 GIOISL 4, It V. ,Mooili e~,al, j" 6f1ap~Y$ ~, 105, 1l75,1 (liOCDO). S. O.,M, S"~r!Il!!m. R G. !!:k!!~!'!~.\J, !VI. Bi1!r!l~,J', ~Jys, ' fte$,
87 .• '1016'9' U. 9\B2~'" 6. R. V...,Ml.\lli~. ,tI~ul. J. Gtrl.'p/~,.!. J?n. ~, UZ~ (l9·ml5l'. 7, Rli. ,Mp$,. H'- 'ii, LaIU~~, ~p.fIop;. [tel,. '95, 5,10]' A tl!.9~(I). 1:1, M, II), ~n~, lit 'iI. Mt:I:rri~,$. .A, M~~m~nl. 1:'. It Chfi!1te!ll<~elll.l GeD-pily$. Re$. H26 (~U02), 9. R~","I'!h:1!'i~O. C. Gioldeii1, J.: ~. Bell IIR J, Gropl!ys. Res.

~~. I). !(•. Nigr'~~!IQIi1'I'C NI,A~p~r¥,ifil ~vij)f~ ,

Gtol~s~'S.G. :5. ~luunlee. M. ]1. lorJdlsI:i~,Ei!iJ~;, ~Ecmoifl~c G!llaog~ Pul:iUshim:g (00'I,p.a1il~, Llt~OJ!'l1 (0, :Il99'9}., ~oI. 6A. IIlP.:BJ~ 16(1,. 2'7., ~. J. Tos,,(;llI ~t a!., .Eit:l~, pla_ :s, .. ta'I;.2:4(), 1,22 .
(2U;OS). ;:08. ~. V. MI~fiiil.~,~~,1JJ •• , Fa!1ll F1~nw. ';,rt j,m; 2:41), 11168 (:~11()5). 29, liP., ~"W:ng~lr e~(Jl.. f.~t11JRkl\l'l~(. 50, Ul~ 240,U
(~OI05).

m

,f~(l"~liIli~

thicker 1)h(l!:~in Terra Meddkuni. '!.:va'n:ic~

c:(nuld~:~~\!'Ie .rnrv:orl':dw.1 ~'iI!~e'h~I!Iill1'ilhmla.l:l:an thruutgh d:irlg.ul]csiIS,. 'TIle' ,rescJl:ce (If oolm::;retio.1msin \lai~.es, Marincris, aldumgh not ncoo:ssary. \~~olil!d aOOOlliU fOr ~UI:he omerv,!'Ilti.O:!l~; Qxide signm.lJre {J

['e;<;,iSl;mlmilll:eri~t ~nd ;fIcCUHlulatijoII :In dmm sand. The emsien of SL11t;nte-:ri.(;hoUb;OOPs v.~uld, 1'n:3iV'e Ted to the <lOI':LI[1JilJ[li;;rluon r oxide oOrlcucli!ol:ls at o
knwr llIi~i.1mk';S" Id~I1~HkaJionof sp!ul.alrel~uiom~hl![}sbelwceFliroll. oxidcsacd 11J!)!lClil\dSUI~;fl~e: dlcpo>S:1rCs w~[hil~'\kIlles Ma:rincrUs and Mi:[rgari(iit"rlcrm, which nrumor tlb<l.[ I(lbserved all. .Mer:iij,i'J:l'[i boU1. [rom omil ~I'idin situ, is a strcn'ig iifidiC<'iiI:ion thorul

n

m7.

31]1.S. m.

1[12,9'125 f199'7}. V•. Morris.. 0.. C. Gididliiin, kQt!I.f:!i 134, ] (199;S~. 11, 5, W•. Sq,lIIifesl)f oJ" Sd~f1Q! :nl.&,. 11696 1:200~t 12. G, Kli~g~lhafer e!' ~ts.cJ'~ce3,O&,l7t\lCl (-2m~4). 13.l. K. (rcm1ey t/. 6!, Geo~em. &plot. Em4riOn, ~l,J." 219 (200~).
lCD. II.

n.

MdLllf1lllilli! I?l lilt, !Earth :FlI(J"'~t. 5ci. htr.2:40, 95 (:10105). The ~8.o' ~iiir.ei~1 rellec:Ia!i!c.edliscmd Iher,e ~s.loca!letiii'l t~t: JU). 10 14"Jlm wa~~f:n!Jllh ro1lrlge, Ii'im~nl~S ool'Si~

f·aMmmk

(.aIlllet.3,

wawl:fingjll

I'llfl'ge~

S'Up'portil1ll9 Oni~i~(!Milteria~.
'NWI't"'di@n[:~m~!J'DJgltgr11mnllrnll~ulJ)JlH4]74JIOClL

14.

l

115,1 IF,Mllilta~. l MI. .s!lll1~~i!itl!,s;a;.mw ~6 '1. 1l6J~ (199Sl [.G. l 13.MO!msel oi.l.Geopbys. R~s. 91, 809'8 (1l9'86t 17• Pt. Gend'ril'l ,~t,al•• Scitll,e 3)01/, Ua. 7 (20(15). 18. R,. £.A:irvi:lils!On ~. aI", J~Gf\tJ:pliys.Rfi 11[18,001.3 I;lOO3ji.

o.9m~

M. 5rn:nsih~n~,. C .r!!LPi'@ii:@iI!>,..I,IGe~rr>

,liB;

9'.5, 695,5

Fig~. Sl·am.lil 52
2!l .ApU2IHI7.; <I((@j)!edi 2S ]nlly 2007 pun;.1i5ll!e·dlonUne2Aiu!J~t 2007; 'liU:12 ~"i~nre.l.'lA 4174

IlKllOOe' thli5 irlrGrifrl!aition

W~fifI ti,ti~

11i1i5 ihlper.

Repli,catiion Olri'glin IRe',co'glnii'tiionand D,eformation bly 8 Heteredlmerlc A,rchlaeall IOlre1 'Collmplle,x
iii he falithftlum d upUcatllo nef glenetic mal~'e rriall delPe:~rd!s; Ion leS:$ent~:a ·DNA. r~,p&iciil,[jOn~ni~~li.Itn()!nfactors:. l

TIlc aro1m~OOIl S!I{fMol}l,~<; :Jii{J.ijiucClriC'll!Ij 1!!l8('S t[~ or.j,~~~sof J;ep~iC:<1IIl[On (ariClr ori('2 ;and ori(3)
1,

Cett~uhninitia~or5 forml higher-ol"delf essembliesen rep1iGllIti.on orig~ns" ui51ng ,E!deITIl05~ne ~niphosphale (AiiP) to h}c!)illy rem.m;lel dIlJP~ex[)tlJi:Aand falCit~i~te proper Iloadiilm:gl o.f synttmtlc mpl[is:oma l cempenents, To ibJette!lr 'W!II1itder:5;iian d li1711rtlll.8ihlrm1UIiI!ct.]O,n" ei d e,~e rmin,ed ~hle 3:,~, i8!ng s,tmmw
resollutioln s~rllldure of an arc:i1:1) ealll.Gdlc610rd h~~er:od~mer bound to olrigill1l DNA. nne strUJld!i.ml! delmonsir,(i'tlEls th<lIt, ]n addiUon to con'lrentiornal DNA bhuiinQ eh1lmellillts,~il'il!itiators Mise the]lrr W.+ A"!",Pas'€ ,o:0lm1aJ]n5to wlt(iogni.z:e OW;t9l1n DINA. Tog.ether these interadton:s 1€'.!lt:aMish the polari~y ,of mnitial.ora!Ssemb ~;Y' Ii;)!nthe ori'9lin an d iilfl!dlUce substa ntia l distortiQns] nto Q rigiin 1)INA slfalluls. Biochemical andl (omp,ar,'Ml'i;f{! analyses. ind~'lilit,e thi!ll~ W+/[)NIA cQl1iIitads o,bserved 111the Sl~~iuctuwe ~re ,dYu:i!I~mh,;. 1~IIff.o,llutltO'naril~.yi(Qn$eiFv,ed.,s:,~.glgenil!:'ilg 't~l ~hle~o:m~'le;;:f'Qrms a~()!I"'~ (0 mp!)lmveot o~ arid ti~le basa [ ~iflitlatnoin IliIliliChil1lIHY.
l

(12. ltfiJ. WI'Ul oriel ,eOJrn.lii:iniii:1g binding sires lfir aU rlhroeo,:f lh~ .organism's Cdc6fOrc I. in:iljmOJf pt!ralo,gs. (Orcl, -l. ODiC~, nd .ore I.~:1.Fig:. 1Jr.)1 -2, (17). Previous slud ics Sllggesl. ~]1ifUOre 1- ]Ml.d Ore I -3, bind dil1!ri~lgtltci nl.ti:at~on ocf DNA .!!CPlic~tion and th~l Ord ~2 lll<lY at[ as a mac~,<I[i\l'C regu~;tJ!ioli {l.2), Although. Orc)-loocogn:lizcs <I~ C!!Ifi~ljn .Di"4AI'C41JiC<l:t ;;;eqm::Btl"Ckllio\:w:JJ as t1tu~ origin rooo.~ilicm box (ORB) V1. 12). as. \lI"~;U as a nf'liu~ilimiz,edvcrs!!:m. Oflhl(o;: n~,ol:if'tmORB) fOliJi~.d

at v~'iC2,Oi:c:]-2:arn.d Orel-3 eac~ bind separa:~e repeai'scque'[l!:;:cs thg)~.~r'!1: di~.],]~~cl the mORB fhml sil~ (!ennoo C2 ,auulli CJ,. re!ll!IDCtively).. A 16_:b"l'ltl pilii r {bp) owr]ap, oocfltrsbc,tweena mORt! and a CJ sin,:, ,cre.. uig1g a cflll8i~-sil~~que[tce joinUy roc.;. ·
o:gll'~iz:edby both Ore .1-1 :and Ore 1-3 (Fig. :1.Aa~.d

.I.lg, S]". ~(I lIIJilclersillU1:d the mo]ecular detcrnd~~fIin]~ which .iniilliiCIJl:(il'l>mcogllize<l~H!. reslKI[u: by
oFigi:[I!S,.~ive ,eocrysmln1led Ore] = I.frn.cl Ore .1.=3\~fil]] a 33Jbp DNA eneompllssiD:li£: the mORBIC3 d~lJEi] site {l8. The SUtl.c'liijro\:l/M so~v,od. by [;J)'JI'iJi,IH-·

t:onscf'IIiiti.uEI ocrnss ~he dUf't'l'l':!IU dl)J~r'lcallncS. of tife (1-3'). AU ,ccl:lula:r. i:Dl,U[imUffi can!l;,\iiitlJi1J 001111.C."IJ101Jl7 kid DNA bl[rl;di1l1l,goo:lIfIa:ins al'id. discrete ~tde:r:J.os.ine lripl~osp~Hlmso (ATP~sc)1 f'lIloduks,. The oon~;ll-'

T

. function sh(lll!e,.'i d(lgro~ of mt::d],a:n~is;[ic a

he COmmiOi'i mOdjj~:IIrililfChl!!iCCm.roof~· licat~o'lli'l ~dfl~orn· Sijggcs~sduu, in itiaror

Tho pflt1!i,cii.ijj!i"lf ATPa:llc domain:s ¥~:soo by i11]li,altorn fa.]] wilhin the broad 8upcrmm.ily :0 f AAA+ [wmcin:s" whid[ s]h;lr,e' an (Ibi~ity~o fO!llllJ
lltl'l;gil!:

'vn.vekl,g~]. M!ClnUlloos di8PCl:Si:ot~, UvIA:D} usi~.g
1.Millerllns.tiM~ fulra:a~tR~~rdilin SIli~Qe:. 2536 CIiI~n~l1ig

~.'[nlll:~1'iubun it

()Olnp'~exes,

tlh.'ll rO(;IClllfigmc

the slruc~l,md ",;~:aU}l;;!(If i>pt:::C.il].ClLargel. mac:,o111I.o!iii,tlulcs;>( /J). :Prec~:sely~lto\1iI'ini~ iamts ll~elhe

tI'onaJ DNA bk~clil'lg (ltnilb~ ~S$istinloC',aJ.it:li~~g d ]lli~~~Lors ~t)i cp]iC.!Itim'n. rigins, w~:~Cl'Cas ATiPase r o the
elemel]ts ~PI~oor In '[Jleclifltc .th:e. hG:gl':tcr~ordera&~~1i,1b.lyOfU,ilili!lIllOfSJJ.ililll'iits;'i[

MA+

~u:,d~:iloori!'llrc ]'iCmodJc:~ origin snuctmc to

remains Ui!lclear; hl}\"N':'(fer.ini~]~"o:!" (lom:pl.cN:c..s

Ute o:r:igij~] {4'-J2j,

ha ~·1iu!'ens.ho"l]]! to imtd repli~am,dl'ac[{}~ QUlO DNA (141, .l5} OOld m faci.~itmc o:ri.!l:in '1iJiI1lw.indi:~ iliJ b!i.cLeri.'L (.f). VOIL 317

WiI¥ 5l! 90, Urliver:sily of ~tuklrnial, &,rkeli1ly, (A 9'4720;, USA, ~OePilmmluill of Mn~ellUl.<if .md feil Illoklg.y, QB3 ~1'IS1jUJm •. ~!al1rey Ha.W ~220. U"ivErlii~y ~d a~rO~~ial, l:1eJk.e~¥. CA 94'7.20,. US!\. 3Me[!t>ea[ lR!es~ rml CounCil WiR() Can~~ ~~l Unit ~h,ltch~1fl MR:C R~~!rdl, G~niir~, Hill's ~d., Cal~r~d~ CB2. ZXl, UK.
"'[0 wi!1(i!FF1 (!(fme~PQ:mt.fIll(!f1

£h,(m~d becd:d~'es~d". E·-malt;

jmbe~ger.@berkeleJ.ei!illiJ!

11210
1

31 AliGUST 2007

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolmag.oFg

REPOIRTS
A, B

I

.OrciH
.Orc11-2,

W~D

Fig,. 1. Intti~torfio:rigiiln mm:pt-ex. (A) SchemaJtit o.f ori(1, ~Iigh~jglhling seq'ueiI1lCe$ element IIJ'A calr'loo:rlI of Oltcl~l mustra~es tite ,rr'ei,ativf' oriiefitatWlfl!1 (If! the !Q!f remgni~oo by o.~i(1-1,Ofcl-2, ,al1ld Of(1-.3: j)'alRlllogs ~pilnple~gray, and teal ]n~tij~to(s slJbd!)ma'il~5-wilillihe IISM. the MAT doma]n in ~1lJ~e'.A[)I~.bflack a:~roliY.!i, fe'5poctwdy}. the dhedtio:1'iI1 of~he purp~e a:UI~lJ'!Y5Irded~~'he:S~,.;to~31 Siticks; .mTlaglnElsil!m~)onl magentaJ5phei~e. (C) 61.Qool ,!:llf(hitectur€ oftihe On:1 ~It
OOI1l!iE!lffilitiol'l oid1@ mORS (iOJDsenSUJ5 5eqjllElI1l.ce; itl1e C21• snd (3·site ,".nom ~indh:ate the IielatWe "'Hientltll0ns of tihe~ l'e:p!e'ats"illlle di::.sh@ol bo!):. de\l'ilo,~Ii1i@ (JIm:ORB dua'~ s!liL'e' IUsOO~in til,€! ,c()!!:!ry-staL strll:uiure. DUI~ ION!A unwllil.diillg Or:d,·3'DN.A oomp!le'lL PI~oteil1l~ purp:t.e ,a~d~ea'~; DN.A" orange; ADf~ bl.a:~ksti:clks; mi3.g,il'tes~lImions, mo]Jgeifil'1:i3FIpheffliS:. (D)' Eile<c!tn)sil:aticsurface' FJ,epiJ'le5erita:~orliS: : or O!r;(j-cl ,flrvdl m-s ..thie' yellow i~llnedemar(aJtes; the Ib>Q!llndalr}l loo,t\li'een pro/tamers,. o

a srilc4llwYle<t:l1Jioll rlltc-s:ubSl.iIIIUi()d~mple, and theA, finaJ n'IDOdbl ','!Iasrefi1l1loo, l:O ruil, .R'~ of26·.m (fiB~:S2
~~dmb]c S .1 (J 8),. )

.Both [~]ilioif'sdemonstrate sumula:!,overall arr~· .. t
t;:hih':t.1uteS. \\i~:I.h w,uinlg:cd-helnx dOffiiiicaillifis f\VH.D:!lJ arljaoc:fTIl1. '10. but offset rFOm,di:e oonvllruljiO:tlai~ olligJll~l'Leri~l,iO:r1 sur:r;"}cesof th.CiAAA+ ATPase: l]:l.Odtl~.es(l1g. 1B ~nd. §:ig. 33 )'. T]~is cOl1.l.lgJ!m,tion gives the' b~iliarugrl',the app~!1l:noe of .!l. '~"dr of ]obslet d~VfS. '\im~ic1'fi, S~l side by side ~l:) grip the DNA (Fig •. ], e and D) .. AMhough On::l~l~md Ore ]<ll :->ho.are (m~y 01, :3 60. A2 ~:I:II~C[l;fllLX.'" [he jIJX,~' mpo5iltioo of the (\;\10 lil'lJili,l]ms creruleS a eoanauO'U!$sw~llh of 'posi~jwly' d~3!rged s!!Jirface dun binds a. 2S-bjp slreb::h of DNA atii~ buriCll! {lVCr 2500 A"l. ~nj]~em.II~Ic,gpnn[e~n j![lt~rl~ (F.ig,I.U)\ The Wl~.lnm:u:m the AA.A.+ don11f111r]of c,il.ch prol~lltlcontribllile to .DNA bill1Jding .. , Tille Orel- [ ami Ore 1-:' WHDs biindin !l. near~yidci1lLic:[j1rnmmlcraiong,a singJc {a.ceof~ho DNA (Figs.,.], B ~!1dC, end 2, A m:uiB~ The dcnni.~g .!blW]iCS '0 fW~]lJs-the he:ILx.~Hlnl~~:~dix (1.~[[[Fi)

and j3rhOlinpin '"wing" :mo!tifs.'--co:mbi.rne ~.Ocre~l~

h~s::hiyoos:ic I~c(,f\ on the rwe d~)nuti,ltas{lfi.g~ 1]),
which 1:o~ooheJp:ro\'id~ 75%ofUt.;; .DNA bindi.1:iJg surface. ~n gcflcmll, these W HDs oontact DNA ~~. 11 ca:l1lor.]I:{,\alfa,.,m.ion{diSp'~(Iyung .[rIT.lltmajor guoove «rId w~lligll'li[in():rgtfOO'!{c bilill:iing), brlJ(~ closer inspeclio:rJI of i.h~,c' inler:Jaims .re'\f>ea,l~ ~~.omhle' di f~· [ereilfu:u from es,mlblish(.-dW~:m bi[l.(j.ing, g,~,~,ooe!\].
MO'SI,

~;ig.2. WHD,~DNAand AM+/D'~A i:n~'erilJdio~~. , Cetajtedviews of~he (A) 01'(1-3, a n;dl~B)Of(l~l WHID-D:NA ~ntelfa;ces are si~.Olillil:1l1. Riesfdues 1Mith~'rll!h.e[lNA ibifld]ng 'iililitelffalC€' am' slhowll as s~i(b; bai&'es rerogmr.zed
spe(]~Ci1iUy by Side c!1i111r1:;iiH,E! Ir'E!d., () ISM:; wimhlll Orcl...l and ()n:;1~3 .W+ doma~nsb~ml adja()en~D/NA. gmo!!lles •. ~D> His~@Ql'ams(g~eern barrs) s!~!o~ng the' deg.riee offarn~nCl.c!dd seqIWNl'!n~e!cllnsenatio!fllNilJMI1I the ISMs gf aJr'dliiileal ·~();lc:6JOrl(l)j 'e!.!ka~ti( '~Or'Cl, Orc4, and (deISt ~nd lood.e:rial ([)!l!3IA)1 inftiattiolll factor subdadeS:.[ol1!le:rrvrol g[:~dnEls 11111 (d~610r;(1 alflld Ord ,~.ClO[psa~e:Ila~e:l@d (siee< also, ·~ig. 56)'.

WI;IDI·ONA

C0'l1rJ!p1co)tcs

re'lly pred{)~[ljin1U:u]y

on one elcrremto Ibi!ld.[]~e l0jorgroo'lle of DNA. n
wh~reas~lll!e! scc:o:ndiloorif plm:ys an ~uxill i~1'jI role ][1 s:wililizi!1gUle i!1rue[~e:~iQiIli{HI).1:vJ1 C(l['\trnS[., :nhe H1}l iilild Williig. oil'Ord, -] .illl1d OElt~,-3bo;th 1.]~:@Jke

maj)or C(lllllribUlion,<; to origin ][)NAbi[lll.cling by ~lliScrrin]g det'1J.l1y i[ltO ne.ighborling .DNA grooves (F]g. 2.. 1\ ,[]lltd B). the!.v.'o r1lotlr~[oge'~he:r bind ....... ~ .....,.

evera fuU U'lim. or DNA in a s~ugll\'::WHn·DNA in!(!:rfa.oe. m~ ~!]Lerac:l:icnll ~re.;J!s!t]b:sta~.~i!9~llylar~e(i thant .is. S~jJm, QOIi.Vellll:icnlll]ly OO:r\\fHDs, (fig,. S4),

I

REPORTS
These ,co.IiI:~~clsp~tIiy 1I crilt~ilI.lro~.e :un me.(jiOl.t)nIlIg ]ni~ia~{)rfDNA assoeisrions, ~,,'~:dl lITH ~lI:I[~naljol1iS,
eeu sj~_g 4{1-~o 4:1]0:.fold deereeses in Of!;; -,1 aad ~ Ore ]-3~~et ~~e affil1:i~:tes ~imIJJIIGwrloo~s uand m mrion oni]l:] ~nd w1!lJgl'!csi:duC!>aboli~]~illgini~· [i~ln:rhindi~]g (ri,g. 2" Aiiln:U], B. i1ndlnMe sz j {./8}. The breadth of 'Iile;s£ ini:[i~UiOr W.I,~ID~DNA ]l1lCracliQns ~or~;giraaily dClCi!1iI1l111100 fuo1pri~tll1lg by a.~ays), l!r.Iromlbiniu;~o:~ 'l.v:ulhtl~e nC'!lL!'i;)i!liindioom,icIU!lure anhe C:{JnOOfii!>U~ mORB OOqW:..!10e. i:n.iti!l]]Y 5ug~,tedl th,u initiaruor\iV11D.s \,vol,l]d billQ as !:u}n]odimeJ.~ l:oind~I''\fidmd ,or-iligill~ repe.:n sequences (8'., I!, J 1). Insread, the snuemre ilrn~tmaros 111m a sirnil~le \W~HD bind'l!~le mO~tl3 ,1:i!(i!~,~~luinllm1, a~ymmelrie man ner, deSpitiC ·l!:1CpiX.."'lc:r:LOef a pal·, o til1gt~ishing i~,llW'eof the :inj:~i;ml)r dade of AAA.+ proLc[m {fi~"1 B ood 2" C end D) ,~13).Ute Ore I~I ~md Ore.l-oJ i.rn~jmor i~lSerlklns CQflI11!o1i,ue 10 the pD'J'ilive~y d~llI"l!t.~ MA+ dk~lmU;r.I surfa.ccsll!miIJtbind

through the IM:lljor groove usin~, a S!m~~kD'W(;r t!r<'l.~ jec:!iQI}'. MlIIt'u lens designed 1'0 disflll!m these 1100])

dlepllo>phm:e oocl\ool'le ?I~mrnrm oodibO:~IaJDNA oonioclN~fi:ai~:ae ~[LlmrOl]:ingIOQPwithiI1l~u: .iSM ... . Th~ep:rra!Cil:l!DN A {iOIIltaclS, me [iJ.OIl5pocifLC: howCVCJ,oD~oru; r oftAK:

h1!le~ctlomshO"~,!,fa70% decrease L~t]iI,C overall ~ffi~ityfo:ro!!igi~l DNA, :~m.d oo:mpl'eleren~ova] of

~NA~bou:ml

SOOtw.~·s \I\.rjjlh

indr,omic sequen'Oe !110~~1: ]KI~~r]ty ofO~r,c~~ [ The and Orel-:3WB:D binding faci~:jMIJtt.'S AJ\i\.+ onnl<1C18be'R\'i;f,Cen protomers and wlil.h origin DNA :!il!qucI1C(}'s Y of'the \lVI.-tDbDNAinl'cr.fac:e:;;, E<'I!ell, AI1P.flse donul:in om:Uaei sthe DNA ~8jl[ljg a hel lx]oQP.IJ~llix i~.illai.o1-.!i\~H'ic motif (ISM), a dis-

[)NA-f~ CdctVOrol smUClJ.lllCS ifIdlooK'!that Ole Ore!-! mel! Orcl-3loop~ !.mdcrg.@ CQ'flfbm~~ti()na a~d]~llge upon bi:ndi!l1:g to UNA (fig. 85) (8, . .2()), l11cISMs: ofrucll~e;;'ll Cdic6~DreJ 'prul:eins ~OOV!'I modC:f.11C" oo:nsl.. i1vati.oJill,n;clwJing.a llilCil1lyulVariOll.nt ] g:~,ydnc:with~D:lthe: IS M loop, (ng. 2D< ;rune! :fug. 86 ~ For' Qrc]-3" Ih]s g~ych~cOC'Sides al~be oolmom of i:heDNA minOfgroo~, when: it ~dopl~ a [1~litps] baekbone geome~ry~,]<ul allmvs~]e :lil.cighbo:ri:rnLg Jrole!i.JlciniC to. WJOintiIlll,iilv~tndan(lpud h]JtO[~lC core or~:I.,eISM . .A sirmHar .1l"11'tulg(ml~IU is seen iirnlht:: oorrcspo:iiii,ding Oret-l gl:j'lcinc-!~ilCiii:1.c dipcplid:c sequenee.exeept thatthe Orel-] Ibop p~s8e~

Hl\:AAA+ don~~ia~sub~m!lfi~U.y W'e*,tmsi:~ilia.~· [~r b.i:ndi[lg (taMe S2) (8., n, 18).,. fu:"nm.3bly, Ore j, ~j a:mtdOrel ~3rlChi!;;,'1,fe seleeri·vc rocognitioo of itJ1C'.ir l:'CSpootIvc I:m:got 8i~es.i[1.-· cil..clifQg the at.qy!l1me~!)'of i!Ui3xor blmdh~, Wilh ! ~a,Il1i]n!l] St.::ql!cm:e-spOCirOCli!n~nig!,!s. Argb~int>
gII.Il<u~ille1,i'OIil.iOOl!s~]!H:t\.: OIll:;;I-1 and Old ~3 BT.U

1:11]!G1;il~1 wi~.lI.a~lX1l'igille""'@~n1iI1Cand ~IJJg!~ni~~ ~d{;lng adenine iIDlil-e:rilCI:i.O:rusin wo 00]'(:I ~3 \i\~]);I~, roM]]~' t.t:liI:C the OJil.·ly :sidc,..cll,aD 11t'1JJ&~c: a:sfJ{)c:ia~iJo'1Til8~ndle ~.uc]ooproldrlinrerf~ce (Fig. 2., Aand B). A~dlOUgh we c,;1:I~llm nile ,ou~\li/ai:er~diaioo ~lseconW!c"l5 ~t. ~h~s re.'wlll[ioJm •. il t1ij~peiII':iR:h1l'~ irloDl~ci.I1t pepl:nde~
backbeaebase aud ~ide=ch[}iIJ1L!DNA·~b~kh(nne inlCl<lCtions fmm [00 m~::tEl:rn.dCl aU'b.e i:lllI,ili.fl!lor.DNA t()jlt.1CI~(.filS. Sn C~tiC'S !this liiliJfjlUI~. to aifiiilscem.·, .inglly OOOl'le:.l\[-d:qle!ldent. recog!'li~iQf! of ori:gin seqll,llcnm oome lfooman <Llla.ly.sisof DNA geom.ei'ry,. which shows that 0«:1-.1 a:n~d OlfCl~3 both :>Iih~· shuUn£ll.ly UllfO,m tfu,c dOiUblie helix while I)]'CseiFV~ ins Im~~~irning U~ig.3, A ~i'id B, iT~ml. ,~S. S8~

A.

"'!:I!

6

.i!

~

1 ::1

i

...
!II)

8
i
fa
a c
<l

m ~

~JI JL

I AG~T~~~C.C~T~AAACe~AGG&AarTTAC~C~ ~)I GA~C~AAAAGTC~AC~~~GeA~eCTTTAAA~G~
wing

M~.hidi umpropyl-EDT t\' {MPE) ftlldcoppoerphc .... , l:D2l!mhroUme (CIL!I!"OP) fuOiprill[i.ng smdies (,18) CcQrmbol:!lIlC these distUII:il:ions in \I~tlJo\with :siles of init~ator'"'depe'llde~l't.ulm~:re'HS($in moo:ifi.t2IJluon
pro;pellsity ,co.If:iTe:llatillg s;im~IiI~ly w~Ulbe:rudpol.ii'ts

observed In ihe !)LruCLiUfC (fig, Sl], T.lhcs.~ a.~~1YS also reveal '~hm.i:l,oblIDCd 01:'(': , I. bind~Dlig lj[il.ck~.dcs j [he GOA &CqlQCf1:CC jusl 3' Or~IH: oFlC2 mORn site, a region oO(;cl1pi!oo by the;:Ore 1.,3 \VUBinUle .
~:~cl:cood:i:lI'Iitlfic·oomllleiX. s~fiuCWr-,c~A:.;ooci<ll:lQ:ufi,of Ore I-~, "vhh[~llis gequ~rK)c(~~~bkhis l)'pic.a1~,y com." posed o:fWJ.:tni).l~ in n.III";lci~g:Ul O.RB5) OJ, ,121
CX'i!lS.i~k~r.I~witl~thc .idea~m:mJl OroJ-~il1llro·

+CUJ-op

*' MPE1

Ibase-

fspecirifl:l conta<:t
'!i"!,,,_
L~!IIIi

increases dlC'i1'il'i1k~!!I. probe scm;.~fjvily ai, me site's )'

eml.
- '~.,~~

.•

~~~~

,.,.,,~~.....•. '. ~

Fig .• 1. In~~iatc:rs: deform o'riglin D:NA. (I) Ol[,i!erv'ie.w ,of DiNA dis~:ClrtiOfi1i!t.I~Hghil!i ~onsewlled mORE stlque-fi1i{E! po~ltions illire und~l'l!liI'lEld.,. 13a$!es sp~cllfkaUy 1~,ecogfll!~!2d y ~s.id~,(~ailf:illsi3~\l!! i.i11II ~'eid. [)~iS~OfItiQ;iIiII't&) of th~ h mili'llQ:r gf(iOVi~widi~h from id!e~I~~~d Bl"form IDN.A.is p,~oll'ed iillll g,~y' aoooQI 'the !DNA$~qli;a.~n()e'. P,o(!rio'~~ sel!1i~ti~,e' MPE (a5terisk~) and (u~OP (orm~e5,)modiifh:i~tiQni~ IP~e5e:nce of o.~1-1 and (hcl-3 to t~e co:rre5pofldwh deforili1'Hlitil:Uill) Siee,nl~n the sUUldure «fi!gl•. 51), (B~IGom:pariSoQnbet\li1eenill'illitlarolr-boll,UiiUdil (or,Elnge ell!r;Jloord a lil:allrHo!rm (9 ~y sUlI'bu:e) r)JfIlA. Sa se piil!irs sel'lS~thfero, MiPiE Il! rid Cu-{iIP mod~mkat]O:f1lare ~inblue and disting'lJlshed as in ,(All BaS!E!S, :s:pedficalUy Ii'JEHi:!o,gn~!Z€d Side ,dh.mliITliS re: hi9'1h:!]ghtl@d~n Ired. by a

dJL1.CCSa belld iE! 1:11s :regian (i:ig.S,I) i (2.1). the addition of Doc] ~3 ap~l['$ 'i.g remodel lh~sassocia:titlrll, nlldgl~ '~,he fC;]~.] AAA+ damain awOl.)' O .I]iom th:e:mara.O:Ii goo~)iYC ara.d into 1!I1Q ®iJj®..cooJtm~joli~
g.roove lbindung QOllfuJilm1Jlim.1 '(lbgCif"li,<Tdin~he 00C'i)tsLa] SlnlO1.1l.lire. loge~heii. 0100-'I amI Orc] -3 induee 01l. 2~~ndil[lifue :DNA d~up~.e. m th~ point x where ti:m]f binrli:mgsitesov,e:l'hil]il [Fig, 313:)" 1.M :stmC1.mu ·anlle cemplcx l]~iIj':sreveals f11!<"It d1etvl,loin~tlato['S work indiv:idll!!l]~yat~~ o(li~kcl!vdy lie l:i:1I.urmluC'e local and. ,g]ob~1 DNA dCfQr-· m~tk1!!lS ~hat ~ubst;111tiaUy underwind du: origr:~~
(Hig.

18

J•. A

<If

lid B), :Pr:olcin:/DNAnnleraCI:I!ons

fUll;!

acr-oss ~hc'erU:iir-e ~111Ldc.o,pron:inJJ inl:erfaae', :SIIJL...Qg,e:i11ting Cd.c6!iOlJl'::] l:l'fOteins :rd,y '~,~a;l ~~.C'a'i,li~y o:n.~urocc OOi1tcx~ .1Llul DNA d~lfOnn. .OI~1·'1 Ii!), Iily for originrectlgnitilOn. :Im~ lh~sre~rd.dlc .Oro1;-3 behavim:of til(: al1;lmem .ini~:liolOr,s. aipl]em:"S to ]ic [lIlIidw.ay oO.n oontinllun!l !ofo:rigill-hindi.[lJg mlcrih~ ~ a[lisnns~.nl!l:l rnnge fmm [he hi:g;fmJyspecilic rc:cog~ fig .•4. 111I~~iaroi~ ~nmr{!jc·tion~. (A) TheMA+ domains orf All~':bound DwnGiA AAA+ . fAQu!j€X aooli'Cru. PNl~.e~rI ~:iUOEi, ~f,crnilooll\'l;:d s((JlJeoce rup~l~ 'by lJIj'cb~cterifl'll Data Bank a'Qc~:;5io:ii:l1 fI1lulmber ;;!IIf'ICB.)' (24) assembte ·~na Ih.ea~H!p=taH d~n.gi[)m.@r~11Iatp'~alCM '~he, arg~iI1r.ll@ :OooA inhnator (22) to the' oomplC"te .ah9.Coocof diiS,.· mingel!' ,Q'f Ul~ IboxVl1 he:~ijix (g~)~d) inro the .AlIPa S@';3oetiv:e,.sit,@ o~ ~~:@j}d]i1I(@il1l~ 'pmto:melr. (IB] Stereo, va:ew of the Q,p(l-lJO~d -3~[INIA.compte% ShQW,5 tih~t (o!1~aclSIbe~eeiliil ,adeliil!051ne d~pM5pha~e-bQu~d iIFilUj!!;!tQ~$·!l!liiId [inorori,g:II~ seque~cs. :f'worig1n 1i%'Og»l!1rtkm wlnplex b1ndi.l1gun m:Ctaz(l.a~1S OJ), USil[IJg DNA DNA orflen~ S!ucces.swe ,AM+ dcmalns into al 5ilillilUarl albeit: mOire o;pent (oll1lfigll!fa:tion :00thalt 'oWo~ig:(.lm:eri,ed ~lI41]11C'.ablll~f.y o)s 31. meoulS of origin :~oo,gni!~im~ IDnaA. For dan~r onlly ltil~ti:ilito:r,MA+ domai,1I:i1ll ,11e sholllri inl W Illnc:l (B). BO:Ultu~ IliiIl!Il':teotides '(btack) ,and r qll.dl:e nonspecific mllgi1i.es:i:!JJIIiIi!~J!j'i"liS (ma)glliiiii:l:a)a:r~ sihioYi\l'i!, as sjpi'ieMs. c(niI.d til]ow .ill['(;:h:ieJlin:illi~'I!tfi~ LO bind ;avarielJ:y of

11212

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sdenoolmag.oFg

REPOIRTS
Origiffili ~Im~ne:es Mdm;].ypmmol(:~I:te [I,~c~lilllligof DNA sl:nttldsfcqnirod fbr ot,igilITL Ul1wh:ad:ins, Alt]tOI!1_ghdinxt OO~lua£IS OCl'!;'''"'t"1C!l Ore i-] aad Ore ]-3 a:~ sparne, lihcsc POOLCil!1ls inl1u!m:uoc' auf;' a:V1Qthe'r's UNA bi:ndiamg~ctivitics: (fig. S l) •. in:di~,
or1ll[olo,g{l~:S <ltliC!lj 'p:fll!;".:Iogous~IDIi11HOf

suiblUluit:S

16.. M. lmagren" Jl.Am:~n.
.PWc .~ff

[Fig. 2]) and fi,g. S6) (13). S~:rucrum'!oOl'll[J'ilrisons OC[\liC;C!1 ]ni[ja~OI:sairW othcr DNA bbldi~
.MA· p:m~ei!lsl~\'e~idlallSMs o'!,,rerl~psp~!:~aJl]Jy wilth clade~I'C(;ific AAA+ e!en'lcm'S 11IJ'(:jleil.llcS t~!CItGa[l~;]&t nucleicacid u.nLlle .iuteTio]' ol'im o~igol,~,'leric: ass,embly ! :fig .. S W) (25-27),. Take:r:Ji oo_gcthcr:, ~hcs.c fjiJ].dil,gs !lugg~slLliHn' 'Ihe: ;arelm.e,a] O~"C'~·lfOre] ·]·ON A~~~:emc1io:~t}.de&>c!:ibed here ro:mt1l the 'core of ~!1in~~~iSilor'Qmpkll: thai]: wm ( selt-a."iS!iffi1lMc !!JI;po~<lctiva]iQ:ll, to 'pal!tl!f1Uy or fli,ilUy

Arroo. Sa

U.:5'cA,1m, 7O!l6 (2004}.

L '(];]en, P.

NJjj);il!J1i1,. ,R, BIMillaoo!1r,

I

associate 'iI'ii':ii!h trug.et sites in <I, d.yn:romic matau1,er Hll1lt ,c;;m be modulated by olhew inHia]iOlf Bl]b~.:mJIIB,.[lI1 lIIi s respect" it is nOla:blc m~l ]oilia1!iors sre MA+ prolte'ins. w~~ich lYI~lic~l]yas~cmb]cu!lro highcfl..(lldcr romple~es~uu [brlu bl·,
Cfl[illgU~;rul n:nlIitiatoi];

or

17 .. S~~'lh@ IOOlIll!mdiUII~ !i~r;tioo ~mth~ 'suppcrinmg ()m1~m~ !Il~leri(!l. 18.. Ma'~~mlsaindlWleilhodsaiie a\l'ailal~1e ,asSURloifltiM!j malm!!l. en 5Gtllc,e On~linE!" ]9. K.. S.. Gi3iiwala" S. K. BIli~l~. (!1tr.. Gp§(r. Starr£. Bir1l.10.1
110' ,~2'OOOO.

Dnn.A.. ff ig., 41\ ),iill1l, "l'/h~ch ~U1 ilrginiJJ~.etiJi]:brc.r 11:01111, a censerved AAA+ ckm~nll nhc: box V n mod.Q int>ci:tS i:l1!1iO th.ey-.PO.! bindiili,gck'fi of ~il adji@cerU prot()n1~~a sltimu,ion~ ATP ~.yclro]y$iis in R:I1i.'i (24). .I~ [b~ ./ill,'p-brmnd Orrt 1-1.lOll: 1-3camprex" the. two Iflhia!.ors ;l,I~ro on DNA Imll t1, :1:h%~.d·'li()4<1Li l .llTalilgcnnml SUlIlihlil: ll) thrl[ SlCC:[1ll o[h~FAAA.+ i pro.t~ii'ig"po.'~;itiOilh'ilg l~lCoo~. U ~:nclix ofO~~.-3 V tle~ the: acti,!(.': site ofOre~-] (F:i,g, .:liB amd fig. S9). This bindimg ohl1e CdctVU.rcli:nJi[Dators;]>(1 DNA
!lppellWl~D sei[ up 3. oonlorllmlltion UUJil.pol!.'!&.<;I.he AT.Pase l'Il<lJeh~,ne:ry to,ICOC1P[ su1bru:[I.i'l~d,oeki:[Jjg

p~:rule ATPase adive shesbetween £lI.IIbl!llui!t. A s, key 3<:£ ,of ATP,fise il1~eraotioJ:asi~, cxcmp:~ified by

encire:~eDNA during origin~iring.
IE!f~!i1~!ilI(f!$ ,;I!ild

201. L Llu et· ot, Mol cdl 6,. 637 (2'(100) .• 21.• Nt Ga~di!!~. 18. S. Sdhumflh" S. LWe:!l«)U:, D. 8. Wigle~, Scfe~ 311" 1213 ~2(]UJi7j. 22 .. S.. 'lf. 'll'mQI, A. KlJm~, J. BiG! (J'rernI. 0ll604, 6146 ('t9iB9), 23. It M. Ha~LiI:md,. II. A. ~~~@y, (dJ 21, 761 {t980l. ~4. liP, mb~rg~lr, Mo. L, Mg!:i; ] •.M. B~f1g;~J,'1(1(; $~ru,,;&l'ru" (
Biel .. ,6\7,6 (20frGl'. 25 .. M. !RallJ)<i<$ f~' at. S(j'ence ,3IlD],. 19'72
26 .. IE.]. iEMmark. L

:n.

~200.5'.

NQ~,~ J.
M. IBe~E!r,. SlIBOl
605

]mfu!u.aJ"i:o:r,

ilVdiUlff 41'12;, 2:70 (2MJO(,~

1.1. P. EJwe~g.ef',M.M. Plffwcllello".

2J1., .nEil (2lXM2).
2. t, Me KE!~milli\,z. K~lmalll" Mol. (£:OCD3),

27 .. G.. D. IBiIlWmllll,M. O'Donnell, ]. t::uriyalil, Nal.u~ ·42~'ll, 724 '~200\1). .2!1.. Welham:l:: Ill. \lIIig~ fur !lliMrilg u~ulUft>'h~oe!a, l ,8nb~g~ foc fllli'lfilllDifp~og~;l!~lk pm:fi~S;i;l~1 ~M M:'!!!!!)(ied!Ugh't; ~r!(;~ ~<!rn!i~ 83J ,~rr (Q!' M~~1l@

Mraob.ir:d .. 48,
a'

3. I),.~ ~~ s:. ~'. ~W. (~ 'Cff.4 (e~ !!l'f,!)'~ u ~e(llOO~~, f ~t.ft, ~Ornl'~9, 1. A. l3il}:II!f,. DNA .Rl\PNCI5',~l;I.n (F~~ln. N~~
York. ed. 2" 1992). 5. D. rlramhiU. A. ItGollllberg, Cdl S2~ 743 (:J198B). 6, !IV... ,M~5m, uts: Milrrobi'i!i\/: .l'ii'i:'I(. 26, 35,'5 '(21M2). r 7. $,.A. (.l,pal~i •. l III'/.. 8@rg@r, N'ut;l.elc Adds Res:. :1I,2,4S2iL
G!'O(M).

\Wh,~

~1L«~Cil!.E.L(O.airidl ]!JI/I.8. a&no~e.d~

SiJf,ilOfl

r1fOOl1~ M'iJ:ler rmirMe and NiH (gli3iil GM071741~, ~,otrreI1' SJ),E, i:;; ~UWOlrted ~ ~~ M'llili(;;l[ 1I!:.~S&iHh Cl::iLllm;1l oi' !he UK, COQlliiinaliliiijM Slrudll!lf@ f<lctofs h!jw i!)een dellO~lecl ~i1! 'Ih:e llesl!lll!rch (c~ailof;l!l!!y {Q!" SlI1udiW'!!i Eio'imlgli!'Jia~:rcs PiOleinllDal.a! Ban~ {ilcC!5&i.'!I!IIl[JmD:efi2()1lY).

events th~twould leadte hiBilcf'-C[d,ct oOJ];lpioc"i. rO~~fuion!Uipon AT" aeti \I'.a~i~t A pali1.io-~lariy uIlCilpcru'\d ibmure of 11:1esmLC-' lure is the abi]ily of[he i.fl,ilialllr A1]J"Pascdom!l~]1I'!O b.indf.lNA. .Phylogcnelie aDlaliY:Ses slmwdllllf tnhe
.1:SM.se~ll.OO~ are (\o];i~ef\!'~d \iIi'itiiJi['1"bin. 110t belWOC1fil,ill]liMor :rubf;ml~~lics, S"UJgg>CStk~g~hlal 1111$. ~von :lYmy~.clp dctermioo the spcci,flc l't~i'liC!~:O:flof

8. M.It Slngte'tcO!ii et (J~ .1. Mol_:,Bfo.l.343. S47 (200~J. 9.. N.WiIJI.ii~awO! ftal., ,Mulei c A1cfd:.t PJes. 3il •. 2071 '!;;OCB). i.®. M,Ii). S!!IUoo.., , m.Kag!llnl, 1. ilf.Dl ..BiuJ. 27,\, 5q,~, ~.1997~. ] ill" I, GFaingli! el al, /. Mol.. Bid. 36,al 355 ~2006}. 12. N. P. Rob[ns~nIII 0.[" CeJ11U, 25 (200,n. 13. L!I!t I~e~.D. 0 .. t:eiPf. E. V. Kooi!!in. IL Na!;!ind~J. Srltf'}:.
.Bj(J{. 146, Ii ~2(04). ]l IF, Imill1l~)I,. P'UK. ,~(}IJ. AMi!1. Sd. U.s.A. 97, Ull~S~2000't ts. l, L Ia;o.wer~ J. C.lbnd'etl, S. (l;i'I~nl 'S.,Ifl.'•. ~il. Mot (elf il6. 967 't200~).

SUp'portil1l9 Oni~.iinlEl 3teria~ M ~l,!oIWd~di~llc~I'Il.:J!:iI()~91jjg)llIl~!J~uIJll311r5M2}1~~W:(OCl M~~rt'i'L1iaM IWethod~i
s'aM'TeiJiI

Fig,~,Sl 'II]'5][0,
l<1bt~ SlllililD 5,2 Rerellel'!~

il4. li. sm,

Seq}ll!ence .A!liQJlIm~nt Fite:5 11 Ap-nl .2007; !'!wlp!eo1 216 ]yne Z007' ~l!O.l:l!16,1l!Cienre.1.'ll43i6J90

Structura.1 B,8:sis 0" D"NA IRleIP,licatii'Oln 'Oriiginl R,ec:lognlition, by an OIRIC IProteiin
DNI.A. reiP~nic:aitnoni U'I Oil'(hi1u.~flIand ]n ,eillIta rylOt:es SI1IOirn'mfll1l(similalrifi@s. \IVe report tlhe slrucWlrlfa o~ an'!aochaeal origin f&og.mljllioln, complex prolt:eirn~ORO, boundto an ,ooignn ~(i!()ogrni~tf:on box" iii D:NA se:q:~:e!1(e·lhatisfo'lJ~.di~ mUl!.~MipteCQlpies a~ rrepUultio.!i!l Orlig:i.fhS. IONIA bmdinlg is me\d~lated p,~incilpa~lyby ti! 'C-'lt~ni1lll~na,['YiliTIl.g:~d heU:<. d(Dma~n Ultilt ilrq~it$ d!~~pty~:n'to 'the m~o:r~~d i;m!lif'l(ll' ,gmQ~,widen~.!i!lgl~li:!:em both. Ho\lii~er, a:dlditional DINA,cj)~la,~are oil'ade w:filhthe N-tellJlinalll. AM'*' d!omaill:i!~ whidll billse,ris·into UliJe milimOf gro«'lre ,a~a chilJl'aderistk G~ni(h seqju.el1lce" ]mludng .i:I 3.5,;; tbend in the diln,p~.ex ariel prol\!idiliilig! d]r'ectiomllaii!1Ityto tI1Je: bindiimllg S1t@. IBo~hi (o:riIlta.ct ~~gliOUliSals<ll :indlU(e ~!illbs'ta:l1I,tial ulI'llwDndiill'llg olf 'thE! DNA •. i1'he st!i'Wlidt!re lPi~ovide;sifl$ig~t mnto~hei,lifIlitia[ ~teiP in il'!i~'5!emlbty ,of" r,eplica:trioll'l origin ,a'lTIId recruitment

Jhe bile. stl]:dyre"rCi:''l~ed ~li~u two ~Oj:]~crepealS were located onleilher siQ~of r ;]jill Al':...richm;egiQn n~:m[1d a dlllqi1k':;';: l1[U\;vind,lImig ..
t'lL'O

,(lj)JI.~:ii :( u,

n).

a

clemem (DUSl 8iimila:rfe[pC3~glbJik a DUf ]]'1 r\.;g~OJ1l of d~romoS'(llHai DNA fi'.mll /1alo1w.c:~::h;]~.C()l~\/II':ys ilLt~()l]O:u:l1{).tIsl\,,,:pIiO'Iltioll to

~'e'li!lm

p:lll$l'll'llidsill ll1'{1tspecies (./.)" The~ extended repeat !'leqm:nccs were: the (nr:igin [(.'(.loga;aj:liJo]JJ ox b (ORB) dOO1:Qi1i!8 1a1.~rid.eJ1l:ifi(;'rl ~t til roplliC'ati.otl origin hll Su{fvl,('}.lm.~,,~(falad,ws 04). 11n: ORC] : p.roll;;in of S..SOJjiU(;{fi.c.1,jS libmpril!1J1Sal Ihc:se .oRB el~nellisin bQthR MbJt"~:~.land ,l:la'oha,Uf,;'1'i~I"u!. dmno:~~:aJting ~hdr OOl13eli'Va~ialfl .acro&<;spedes.. CWiO"tllS:ly. flO:!: all (If 1lI~.e OrJ(gi!lliS~lilI, Su!fOloiJu;J; c-Ontrun Ji.~n-k:f'lgJ;hORB ck,;~nts b1J.lllinsLald f(luwj ~l ;;I p;ropC!~ ,m:jgi:!li i~A4Cllmunbc«.·Ir.,'rlUJIl fl1,(!rmoau!(JI~r:rphiC'I{J~~ flO). The: si!~U<!ltionin SI#lolobll~: is t!01l1P1~C<:Itoo .lijjrlh~rbi::e<'UI~'~le three ,~r~gji'isare quilc dHR~~fr[o:m on~ ModleJf ami Lhey aU oom::.in blIncllHi1Ig :sdr,C8 forl~~uh~;ple ORC pM~~~ (.14, 1 Using the sequence ,gf rile oonse'rl.redi 'ORB
~1S(l1

(If miniclhroJf!lll~'!l!fQe m~in~~n~lrl!ce '(MCM)' h~lic~s.e tQthal Qrigiin,

~~a:\rcg'li~.ort(T scq~1O:~

C;lIUl'd mini-ORB.Il!

(/4~

Cryslal SI:HJ:G;W:fi1CS of [WD <Irchile'iII~. ORC pml'e]in,~ hiw~ boo.l d~~.c'J!IrdrniLed (5, 6"TI:JIcprote!in:s. ,~~k:myo~l1'ii lh~n to l~,o:ooill,~qjOOC'!cti!ll {.I}. oomprioo 1\11/0 oomailu: ,n'll .AAA+ d!onlllin (7) aJbei~.~"pithflJ\\lcrpru.te;ins and l!wi'iooco:rnp;.It:..:.ily. and ,a C·R~nnjlna] dorn3Jiii:li, of lb~ Wi.llgl.;-d holllX Fl!rlhcrmQ:!'iC',~,""hercaJs rol111C flIlJchaca h!lvc :a Sif~·' (\Vllt~) famUy. a slnIoi'IJJUm] motif oomm:only used g~erepili,~t:tOIl Orighil' (1). O!thcl:S ]n>1U\I'enluh:~ple: 1:0 bind to :s,PQd~ic 1'111;I:deic ijllQidl :sequ~()e."i (8), o:r:igj]]Js, more lUk,e' the $tl~lI,Uii(J1l ilill. e[tka:~olCs 1(3, 4). Th~ ~:;;Q!atJedAAA'" domain .~lains <Id.eBo~il]!e' eICll1i'11l'i" Rob~.]tJl;:Q:[1 (!), (fi, pr{lpOsiOrl [~! ~.OC~JI'~.OO. m ·~!:imtlioll 0:11gin ffir A. pern[Y( 14), Wh&rI.l Wlll.. .t\rchaC!tlrefll~:cm;I:iol1origi1TIiJja.re rooogilliizro. 'by Pl:o. lTI.ph.osph<Ilila~ (AI~~.e) a<:tiVli!.Y.3!1'a.d the WH lleil]!"> W11~:'IhOJil.oIO&,'Y ~o clIkaryotic Qriginriooog~ dOiiilntfllifiJ binds LO DNA {6, 9). nith:m oompllc.\l, ,[OR:C) Rl:td Cdc6protciilms '(Oiltclm. Analysis of o:!!rol~OO,;'l·lgc:lm.ol1lC seqllu~nccsl\.."(arn:~" 1l.lf1$~ardll UK (~r,~ l1Ia~~ ILabofaOO:ri~, lLD:ndo:nl ~5~K'1il atlflQWI.OO as ORC/Coo!!) but refCl.rod m here m.s \il:'a.ted ,a serk-s shO!1l (lJ~)' QOns.ef"ltft-d repcft~ In:;tl~lJ!'OO,~aoolilil'!!..)n~, S!:I~I~, Mimms. 'Pi.Jil~$ ~rj I-l~r~EfIl6 ORC). Jlle ['IJ(~lhberr f ORC pW~>eim; varies be,.· o l~axcd dO;.~ to ORC gen~s ]hill[were pmposemlO 3LD,l.m. [WCC'In!~In::'hooa hm is ijsl,lal]yone ,orl\1J\O proleins, be ill s~[l!Hh,l!.e lbr ~hae-al. n:plioorri.o:1rnJ rigin." (.J 0), "'[0 'i'l\h~m (!(fme~PQ:mt,fIll(!('1 £ll,ou~d becd:d~'es~d ... E··malt; o ;jJthough il C.an be; ji!.q r'I:ilaI'iy a" lii1i (4),. Vl111dm,w~ orn:af:irnmoocxperil:i1eI:llt'i]lyin i}~oc'Ot"- lJ.3ire".W~gLe~@.c.am:e,~ .Q;pg. t1R
le.. hn. e<I...D. NA.·.. re.":'iPI:i.~" .. [1 .. I ... ".0<1

A

.... _.)l!Iil:'.P.ID=.:.,c~ses .share c1b~r Sliffida.my!n tmiO:OO' Imt

~n.

or

or

12~3

REPORTS
Fig.•1. (A) o.~glami~2alnon (if IDeOril repl~t~QI'! Origil!1i1 in A.pemb:;. Thie mow ORB seq,uen!!Jes;iil!N~ I.oCI1'l~d IOn eiUle'~5iid@ of' til€ eu IE. 11~.i(:l ~q;uem'(i@ o~ the :S:·.ito~3j ("'top") sttr:a:ntdof OJB4· is: shod" (I) OIewaH strmou~re of tile· ORCl-lIONI,A (omp~ex.
~()I ontacts oo~lleerli the C MA'" alemann aMI IDNIl 1trh-Uil lTcc1''1'1~ '1<£. •.)i .""'.III r ,......"."i l"'l•• .."In" p·a!ir.

A.

OIRlal.

DUIii

O,RBJ:

8,

.AA.A+

c

~ct5the Gd18<d5; baS!(l

ll24 mi!fil], chalin
f

'Gd19 ildl1;dllE128 (onta.cts &120 via ,11M~ lmornl:ule. RES~ i'due!StlO3, mLO:fl,~ U3, G
O:XYlg~ilml !Oflt:!d:s· (

an.dJ RB2
~~OJm5

~'liiIl1he phoo~

mal~e dlIed

p't"tooiest.er ba;clkboJii.~ en ei~hter side 'of :the m~m;or gll100W. <0,) :~nsEl,r:t.ioll1 if 'O ~~Ie wiingl of theW H domail!TIIl ]ntO~~le DNA

D

minor gJ,oove mdel'ls it. by 5 Po. R.esidues :53:66. G3:,6S. G371,. and K372 ~1fl1~".Ha(t diwecUliwith b'BI~S: Td17. '(idl8.., and Gd19 o~ th e (ompte~ ment.iI!wys1lr61 nd, G368, DN'A balcklb(),liIJe 0 n beth sides,01f fie minor groove'. (E]I Iinsertiolfl of the 1[1;(· og!fl'ition hel~ o;f~he WIH: tdClmait1irlto, !!he maJjo:Jf !groQV!e.R345 fIIIak.esa basespE!dm(~ntf!racltijon wilill GdlO. Ries,idute5 1343., 1R346,.S34,8,a ad ~B7~ 00 Ulitad. too
baiCkb~f1I!El.

G37'1, K3:7.2 .. aJlool 1373 illl~o 'inb~l~ad Wiliththe

IDNA.. ~:~105pmalte

11m!!R346 sidE! chafi'll is, s.tabij~;re:dl ~'nOJ I'IOfftc(lll'lonkal

CO!li!lf"~.fmal~ionby a sa~~ l:wid\gei!l'!tem~:[ij with 8:53" wili1rich !M~blesil HI b~m:llhe IIONIA phosphate' oolck!lomlil.:!.Illn th€! samE! Vl'aV. ·iWllteractio.mil ootW!:len 53:52 ,and R3:14 Ib:ritl1lgs tlM;eaJrgin~n~ side CM~rIi dose!,tollhe DNA lbaddoone.

the s:irucwlre' (beJow}. l~;e ~@~ca,[axis oiflhe· D:NAis. shown as a b~lillie(B4orlln [INA) ,o:rred '(O:RB4. IDNIA) bar fUli'l!i'lIilng dO'limI~m:~ (elr!lt,el' of Ulle· dWJllptex. OlJieil'al the D:NA is um:h~iMOUin)cill as: shown by~'hI.e ~is;t, which aVie~lges3aQ p~w ~a$E! !)a~r.,giviing U blP per h!l!ltkail~!.,gm.ION1A pa~!iIlIet.e~;5were Gal~J.:.!1!IIlait.€d lilIi~hi ·the prcg ,"iii m .3:DNA. (22). (IB) Comparison of ~~.e basle pa~r HIU r~:r eaa:'hi base J1aI~ir. 'Whe roll 'is gl1ela~r ror aU b.u~ OI1le: basal! lpaillr ]ntile' O:R:B4 DINA. ([) Compi!lriso~1 ,of the major .i1i'l'i1di mtfilo:~ Igroove< widths o~ ~he OiRlJ e.[ennelillt 'INithdlose of,or S·:i:orml ICIrvJA.The m'lnor 9.~o((v.e~:5widelf at every IPiO'5itiQlnl b:u~ (me !il1~JJ.ll'llglthe OR M IONIA, and the. IlJl1ajow gli'Ooljjl'eis a~, w:diel" in aU :oot !Mo. IP~a(e.s:.

Fig.. 2.. Debmation of the ORB,,element OlMp'aJ~edl \1i!liIJh ~'egu~am B·f'l:minlll ,[INA. (I) A oomparis.Otrli between B·fQm'lJ I[.lNlA (m:P~'and ~he OI~B4, D,N_Aitrlll

.A.

~~ICC~~A~~~~~c~aA~~a~1

IDD.~~

-i!-

OFiEM flil8jQr
g~~

.......

B"C!NA 1iI1I~",r
grQQ~

.•

• 0FlB4 nnincr 9~ ildClt>IArmililDJ
g~

~f -

~~'~~~'.~~A~~~GO~~g~Gf

~*IMl!:f_~

11214

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
Fig!. 3:., flI\ie sroicmo:meby of ORn, bindingaJt~,e GRIM elerm<n.l(A) !sOItheJiool ,calorimetry datil oo~lecloo by IUiili1g ~pl.llnf;jed WH damBi,ll prelteini1illl'ild a40"'l1'flef DNj1I. (i!lj:rIlI:a~I'iI~ii1g an 'O:Iil!B4 eile~
me'li1l

I

g~

II .'1

D20~1
,
CUll

s~ruduf'ie. ~O[)eoxyIfiOOi'illlde,a,se' ~ ~oolprill'ills ,ao~ollSItttoe OR~ rngjoFll'. IDNAseql~c~ ,are tndkatedl ait

ma,pping~he ~oo!priratdata![~O]'~fnWthe ~~,
,(8;) FIgIillIJe

!: CIf!! I
iii'

;, ll.iB'l
000

me' side for re-1:erenc~ wi~l~e
ORB4

..'
1

sequence oo~oo,

.a I!a

,
-

5, •

oa'CJ

II

cc.J!.,CAGGAAAOOG1l.GOOGT

3 ~ COOCiAGAGtGi'iiT'CcCll'T:G!Ccrg;crAJ '

1

CaT.l3

Gc:A:T S'

Purple
Gi,een,

",WIH d;o!l!1,~'in fOQ1tPr!'ilm:

= ,AAA,+'oDtp:rin'l: = Wilt do:main ,cl'ysil:al ,~onta,Cl:S
= AAA+ =
crpll:a~ ,contacts ~ unprotect,ed t1t9,ial1lllowel'stram.d

e

Orange

...............

5' S'

ORJB2

...

ORIS::!

!DUE,

OiIi,glniS. En NaJobt~'Clariiim 3). i'11111ld -nhefiv,e otigills kJelfQ,~mer;l i:Jm 11ttlt~jitJ''C(;.''f ~tjlccmfi (4), an of 'iiv]~c:h oon~ill fUilil-length ORB el~nell~" 8il1nilaril~t'S with

a

~heookaryQ]ic s::rol~n ril:m gi.ve .i!1lliiglltinR.o! oon.~ seeved el,)l11.cnls of cuk!lvyol:ic origun nlCogm[itloll. To. gaU:iIl m:m. cm'l!dt::[S1Md~ns,of ropn,ca[i.oo ,!I),rigi:1III

a.,.;;gcmbly, \VC dC'~e:on]I\.,"'dI the:czyslnlslruvture of ~he,4, pf.."Jwiv OR;CI pro'~in {i014~l)ltXi~wi~h a 22-lbMe p~!" (brIl' 00I10flioo,1 ORB ~Ie~m (Fig •. ~B). n~.csl11''1l1ll;:]I,II1e" <0 fORe 1 is s i~.l,i!."Jto that of o1hcrarr;hll.(!."d ORe proleillils (,5, 6) corn~~lri.siJ~.g AAA + and WH d{)itl~l1IIili!ls.IT.1I, omnii'lrJJQI1 wi~h both P;W\!i.O'tllS iJl(d;n~~ea,1 :RC p:rot:ein S:LmcW;res, adC:f;j)~ O osine d~ph05pl~ili.lC (A:DP} o~puil:Thfieswirth ]I'!:epro[:(:1111 (J•.6)"TI1G: m~it1l di:iffe:l!ellWbe:lWCe'1'11 ORe] and ORC2 is the regio.Fl oonl'lcclillig AAA + Rg,. 4,. ()IR:Cll pl'O~eins, bound to, (]lIU!, elements ~m.ank.]n91 a IDUE~ljI(H,lIid ioe ()irieil1l~E!d to :p[aoE! tllilil~' Wli'1Il anti WH dOI1'ik"llrns. ln ORC2!d'lc noc"l.ibi~ny ·o:f~~if\ demains, 'wMa:h 11l1!te-rad 'with th~ M,CM, helicas,e, faldfllg 'the, [)UI~ and he\l:iIl(je~he l'epmn,cBltion ~taJrt: s:n'me. reg)i:o:n <lLnlo\~.Uifi.C proreill:1. lo tJidopt. se~nlll cenIb:rrmutons ~6}. :By oontram,l$iIC .Uilik;~ i~~ I, :is O,[~C ]mcr ecnfnned (16).. Al d~.isorigin ,(aliI). d'~ere orig~!"!.Conscquemly. fl. pi3nlr Ol'fJ can be coamor:e dgld!, lil strudural dlf!.~rence th:al is a key deare faux ORB clemems Hmlirngt'di~] pairs o:n~ eimC!" s1dcred an ,archetyiPC for ~]"Ch9CaJ rcp~k:.mlh~ U1~1~ in [hl';' il!'lt~.ctio:m OOWCe!l ORC.~. arJll[ DNA. side of a: DUE (F:i,_[g. lA), OIl~Y ,(me of tltc' ~\I!,IQ ol.igurliS such. ii1S ~he' cn~gil:lil:lPy.m(:jJCC!1s (l2)., the TIle 'principal COm]aotOOl'\vccn ORCI and ilts ORC pm~leil1s;in A.. per"f.li.v (ORe 1) binds ,<)t. '~]e miCI Origill o'·;)ulji:JloiJus .(14), .'it ]1e1llit eme cnhe .DNA I~rgd is with th~ WH. cl.cmiil:in,. as pr«illit'ledi

me'

I

REPORTS
hy cry~I~1 :!llrl..~e.tures (5., 6) andbiochemi;cill d1Qma. (6, 9, 16-.18). T1!n.cWll domain i!TII.t~cls \vi·~h~he ORB SCqUCUlCC im 3" canooic~1 modi:: (Fig. [). ·\~ilh th~' 'rl helix .ilmsertoo .into tlhc major gro{)''Veand il.h~ \'1jl~~gmJ;,'ach.i!1g.~s the adjarent' ~nilwr gmo:vc, ~ilmvbll: t'O si'Jl.Jt':lllre:;.secn in oU.1.er W~] rno.n1rnlll
disiOrtiQ[l of l[veD}\lA etiJllbe' fQl!(;oo. The nel'e,ffect ord:oc:~ iJJ:Mem.d:iomisCKloosrvc Iil1Twiooi!:ag of me DNA. lhe mean twist per basepair across the DNA is ~dl;!.oed by 3~. ~~ulJl.ing .ill l.l.ralillef· Ul<l[l aile .IocEl~ bel\'!'CeI:U. tl~.e two rol1J:!~e~.regiorulrmde by the W1-1 dO[1J:a.~lin f~ig. J). 'fh~ J.' ends ofbot~~ loolp!i_mHS!l_p;;: kk:,,1l:.icalbm dU~t:r atd:1C 5'·cmQi beC~1.I!se of (·'(U1!llil.c!S l~liade by ·~]eMA+ oom~, ex~e~jj(ji!rng the' footl,ril.rtby [WI) b~cs ill ~g-mecnlClU w~ih.U:~estn:ICUJre, OJl]1)SCQIJ.t'I'ldy,111.c foo~prjlnJis ru:e oolsUs.terlil with the (iOI1!a.ct'1J. d~lt \,\1(1 omervein d~ SIn.!C-1ure. ,,,,,[lilla,a sil,gJe OR;C] moioc1W:ic bi.nding m ~f!ORBde~L AJUun!!,gb .\''i;'C only :'i~W!l s]!'Ig~£ OR:Cl m.olooJ::lle binding at ·all OR.H. 0I~,ce ·~inili<l:l binding ~\ie:[It~ ~~f1\l'e:<'I'k.onplf1C:C lhen til highc~ ordbr .astK,nblypfCjF 1 ~OOgilLW.~lC cuDmirLtiuion ofC\lIilhiichis 1[:iw;... iID1ldiID~g Of~lC DUE (.16). ll1~ mm.n,oo {If ·!i]~ 1altdr' ,c.\'CnB. liCil1!at!lS unelesr btlil ooukl h~.'I!ohle bi~liCIil:'!igof addjliol1a1 OR:Cl molocl,llies C0I11binoo with stnlcil.lm]

a eenserved .syrnmemc d.y:llil '!lvl.lh aconsensus seq;OOl1CC
DNA COO]:~ex:es (bJ. aRB .e;Ic:un;.mL"lCOOlafn T C.xx:xGGA (where x i!'>any baBe). and muootiOf.liS; ~n~lis i>Cquenee OOI~~p'romisc dli:':abimy ofO~£ Ito

10 bp per [ml- a!1:drol ovcmU unt\1;lisn:illgof (Weir 6W th>e OiRH cl'cJ,'iltcni. DNA unwinding is a key t1.'ipect iiJ].ihe p~8 of origin ~~"riIcJb]~.
acr;o:;;s

Aj.tl~Gil!.gi~.our cIYSl.ru_I.irla~jOfll coJtditWl1!s.

con-

W.H domallrl b.im'ils.to an ORB de[[L'l('or.1Jl (Fig~ :J.A), pfi.oophodJ:ooue;r l"k'!C:k;ooll(S f1:ooS;\jdle majot l,'lOOI\,It'!'. \\~]:iich een be eXilllllimil by lie ttYStf.il ~1ruC'!um [[I ]1I].~ddj:liQfI 10 the IX.'Cognl1ioi'ii h:C·IiR, Lhe\'''~i1lQ ~'UU!i1iC.i'l1 WH. domain. djm,crs_ the VVI'1liS dOC'8 not ~1l4_"\C!:ii ]ntolft-lc minor g_ooO'lIC.Hm'.~·~.wer;.~ OR,C] , [ p,jfl),S en i~].~.po!Uli!U pan ind1c i'!1!!e~ti!iJ!l kt'i.'!!'CC'lt ORC I anrn.DNA. llu~ ~:n~g liS l!oll~.c~·:hruml11i~i<lt iUSlariion oftl](': \JI,lingi!1lI10 title mi'mLQI'gmo\,'c cm,l~ l it .[0 widen] by :) A ilR:(~the~inl:ed ~]1)I~qpnov,e 51Cenin mo:.<;lWI.[ di(:m'k'lli~t;. res;u~ltimlg l.~~ml eXl",'lrn,.· to nanDw~;' It!iplO :2 A Sill:JJJ:ilarliY. biindiIlg~ of the O.ed OOnJlaCl :regnon thrlt :SijJru:lSO filvcb<llSCpairs •. in-

lecognirze OR.B elemems (i 4). lllelbm ORB d~ 11~e[1lts fA. {Jemi"y ai j ,e::(1iIrtiIO'lim [his.invcrlcd ['l'pem, o V;~:l.tdlia is ~lizOO by ·lihe:WfJ dOlililJ."l1n. Dmcrtioll ofithe ~aog,n.uiQn. ~]Cillix wirl~I:iS.lE:tQm~~or~ve by o"!,iCr2 A, and tl:'n.c remml (3 ofdlC GOA St1q~e~re;ns, oollil;1CWd by. an mgiffil.~rosid~e [Fig. l], TI1U~. arg:nnu]cis vm(;llfll!h, DNA bindi:[Jgby ORC.! protebilS. (1#, 1.8,. /9).. S1.;"1,IOOli~ rosidlilC.'.S (.'lQIl:liL:'lCl ~he:

t.'1i~eda ratio of aRC l:rJNA (If 2.: l, ow DNA su'L~rnre aliy had a single OR:Cl melecele bQtmd. OR.e] :1OO1lI~dim~r.> at higher ~rolein C(m~l'Jl7it" hems., ~1I:ddiilmeniz,uim1.reqlJi~ d-.e AAAf- dorna1:r:JJ [l6}.I\~.thowgh fM,Il~kng;nh ORC ]prot~m ·~poooy oo]t1ble when 1]0;. oo:ood~o DNA, \VC used the more solu:ble ~Vl-I d.0I1'I.3in ~oe\Qllml~tll.c sroichiOm!i:iLr'f ofibinding at ORB C]~!]]~Ii)s USillgi,ooal.er111<111(:a1.tniimetry. Theso oftlEl: rcvmkld dRt a single

thm:lig~in the origin DNA itself. WlimlL-ver [he~
c:hmil,gCiiln-na.y 00, Iil~ey~iiko~ym:vol.vc ,eonlrm.~.!Jrilica~
[aOilll OOUli,/oCIl

ORC~

:nlilffil.om('!fS,
SBiW

and llIis may be
fur the i.lilb©Uii~.d

m:Mibl: asjhc d:ii:nermat we

prok:in ,ai: high poolrein COOOe!1WtiOfl~

(6) .. (iml~ r

c,ludins !the Tee motiF (Fig. I )..T~.e \\\iil1B;inscritS. det'plyifllA1 the mj,IlOf ~roove" ooil~~l~~h m ·widcn: by ov~r.5 A. and dlrect OOIlt.'1'Cts me made Wilh the DNA b~:seS.TIlf:lO .le4ll1!:mcis Ulll1!J""liJJa~ bec.n1.llse
the \vung in. o:th(1:il.'Wll ~{lmail]s,"eI1elyc::o:rulaong iJ1he p~.~~~hodiesj.er ba.<i;ool1;c over the 1:'fi.'lIllllfi.crr groow. A ICOJ!~ooqllcm;c oftiliiswidcnillllS of t]lemhlO;f groove .psll:mliltho prold~.indll~ stlbglarl~iaJ~ uaW~~!cU~.g (lfthc druplCi"i: m !the bIDd~[~.g (lFig, 2). silte

11O~ix.!':vid.eng!hc 3djI'lOOiiil.ITk'1liOf gFO{weiry 2 A. i-kncc, ·bi]ulh~g of!! 8)':I]ID~~tricp{!Jratl~'IC ~]e roqLiilil:ts dte Ifmjor groove ~obe 4 A wider ]han eb-

qIUlmlt~y, ald]ough dlc struCIIl,iWC'\¥C ~11e~nl .Ill:~~: e;f!.~. ~i~~n::ci:> 01!;Ufmd:~:[S,nmd~.n:Lg of dl:;.': i[li~imilsl~"Cilll~]ii:> ' oolIwlexprocess •.fm'nht1r\wTkwi~1 be roquiu>(] to ~!ililOO,mf~.le Sb'ijCllliifd eI'iii~~'S thm. ·!ake plaee .iiS· il.fi o;rigifl ~5ennbll"S,
IR~rfu,~@!licIi!S .ii!!i!d INi(l1if!S 2. It MrLllj'Kamo' ,et ,al•• S(j~,e: zas.•22:[2 (20GO)'. 1. I'll IAInd~rl~i1I et al. ,P'rar::; NaN,. kad .. 5d..,U.U. lJa.!.,. 1'046 {20()4). !t C Nor ,:tis,~toJ. f:l!Q15 6t'l!l1~f,. ~111 P[I@SIi" S. J,. til! e1 01;, Mol Cel~6.1, ~B7 (2'0000. 6 .. M. lit Sirngle!:on tl ol,. J. Mol .. 8iw.34;3:. :54i ~OO4). 1.. ,A., F. Heul'!I1Ildf'tal., GffiMif' Rf.t.9, 27 (199'9'.1 .. 8. K. 5,.. Gaiiwala 5, K. BllIr'l\I!1. (!Iff. Opin. smrct 8[01.101
l,

served, ~ruiile Il:XOgllulion miIC]j_", ofi;!. 8eIOOnd\Vi_l~~ cbmaillli C<i:llllJJl be aaicutml:cx!<1iled <ill '~lC site, S:umilarly; tliJe ;}~i ... minor ~1!{('\1I,i{i~~ld :~OO .[0 wJ;clb;~. by over J A m·accorl:ltnOdaro dlC willg.

1.

[I'.

i!!.EdlJell. W. f.[loolltt1e, Cf.il 89. 995 rt19'9'n

ioo

G,'l:m.[~ pal!vci~y or Si!.'QLlcoc~~dli,c

OOIiltlW1S,

The s.ymmm!j1 of WI I do:ma~11biindingH.ile~eqij.entcs (Xn1ili.lfi[llypem'li:I;~ bindi:~il~ of h~iQ pro.t·cim. {8}. MuUllku1S in the 'O.RB dyad seqljellice ;ibo~isJJlCbind;~Iu~ of SJlU()iab~I:\' ORC~. to ORB dc:mC'Jf~ts (Iii). f]owc\lI0ir,d.'le i!WCl:itcd .f:C:pe~l jsl~carLed aU o:I1C end !lJifthe ~xlin1!ser\l'>ed ORB ele:meil'b!t .f;<Ii1:1U:lr thmrm. ~lilS center, ru.ld th~re i:i;~ln, a.d!dilt io:r:l<lI G~ric:'ll::;eClI.le:vloe:~2IInk ill:l;g it. The: .c::rys.. l<'lll stmctUIie c""p~:'liimil.his IIU:.fl:~Jilligr:e;nlll[~.

U:l]expocl~d1ly. [hero

~'l al'iO

<II iSuib$,tft~1r~] OOJril-

mel ~lwcelm.1lli1C AM + dam!!i!'! and the ON A. A s!hortloop militc end OfM ,G! hcli11i. 11Ull.~crUli The: i~l~.) 1:~'!,inrorgro()"\feUrl the:~ion ofl:h~ CKmser'l.r.ed guan:incfl;l'l:idue."! .u I~~e end ,of the ORB ,(::lrnlfLen[" Jj (Fig. J). 11m:isregion is OlIlli~~.oo.~I11IJ)~le sm:~c-· lUre of ~ ,crulonicai AAA +- dQmru~. l]~is is c'llru"~·

a.otei.is:Hc !Orr the Clad.c ]1 AAA ~ prol~iils~~t 3iro Il~Qck!!rodw.itill~iniI1~lxon DNA :reWJilkaltio:~ (2{,11). of
TItl':re .is. Dildy one di:rect SQqlJellc~spedHc oonL!I.ot: and. am:· W;Heif;~Dt,,(]b!tcdinte"lClion be~'.~l~III.h~ MA + dOg~:i1"'I]nand the OOI1~oo. G.;rich scqueU'l.0e (hati l conUlCclS l(fiS.1 C), llu\: prol'eil1., IlCb'\"'CV~r;

p.:1rticUlh.B.f~Y n.hoscl:lli.1.u aro Ilm~lMI~drorrnc wlthin1! ir is ~~1C'karI1O\vOl~· [JOOrei~ di:SlungllilSh:es s:.uffieiel:'l.]liy OOlW'OOUi the lWUplDSiSijblo modes of bim1ing .. ~~]O"I;li,l'C~t, of(ihc 1':101'0 pog.. ~ibk: bindurw, Ori~llHUi.o:U1!S, ,one :us. raJ,{()J,-OO ·by the inlCl:'aClt01l of tile AA1\.... d.oma[uru \:l,Iia~lhe O·rich seq~rK:e. pm'V!:dlli~lg. ill. di!!'t'C·nion~.it)' ofORCI biooling <lI:~ an OR.B site. fiis. is ~~rirupO[mlll bc{;,lUse illeWH.OOnmill of ORC ~I ialt~mCl.')w.ithi:];!e· m~DlichroniJ:Osm:ll1il: :m'lia:lru~~'ilIl~.cefMCMD' ~~e]icase (19),. Most ~mcJI3io;ru! ori,glrrlis,dl~J;flC:~Gr.i:rod.~o date h~'i,~e a ·pair ofin'\i'Cl'Coo ORB· c]CI~e~to;; p'.iooed on eithCi &i.d!cof:a DUE-in an oriCllW!;timii Uwt waulld. plooe Ole WJ] d(.u:naials, and. ~e~e i1~OOa1e MCM complexe-s.lhcJirlg the DUE i(~t,12--14. 16), \,\{]11:(;hlr] A. {J'{:n.li:'l[ i::~~te :~ocatiQffiL thcrep~icmi.of;l SJa['! sut~, ,of (16) COI1!!%"111U:cr!Itly.d,re (J..kh scqlLllc.lcc;in a .fun~ r rel'lg~'~ ORBelemCi1Il ·oonLrol!8 Oll'tart'illltgt:intnl of ORe~. pmtei!svn ~n ,orie~~iioo appi!'t=FrhnClO i~au;:~ ORB4 :s.eqUJ(moo,. I:eI7il1J'1

110 (20000, 9.. M. Oe Felice ,Ji't ,ai., rM,hmr.). l78,. 4·64,24 (2004) .. 1:.01. f. lqJez tj. aL .Mol .. .Mic:i!TrIDfo.'. 3:2:, sa~(1999). u..f. M.a1.>Sl!Jlnaga~t at, 1%c. N.all AC(lilf. Sci. U.S:..t 98,
1

11152 (200l}.
]2.

f. IlIal'Slil!1O!ga et a.1.;. O Rep. 4, :l!.S4 (200n ~ :li.!i. Il, IR. ~Clui~.:5. OMSarma,.j. .~Clf1"'rc1.18 s;, S9S9 (Z.OO~).
1

with MCMheliCiil:5C dlnling~I.~(;(IJli.(m: i.fJi~
~:mr cryslfkll

14. N. :P. Ro6Jinsoo tj. jjj[.. (slinG, 25 (200Q). 1:5. ~. ,po Pioi!)insoo t/. oL.,EMBO J...26, 816 !(200n. 16. t Griling~ fJ' 1lI1. J. Mal. 8i(}J. 3163, 355, ,t~OO6). , 1!.f, lB.. '(lr.ab~k:l. Z. ~f!~mll~.j, 8tKrtf!rioL 1:83. 5,459 (~Qi(li!J., :J!a. S. /Ii., Capa!ld~ j.. MI. I!ellg!r, Ntide.ic .M.ds Re.s. 12, 4821 (20M). ]9. IlIKasMsWilnalhan, ]1. Shin'. Z. Kdlm:aifl,). Bacteria'. lJOO\ 45 n {20rJ6,.~'. 20,. L M, Iyer el· al.., 1. Stf"tf{~;SioJ. 14&. 11 (200~).. 21. Sing~-Il~IJer abi!)r-ei!\i<li!tlil1is!iir ~iheall1!lil!lol ilML'IlUil£ .ac;idl ~Il'eaj ~DlrD'i'IS: <1\, AJla; C, (~~ D. A5lPi ~ GL~; If, F~e; G.. (ilLy; HI, !His; I, n~ tit Lys; II, Lna; til., .M@I1; N~ A!ilIll; IF.', PIfO'; Q, G!Jn, IR,.~;S, Sl!!fj l. Ih!l; 'ii, Vi!i~: W, fliPi and! V,. li~r~

1ii.. ~liOJm. l(fig.4)..

-';0 evalrLM!!IC-I~iiICoo.11iIil<lC-L'l! O!bOOfVooin

gtip[;{)J]c ofdlc DNA pho~plmdk-s]c:r baokbonc-s lhmug1:l a nUlll~:){a: of res~dues.ll1c :il1lltTOClioTiLbe. .. fWL'e:~ ·~heAlAl\. + d{)Fmjna]1d~.1.e ON A haj; t,IoIO etfecl"l" "[iJmei:nUSl.is<I w.idening afUle .I]]jw~.mgliiOove (FDg; .2) TIn£': !';e(jolldislft1J~t ·lbeD[NA Illilil\~i,linds ~S. (his dj8rofil:io~~,m.kcs plilCC .rnliI i~00t;~.t.by 3SP. TI1C; . .. .. . .. . - .. ... i< .... extended l1.dL~OOlilHcctirng lhe MA and\WIli dol1'l<lHI1:> <Ii key OOJ~I]m11Cllr .in this i]!ll~eractioIU.l11:ns. i.~ + ,-_ ng1d. ()O~UIOCtJ:Oll pl[:I!.";l~~ .AAA dom~m;J,~mn~l 'Ihe th~ DNA dilpl~'t, :a:c;l:iiflg.iiS. ~~ b~te .flgil]ll.sl ,\fh:it~,~.
Ii ", _~ -~ _ _. . ,I, ..

stnicmro, 'live 1J:~oodDNA footllrJilIli~g ror ORCI proi:ei~~. W!tl~c- \Vfi drnvl!~rjn !:llone (Fig.. J)• .1\1 ~he m j' t"nd oFlihc ~op·:otrand,. CQllli;lCls w]!h th(lWI~.~dOc nlJ:lllrii near ~he dy.a.drepeal produce fooq)rinl1s. ·~mal areudcilltir:al ~'~OO~l'(:<l~~. TIle 3' end ofuhe ORCI
foo!prUliu c:Xlwdsrou:r baoos fili:lllhor thrml [hilt of the WH doa;-~'il.qun llCC!UlOO iof ooma,cts with Ith~ ~kme

2:2. :t-). W. W. K. OI~on, l!J~deicAicf.d;s: R,S$. 3:1., S '1'00 ~{IDn 23.. We thalilk J .. aillirger 'forg.e'.ne'~sly !;llarinQI diata pliiier tIC puHicallOOI ,mil:! .i" rnru.e1 and M. Sim.gl!loon for liu~:tpr'ul dit,ZU5$klli:$, iIlhls.~rk was, supported Ibf Canore.r IRJi!waK!h UK ilmI, ti;Iy Em.rnpE!an M.oI~(l!Jllar 18iDlcg~ Or,g~n~z:a.ti(]DI ~mBIO:I r~I(IWS!hips ttl ~Ui oilTid8,).5, Caordin1!lieS ~llId
S!jiuC!u~-e I;{lQI'S Ih~,~~ d~po~~~inl thie· PrI't!leirn I[JOlla Bafil~ wmtiJ ~clelflltili.i:ati:liJl ,coOe 2V1U.

S:up,porti~g Onl~:ilile Miilteria~
·~l,!Mi~di~l)celi11agi(lFP!gjTltQl1Il~WuIlll31m:e>4"81~'13',QCl

AAA - dOJ~%1in. On d'~e OO:tl'OfJr! strand. thetiC iiSa
s!l.1kl]1~iol1 of S!lCm,<;iti.vily t lhe ICCl1ltt o.f the a roo~'Print TI]e~la::I.!I!:::ltu~ slll)\\I'S 'nh"l~li:> S!rm1d~" proLectoo ~",~tep.~ lihe: lW(llll'fiHJrolCcled ba~ ~:fial ..1hF

fifJj,. '51 'TaD'~ s.][

n AI'A'~I.2007, a((llp1OO216 }~ne 200:;1 10.1l!2 6istiEmre.11.43'664

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sdenoolmag.oFg

REPOIRTS

Strulctullr1e ,of a T'yr'osiine Phesphatasa A,dlh'8:S:iv8 lateraeflon Reveals, a Spacer ... ,8,mp' Mechlsniis,m CI
.A .. RaJdlu .A,ri,ee:5C U~l~ (~rffistmalml Siebo'td,l", KaJU5hik Choudh!W!lrnir 2. Vel~(l:~i(,alr .• (~il!i !'!~f ~'We~ldal!m' Il!!!~1
Sim,l)f1 JI.. IIilI.arvis}lp• Ani~on v,an d!l!r M.@rwe/" IE. 'V\liomlile Jlorliles1t

p:lacm:m.erUilIlu:11 re~il]oo to til ~,~md t!o\Orli. of 25% R' (Rr!\;l¢'= 32%) "~iith diAhlc!Iofl dal!.'! OOrW(lc:lil. 20.0 ~J1:d3.1 A ~kHiom [see (11) and !WIhle$. The Cl"fsl3J ~ln:DCture ~Ve$; .I]\"e' \veu'..Q.Ilde'~. dOl'I:lJ;;1tills

I

n

-

hl m~ltti:ceJ~ltll~a,r o:wg:ai'ii.smsand :ar~ sUIiJ:~'11H:~o e*.quislit.e Ile'vel!i o~ t control. H'Wlman R.PTIP~1 ls a ty\p'e US recepter proiteilril tyrIOi.sim~ pihl'osphata:s:e that bCl'tih.Jo:rrlm$· ,an aJdlnle51r'!re'(iO'fltad ffibel,{ and ~:~in\ll\Q!lVl€,d~n r,eguLatf~g ,adhe's;o,~ by dephoi5Ipl~,olrytaJtil1lg components o~ cadherin·Cilit!'.!nil!i1l comp'~ex.es,. IHiler,e' we descdbea 3.1 alri!9ISiIJ'Q'1Wl crystal~. Sln.!ctt~lnE' of'~~le RPWPIJ! &todo.maill'l~hatforms a h!oll!!i!·QP~lmC~ra!llt5 (antipa~a~teU dimer with an ,e'.de'nd,ed ,a:mlldrigid ~I!"(h~.~~d.MIi'\e,ifi:1:irLt;hhillgU'l@Q~merl~ioo~. ,Q,f aid herens jun,c!~olrlis, CeU W rro1lJ~e- 111!x!p'i'~ssj;o.ii11 !(ilf d!e,Letio:[:i!1 l Clon:stm~.toS induces inte~ceoU:uLarspadnQls that co rrelate lIYi~~1 ~~Ie 'e·~:~odbm'aj lell1lfr~h.'W:~,e~eda till n sugg'f:lst.~~aJt the RPU\l eCltod:olmal~n arts as a ,alistaJlrilCfil'gaJ!I!iJ'gle:and pla¥s a key f'egulatofll 'fllnction tockin g~h!e plliulosph~jtl~!;!to iit'S a prpJo'prigj~e fu netio!"! a~~.loGa!Li,on.
l

Ce!ll-c,eU cMtalct~s iilli'e fundamental

fO'llI~ul Liprooo:~ifI, ~\'llse:rnb]ies ~Iun c]~~ffiTcr!lt (.~:I~OOnUlC']S and lint, to the cc.nrlll.~ar cyw&kclellJl], TI1C oppooing aCllons of prolein~y['(}S]ne lil1!15lcS and ]lrme'in t}'r(~s.ille p%osph<ltm;:~,(PTPs} ~:I[]II'IC' level of lyrosine '~le P~,h)ilPh()ryl:~ti()i.IIlI.(.l-3} to COJl~rio~,h,:ilU:egrilly of such 0i1i5~eJl;l1l:blllC;S.. Type i: [Broccplm ]jJrotci~~,
eaa

T

he. ~>()~..id. [i.s.,".l~es ofln1;:!I~'iCCUl.d~1!' O.t.!FUliSl!]]S, are I]dd t.O.g(!,tllCl' by interacrinns between
celli adffitesionmolCcuks.
lll1l':S:e

nlllo~ooLlles,

:fulJ].eli(jl~,ils ]:'ijl'idootiQiI1ilpojl~t8.

TIle .fu.ll!"IQ:[Iglh ]l~~nUI]IIJ R.ll.nP~L'ex1!J(lJQel]~Ia]" re~ijon (dtPTPjIJ) CO]~:i>lnLiCl t1l'iioo~or ~nLiCliIJ1~~ ana~YSis.CO nsi~ltld ofresitilucs G~~p:i L)lS142;}Il:I.d to oo:ilIlaillioo .12 pn.'CIi,cl:e<1 N-g~.yoog;yb1I!l.ion sites, To

(Fig. H\): ,11]1. hut.l[lC '~mbr.1lill~lljjO!l{~n~!FN repeat. TIle M.lg SIOOl.CliWI!IJeSlSlolivro,iniso~";I:tOn and iJ!1l 1he CQJ;U.te.:\l~:of rhe c.RPlp),1 rue e,'iisentiOlU:y :id~n[iC'~] [root mea~] Sqlla:ro dc"\fimhD:n O:nlSd.) ==. ulA for' 255 C(~oquiv~k'!ll~1; lW1C ionlyncu:ble d.ifferenccis aroorie'ntruio]1in~i~e Ig dt'M~Uli~'[ of s~m;e lOt! to op'mil~e dle intcrf~ew.itt~~l~~'f:i:rst .I::"NreiPca.t [fig.S, [ •. Aanld B}. 11.l!(:~]a."eC o'l1kredi FN repeats SOOIl in ~he: snucnne (hl;l1iI1.Gd FNI. FY 2:, and FN3; fi.s;. ~.A) e::xhibiL th~ classical .FN cype Il ~ mri(llogy. T]~~electron del1!s.ily fur the fourth FN domili[1, ~~tho~gh ~1liJ:ffici'~fl1i.to il1ldicaDe its ;app[1OXim1Iteposil~ioill ,rmn<l]rnoo kngdy djsoro~rOO lfuilfCfOghout .reiinC'l11:el'lt tlt~fQro,~ds d.o.fflllin l>W}S1101 i]J],chldedin the finlllJli rn.adc] [fig. S2, A ~ildB). A,IMlh: ofF'NrqJc4I!:5, ilill. t:hc eytopl~~~~.ic 11;1l:lofi~.tcgri!1 {l(6P4 slli~ows anf,clll~r]y F sLm[lgst['ilJlctl,,'lim~;hom(l!lijg.y whh il.he FN"2=.FN3

(m

~n[!llkm of e:Rp-f.P~.[pmiHdn JLlJ>iltnBank (PUS)
~ID Ctl eq~i.v<ll~.ClllN] (he i!!CqUCilCcki.~i'iliLy 1[;.(mll)1 2.11%, rhercsidaes ~P] d1.C 061}4 tanidem .FN doma:il1 inror[';nce and ~hdr,c~ivalC;'!)]siildlC: e!RiPTPjJ FN2-FN3 inre!r!I~u. .'e!l!ll;: hi.g~~lyonRt,."f','OO. o The five N=[eFlni:~;<iJ! demaius of ellP'JPp fonn llIi :i'igi.d ;s!:ttlC1mre,\!"ilfu very short lli:l'I:ik:er.S: aadextcnsivc .in~(~u:d{Jilnainimc-ra.cUoj)jj8 {.F"]g. I, B to E.). Asprovicnls'ly n~pone{l,t:~.eMAM-[g Cl'li[y .~ 'QG3.: H11sU"" 2.

O~i;g·".s l, Aailild

q. AI(hOijg!h

~i

A fOf

fa;cilita.tec:ty8ta.llrta.]ioil!,
~r11 g~y(\osyh.ttnO:fII-imlpa.!iood

'we cxp~cd

~hC'prore~n

m~m[l'l!.'!.1 lan ocll~.a~

the 1:c."n,JI.I~l1t 01igQmm~ntO$C"'typc' g]yC!Hll.~ \!J'C~ ftm· !:Iter ~rimmoo dOM~ RI sing]~' N-<lal::1:y]ghu:os.<Illli Ilil:!: ruoieties (9,. 1'0). Ihnspl[o~'ein cry~t.tlIl~2)ed :inliJ • paee gro1[~p 1C2:, wilh 011e fmJ;~cC'!l'Ilcill rhe a..8},]rurnelric'
unit. "Il1.le:UfUCflll'e
W!lS

tyrosine

p]~05p'!]lfIila~cs: RP"rPs) ccmbinc cell [

s(J~v'(;d b~1 molccularre-

lcI_dhcslvcand

c3udylic ~c]iV'ilicsin

'om:

molecsle
Fi:g.l. Stl1l!Fcture olf the:
(,A) M!AM di.a'Qi~aJm of eRP'r~. illl rairlihow co~ loring(m~O'm NtermrilI1i IJlS ln bk!e 001 C temlll1nusill]I f@d}. :s lIgars. ~1I't! deph:t:ed as sl.ait~olrOIil!d ~~.;Eims. ,Modeb~dl parts oJ the Ril4 d!olrnmairll re a fN1 colored~!1 9!1ay (loot are not indiWllded il"l the stll'lJdUI~'(! rel'ifll@lmefllt}. C!Qma~'il'\'S ,1100 ili1;diicaitl.ld fN2 schem']ltkaJlI.y illt ~he lefit: of~he pane[ and~ilri!1 RilPfPl,Ji the eClodQ'mailI1I1 Is f()~rowE!d by OJ !tranS!" meflli'bra nE! he:ltb.a WId Me int!ra(iel~l!Ilar phoSi' pl1aita.$@ id!oma~~s:. (I) Si[Ji~f~(~ r~,j),r-e~~l'I'ta'tIGIfqI or eRPTP~. uirQri~gis IFIN4/ by resfx:h.n~!oomell'YilJiion. based 0:1111 an 'iil![ngnm(iln~ Uii'IIkeli" of 2:3 seq ~iel'il.ces ~Ih;01llr1i'il1 ~nfng. 5310.([ to IE)
11iI101l0mer,

(3) m1!dhi::r!C'e alfe i.dca.lly eq~il~1.o aa :a'l.~nil~®ill ~ illn ~)i1mnsphot:y~~liQ~,1.-hEiSOO s;gOO]ilig Cve:nil~. :Homoplhmc (trons) il1l,t.G"tl"l.Ctions cotltFOl. the .1,tPTP subOOlh:.llm l.ocaJ:imial:li (4, j) ami .m;c bclevedto 1]1mlllliate sign,l[]il1g, 001, a,mocil!aJ1is~c ~.ndCffiuam:l·, ]ng. Ofa.llrs P!~~ '!:u.~ 'itlcc!llad\il,g. Tlul l~JeIIB RPlP f~mi!y (6~ 1) ~oll$ilS!1,!;; of Ibl.llf menlbers:RPIP~ Rf'JP'p,RP1FK, ~nd PCP21 RP'TP:t l'hcirextl<l;edlllUlarr :u;c:gi0I15 are predk;~l:d,
ro g]ha(.l.~®: com:monarehilimclil!lJil:'c, oornp:vis.ia:ag six dOlil11ifl$m,: one MAM (n'l~pri.n/A5.f!J) dmmrin" one:

eR.PTl~
Ribboifl

I

nooti:~ (FN)I~

1nm~l[1n(lg.1()bu]ilm. ,(I:~:.H·ikedOl]~~in,a:t'fid

m'~lpc,us (lFig.. ]A)., Om p~

f'O:J,IIwlThl'().·

:stlllCIJIJm of ill] N-'lU'"l:11i1~<I~, pD:l1ioll ofRIPTPlJire!;tefu~.cd 'D.I.l<U, MAM andlg the dOlllrl<'lins: fOml1lia Slruel'l:Jjml Iln~t. (roooed MJ g) with a seamless iin,T.cr.d()n~:Biiil il:1litett~OC'(8) bm eeuld 11:0t. ~p]~i~lhe biQ]ggicalfimction of O\€: mo~.t;"!Q~Ie. Domains beyond M.[g m:c;:l'C(IU~,[l)dthr eel ladbcsiou (8). prollllp1irug usto al~~[ll!J;pllh.e ~nCl'lltrnll ~oltul:iO:Ii:l1 f the, ~llU,e,"{weelliular region. o

'iI:vousJ!y~~il:c:d

GJt)"o'ltnl

Rii!~al'(l~ UK IReic!IlplorStrucltJreiRe'llearllll GlfrnJP, IJInll,rerslW of Orl1om, lfIen,rry Weol[clime Eul'ldifflg of Genomic Mditrn~, liJiil'l!is~cm~r SlU:~ltll~·~:l :Bi()I~¥, ii:@o:s~vell: [I[i!l~, O.dordi 0;0 116N. I.lIlit lSlr ~VJl!'iilm DUJf!n Sc:hodl or P<lthO~Oog'~r l!i!lilwrsit1l' o~ o.:d'!Ortl, 5eu~1ii lfIarks Readl o.xfMdi on 31tlE, UK . .!lW~a'illleil"aU IllilsHtllteo of M,ni.e<c:i.dar,fl,itedili'le, johlfl ~aticm~e H()~~tal, Ulillv~slty ,()~ Oxrmd, Oilfuntl OX]
l(arHI'M

Close·!JIp '!!rlews of oox.ed

9,(}:5, UK,

"lhes@ aUlllh:o;rs; c:omrlbl!tl'd @QlUilUyW

thislM~d::.

'liTo,W~1I1l (eiITe~lldejijre ~Ojfllle@~lnllJi.ox.aiC.uk:

~Imllidbe

.Ild'dr~!>oo.. E-rnai~:,

tntfwdlJ>main]un(~oIJfili5£mm '(8). T~e ~'9fjm2lIgenta)," fNll(slate)i' FN2 '(yettDW). o1!m:lfN3 <gfe'fillill) dom~i!lli5 are :5hown as (O~!~ IResidues I',3r5)illmrV,olved] ni dloliJi1la,i m.a~f1]:nit~ua:cijons n·do ,are drawn in stick rn!p~,ese:llIlt:altn"Q'n{oxyigen, mid~ ni~~ogeJl1Il,b~u e';!illil'~!fl~', Llime). fJ'Otentijial iiIY'dil'1ophHk. ~ll'I~eri31ct.l0n5am millrkecdl r :illS: 'glrray dot~E!d IliiiiiJe:S.

12~7

I

REPORTS
~[literf;]C(lis s'!lill:l[ledb~ a oont:uIlUOIJi:t ~. sheet (8). Thclg~FN.1 illil:lCtfacc is sta:bili:wd b, <In;ctwor-'k Oif i~uuaCItio~sin\ro1'\!~~g primru:Uy p()l~r residll!c-s. (Fig. Ie), wi];e!:e<lslill.e fN~~FN2a.fildFN2-FNG ]!1Ju::'rfhces 'Co:l1i~f1:if!, inaddiLiQH toml.dtipl;e potential hydrogen oond~, <'I disul.fid(!· bond ~ml.hydrop!ITIobicinl'J:.Iractions., resp(:clJivc~y (fig.. 1.1) ~:mdEl Typka]ly •.all residues :iJl\iIl)l.vcd m these ]J1le'.rd)ommin ]nte:rocuio:!l\~a:!!\': '~lriclly eonserved withi~~([~cverrebra;tetype US RPm (fig.. lB and fig,. 8.3,. A and n)..nl~~.~]is r.igid .I)od]ike architecuuc aPJ.Jearslo 00 <'I ddining dlJoIDrm.r· oocistk: of type US Rf'fP GCIliodol.mins. H@w(wc:r.
speelfie points off:lcc.x.ion occur in olll~QrccUad~· oo]l~lll

intli1:[ilctioflS

RP'T.I1.' aJnd RPTPK are lProloolytic~ily processed lin the ~TIlJ~.. Gollgi m'Cl'"'tO!:t by su.bti Usfu:D. ke pro-U (e~nJ ::o~vel!la~s {.l3, .I4}. Tl~is ,cle~\!'.~g~does nor < re~d~o release of the mo~.oculc Jium th~ cell
surface (5, 11) but could i.lltriXim:e Rcml!:: fle'X.libil ity lin the: nlelTlbmntl·iPro:xi~.1I.1;;1~.region of jhe
cctoobmain .. A fm:t~K:rpoim. of Jlexien may be provided by residu~I~'~king the FN4 don~linw the n:a~1L!>me~~'[hm!le regica, Type l[ :RP'fP.". are hO!lll0\p.bil.ic ~]la~hesiO:I:I

!(J.n TIle'

fN4 d.om<lins of

['1\10

R~i(h;rcs .f~ln fOl!;~!, dOl'ua.iJls !(MAM.

eq]tlsl:s ]I~BO A:), for a probe rnditl1'5 of L4 A~ [g, !fN ].!ll!lld

fold

moleeales :re.I<i.t.edby a ~[)fSt"'1~~i"Oi!]l<liphic t\?i,1{F axis (Fig .. 2A: burled surface permolocele

molecules thalt Ihrm hig~~lffini]y
Miol1

dJin~e[s in SQF
,,",VI1M

expressed reveals

(S, 15) and cause
OIiIiJJ

the: KtlrFace of!l].ormaBy uonadheslve
ICfjfSM]

col] <lg&,'l'iC.g;lI!l] on

he;sio!l mo~ecu]es and may be neecssery tl(l ~I~ow lOr ]imiH.:d ~dju ~m.enb> i:!l >Qri~l1wtion to .I~ciI:ihue
18

oo]ls (J6-20}. 111e
iI]]

p~cki~g of cRPl'Plj.t

c
D

cx:lellsi.ve i~~emction ~u!l'll=Ice e'l~,"'ee~ b C:

330 A

fig. I. E(:~odomailrill leii1lg91lof RP1iPJl.I. (OIf1l:b'o'ls ll1loormembrane S;pacilt1lQI ,fit homo.typk ad~utsive·ilt1l~er'" faC:fs,(A) APiI'll aCOJlmtl!atlolfi!, ,jill adh!eswe irnterflares we\l\Sat&llby imm!;llno-~M. anatlfSns of ce:U aggrrlegillte

IE

EGFP

RPTPlllE.GFP

Y:Q,97AJ W29g,A

1~23'9E1 R240E

Fl409E

Fig. ,2. ,eRiPTiPjJ dimemtf:oll1l. W IRl'btbon dla.gra IifI oJIh~ @RP1I'p!'l Id!ii_r. The oo~veUIIl\ ut.f.ls<;ibi~ s!!!IrmacI!' >dram .... ]$ ~n ijg!fuilt gray,. aool the do~~ns ap;peiir in blue (MAM),. mgenta Og~.sla,t~·fNl)_yeUmv f1N2). Igreoo (fN 3), ,aool gr~it (FN4). Ile ·~5teriSk ~J~k$ the OYSl:allGgrillpht(~or'dl"d a~i~,{B) 1~!~wl~tatk Iprol!Je.t~~, On~'1lfil(ln:tQmet i~ ~OIO!l'!i1l as ,a:£Olvent"'iK.cessiill;e surlace ,~:o~wed ele(VosliIltlc lI:lolential[ ic.om'Ol,IIred at ±'1~ kll(red,a.cidk; tllue.. l~ bask); and file o~oor mCHl!lJITIeJf ~. SOO\li\T1IaJ5 a Ibtack ri~b'On. ((I'~he dimeullilitertaJllle. NVINi and 191O'JIll'llim of 000 d moleoule. ~'nt2rii!d 'Wilili FNll ,and FiN,2:domai~ ,of another fIllJl€!wi.e. DomarM ,aim oohnool as 11100. Residl!l:!S

involved in dii~r inteirocoom a~ie' ch:am iril~t1ick r~presmt.il,tion ~oxwei\ I~ed;rnibogen.. Mue). PooomiaI

hljdmprn~Ucnntera(~o,i1Isal~@ iliMrked as ,gray do:bd liii'l:@s;Asterisks EI1K I"eSldues tarlg~tedror i11llitilgenJ!Bis .. (D,) .. 1HI~lrq~ohic inoorart]rmi). Cdo:r coding 15. as 1~ '(0., and. the Ni9Z·ljil'lkOO ~gi1lr is (O,!torerl hl g~rlli1I'i1Id forms '*~kiDl;TrII+"'~ ·1Il.~v, i .. 1Il: 'n .11 n',iIl No .. Il!e.INh ... . 91 ... io!:.acu",n5 MUI! !!I111.~ i~iDI"", rLg I(]I~~M~1511JE~ I(,<ln adh.'orl ~-lf5 . ... _r!(!!. d I':r *1111sec. t"C:f9 re.~ 1I\fefe .llL ~r "'.. __ I.~e~... .~ .. ,. [Ii. ~n~eded with lberullovfJll!!s wruSb'I!lI!ds lexp~essil1lg eUller ler!h~ncedl greenliluorescent. ~irot'eijn ~E'GIJFP) ii!irone' (IT ~~~EGfP fUSIDP'IIComtruds" Milk! ~.P'E!,[!li1!dl l!lJitalntj,alma observed Iby phase' cOIilib"a5t (rop roW) gl!l!dflluorescenre m (botl:om mw) mlicro.SIO:Ipy. IWornmaitlhil O'~ .aggreg:a:t~ 'indica~es RP1J!pp. oclOO:Oimjiiil ,fldheswe IitJlndO:iiil(8).
;,!!,gI. ..... ,ill.

cryosect~ons. (origi!i1lillm8l.g nrificatiO:rIIj' x23,0(0)1. (Eli) at~·l!.pview IO~ ,i1illf1l.interia~e Illgioll'1l1rr,om CA}j sihowilll tihf.! IlIlIIElm'br.. bi!~rs (original magmffi~ 3.li1e cation, xtli9'IOOOL (C to E) Trammelil'l~ni!lil1le RPTP'j.l COM'1t1tUtS !Indum ~t:ens1!i.i\e (em conta:~:t ~gion~ W'ililill ~I.lgnedllp!~il!m~ lifie,rnb~aIi~ (ori~li[J~l i"ilIagli1llil'ic~:~!On, ;:<:.49,0(0)., Tiheil~M:erlilllemb~lilJe di5taliill::e5 i:!ei(OlWie lPillogre~sive~ siloritEras RP~P:I'l. dOrmlamm are de:let:edl, l!AeaSUmTlitllilt5 (!il~ei"il at f~li('jns o~ ~h;tl ii1l'~er~ace:s ,yhern m~mbrairl!eS were IPilraUe[ and deliil ~llf def iiil:edl re~eal~.'!he f'OU'oMlrilgl distan!l;-.es be,tmre€,iITlthe ~Ha· cellular bori~ewso~li!e Clluter I~ea~rets; 23,7 ± 3,.0 nm Ln = IH mel3lsurements, from 26inf.edaces, ,one s-lilOVll1l'illin Ipaoo~ (0).. 172. ::t 1.9' !'1m [no::: 15:9 meolsurem.oo1tis:, fml1lll 3.2 .~ ll1.t:E!rf.1lC!es.,. on:e sihiOW,rnli 1'1 !po1Ine~ (O)m,flliid 13.1 ± ELl nm l[tl "'" 114 mj@a~jlire~ metrn.~.,~lrljm 29' int~rla~e$1 Sln:owl"lin p~l~l (J:)]. (jn~ llintennemb:rane:-distanre~reql.leocy hnSWgral'll!s are iPir(l,vided in mgl.56" ili!ll5.•.11 dei(i~oo!ieilliceU·cet~.spac( ing o~ -6 W:llmoolil.~.ee.[i'l pilD'I!il!ils {C) and ~D)i(orre~ s,ponds to the· oob~t1:on,offonen~1 dom(lfiUl'pt~:5 ~et~n I1e!gi011l, ,fllml':! .;3, decrease o~ ~4!. nm. belweenpanels ([)) alne! (!Orlrrl~~onm t~jctoo del.e!~on i()] one' fN' do,.· malin, lpei!' RlP~~mmuJme:r. 'The' lobs€f\lied~~.lI"\~fflgtJi:l IR:PTI~-ili1dlu{;ooliiliillennembrane di5li:!m'e'is ill agreement with piII'bli!llhied data! en sil'lllil[alri:Y treated $;jjm~ !piles OIf cadheriin"mediill'tedi ceill j lU'lictiolm~ SO,. 31).

un

11218

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE \llMw.sde~oo'm.ag_.orgl

REPOIRTS
.F'N2) ooruriblue to this diil:Jlei:"il1~err~ (Fig,. M.ll . . \"~lvch ,i~ maDil1Ilyhydrophi~k\ .nn\'{dviil1lg ]4 poien~iaj,hydrogen bonds, :End wJlich is1'iu:llu:r Slabi]j~d
by 24 n=Sid:~L~S a glycm1I':1er !]lo]1(uner,fun"ll1li~lg 3J1.d 'iI';;Ij1l d.cf'v\,iha.ls OO!1JtooU> (fig" l, B ~CI! .D). "[I~utmJin :uI.'lOOUldiora. SUr£l.oe iSrnJlllOO oot'!i~1\.leJm, ~.n: MAM and IS domOl:ins fromolle nlO:.lecul:e ,<lmru.d'IC fN~: end FN2 dlciI!lMlllm fro:md,lc Odlcr: To verilY ~hc b~ologi~] imp:m.rutce (If th~ .if!tcrf~ '\VC' per!boned si~di rected !w!d:aJ.ge:~esis resicues of "", ... .;_;1.." ;'" (m~_j,··..!1 b·O! ii;"""ltL"""'~iI::lKi."" ,~~.~ 1:;'.10 'J' ,e' "' ... ..;11'1;,\ [~""t' ~~~~U' .. ;; :UJ appe<l!r to p~ay a, cnJ(.iaJ~.[l):I~lblil!l i:n:negruly ,a~md <lire ltigh1y conserved wmrin thO' RPTf f:'lmi:ly. TI1C' o~ii:gO~I]C :Slate of mUt:aJr!L1, pn:m::il)s was assessed hy si:zo.,ex;dlUlsion chrul'i\l]l:i'g;m.plli~y (oolublte eeiod.omlI]r:! oons;I[II,I.cl$~.fig. S4 ), O!I.f1d in vivo eel] adhe.s ion ass<~}'" (mUlsmcm:1tn:lIJrne OCHlWUtI.",: Rg. 2.E)" MlIl.1lltions. ,QF ,atl:dhfJ,1AiJ) 1:0 g'h.uOliJm~ne: 0[' Ty;t:91 and Tr;p29Q to alanine abo.li~u:d di:met= ilzaHo1m.iln both :ll;g,,'i~yS:. ~naddi~Ion,a fN2 dom."'i~j], mui~tio!l (Arg~cNlQ gh,l!.lIUl1Ulltc) impaired dhnecri-· 7.n~iQ[llilli dl!1;:' ,d:~:n::lImuogmpby as;MY and romp!e:ltc)= ]y ~lib()lji~hCld ocn!ldh~iOn. This; nn~dil]g CmlCilJl:~, w.ii~'1IJin!'\fiolls]ypu~lnsl~ed seri.'Ll, de!l':~iO'Il:JJdmii,IJm~L d.e-fHfiiCd AM.~IS"'f'N]-:fN2 as 'I!l;~.c mijjjlillilfl~ ll[iJil M
I.. , I'U'I~ ' .... '1 . ~ .. IJ,L-i;,:~ ,~~~L,

Type .un ,RPTP ectoo(lI.l1aj[Q:l :iLrehi.gh~y co~~,~ &\'fV00I across species and bel:\\IOO1.firumily ~~nbe:U8, (t'ypicmJly 50 10 60% amluw acid icfur~ti]y~f~" S3,~ Desp~te" 1!hmsleve;1,of ~,!Jell![,1e I.,Dn~~~tkln,,~le ho:mophli~i!n~io:n.s: o:rJtPT~ and RrrPlIC ~'!(j~/II' strid sIJe:::::ificity il1c:c.tlula:r a'i.'N:1yS 0 9). Suchbehavmr Stlggcsis .1'm in viv(lsomi[Qg FL.IJ]cti(I[JJ for 'lh.ese oc]! adlill:csioo meleenles, ~s dCscribcd ~brci))dh.criU'l!S (2).: a oondusio'f! re~~~ollCedby the gecl1iemBy di.iiunet end c:omplcnil.>C!lit~!Y cl*:.(j!:'CSsion panerns 01")served d~tirin:ag~a:nbryonil.c d~v:e:loplHe'l1il. p, 11). Th'CcRPT,P~ s'tmcl.ure,\¥hcn cOIU,I::iIe:d wi~] a sequenee ~lUgmn~~. bctw~:tIi, RPTP ocoodQll1Jwi us, reveals a S'lricl:ly conserved scafFo:!d of core imll,K;raetlens (fig, 2, C to E,Md tig.. S3A1 w}~e~ perip~.lero.l ~a'5 of l~~~ dimer i nrerfl.we stlbslal1iliaill voni.libil ity: these diUerences,l.re show like]:y
2

folds, wln:rms a second set [iJ11iIY w~kenL'l'fi:e in:u.er= d.omainjullc:lions and hence pCl1wb~lC lfigiiCIily of the ocrodol'ID"l~in {fIg. S5:B}.. Type: ]mRPTf s~~bs;n~~~re componenl" of HloC>ca.dhelrjn·caJroni~l 'cOimplexcs: (IlCCU C!onmct~ (3, 210-:23)~aiJ]dRPTPI1 is known t:o a.. saci<IJre~,\li.i.'li~ m~d~ilp:.!e; adl~.crifls (N. Ii It, \IE) (26, 17j,I'Il!Jcl~· e ulaltrncg their adhesive prepcrtics, The CC~od!Jl'il'lOOm;:

I

o:f~le tl!!;dherins rilso form. lr.B:f.!i..%~mel'S, end our d
:a!1~Ys~s!rcve~Ii!!l maooh bet'l!!.'Cc'f1Ute di-· U'l>ensLtms()ifthc:'RYI.P~,. mrl~:;;; dimer and 'cadher~l:1~ n'l~j:tlled L-ellju~'lCtirll1S (2$, ...31). C1!dhcri~'Illii ~,1l1cdi~.!c :i]]l~CiC(1UuhH COl:l.l1Ic]sin o:t;ganigunst.ulgling, i''Oln
SIJUC:tl!finl

Mfff)

to ha;vo ,C'l,ft).I.'\i,cd. [0, provide ll~.e s:peci.l'idty fo], h.ollilr:uophUic ~~<b'lr~rHkm (fig. SSA)" 111.11: higb. l~'i,rel Sf'qllC:Im.0CCOOilscn;ra!liou alsoallows usto

m~' a 8erics ofRPTl?p mumti'oflS, fOI:.l!Pld for an
rul(il~ysis of P'IPs in human oo~omcfll.l ~ncer:s (12). omejhe cRPT.P1jJl SLTiULCllJ,lirt. A~.Umugh!he role (Ir l~lC'.scnllul1!lltions. i~~.IJLul:ll:orugen~isrecllni,res ljlliVe~i~a,'I,iufi, .ilis clear lhii[UiiLC gro~jp of thciJ]1:Iean

or

<t.'ld.d:iaJiiLfi'Io,I'I(unans ~2)" ~.n'l"rCite'i:muL"S. cadhQn:l1~ based ijlj~cmctj(ij:iS need ro \1.ary in su!bmly i!J~':i th~ rela1ti.."rel:y s(m:!:v~ cQlil]acis ine;pith~li~. or \1(11"''' cul.<If endloIiliH:4.1lf1. u),du:: mere dlyn~n']Jic ,om.. re'!! ql~irodlJy nJilLllronOll.gfOWith COJ:1es, Ad~csiOJiiL~i1Sor ~niO['-'1:::;lJlk~"whie~lI. oolm:tivlily 1.(J;C<lHwlfi eadhemin~ mod,ilMoo eell OO[litaCIS, would pi:(}\~fdc a mceha-

OClquin.'"<!for cell adhesion (8).,

be Jj)l"o:Hctcr!. disrupt the M:AM er :Ig dmn~in ro

nisw by vvMd~m'Ri'Lodu~~le the :>u!.bil i~yoflhC'8e n::giom1'i. If tln.c dimcns,ionls of the R.PTp!,! (mns dimers iII:re'i!gid]y setm correspond U) it p~rficJ;:Ilbl1i r celll~\lU s~~ming,. this: adhesien .inta:11.ction hasjhe po1i(';(itial te M'I. asa spacer Cllll~.P, lodti[1,gdi~ p~~.osphiliJal.sea..clh~]y f!!ll:headhcfet!s jum;:,1.i01!I!. TOI:C$~ the abi:~il.y of the RfTfJ:.lL naID~S dlmerto
[u'Jf~cli():n ~s
I!IJ

spa!:)er elamp,

\\,I'iC

'exiProSc'S(.\d :series ~

IF!m'feol yUe c:me.~vage:sites "'AIDAIM 10 I> 'ts9Cf>!!lI:ase/PS' I>PI!Q~e.illl(:QT!\I',e!1tas'~ill
---

of trnn£>1l1l':!'[mH:n:ne' constlJlll.Ci£

.in ll!.l~:lich lengt.h the

or Oie ecl'ooo.maun\;villS seri~.lIly roduced (by de-

lot ion. of ~4
iM:lil~mC:LiO:fIIwas

:Ji1f1d N3':.PN4} bU.t, :thcad'l;~,cs,ive F

I
-,

:<,_. ---------

conserved

I":'
'Nuclear

PmteaS'Qi~11
dle.gr.iiI~a.tiiofill

oopy (EM) of i!]TIl'ru!lolllbckil CtyOSCCl ions eonfumlcd ]IUllt, i~t]tis gy~rem.l:h,~:RPI~ moleC'ulcs p:reft1r-erl[iaUy lecated ttl rell.-v~nirUeFfMes (Fig. 3,.

on. Ek~c[fOn

~~,~lic:ro.sl"·

A aiml, B). Mea.sul'cm.cruofLlhc oc:n~cl~ buerl":m:ooii
rcveal.odlba!1 '(11{pre.ssi.OJ:ll cf'each c.offilS4ntlJl. resuhed in a dj~tilm.c:l $padng (Fig . .3,. C 10 Eo and fi.g Si6~ Fu~the!:m'!gre,~~e8e d:~M~l<Clive' e~l~re]1 ~~c~t:),g~ c c'Orr,d.<liJ~'\A".itb 'dlf:: tlUlnber of dan:n;)iJlt; i,~'dl¢ exlmc:enu~lmr regi.(m cm1st:ruc:t<!Jld hence wiihi.he .!t:il1g1h oflbe tlt'Ja:~S di[1I1cr: An.o]illg.Sid(1~l~above obSColVatnOOliS. ~,,!Cr.alilitlos of evidenee converge tOSl!pp~n the i,~ports:n:ce of size ~!ld hQmop~~iltc ~dhC'Si\.~epro'Pc:l1ics, :for ~heccl~om~]!l·l.'eg~]lfJLl)OOIIQ~a]j~a]io~ and fu IlC;" [ion on:prf,~ AI~ow cell d.cnsity. RPTptJ. has ,:m even disttilbtlli.o]]L,~)ver 'd1Jil1 cell ~llIrfaoOO. whereas inJi
oon!]oouerUlltl!]res" surface c.l.liPl:'C..s.~ii!Jl'inc:rofls($ sub:M:m1nHai y (~:hrctf():~di) ~nd ~OC'8!Ilzmiotn. is ~ reSlric:i.OO .~O! ce~l-ceil OO!!1Wi:c t'i :(4. j). Because: l~ds i:ncn:::.a~ellS ml.o:! due: tD dlc up·4:egllI1ll.tLm~ of gene eM!l[iessi.o:n" '~Cleplo[,ein ~pp~lrs to be "lTIilppOO" ~It celli ;COJ~tactsn.lroiUgliil itOJ::JJ1:ophilie bindi:mLg (5)',Dc] Vucchio and Tornik::; (4) h,avc shc:r,,:m tlhru.. IUi'ieO:[I~ llm:IDl,~ oovilm.c oonk cndothdial mad M:adin':OMiby can]:ne kid~~ey1l cu~tl,Ire.~ RPTPj,l i.s SLri,C~~y ~ .. co» locaHzoo W~~lI. cmdhc:rim~ ,~I;tilliteJ.U,nllll'llr OOllt<lLCt~ and eJ!.c:~mle(i fl'Dl1W the' ~~fIJll'OW spm:ung.s oflhe
1

t ra ns~oc:'ElIUo n

E:::dr,iilcel,lluiliar spiil'ce pH~7.4

F~g.4 •. Mod@I~.(~f,11hesio rHlie'9!lIlal~l8d RPTiPJ.,i~S:lg llli ng. Caldheri 1"1$ I[@(:tod!ornlililns s.hown ]n !o'I".img:e', d n IPiDB entry 113W (29)] ,est!31Ibilistn intel'(eUu~ar corrtallCts vlBl tra,I1S lrrteuc~ion~, as ,~U als oils mn~eract]CIns '(black afl~"o"W) {21 2~. RPTPJ,J!snOlWliilJl in blllle)ll!'an5 illteraOOQrli5 !]Iff pH s.eR5itivoe(8,18), wh~d~ (

~:!i Drl:sist@nt:with c

itll~ po~aJ' fnaltur@ ,oif~1mle ii1ll~rfa(je •.andth~r,e~o,re

Ci3!11111l110rt ,a~ the lo~v pH of~h.e ~e[mllo'ry form

pililhway. Ge~l ~I!l rfa(~ I\:IP'Wj..tmll)l@cul~,$ r;a flildly I'ecirculat~. uWlll~s'S there 1$an a,~propria'~e mccg m1jl1cnlllatlCii'l (5). 1J[ralfiisIIii:PWPjLidiimelriziilll:iolFiil ma,Y' Ib.e: 'm'rmpl~me-n!tJ!!d by weak 'j'lliill'eraJ!::tiioR$ 'illl .[:is (bilaldk clm::m aJnd qu~S!licri m~lrik) {S, 15), RPmpll'l~n $tibiliz~ the ,~dh~~il1i"cattEni!:ll '~.Q,mlPt~:x,dl'!1Wlij)$(:hemaIti(.1iQr. Q:"Ci1ite,rilln {YE'UOiN [ ci~cltS)I" kal!ennll'i {~igh~green ovals)" ,and p:!l20'Gil(e'1JI,11'i (d~rrl(gllieen w.a[s)] b~ depho~Di~)o'Pl~altion (red O'} aUo\lj\5). 'mype ~liB RPllPs ,Ii!'r~lPir'o(:e!iiiedilni mUllmip~.eproteo~,ytk 'st.eps (5, 13, 14l P1l'ot.e'ln'(J.il:n,wrta!$€S (ill1llhe: ~rans-Gotgj neiMm,k) nicktne FN4 domaln (13, 14)', po~€ntiaUy col1l1mbwtnn91 k.x.ibnLity •. ADJW\lO dlrila,ws close to the membrane ,n~ili:~ '91raiylnID'le:S')t(auIsif1l91 th!l.lithedding ·of RPiliP~ (5, .14) and ,cadhe,nn (36)

@!Ctodoma,ins •.Subseqt!llen~ y"secf@tllls.e:-dlep@ill1.d!en~ il1l~~amembraJne
f'@g~on (b~l!die liJiVo]Jl.!;) 04). 'Whe (adheri
1ii11

de,a!.lli1ilg@~~el8,Sie!$.m

e RPTfp. ~ntra(:eHui~i3 r
jUI!lmiO!ll5!1!liiId

de5mQ~(lililme5 has revea~ed~~e poss]bHU,,of I'U,),IiiIi"lO!thOgO:Im!l'!~, orienta!tiom with I't'spectw t~e mem'brn!1e surface [withvarialJQetiit angles (28~. 3J)]. bu~ ~t~:5 r1Iot dlearto wha't ex~en~ this is (alll!5'ed b¥ sa liI1[pI.e p:repa ~atio:tiil pmcedlMIi'eS or fl~xibilRy olf~he ju:ld:am.embr,i3ltii!1i regiom.

a!~e':Stno.wnperlPe!ld~IGWlJhuto'lie (,eUs!.!!iace l'CI's!ilmtp!~lf'y'tiheflgluli'!f:!'. EM analysis o~ ,2!idh;erE!imilS

i3Jt;dIIRP1l'P.~1 ectOO(Hmar.l1Is (cryslal$h1l1.ct!Jlre-s

dr,a.\liinto the sa me sCi1Ite·)

[i~lt jUljC'll~n'is.. MOJiCOvct,ii R.PIP\Ii OOiJ'iSlTlJiCt ladki~g [lI1tC Jg d.O(J)lM)]I1, aJi~dlhcrC'l~lfclHla.bl(.'; to

e..sIIDbUsl~ O!llOphU icimei~cti~s. h

surface C'xprt'SsiolJ![ 'patterneven in co:~nu.cl1ll cull u.rrres (4);, TIl is dCIllOllSOOlll!;:S dn.at the ilU1tmrel]!,.Ilar
regi](iillil'j

ha;s a difflll.se'

d~pilc

i:~s mbiu.li~yl'ounLelfi.C( \''>'iilh ciii.dh~:-

I

REPORTS
rins, iis.I:l(l[sLQffi£ienll'O ool:Q~d~~e thesepmteins at the; Junc]ions, The .PIPs gcne;mlily bave Hule sub&tmlC :Sp'cifJjc~~y.ami Uley re]y 0]] rnol1Ca~!llyljc: d01'1Il!(liIllS,lO oonlro!lIIleil~ sub cc[hJ~~rdijslrib1.Q.~i.on !!]1rj['lerefal'e .indireC'tlfy Ileigt:lhue their ~liiClivjly by n::smrcti Ilg aecess ~D plllrl:icu~ar :sl~l.bstr.E1ltes ardeFIned !ocalio1lS (6~32)~ R.PTPs [Ire km)'WI1!O be

(lc:n

taets, p('Jtel'l~i.dljynncre.'1~-il'llg ~he local level of p~lo.~ph<ll:!,ascaclivhy. Bocausc of ~he h]g~~),fUllllitily <

2~,

·afthe-Irons

i~nemC1ion, []lC balanee bCl\VC~l

eel]

ad]lesiQl.~ versus mo'bj~.ityCia'li1 ornly 'be iJlilled by t11'C!lctiol'l Or~H~ArJ!AM .1 pootease (14). ]n both to
C[)45 rulldRPTPg hQiy.'\~wt.'f. ee:,todonllmin size a:[iJ.d

22. Z. Wang tl al." SCrenre 3011, 1164 '(2(104). j;. A". IlI!SIEO', R. Hoo!ft van llilliijsdulj:n~n, :It Jro>lhobn, A lliotJ.t'r, 8lo.m R'~, :t:1l.16, '50 ~2OOM. ~4.• M. :f!'!ch~1 , M!!~ler. lit M., L~~ch,..It, Um.nQ'h. J. 11' CltolllW.

nW.d:ity ~uppcar

00

provicl!e:

<'I 1'U,lI.ed'mni:SI],l, to, <'IUOW mu]([-

oo!lsl:iw~~\'Cly,actIve, and n~nd;·ilmduO!Xl rnacl]\Ia-, [iO)i~ ~l:a been 'repO[100 f{)~lweI s a:~1cllVs:ubf~m·· iHes•.Suoh a moclumi:;n,1is: ~r!~ike~y((I apply 00 type: UBRPl'P:." W'h~ mn active ellzylne wou~d be
1"t'qlJiJ1.>d L'O ~lNl;unlfl~[1 clldlwril1"t""~l;lmin cOJ.~,~licx~,

cell-cell :8ijjmcii1g:s~a,regui ate .iflll.CDiCci iular moleeuer a,%:emb]ies.
1

ina d~ho~IlJ)cr:ylaloo state and ~UlS conmlYll![~ io (hI:)sli1Lbi.li~y ef'eell COOLaCiS (2). .I:Im,ll~:is. oonoox~, for' type HE RPTPs, the cCf(Joomail""l:1i'I:Cdialro lta.f.IIS, honwph:i~.ici[Jjtero,dkn~..~ppear t(l .t:q1fe>ent the dlliv:ung force for oorrut~!c:)[:"lliz.lltioo <l.l1dflJJltC~Jo[l. BIn r~ldb"l en Itl)'TP,~~ SU!rg~l: bow jhe '~ype: 11B .RPTPs ~i][];odld,ue ~,lcst~dbi]ity ,of adhcrens. jtlilCll(iifl S (.FilS. 4). TIle tlcll'id~:m~~i]lj,Ln'liflSi:iu:cmclion

iss~!,I'ilC'bcd ofr ail acid pH 1(8;l8} O.e." u !ui]
slUfIlllce),

.RPTP,~].rea.chesthec-ell
]i ke C'(;lodomAin

The rigid,

I1,DEel~~'

~he'l1. aets <IS a sc:nli.'101!" of il1l1ier~· eellular d~stu]rei!>, ImfU:chil](g ct.l.dll,eril~c;nK>di al!(:d: cell c>Ofila.cm. ilI:l\\~~ jdl ~ii'ill!rn.e tmilS ii:iilCrnC~~Q[l, SCiI:'VCS as a :8P<'1CCf c:llamp, h')iki]~,gthe ph:~fiph~!tasc; !l,cliv]ryhlID proximity whh f~1et."li'gCLsrlll.bstr.a~es.

l1lef'eIf e!JiIIO!s i!llrld No~-e5 1. !\ft. IP~rrez-M!Jrr~nD', , Ji3mora, E.. Fucru .• Cell 1ll2. 5,35 ( tl:O(D3). 2. B. M. Gumb.ine~; N;rJr!~ Re~~E Ge.fl8i\Q1,,6, 6:2:2 12(aOS.iL 3 •. l. i.. ~~e,~,e. s, 'Wiil1Jth~i'!. It::. e!Yr~dg;L!, t 8101. ('hem 281. :li.61'8:9 (2{106}. 4. It L. 1!D,Ell \iea:lhiio, INI, K i'Dlnts, j. BirA. (hem, 2;80, llt60.~ O·OOS>, S.M. IF. Getti!ll'k ,e,r~ •• 1. &frat. :il3i!l!., 2S11. (::1:995), 6. N.I('TOOI~5, 1'101: .Rev.: MoL Cell Biol '7, 833 ~2([i06}. 7 .. 1. Besco.,M. C P'O,peooD',I V. Ila\liwluri, A. F~ll1iolnnl, .1lI.Rmrer,!MtC ,6~mlmi[s 5, 14 (2cm~). It .A. R. JliricesOl.!l ert (ll.. E&lOO 1. 25" 701 (20(l6rt 9. A. !t .Airlce;!!cYl. 'IN, ly, E.\(. ]o!i'\.<e~ k,t~ Cr~ld/Qg.l'. 0 ,62 • •. n.43 (2006)1, !It V'. 'Ii. Cl1;an~etQ.[, Sttu.c,t.ili1Ft liS, 26 7 '~~(I!lHt

.29. 'T. J.6GQ!l®n ,et ,at.• 5cilM((1 29& •. BOS (;l.i(lCm. 3Ot. L It. S<Us:helin, Mt;~ev; (¥fol. 39, jt n ,(Ui4lJ'., si. \'I, He, IP',(mrin. O. 1L.SM:@.'ii, Science 3Q!I!:, ](DS! '(2003). ~~. [, A, Yi!l~u~h~i!il fit (ll •• S(i'~~~ .~1!5:, lU (~On, 33, S. ]1. IDa.~~s,. ~ \I,m d~" Me~, N(j,f', Iffll'f.!!Yl'lol."J, B'a.3 P.

2:71. 16712 (::1.99,6,. 2'5, G,. C m. :Zoodag~ /J., B. lleyFliOld~ W. H. Moo~Bna!3lr, J. BioJ. C'Jirem, 2,75., ][:n264· I(Z(!OCl). 26." S. M, IE!!rildY1Ka ~na,~f .rtf., j, (j~.I.IBUll,. ]14~, t:Ell (19'98;). e 21.• X. F.• SUI~t aI" Ail"''" J. ~r!i. 166. 1247 (20!!l5'~. 2lL tLM~.ag!Jch'~ J SttU(t Bi!JJ. :1132,"9i~200G).

moi:

{2.006~. 34., ~:,. C~oudllUlfii. Ill. Wiiseml!llllI.. M,. H. Brown, K. Goutdl
f ..A.. ",an dE!r M@1Wf!, 1Il1liltc.r1\f' 43:6, 578 (20(DS).

,~t

3~. 5,j!l~U~·re,1.t~! ~bl:f'm!!!iion~ the~mfil1Q ~tid l!IIl$idue~; ((II' ilr~ M fofi.l!:Jws: A. 1iJa; C, ,~ .[J', ._; IE, GIU; F, IFt1e: G:, Gl~ H.. H~S;l. ~!e; K, tll~ l.,.~elJ~ I!tMet N, 1i!l1i1'; P. fffl; 0, Grrn I!l, Arg.S,. S@~ [, lilll; 'ii, lla~;W, TrlJ,i and Y, T'I\r. 36,,1. ,M3relzj;~et (1,'., .Pt(J(;" Na/:l, Anuio :S'd,. U.S.A,. l~Z, 91.62'
(2110.5} •

TI~cspncer:.cI8.mp .!I('lncn:1J ofRW,,1 ~prt'SC:[lits he t ][IVCl~es:nlegy ~o [he :s.i~.dl.lsion nlled~aJlism
p~OOI.o lregu~;fJj~llh,e eell
SLIl,rfiLCc

l.oc~uiQJ:l. of

another RPTP, CDlIS: :ifl ttlm O!L~c,~~ernismalid~, beiwccn lhc RPl"P oC1;odormrui.tm,and tbe ~ Ilmet-· celluler spa.ci:l1,g is thcu.!ght. to c(lnuiIbUJ~e; to T cell sig~~ning by~xlfl'C]lu[~.g;he ph\l~p~lla1'.:' ~c~.ivity t ... .lium local zones ef ceEI.-t'C]11 oonLa.ot (33,. 14), UnUk:c- C D45. R:PT.P~D Ifl m'li:'li11lLaiIlOO atceU >COJJU,~'

Malmal.5,aml ItIellicu:!i5are' a.".;a~la!Jle a~ s!JJ'pPOlill:iiil!ll ooteriial 00 ~dffi[;f~ Oinlilll~., ~, V'.5g:rQk~ !1t ~.1;,5!,~a'~Jj)' 1m.,U'11 t~O(l:~). B. !VI. (ll!'!liPi\!!II tt .t:!f •• Bi«lJM1fSfl'y 3'$,., 3/97 {l996,lt, M. t, Andie1S for al •• Mol. (lttl. SloJ..26., 3.'9'17 {200n is, v. B,. (il!iitld,Siu. S. A. ilenE'S" liL Re"laDltler, H. MkM~ 5, E. 5ZedI a "Si!t, J. 8io~ (h~m.27'9, :26'9'.2.2 t201};1{~\. 1.6, S. M. IBr~dt'iK~tn~!y, l flirwt,. INI.It l,olrlks,i J'. (eil8iol A. 122, '961 (il9\l!3~', 17. 1. (Ihelilg,iO'tml •• J. Biol. (hem. 272. i2M 1('1997). 18, iVI. f. 6!;!ljjin'k 1ft al,. j, BiDI. G1a:rJ'. 268,ll61l0] ~.199!.n,
19. Ci C~. ZmJd!ag ~'r11 J, .i!iillt (hmt .• ,:!:?'(i,U2~'l (]99~~"

n.

H. Coofdn!l!a~~ ~ndl :5'!~0!l!Jfl! r'~@~,ClI'E!ItI'TPj.!h~w b!!.B". dl~pm~tedl inllhe~I~8i wfldW.n,'1b.Cf~ wi~h theacCfS'Sioiil num00r2V5,~. We Ihan •. the $Ian of lIhe ~D 29 ilfMmli(:]t ailihe Mlimp~an SYDEirum1r1J1iI Radiiilnoo Fao1lily Iw a5s1~J"am~ wilhdla'la CDil!ffiioD,; 1llI. Gebbim,k. r'OJ ~hf! IRPWjJ!
(IONIA; '~, IReeve~ :and !HI.. (t IKl'u;M"anilIOf

1,~le' IhUI1fIJUli

elJl1bryonlc .k:['!':Iney-.293S Gl'lllr c:elllilne.: .M. 5livaw riOr assil~l;am:t wirtl1J !EM ~m girng.: and J. iiw~, M. Cri~fljlll, .. w ..-c frl\)R~ and Il.. ~5~ualit for diiB![!1Jll;slOI!l5. Th~ w~ri: iN'as rI!Jfld8di by (.mn.'r R~rilrrh i!!Jlll:((IR·IUK~' 1E.Y,]" ~~ 1IJ (lR~iUIK P!rinci~ ~I~.a-l,ch Fd:ow.

S'!lIPpDrtillilg On:~.ilile M .. teria~. ·r.lINIMdi@n[)~ma9,DJgt{~ii1mnij!fjWuil'J3UfS:B4.ztnl1l,1l)(1 M~teri*11M M~jhcd$ Figi5. 51 '10' S 6\
'fab'[~ 50] REfererlire. 4Ma!f l!OO7;1l~(epl.ed 17 .~yt)' 2'007

.2®. l, S~lP:l(. P. ]ia;ng,. 0. f~Ia,oollr, M. Gfl.!.!!1!e(!,~. S<!hle9silll]@r. M:I1. (,ejI8;.0[14., 1 (19'~~ . 21, M. fu(h$.Iii. Wang, 1. (Jiooi$f'k, Z. (JrM. A. lliUJrrlifl. Mffh,. .OW. 70\ U '(199m.

1'lU:11;2 6Is(i~n~~.114~;646

A. MicroRNA iF'8sdlbiB.ck, ICiir'CUI'it in IMli'db'lr'ainl DOlplaminle Neur,olns,
.lC:li1IgpH IK:im;ll. li(Jeliijdhlffi h'lC'1iI e.1Jlelli1lfJIl~fellr1~:s;lilIJ'iii~ lWia fOOl B,. Va,lnti.:I. :5!l!illI@Y' 'V .• V~lro!Im,o''''fj~ l!,Wi [Emi.~looth Ml!.!lr(~rmson~2: GI'ii:!lgOlry Halnnol,," .Asia Abe'UQ,vi,(!11I14

[]!c difren;:~t~al of murine' C!'lililujlQldc ~t~~'1!"l iOIl {ES} ip~HSUllilo UNs (4.5). An ES ooillillfl \7!.ItI!s o!b].aulli~d thm:t cxp~~[)tic:er enzYilill'G: comli~.ior.!F 3,[1y OOnilaiUJIIlIg Lox:P [1ooombmnases.itcs d'Jl<lt

r

llMlikbo,th c.hrornOS{)l]:ll1l~1 co:pi.cs ofmtc D.ioer gene, helfC~u termedU,o,xed DiceI' (6)]!. liI:llmduc ..· [ioJ'~ o1~C~ rocQnflbi!]iffi1SeinloiheMl oe:ns by
1i;.lJ11ivirn] tr.LnSdIUiC[i~1l

MkroRNA5(miR,t/J'M)' a r'e f'l,ll(J!llU ~iona rii~ycon served. 18'·'00' 2:5-n udeoti de, 110 riF"IPltote:iIt'1ll ~oding wa,ru:;cri,p:ts that postJtw!lI!i1I5tri,ptionaUy re'!:Jlu~al~e ,g,ene~ express~oirnl dulringl d:el/el~opmeflt. mi,IRINA!;, atS'O, O(C~tr in postm~totk ceUs., su(has neurOIrll$ in ~he Imglmll!iilal~ialfl (enl~ral nervous system. bl!~tl~eir
~i:.H'lction 1$ ll3'Ssw@U d~la,tra()~~ri£ed, We lOill'l3'stigat:er.cI 'lhre Hlle ,of mllU/J,Ais inml(!,mmal]an IJldlbraiiJ11 dOIP.iilmiiiiilei'1gl1cne:Ui'1ons '(D'INs), We Ideiliiltified a iiliiliRNIt\. miR<l33.b, that 1$ 'speciUcallly ,e.)!pI~e::;~d 1111 midb:rain DINs ,and is; dlefn,denl in mridbraflll tbsue h'om pat:ienl5 with IPa~ikins,on's diM~alse. rn~R·B3b r~II!JI~i!!!tes tlhe malttl:llratijlon alild fUn!C.t10fl 'o:f midlbr8!hl DNs Mt~~n a u:J;e·glatfrve feedb~d drculi~that ~f!dllde'sothe' paJ~!1ed·like 1~Q!meodQ.m,,,imt,[;afl~(riptio:rillrC!(ro'!r Pib:3. VII',e pr,oposoe ,a ro[,e for this ~eedbl~Hk. i r(l.:lli~]n the,f]n'e';~iJnillllgi oif do pa min erg ~iC beiflaViiiors such as lo~omotio n. c

:Ie(lds t'o l~e dele:tio~ of

moor i.n n:rcarly ]0(114 of GenS (fig, SIAl

of Dice!: :m IJi! st;'1ge \vhel1!i poSlimi~(lljc lDNs Ihsl <l;l'iseh~d. ~Qa [~.e"'ldy !CO!I:ll]p~.ete loS's, ofnN "'Ocu~ m~I~.<l;~ilQTli, q;~l<lJl[ iJied fuy th-e express ton of .as [lrn!flflk~ ~ndll~.dii'B ~.yro.i~l,e hycllro.1{yl;lfle (TH) (F~.I A). O~hct~mallUrc :rteliroill3i~,e!aS"ws,im~dii.td~

ES cu~:nll'CS.\1!iere differo:m,i~lOO to a mJidbrorul]JJ DN ph~~1!Oly~cushThg(m~.c cmbryoiicl l'J(){ly (EB)I prow 00 I (l1g. SI.[I) (5., 7). Cre-nr1cd]~lOO d~lelicm

M

i,c't'ORNAS
I!ong

hn~RN A;:;;,) a:~. derived I,om

ing GABAc:rgic Midbmlf! dop~m~]1ergi(l neiU:ron:!!S, (DN;:;;,) playa
.role .in CO[l1lp~eX be1:iJflvio]8 sm::Jhas rew;url ruld ;}&Iietk'lll~ <'Iiml frI~' ooll~ <too lalglin P'mknIlSOri~S d,llsc<i~~ Anrlltibcr ,of ~J':fmst:ri~Jt·iQiI"I. f~~ 00:1'5 IDm\~clbeern.l:dcntHicd d~ait rogu~.!ltlJ mirl'l)mi'r~
ool11m]

l1iOOW]IS. WCfe

rod\~!ood ]!m, 1hcse

pr:ntn<l:D)I' 'blliscrip1s '~lIo:t.lgh ~.

.q'~i,et'ilj!fl~p.rocesf\il"i.~ by the Dro~l.!l ribCllIU(;I.oog~ :m:[Idtho Oieer ~1'izy[jJ].c t(.n ]il. Ihe
CQmCJ't1. of:!U:a

RNA-il1dw;.-;.cds.ncj1ciil'~g

CQITIpk;x,

~:).iRNA:$guide the c[ca.w_g,c of lal'gelmRNAs
a]ldlari~][~ifuilt Hil(:~'r 11llsil!l:l:ic!lll.[l'li.RNAsregu~,3.]e U

DN dcvelopme:ij!. imclkm.
1].ti'RNAs.

md s~!V hf!!!1U).

devcl!o~me'~lal ,ce]! f3.~e dccisi.Q11Si:nJ the necrvoUlS;
syS:l:em afid ei:se'\vl'iere (2).

HOi~I'e",cr,]h~' ['OI~~of poS'lIn7lIlSiCriptionJ]llle:cha~ nif;ms. :us UI]!mowfI. To ~tab~.ish <Il flm'l1:ctron f01!"

lOe[p.ar:ime!1'~S of PIi!~'holrog1f .ant! IN'eulrOwgy,. (.e.liIiJef~'IW N'eurlObiolog~ <lilid IBei1'aYior;. ailirt!1T.II!1~ Insl1iMe<,. Columbia U n~versflty, College o[ PI1YS1(ii3lii1s ,alfll'l Sn.lrge(llM 1:5·403" taO Wes.t ]6;Bln S;Ueel:, N'e\\i Ymli, IMY ]0032, USA.. 2WatsCl:f'1Sdltool or EJ:lologiGal Sden(@s,. (olidl '5pr~lIigl Harbr lllioo'!'ati(lry', 1 BI[II']!Jt~n R.~~<I.()g.W ~lfri!'l9 H~fb9:r" tIl!V lH .24, USA.,
"'[0

\ve. !.lit'S'I. ·u.:h.~ed;mIlil] vitro [i)~.ooe.~y~I(:ln~ s
VOIL 317

w\h~m

(!(fme~PQ:mt,fIll(!('1

£ll,ou~d becd:d~'es~d."

E'·maH;

aa900@oo!JIJlNillhii3J.edli

31 AliGUST 2007

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS

Ie

I

C1iail C~EI'*'[)i~8J mO!!!* Dat. 'C'~

:[)i~-e!r'~

_,
'

::::ill ....

[BJ

Fig,. 1. moeds e$5e'rdll\al~o:r Ut@ mtd[bf~~fiD:N IPh:en,Q'l.ype<. lit (A) Fl,o.xed Dker CQ!1Idlitioola:~ 'kr!Qdt.Q~t: ES I(UI~t~lre${~W~1i<} 11 "', were differentiatedl Ibylilmle EB,ll1ethod! 'drili!:Im~~:r;:edwUilh i5 Gre or ooiflltroll. {lrnli!It11 ftllJ)oresce,1ill11poo!te]n (GFIP')' [ell1ltivirrus, a nd alnal~ed by imlillll:1lJ Il'to:;talninlgwiUI antTIibod~les,s:p'ednc mor TH Gred). lIiM~I[1 (gmeii'ilt iIIndGAB.A ~~Iue). C~l~t~:ms

lW
£lI

,_
1iIf'iI!

I

II3ru

'_~

~rransduced wiith a lentivira:l.

(lre\lectol'(,",(~)

but

IrtQ!t

CIicoii'

control GFP lelltivilr~15 hIGFP) 'wer,e' essentjia~~y de\lliQJd af

0~1~NAs Il-~ Ib'ds ,.

,.

i1iH+n:E:lumns, wl~ll!ri'aa!s TU,~II+ and {iAB.A+ (Ii:!Uswere reduced bl{ app~Ol<im"t~Ly 40 to60'O!ij. W = 3 1rndepElil'llde'rit. samlP~E:lsIp-er Igr,ouIP)'. S~tE! barr 100 j.lm. Oatll~~pres'E!nt: m:E!an ±. SEM; .:Ji1r1I11Lysis: Il05s. 100 900/ij of mi:dlbr,ain DINs ilil~hE! substant.iia l1Iigr,(iI' '{SIN)'and ftnt!~al offvan1ian~'@ <ANOVA) b!l~)t.,.p <: {lOS. (IB)The. m(j~i'd~letllOi'i p~j~n,otyp~,. as in ~\egmellrn~ area (VIAl' aJlliitdJile-ir .fIxoln,al pro~tdion:s. ~I()I l~e stlri!illh,ll'llill Irr,elati1!lle tOI conbollittei~l1I1.ates,WAlmm:Dimrfib~) '=3 for each Igeal.otyjpe)., S'ca le ba 1], (Al, (aln bel "nml.lecl" by lra~sI'e,ct:iQn of mlidb:ra~l'Ij",o!erivedl small RiNAs (<:200 ,2:001 ~m.(DI) I~o(.'omotof ,activity of D'AI :IDkeiJlD~Ibi(mic'ein ~h:eopen base iP,a~rs) but "IOit :~i!li,rg:e 1R1'IIAs,>.200 base pairs}. T\wo independent ( The total dista ~'tce rIr,aVl€led was sn;glnifi'cll! Wltly dle:(H2ai~ed iWll DA,,,(:rfJ!J+;DiCie-, ex:perimeirll~5 of three sets eaeh 'Were periornTl.ed. 'With 10 viSUI1!I[ l!ie~ds per set; daitiil ~l.lp,re5en~ meal'! ± SEM; ANOVA. ~est~ <:: O,~U,,(() .lmm'liIlniOi5'tainht91 off w'ltjl' mice (n' "".;I for each g;ell olYiPe:)',· Datal relp~€SeWl~mei\l,rl ± SEM; :5tludent';s tOO5t *P ..:::OJ]5,~~P <:: 0.011". b:raili'll s&mJ1L1S '~If1()iml8i-~v.E!ek·o[d DA,~R£t+:,{Jici~rflfP4t»tlm~jCE! i1iH dE!mons~rr.ates 'J,or
l

.'

~,

..

~ .~~ c_x

m
CB.QlIl18, CIII

tW

I
miRt3n

r

CQlilitrQI5 ead IPl:!!rkin~i'{s dlisea5~ (IPD) Ibrolin, RNA p.f1ored'ilJ!1, 1:!!55gy~Vl!ere perflJJ~d fur mi'~B3al ,~l1ld IilI1]R'l33b l~ptrl(i!SS1l1Of1;. shioWin:g1 ~pecifij( e)~pr~s.'Sio:1i:I oonltrd~. midlbraijnl b~it. oott PO mtdb:rain ,~ "" 3: pelf grlJlIIP)', illil [lata l~pweseil1lt. I"I"Iean ::t SEM~.ANrOVAtest;, "p ..;::O.'os. ~B)~pr~'S"tOi~ eM ~B (;1'1 ,t;!! IMOI 00 .. , ana1ysisror fIIilliR~133b lr1 (Sfr@bra'~ (ort~.t (00,. Mtdbrar.111l (MB) , or Cloritr(!!] APlU!kf<j cereioelliuml (ICBJ' of 1(lomrir!lL {IIi\I1) ilind ~!Jha'kia mluta nit mrnllJe!, R_N_Aprotedio,nl a!SSays~",er'E!perf'omll.edhu m~RB3a.1and m~RB3b e'xp:ressh:nlilfl ooIFilim!, .aOdAl,pi~:aki81 mut;!!1I: IDIl~ Ibrain ~furee irll{lIie:pendent experimenlts.). D\lt.a w;eprleSeiliiJilmean:!: SEM_;ANOVA tes.~ '~p <: 0.0.5. (0 qPCR. i8Jrnl~y5is;of !ml.ulr1le ES rultlur,e5 diH,erenLiailool by~.e EIB !method and bra!l5d!!IKed with llenmnral ~edl:or5for jJftx3,tt!e'~)ransmptio!n'I r:actO!li' I:lllfl!'1(aS:il1 n(llgil'liw ()Qntrol),.lootJh~ lOT GPP' "!iI!utDIi' (j)ntro~. IPitd 'liran$d~(tioln lleads to III!'.! ~pecifk~ndlJdlion of m]R.~113b IPMCUI'SOII"@:>::pr~~iolni; mlIR~B.3alarn.d miR.-ll 3a 2: 1P~,eruii'OOria'~eot ind.l!Jloed by Ptl'lx3 o\!\ernXlPi'E!~i:01ii ~lhooe '~ndepeii1ldeil~~perimemiills were lperformed). Dalla Mpreseii1lt mean ± S~ I\I!IJOVA. ~\':lSl:,,~p 01.11:15 n ,..:; •.
l

ofl PalflonSOI1l'sdiseaise pa:~ieflt>. (:I) ~.r,e$s]liflla:rl!:alys~1s (l,f mriRc03 b .~.~ c~~,·~[ cort_,e.x(OQ, m,idb~alln (MB~, or ~~{r'(!bell,umttB) ,o;f i,inaft"ecl:ed

Ilti'g. 2. m~R- 13:3:11is mni[hE!d ,in .Ii!'n;e m]d:b:ran

WI

andns deiliidiefl~ 1111hiE!,tilssue ~

REPORTS
{by Olpp:r'Oxim:ulJat:e]y SOUAll, as. we;re cells cc'l;p:rcssill].g Tuj t ;run eaJr.~y ge~]ern~ mlCl.!]1Qmtimarker tiuu first !liPpea:[S. at the uel[]lrall')I~uroor !>t1ge of EB diffe~~~[iati:crn. The
Cl.1llt1L'h~~~Q';l lesser cxterU

COJJ,~,eqll1ence of leag periods of i]]:lIIuob.ility, \\~l ieh jls,reminioocmn.1: of'jhe phenotype ef human

Aph.<ll:i1i..mice deficient il:]. l~.'De tI1UJ~c:ri!pti.Qr.a. :&(;[0:1" P·itx.3 .('9-.1'1) and mi.cewo<},Too. with the ON-

Di~r

dck~[iol'lrh~otypci::;:

pari:a~ly .resc~'Cdby

uansfection of,RNA species Wi~liow :nlcdeGul.la:r we~ht (b'~unet ~~jghmol(lcuhlV wx:ight) derived, fro:~nem:b:ryonic mOlI~e midbrain, COMIsIc:~1It"vitilt a model jn whicl'! miRNA:s p~~y a ro~e ]n
midbrain UNrermxl1la]

reSll_]~~ spccUk ~l)xi!l ,6-hydlroxydop.amil1c {5}. miR-, D3b 'W~S·sPX:::i&iJ~lny e;:;:'pl'el>sed ia'l I!he HlidJ'm1n lCll!l'~irJj;aldi.ffereOliari,oll ~ld1or ln~imeua:n:ce of of Il!OIHt{l]!.nice, alll:ill 1llUlfilalL". and e,xpressiOlI~ WlIS m<lttedl:yredu'Coo i:n,both rOden:lll dbp.<II].':IIiuefr.a.mltipJ:e ['at}U[\(JI1l types, i'octllrlingnllQdbrnlil] .DiNs. Because no, specifi.cmi.RNAs l'~,ad been d.c:ri.ci,e,[l;CYl:Dl00clls as dernonstrated by .RNase piulICms wi~h ParliI'D50n':;; disease,
sU,gg.c~t tl:JJ3!l miRNAsare
nlC;GC

essential

('Or tlre

nmpHcared

il1ll]'li(]b:l'~i

I1llNs,

we !;ouglli[. 10

protection :8!~ys, qPCR.

and Nonhc:m blol]]llg

d~~7Crenti~[ion3!~d ,si!1lr'viv-,

oil(Fig. IB m:ndfig. S[.o). 1b ,e..x1Jend tln:sei:illd:u[I,!ls.!io

tfuiO ~IIJI;<lct nxik:nt ccnl.Jt)j1 aerveus systCJ):l!'I, we g~cr..uoo mi.oo that were ~m'omO'l:ygQ1!liS tor '~he ,conditiona:l flexed

(F:~g.2.Ba~~d ~g+S4, 13~nd ci D.c ..rela.]lvc deficiC'..ncy ,of mi R- [Jlb CXp~1" and ooml1e:rodrniRNA e~prcgsion prro:me:l.orb::: sion in .A.]lh<lki~. meuse s~tra:in midbrninl w~s nQ11'md ~duh midbra:ullw.ilh [}:L'I':PI'Qillile." C!,fa given tl:m~ ~u:bd!A'Ph<lki;a IIIL:Ce do midbrain dep~.~tfd afDNs. E'{r:~~5i{)J,1. 'll:1~l~.y:!e.s, surprising. were p:;rfomw.d 1:lyqllfiLllil:i!,u::ivc real-time ro~ICi11iC ~Mmmin <11 populalion of ta.lidbfllil1 DNs wililiro id!en[iJy oorne.We took ~ suJbu311iv:e 3J?pn:nlc;l~
Lro[bscriptionpollym~~lw d~;jIi:lm.ro,ac110El(qPCR) fora p.a!I1:C:~ of 22An,iRNA precrml:'Sorsin midbrain. c~rebeU~. ~l1dcerebra~ ,co!lC1'\, S11Inpl~;li
lh)l]llP:<lrk~~son;s diis:ease patients and nennal c{)tli~roh; '(flg. 83 ~nd table S] ).. Expression or one of these prt!cruffioirmj][{NAs, mJiR~·~. 3Jb, was spedfi~.ally enri.d~('d in tbe midbmii1l ~liliil

Direr allele and fxprres..wd ere rocembinase

und... e!:. ~.-le.,. reg."~ laliom_.,. o.f .. d. o.I.pa:mi. ~e.. .~.'. :IISJ)orn.::e._ 11' m J1ax1jJru! .;t'"RlJ.';.rI n:~g[u.atory sequ.cm:e.s [Dlh - . :.DiCf!1 (6)]. ]eading to the specific deletion of Dieer lilil p QSI:nllitoLic n~,id1b:r~in DN~. ,,8).. These ~.i]]i~e
~[ig'play
II

tnc yttlJlJ~'m]le~'lm::T1~lll O\'Iiro8i 0); :th)iss[~C'SlCd V nu~ possibi~ily I~hm miR-133bns 31. d~rccl tm:gct of P'iltx3 'tra:micr1prio!l1aci:iva~ioll I(as p.~~lX·J muhued is

in Aphllk.i1l. miCIJ:). CO]1s~s,ten[ with til is model,
overexprcssicn of Pit'l:3in diJIorcl'lIllailing ES cultures jed to, tl!p"'regu ]Oll!lmOn of ~mUl~.I. 33b preeurser cxpro:;:SiO.Uli (Fi.g, 2C). Flirtli~cm.~'ore,. expwess[ol! of n 1:J;!;C~,fero8e!\."P'On~I veeter d~ll ~.~fIirbors 50 base I)[I~:I'S pr{)lximal. miR~] 3b 3 of 3
prnmol:Cr !reqlJlcnCl;:s.'Ii~s
O'lJ,fcre?:~~I"!,~S;iQ'Il ofPitx3 ~:n] 005;, cells .

progressi

\1(';

loss of m:idbta:ln. DN

S,.

as.

detlcient ]mi~heCQ!]u;:Kl of Pmid~sof!'s disease a:nd d()<pa:minc:U';;'!!nspo:r~er b (DAl) i.lm:l1lUlloslaial]ng- (fig, rc ~I]d fig.. S.~E}\ pa,l.i.f;:[iJ[ :mn'l:plcs, as cld~li:l1Iin~cl. y l'ihm]uciJea:'!(l due lO!lpo:ptosis (.ng. S::uq, (RNase) pl)o~eCl~o:n. ass,:,lYS, qPCR. and NOrLl]~ efJrn:Moni ng for mature :m:iIR.- ~,lIb Cf:ug, 2 A ~lIiI:d .. Ber.~aviiorU<lJ:smdies Qfllliee [bi'1l1 !:iJlrlOO:f;'1 i:l~:idbmitl. .DN-s-ped i]c dJcl:c.'l'ton of D:tco:rreveak1d. 'l'iS.. S4A}. We iv~:ve$l[~ood C'\pre8~iQfI of rniR-~.3Jb in ~uliJkcd y ~d!utocclIQcom~fiQnin a:n open-fidel. adult assay (Fig. II) end fig, S2Jl). nd:s li$. moS]ly a [\;0,,1'0 aJddi]]OJillI!i~.D:N dcfk:iC:filcymade:l~: qua:!1.'~ified by TH Fig .•. !I,_ ImilR.-ll33b5UppreSSl!so O:N m'ahJlration '!:i!~d mllm ncijo,l11l. (AJ OwulI;Xpr'e!i5j,ofl 'OF mHl:.- B.3b precursoril1l, pr~mi3Jry embryonk ra~ m~db:ri3Jill1l!cli.Jlllt!!Jj!'lEls~ed
t'O,

sped fi'caHy induced by '(iwg,. S4n~
Lhe eonscquences of

NC'Rt. \lii~iinfOg;lil~U.'XI derived
C'Ui](ruI,OOS er in

lnereascd mH~-1.33bcx:r:res!iioil.in either ES cellprimary cm,b;ry'()ni.c day

A

OAT. A l.entivffirus: veCil:a!f~v.as ~ised to ovemxprt5:5

decreased ,expffisslO11l of lheil'iflal~re

DN rnarker,

l~

eitJher milR-133b p:rec~lr~oj o:r (On~~ol {GfP) sequences~..E>lpr;l;ssio'n 'ovTH ~~owed allFend b:n~!I'd f~dl!C)ed ~.xpr@5'siol'ill ;~hat: b~ fI~t. sllati!sticaUy 'iP C,illwnt wthrereais N!l.!Ill'lli alml PiW IiIliIRINA exprnssoio.ml IDAI !1iIPpealredulfla[fected. Dillta irepre.seflll1.ean ± SEM; ~~Jeeil1depeiI'1!Jdent. m::periruerblsI!Vere :penomll!1~d; Studeil'ilf's t tes\, <lfp <: ~)i.051. ~B') l[le,po~ainza~ioll1lmndu(ied dopam~D1e l~et8a~ ~v.a5qluant]fne!dilrill ES,. del'ived, EB, d~ir'fe~Elnljjai~edWl,~~!!lIlrres o tr:amdll.!Ced ~yi~hl mi,R-13:3:b IP:r;,enJ]r~or lent!~ViralL vec)tQr (If '!G:FP con:JC I~rr,oL m~R:"B31:1 pm!l::liIllrsor ,ove<r,e.)!.pre5S1on ~~,edu(edl dOipam~n~ lrelease in lmurine :ES '[lta~~i,d'~,~-d,~rivOO, IClNl5.I[)ata Irrepfes:ent: meallrlll:t :SEM;bein,d~ependle:nl f"x:perimeinbwere lPerfo'rrm,ed;. ANIOV.A ~estl 0,,[0'5. (C) OlOle;re,Xip~,ession of miR.~:m33b duriii'l,gIEB; d~f~ereiiiilltiait](In lI'e,sUll~'ed1111 sJgnHicult defi~1ise 'iii'li a ~~~ .a(nlililmllll~a:~ion f 1I!H-po,:sitiVle (leLls. Dalla repreo senlt mealiFilI ± SEM; three~ndeiPem:JemJll €'xpe:rimeif1!t5 were pedormed;AINOVA rest, 9<P, <: 0)05" (0') RedllllCtiOIi1l of m~R·B.3b by pem~traJtilmli'<l!:CH1Jjugatlild aniti~lut milliil13 3b 2'·O!.m~thY~lifmodirieici otigom.. ::Le,ot.ide 'i~ prima~y e:mb~lrmljl: rol~ midlb~'aiiJljl u n.ilWl'e I[e'ald$tQ in ae\1lis~d '~xPIl'S$~(1Jliof D.1'iIJ ~RNliIs , llOdllJfdling 'wH i!ll!iilld IlAT~ When!olS Nlurrl aill1ldPitJ.d mRINAs are no,t sllg.mlifica:nUy altuedl. D'alm represent m~an ± SIEM; mive ind'ependent €'xpelil1l1l€'l11!ts ~vere perfolrmed; Swdenlt's tOO5t""P ..:: 0,105. D'epo i.alliiizat]oll=ill1ldu oed d:o,pa liIl]ne I'~~.ealsewas qlJ;antnifijedin mlillirU mil@ E$·derill@d,. ElB dlR'ere~ltiated culwres tr,a FiliSd ~ced l!Yi~~I'IilliR-B3 b weduct~on- (or TH CiO,I1EOOl-) lmodifffied oUgoWl!!l!deotide.. m,iR-133~b redlLlmol1l fndl.!ce~· d01pamine ~e~el1lirie these culULlI~es, ~11il1 Dat:a repl'leStl'll1lt.I!llle.an .:1: SW; thme ~nde:pendenlt e);per~'m:ents we~,e Iperff\')rm.~d;· Stllde:riiiF's" tes:t~P . .:;~lo.5 ' ..

s.':gnm-

c

'ii, . .;:

GFP

mlR133b

mIR1I1

un

N!lUfiIiV!l'

COn/lrD!

11222

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS
141..5 (.1E14.5) midbrn~~
C'tufSiO:rov'C~prosSI.O]:l

(;.u.ll1U§CS.
I'

nliR~133bpr~·

markers :im;t~Lrlil1g nA.T arld1l-]

(qu<'IIntifi,ed by

tE<'la1Sc:ripti01,Utl.lry,.iUlI.d,

i.l1l.um.

, 'II "uiSlng.a 'I' ,lootlVjll(l~v(';C!;OC fig- SJA) led 10 a relanve roduc'l:iOO1J in ttll.1n5crip-'

qPCR

ceDI 1>orlcr. (F'ACS)amJlys.is of pet.!111eaJbl::izoo pri:U'1l~lIy lm"l midbra;illl ,rellli;.willli~ ~] rn:!hbody [11m recognizes Piix3prDlei[ll revealed th3;[ miR-]J:3lb ove:re'x,pression :ioouoedaliedi~.cl]()'D:I ]lTII, :PitxJ protcin levels in. THt- cells (Fig. 4A). \:\Iffi~.c:~s miR- B3b rodu:c[io:lWloo 10 ~n iU!C!'C'.,?lsciflPitxJ release ~!l llhc oon~NJ] of J~!JU!s~uwtFind~ de.'.' ]11 ('~' J~'n) protl;:!!lm TI'I,+. ce·_:S!~ Ig. '"1 !,;I! .• __~ pO:lrni:zmio~ \!,,~ :mru'kedlyrocluood.withmi~R-133b aUy(B) ..To idcnlill)r pote~nialIf.i~l~xologic&1 ttlr:. ]f Pin:x'" '." .~ .. dure.cllml'2.el: of m~RI'" _)',]u." 'ene _ "'t., ge~s for mi.R.=]33b actUvity" 'we used aV<I]I!IIoie oJ' i~ 3 '_ .,_~ _, .....•. .. (l¥C~.fl(['¢s:s;iml,. O'~ere-l(:pre!>8i:ol1. of nwi.R~I33b at. th~, neural 1)u;"CQIJIJ~(JJ,- :S1;agc of EB~,i[f:erclliti,i"ned, m.i.IlNA Targe'l p'remuc'liorn pD"Ogl"Otms bssed OJ] prediction iis thii'lt ~,mi.r~:,,·]J3b inh:ibilio.IIJJ by 1.1l1odJi~· ES <Oi1lIittl!r08 led to a signifarn roo(lctio~in ~hO' 3' untranslatedsequence Im.omo]ogy!iO ra:dR~ Iied oH(go.llnc:lcolllde OOrt~dllCI:]O.11 would 11)111 to iml uee l'H and DIATicrx,pre ..~sgQ1lll, I[n Piax3..deficic:llI,f, 1.33b (.14. JJ). The Pitx], 3 ';1I1'lID1lnsia:l:eli. ~io1f:l t'alamibcrofTI,~I~PQsili.vo (~US '(bu~mlI.o!: 1"uj]-positive oc]is:, Fig. 3C). (3' UTR) was identil'icd as ~. porenUa] tiilit'g.el· of Aphali(ja prim~ry nooro:n: Iculll!!l!fCS,. and [his 'was TI:~eac[ivi~yofJll~R-B3h Ctlill be inJbibHied m.iR-l33b aclivity, and consi~i.tn~ W~nlj[liili,~PiiJ.;J. oih~el"\!\!:;;d (.fig. 4e), Fii~l]IYIFACS ~n~!ys]s tl~ using !I 2:'~O'-!methyl .... modified RN.A o~:igD-" 3~ Unseqllences were slJbj:ac'!to suppl.'~~(Jn by Oil,Clltl(:~y d~i<l~Qd.~I!t>d idltu ••.in DNsoom y01.. m mg m I:tt.'ttHl=33b \-~.fhen placed downstream. of ;l~UC~ i.~r~ D~.O[;rm.IJ:Ell1ti1,l iee (]O days, ,o~:cl!, dicriv,ed Iro:ril,1Jj l nucleonde homologous 10 ~hemiR.=·I33b ase repO[[il:er~llC (1~lg.. S6A). Thu s, a ~ro,ypC1~lli~ti.C'[IJI DI:JJ CRr.J+:D'i{,(!!},jh:F/ft_"r: mire)reve;,lIed. tilrl[ [ililX] ~r.;q~.cflee~l!nd 1i:[jJked 10 ,21 ~ho[i!.pepl:id!c· derived [rom ~hlZi DroSl(}{j'hliu M.ooilnlapcdia pro(cili:'li,(hat inOdl:l:11 for 1hc- obs~r.!cd phcil.O'IypesMsocia:!~ p.rotei n c:;~pre,~ion :is lip--fl..:1;lllatooin TH-po.s;ilivc .... .... n V·' .iTCJ~l!!)+ tv JII~f. mcdi.81]e'l3. ,ceUi:ransdw!,1Jlf.on :(12) Hlg.. 5.5A). neurons ( re'1anve IX) OOl:l!tr{)~_ ·II:' ;,vl,rr\\~th ~Iterod ~niR-~J3be;,"'i.prcssi~ is uhal min.Suppn;:ssion of miR=13,3h ill IES (;(;"1] EB d~ille~:=· U3b f!ll1iU;I:tOIlS wi.llh:ina l]c~1),tivelbcdba>ck eil:l;:I:,!I.it cc]ls.; .fig. 4Da:nd Jig, 56C1, 'Co:I1I:>uslc[bL with <I iole e:n!tn~tion culw.lIiesilrJ:d,[tced e:xpll'l':ss.ioll of DN that normal ~ysuppres.<;e.'\ P'~lx3 express,ion 'P(lSI!- Ihr miRN.A i.n. !fIitl(] regu~~lion. li!Qn ofuluc:' late midl.b~i,nDN m!l!lumt~()n!Ha:rker DAT. liI]lllOijgh tm.~~rip]~.o:J'l of e.ady~llidib:min DN mavk,eJr;.siJic~~ail. .P.it"x:3 arid ~he ll<IJL<Jcr.ip]IJDn m;ctiOU- NUUiU:I, ;lppeaK1d. unaltered orincl"Cflsed, (Fig. J, A end B), Coasisrcm \\r]ilh ]his. d!op~m.i ne
• . I
=".

Pig. 3. D ;11:1:(1 IE). lr~. S·dJt;rlvcd E culw...rcS,U:!!UlSduC"l]o:I1! of tl~ lmiiR-].3J.b inhibitory o,]igon~.C~.OOliidc orentia'ted pgroS."Ji.lll]'n.-S'li.ln~ula~ed p dOPmJmine rel\c;:u;:e. "f~kc~I:ogelhe:r. ntC~ dflwinlplicate m]:R-:~J·3:b injhe regullEltion ,oJ!':mi~lli['Eln:[l DNma:LIIJIJOitlion otnd fUilTa.Cliorl. lndJivid!..!aimIJ:Nrua:p;pcar 1:oregwatc~h:c ex,ressio~l ,ofJlitnrero~"mrgets posnrm:!li.';la;tio,nOl:OO~yiSC;S;

~lIliidbl1i1iin :ON gerH::CJ.,.pre~iSioJ:l. (5.

P.itxJ ilClnvtllCS HI) asd indl.loos

I

U',~cri,plklf! of~mR.-J 33b" HJOfCsccm:e-.acl.h;raled

f

I~~------------~~ rIliR1l8

fig .•41. lPitdis ~,lar~ge\t Qif miR-lIl33b iIIcli':!,I'nb·. (A) Pl'im';))IfV midllbwalfn cutturns {at dary 1. in vitJro~ trall)~dlu(ied
'with mi R~1Il3:3b IPoocurror or (iQntJrol ~Eln:ti\iln~,al v·ect.or:sw@1'@ ilIna~vz~d (afl@r
7 d1ays) b¥ IFAG !.Ising aO(TIlood]ei for 1:'ID;3 and TH. IEXJ-pr,ess~iion TH ,1!!1d '~f:

II

I~~--------------~

''4'

""1-----------------,
A-nlti-:m liA:1 33b

fit.x3. pro~f.!i~ is, red lIc;edin cells ~rransduoodl wi~IIi11'iR.-B3b p',~er.ulrsor
relalw@ !~O ,aon~rol v'ettOIl' {'[iIFP) or ml'IR.=lB pre'(i.i~.O'r. IDatill f,ep:r~S!l!n~ me~11], ± S·EJIlI;three ]ndlellJendient f"x:perimen!15 were pertQ:r'.medl; ANOVA ["estl 'I<p <. (MJ5. <I) IRedll.Ktion o,r ffiliR133bmn primalI)!' midlbra~n ICaJllrure:5 Wit dary 1'invitr,oJ with the IllISl:?o:f 2:'..0me<ttIV~~ dlifi@d oi~gol1lud~eo~~a:ebm
l

Ie

~12Q

1I~IM:ICO'l

r---+-~

!!IMmHllnbl

not (O~lrol (:digo:mrWldoortirjE'!' leads to,a s'l!gnilfkant i!1dlUction in PiiEd: and 'WH
piI'o,tein as qluantIlied by IFACS ,1:!!'laiysis (al1t!er '] days). IDati j'lE!PIT~SE!if'ilt. rmean :I: SEM.; thr-ee ~n.cm!lendent e-~p;erii_nts

werepeliQ1rm:ed; Swdenfs,;t test, "'I' <:

SI6M; thr'e eill'~dlependel1tt experi ments \'IIere pe~f,()irliJ[qed~:5bJldent's :t tes!1 "',p <: (tOS,. Ul') P'itU P ~otein eXi~HE!$sio n W(l;S:sigll'illifkalriliHl i n[li'le(lsed ~lf1Il "Posiitn'V,e 1fH (je~~s from ill!O~day"'\old miRINA=(h,dicnrent .DArrnEl+;Dic,.~rfl,g_~x mn:ce i'lelat~V'e

(M)5.~!!;) miIR-:iL3c3:binhib:itiol!mlIby 2"~ ()-IlIi1Ie:th~lb=m,'Oldiifi'ed o~J,ig;om!!::leolide ~n IlPitt3-defij(je'lI1it A;pirnakffi1:! prffillilnaJl) nel1!m:mI(uUuresiaUs to~n;[[l!ce' TH Qr I[JAr transcription. [latta represent: .moo IIi'I ::I:

(I

lJ)ail CRfIoo:[)ic€'N·~·

I),ail ~

I[l'ioor ~

1DOeontrel DATc""/iIJY+;Dkerfl/»lt+ mlk'e,.FA{:Sarnil!l~yses \!!Iere permQ,rlmed O'~ a(u~ly diissod,,~edl IP'l1!rrneabLiZJed mrldbrain ,t:eU~'5w'hh the use oJ TH- 8!11m:di Pi'IJ<.3~!ipedn(: ,anti'boldiies:. Data repl'le:stilfilt 'W/Hl'ialiill ± S~M; tlhreE! 'ill'illde.pendernt e.)';p@:iiim:ents. Wtl!Wl'li p,ermo,mmerll; StlJdeilfs"tieslt~ .p..:; e.os ..

12:2.3

I

REPORTS
Our cli.lta: :S~iPport a. model in \\ihi.c:~ 1],1I:iR-JJ b [ rUI'lC:lions,willhl:~ ill feedback loop, as Pilx3 spC". dl1c.'1Uy induces l'rolls.cripaion {lfn~iR-l3Jb.and .Pit\,\Jacliv ity ]$ down . in>:gl,ll~lcd .~ l.uiR-~.3Jb po:;tl:ra:v'_i!;cripri.C1~.l~~.ly(fig. SfiD), Midbrai,~. D., .liUlI:u::tu(lIIlis yna:mi.c,. <Iudsuehfuedll)ack 'C:iOCilililty d has boon t~ihow~:loincrease the rebusmess asd i SPCOOIJCcSPO!llSC rime and, slaibUi[.yin t~~.c COIuext or dy~ulllric cfulnges (1 7), Furthemlore., 'WCI~rcrem evidence 01m Dieer dellelkm h~!ids 1r0 the pmgre~, ~i'1~]OOs. of midbrain DN~,. 51,1:gge;l'ing th,u l.l1iRNAs in ad.cl:iLi,on toO an~tR-133b fiJI.w:tt~Orl ]~,1,
3. ,A, Wallen, l felihtiillnn.
(20CD~). ·t l It t\]m 120(1&).
Al\i\!J"

N. Y. A:tod, .Sf;, '5191, 4:8,

]J.

~,f cl., Jlll:l~ur!!,~U;B, 5U(<lOW)., ~ 5. C. M<i1~"'<!l,~t (I.1"..Pttlc .•hia,r,i,.,AcQd. sd. U:U 106. 2a,74

6. E. P. Murc.ihison"l, F,. Pafll'idg:~. O. H. i:am., s.. Chelouril G.. J. Hamon, Ploe.liM, Arnd. Sri. lttU 102.,11'DS

11 i',~,Ii1eI., Cli:JI1116 •. 2'8:1 ~;m04~,. N. 13..JoIIIIII f1 0.1:. PLoS. fJial. 2. e363 {10M~', l!5 ,. a". p. Ile.m's"I. HI. Shi~ ,1'111. jcne's.Rhrnole5, 0, p, IlJ:.artJE!L W.,. C. Il" Burrge-. [f'1l 115. 1:81 (200J)o. 1.6 ,. M. P. Slfllldt, S. M. 5mllilli, 1, IP. ItIllIrbacm, (ell USS'I!!f Ret.
1I:li8~35 (2004).

tlOOSj'.

1. Mineri~b aJldll!TI@~hlld~alre i!'I\a~lai)le liS SI!JJlPollli:l!llg nrlaten~ on Sc:im'~ OJlli~~, 8. N. (bwihm~ ,et ,01.. }. Nf!i:J0Kt 204. ~m I(ZOO~). 9. D, '1'" HW':lllg, fl. 1!~1:I:a,)'fiO, U. ]0. Ka!ng, E V. Semlna, 1<..5, Knm.. Bmli'li R:es. M'o/,. i1n'Jin Res. 1.14, 1~:3
(~!).{K~J,

:11'7.A. I!KSi~et l Se~~.al'!ol Wre40IS. ~ ~5 (,200a~. 9'{1 :JiB. Welmn~ O. Hobe!'land IR. Lililm ror OOF!llm!i'!ts and f. IBeall (lOr t\'1cbITiital ,a95i~an(JEl.This work wa5~meed IJ~ ~1I1r4II)S and SpilW ~wl1lds.
Sii!lJ!llpiJrtilll9 Oni~.iiil(! Miiteriiil~. 'lnww.5di~II(~m<l!l.DrgltgiilmIlINlWIf1JlJ31Tf'jB4?i12:20/D(1 Ma~r1\i1'1$ .<!.m;d I~jholils, Fig~,51 'la' S6, 'Tab'[M 51 to, S3 RefeilBllC1!5 29 ].mW'!!!)i' ZQ07,; !lcceple,ai::l6
M,)" 2007

rhese cells,
hf'e~en(!es: ,[lInd IN~ilI~s 1. L. ,ifile, G. ]. Il:iIi~~n. N'Ot :Rev~'Geft~. 5. SZ2 (20~)'. 2", \I. AMIbiICs. CtllUl, 673 (lOG3).

'lO. I. INu!!es, L f. 1!~~mn.,

lit

S. P. Goff. hoc. Nm1. Aral1

:no

{2OCB}.

sa.

Nt $i~.a.., ft, l Bu~~e. lJ.S'A 100. 42.::15

P. oran de.nMwlldhrd
(2IlCH),

of\t al., ,!:)~lJpniIt;it

1:3:0, 2'53.5

12. 1. ], Ima!.ili:!l5~ eI QI:"

J. N.erJ!(}Itd 24, 10040 (2(104~.

110.'In 6hrl~nre. '1.'JIA048·~1

Cap'~1 ndepen dent Transletien Is R,equir'e1d fo,r ,S't8rv'at:ion,~lln,du,ce"dl Dlifler1entiatli'on in, Yleast
Wendy \I. Gilllil!errt. KailholUillgZho,liIIf fa mi ra It BIUII~~er, )I!':l'llnifeli A,. Doudllla1il
Ce[~,y[,j;n~nwmil:allflbo50'me entry S,]IDe:s· (!IRESs) aUE' untranslated slegments 'of mRNA tram(r]pts ~~Qlug~t to initiate IPfO,t'ein foynthesl]s in response te environmental stresses that IP~:e¥eI!ii!I~wnlilnicalS' ca~:epende;rI!'~ Ua!lS~alltion, . .Altholligh m,llfller,o!.!s (ell~l!I!lar mRN_As; are propos1edll:G' ImlaI!!!'e ~RES$. If1IOl1e has a demOfl)lra,t~d phys!l!O~Og~Glll. ~tmct]on or mo~e·(ilJibrImechan~:sm. Here we .show that se-ven ye~s't gelfiies required; f~·r' inva~ive growt:h,.a de'lte ~.GWi:ifh;!n t-all. pathwalY ~illiii.diU.cedloy n ultri ent ~~'iifI'itat~io,i'I. Cionta,mn IP'Oitent: ~RlSs "t hat requi rethe ini tiatimf,acto r 'ell' fOi]i iCaJp-independ (l1il~ Ira I1slain on .. Illn ~4'G ()ontr,i:],st [0' the R.NI.As~n.ld!J~e-bas,edadijvHJ! of vir a'I. IIRIESs,. we show thatan unstructured ,A-rich e~ement: me'd]ates~ntiema'I.]!i'!ijt1latijol~1 vila re(!'uitmlefl~of the poly(A_) bind~l~gprotein (IP.aJbl) to~:~e 5' unbril,!li!l5latedlreg~lo:mJl (tUTR) o,f~ilfliva)ive'glmwth Imes.sages.. A 5'UfR. ,mut~tiolrl!l that impairs IllitESaui'Vity (]Oill'ilp.~o:mi~:s jiiYVillsive- growth" wMch ind'icaes, that r,ap~iliiild€!pemde'nt~ral~i$lall:on is requ~ij'\ed for ph y:si1obJlQI](a~ alda;platlo'U1i [101stress,

,GPRJ,.BOll, .FL08, NCEl'Ol., MSNJ, «etc; resuned ]~ efnci~t ln~ls.hui:m] of ApppOC<lP'PC;:cl, tl~i[Tlii[l H1RNAs (;mnparOO wUI.h lcngth~]ilJa!l::hed. negative cQ[JJlmi censrruets oonlminiill!g rev.e~()onllP.l.el]iIent S/Ur.ll :!>ecl'~lel.n:l:S llIIiltI:dd~ .. rien, lhc :5~UTRs [rom "[P:ffl. HMS2. ili:'id l~Irl..03'3w ~ack:cdIRES. aci'ivity (:Fig.,. ] C}, 111C i]1JWISivc gl"0'i1!l'th oc;llu~ar ~RES.s" III:ctiv.itics ml1g,ro from 81'0 33% rOflh~t onbc ogIlLwlm7oGpppG~·

cappedmRNA (t:;dlle 82), We tesied the lI:tES~ c!Ollta:illing .:S/lrrR~. for activ,~ly IUr,a, vivo by eleetropomliil]:g jhe :rop,o<ll:er ~ID.RNAs i]liulO yeestcells to aveld My po.ss.:i.biHly of miSl<llti"g: cryptic: p::.ro:!T!QlCf or spicing ac~.hrily for [RES iaCLU\lity, AU seven 5 'UTRs prOI1]O(OO ,effiden[cillp~ iJ:id~peli:d('!'J]]. trans~~liolli :HIli VW'IIO (!Fig,. ID}Ex-

rol.1S(1.ml.~OIl iltiaiiou is a roci<l] poi[JJi. of i[JJ. ['egu~a!ti(m ,of euik<uryotic gene t'X press iion, aUo\~dQg.Ool]SIO ad~trn.pi.dJyruCl chang)l[1Jg e:nwjro!1nlii~:~lIud OOnd]liof.1JB. lnrespense IiO ghteooe:
c:.

T

persnents wit'lml b~C]lslrol1]C repotlll~i:S.:inwh]chdl~ :5' OJ{f ]~ uanslaicd via, e;;~p"drLip.endCll]!l, :iiniri,uiO:IIiii and ruhe)' ORF 15.cfl1dc:nHylrn~:la~oo.mdy when a~ aCli\iI\:!' ]RES isim~ca'l!edbcE.woe~l d~e ~wo O.RlFs. tllIJ1Obolollledi 'OUJr findu[lI~ tThlililhe :)'UTR. .. t

dC'prll\'mion.~1sp]oid

cdis:

St~,-eJwrofi~yrt:es ,:.r!i'(!.~"si'i~ dJr~aLic.l~:ly' d~Jw~reglUl(!!k: [rnll!Sla~ilOn of

mostcelluiar m.eosages, whJile also e;,'thi:bi~i~1gSlrilkEllg nlo1P'lmlQg-k:a~ Icl1.3!tlges. :IOOIdi.mll 'Loinvas:ivc:
gl'O\'i[h

downSI['t'!;)[n open :readling l:m:me (ORF), ofa muural.ly ot(;lIlL~ing bicis:trorl:ic cdl[~Ij[r ~':II1c~Si:lge (6). sllggc-stiJJ1lg f~l.1!il]~n'asivc ,gro'!iNlil.iiL gcaos misht be nm;jaled by II meehenlsm ]luiJld~pe!ldg: O~ allif:1!!:emal ribooomec~.tIy :sUe (.IRES). Ttl test \VIlie~her~.he 5'lJTR.~ onnv~s]v,~ gool\vlh genes ar~ (;~lIp'lh~eof ~;I~iFem.<I.1 l:ranH>la:lion ini~:umltlio:mI~wc:::

of seveninv

....i,i \~ gmwi.h gem::s 1].1cd:ilOn::i:!liIeU'~l] '\

nl~sQrled these seqeences ineo

til

Hoolly luelferase

(1., 2). Wh,croaslliit.c

global na]!jslalio:lm~

rcp:ress:i.tlil :rcquiros

(he mRNA

5' deC'apph:ug

!~ilChi~ery (3},.Illi~J;:: dC\1el{Jplmootal S\vi:tdhreqll!Jire-f;. new pmte:in S)lu~~c..."is;,which :'l~s:IS~1<ul PIl)= l~]iMn:.'<]Iui:IfL>dRlrhl.vasive gowlhl'il:il:i.~u 'be [m'Uil~· :llaOCld by :I, C:lp-];ltdeprod~l1il. mcchllMillism. MMyinva~ivc ~o:ro\li,\1hCJi;QS hil.VC ui1?Jsl.iaUy S

]ong .5' ul1lmnsliltl'oo regiom; (5 'UTlit:s,) "\1]th the. potQj:uial.~o form stalble RNA :Sf,lCQnd~IQl sl1lJ(:'"
li!n-e..... (l<llhle S I) (<\1). f!Lllrl~1ent1()Jc.one gene .re-.

reporLCr {1F,-,iIUU::} rCol1u:a]fling II SWlbl~ S]CWfI-]OOp &ti:"i.liCll!:lre [C'~~ilgein (, ibbs: lice ,on,erg)! (.~GO) == -:.58 kro]/mol] ~tlhe 5'e~l..d~(l iflbEbit SIi,;~!1ni<!1lg7) ( and (''appeow.ilh a HOIlp:hysiologkall AiPPpl] ca:p th<lt[('tIm~es binding ofthe crw=bind:iing ]nhi;:q;[~.ofl faeliOr (c~ F4E) by!hrec ,()aII.C'r~, n~~jll:llde ,of I{ 7). \lVith n.o lRES ~1im:Sci1.cd,. 'Iht'i ApppG~appod l.~,ak~ pin RNA ispoorlylrafl!sIMed. ylcldi~ 0.4% l:~ vitro {lll,d OJM% tn \1 ivo (;om~lIrl;:d witil!im

n<ll.l!)lafionHn~,~i~tiurIi (fig; S] )1. A ~,bOOI. of vi.rn[ lRESs, remdrnm.o tram~hu]otl nf'l,f!C'h~ine:ryby poovudiing hj.gh~J:l]nU)' hl!.e.r:m] b.irtclilNg sii~cs ~'br'd1C mmsllmion b:diati en :raclOr e~f4G (Q),'IO'l~R~ wh'Cl:l:u::.'inv~v\legrow~IRE..9s requ ilil.'l' dF~G"WiJ::: prepared extraets gondimIlly depleied of el.F4G (8;' [{oouc'ing el.F4G levels ro 37% d!ee;roaood t:ma]s~aJlioillfrom l'uruvasivcgrowl]~ IRES reporters to -:25% ac[hd~'Y (Fi.g, 2 A),.

whe:rea:3 u:oo:>I~()iI'~fimm the e~f'4G-l,m;h~p~ldoo.t
c:U'~d,jelp,)[~lysis vim» (CrPV) IRES w<lsol:ll:y shghtly af[~eliCd, FUlJI.h>l;)[depl.Cli:o:n aool]smed

n11Gpp;j1iG'-Cllppedl.nRNA
UI]SLTIU'lL1l:Iirm.

la:~ mO%), wi.thaIIJ

a!.';tivily (fig, S2)., hll cc]l t\:l!.L"roCB ooJ]llaining 9~ l"okl ov.orex.pccs.goe! e].f'4G.iil'\~:i\lC: .WlJ'Ivth IRES mcUvhy i!lcreawd~ 0- ~G' 2.0-.r'O~cllfFlg •. 2.B)\.~,v]~idl illdicmcd~]aJt elF4Gis Eimit ing for~RES a:clhrily. elF4G is thel~,] ~bunda[l~ i~lil:tlil(i,on f,'lclm :~n

quired ~br [n~\!'a:;,ive grow~~.Yll/li?18.1t' (5).~, [he:
of Jl.itol~,(lIIla1rCin.tI Olll lB!o'lo91,. lil~iPalrl!me,li.t CtJe!fI[lis~!iY,,aln~ ~Qw~~ IFlII,):gh,!1S; ~~dii~.l !11I!$ll~~~, Unl' Oeparhilflilt.

.1 &.nue.1~oride (nt) :5'UTR (Pug. lA) (8).. We oollfi:nnm by No.rUlflenl b~ol.slJrl'allhe
1:Cp00:il:et

!ilr

mRNAs ',"vcrc slllilJlc

fII.1i

ceUs (Fr,g. I B), which ru.led. om d!ffCre!~liru RNA
SiOlliil~.[}' ;fIS iI

oo~hc;o{tmc~ aJm.d

ye"'l~l flO) <iLn:d bcr:::Qlmes~ns:nalble in 1~IIJIUrICIll~ li:nlI:iL~d ,eel~~ (U}, lvhieh gligg~[fi at Jiij,eed rOt
oofllJinued s,y;rlJlh~:is of ctl"4G
1

prol;ein

'~Ii!nityaf (i3l1fomi~, l3E!rke~ey.CA '911720., USA. "'To
Wii1®ffill

MI'f5PQndemle
..eodlli

~h~tJIJ be ,lldOlre53!1d.E-rnai~:,

doodnLa@bffikeley

aCl.i\1ilily.II.1Seil1.io~crfU],e" j'UTR s&!'i!l!f;:nces;fronllJ YIIlllU S} cor I.mu] u,~.c i[i'l,i~l!s,iv~ gra\~i~h ge~],es.

~01,l[roe of d~fJcreIlCCS: ill Iw;:i rernse

starvoo ccl[sin order (Q !]ulln1:ain ~~vas]ve g.mwth .IRES aC tiv:Hly;Weliliu;:.I1Cfbre n~,tcd whefheli l[1C 5'UTRs .from eiHH::' y'e.[ elF4G gC']l:C
;)Iilt(:

.in gl tlCO~C~'

1I1enelv.e's

cii,pii,b:le

Qfinil[e'FIUd

in~:ti<'ifion

11224

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sde:noolm.ag_.oFg

REPOIRTS

c

I

:,\-' ~

~f!"

/ ..~
...
"

r

,'.

Ifig •. I. iOl,l'aJsive ,gro-wl:ml gelrles hil!v€: mES aeittivlity. (to In vnlrlo Oeft) andl~ln V1VOI '{riglhllt!' '~randaJUonof m1G·and A,PPIP:G"Cillpped poLy(A)'" 1F-~lI( ImIRNAs. !Fo'r IlucUerase ,assays, vihlle,s l'Iepr~:seli1lt the (I'II!IHag,e of '~~I~e,e~l"Idependeliit expeIl"1im:el1lt:5 and ellm:r barsshQiW th,e stallllo.all1dl d~'Ifialti'Qn <Silt m'7GpppG~cap~ed If!~p!l)rterrs wel"e set eqllWla~, ·(1 1O~)%. (8,' INo:nthern blots of F~l~( mIRNAs;iiso~alted hom (A) after 1 imJ!baIlQ:1i1I in vitro ,nefOOr]illi!l vi\l'!i) (ril~ht), Re!alti!J:e levelt'5 liJif£uH~lle!1gth f-Ituc RNA iU!El'hlldkQltled. {C) II'n vi~r!o ·translatior!l -,of ~-!IUI[ Ir'Elporters, Ic:'O'liltailfll:ffillig \r.a.rn!o!us inslElII"ts '~1I'O:mYM'R1.8Jc sequences or ~hle rl@wrr~ complem~n~ '(,~r.:) olrr homl imtaiS~ve gmu:hl gtU1:el'$. 'F·ku::a,dhi'Hy was norm,1![lz:edl to mRtlJ1A l!WelLs as det~nir~I~lned by NiOirthe-m IPtot~010 hi \!'ijJO~~iI~hiti:on ,of IF-lliC f,~pofl~lr 1'II!IIIRNAs·., I!flQ:Fliti~lli~~,d ~al ImR~A levels as; in(C)'

an

stun

A.

~

,

p

','

I

u sing the ApppG-C<lppcd hairpin I:~:poncr;The eIF4n2 sI:io\:V\ed [RES ~~!,ilviLy simi 100t to hW[IS~rlfe gro""f~,1, ;,CiT~.OS· 'UTRl:l 'bori] ln .5 vilro and it] vivo 'Wi:g ..2!C). Thus. cap"i)u~,epcffifi.d.ent sYluh:c.sfls of dif4G2 c01JIldsuppo.n.df4{l., (b~PCl~det!lltlRESacll\lijlyin smrv~ celis. W611-cham>t.1:cciz¢d v ia.a~,IRESs ~se di:sp,u;a!e slmLegi,~ [or c.ap~inclepenclclltl!r.:::cru~Men] of eF4G. 'blltma:~y share a [(Xluin~mC:nll Ib]'dle
~6]~mill :'l'lITp:' ,of
"

"I··'~'."III
eIF'H3i: .",~ +. '"~
4; ~ ",.. "'"TO

... 1-. ,._
•.+ ~.. ..+

"II

".

)...

+.,

c/l' (jif' ~';'~<?..f:''''~#~ ... ijl-.r#'' '4.$"" "~'
QIIF~8; ""
ellF4G
~I ,_,

&(J~."t:.
V

if"

'" ~

~!liIF4G: ~.. ~ +
<D V"

..@_,J., .' ~.p " .. . "'",.'", '~' v .....".,"' (j~$"" r$,(jf'" 0'Jf..,..-,&-,.r::..' ""'.;;,..(;, .p*'

.' + '. + .• + .' ,,..

fO:l1muionor~la1i:l~,e NA ~mC[llros (9). We pcrR formcdrJ,ltIm'nili:lic'l'easCl-'medi~uedslruiCwrI!iJ pOObDUg.
of YM'R.i S I c~ 298·fl~. 'UTR., re\'eaiiu~ c.xlcms,ivc 5 regiO!~" ,~fS~CQnld~!)'a!!]d~ertiiMY sj'!\lctu re (fjg. $.3 ~ 10 det(:lm~:newhi.chR:NA elemeets <lire impo['t~uro:l: lJtESaclivi.ty. 1J;,.'O constmctcd a series ['Or of deklionn'lUt·l1rn.~:ll. E)dcllofl or~hc sinQC'iJUiI'\;lri S'· ~li'lOg,~: ~,1, ad Httlc: eflioClon ] RIES aC'~lli'i;'ity Olg. 22'4 h

,..:lI1jl~4G:

""

Pe.b11

11

.37

aiCmvi~y. (A) lrans!at'ion 1n e:xl!ra(Efu'o.m control ~~~a(kball',. +)or eIIF4'G~epl,etfl!dl (Wnite, loor, -)

Fig .• 2. e:IIF4G :PUOffiOit.esiJillivQiSWII@ gnlwlh

~RES

S4~.The 60 ,uinm:1;cdi~ldyIJJpstrea:m 'of~~e ADG i:rui~iJJ]iollJeodenwere SUIlJc:iC~llt ~br,Jiobusl: i~lIIerm:JJ<lll

C
a '12

~!l;!U$, R{!IP(j,d~~~('()nl~lin ~I!'IGl!iII7GpppG ,~~p(C~I!))or ! a'lfl .ApppG c:alp plUiS; !Ill 5taJb~e ha,irpinf!oUlQwed by mES,sequelilces. Average .ami'llityklT l€aJch mlRlNAili'l tj~le col1ltrol,edrad, ls Sieit eq ~i1Il to it. flelatjiw Le'!l\el5 of elllf4G ~vern' deteriillillined Iry W~tlem, Ib!lot UIi)
lr,;1Ills,tililtlonof lfo.tl!!lll rE!por~r1i from (A) ]n lextracts ~lliiOlij col!'1!:lrol '{bla.ck lor e:IIF'4G·;0'I!!erexplFes~ilfilJ~ (gray. +) oells. A'IIe~a.ge ,actilvityfQ~- each mRNAi~ tj~lf:!(Ol1ltrol'Elxtract ls !llel,!sq Mlal to :1. RiE:!latTIive oo'll,el:s of @IIF4Gan~ indk:atoollbeLOllI.f •. ~C),IRES adl'llily 'in vitro (a~1 ami ill'illviV'OI'(b) o~ ~h,El5'UTR of eII1F4G,2, om:pal'!l!ld o wi~1Mi ~~at of cYMR181c:, no.rmallim:d h'll mRNA tevel:s.
l-)

roMA)! sequc~ce f.rom the l'MJUSJc 5'UTR. reduced ~RES;u;tivil[y bOU!l in v~lro,andin vivo (Fig. JA). Deletion o,nJ1!~eA':lrn.Cl had :no C,ffCXl1'Q~
RNAiimiI:l~gfity or S'ltlhiil]fy (Pug . .J,B}

[['~llJ]sl<l[iotlin~tiaJlion(Fi\t ..JA). This mil.l:iln~11RES is almo~l. oompletely unsLmcmroo (rig. S3). \;'/~~Ik:~ suggC:!i~'fl a SIte] u~lilLCcroql.linli:iJ,~.cnl fom" m.. S E mCliv[1y. TIl\: u1!inllffi!l.l ]RES, scqt~cl1ooinc]im!cs a polyadcnos.inc [po~,y{A)]1 lmc:;t ([i (Jut of B re.sidues) IpreO!'!d:ing the AUG i~]ibatifnl cedon, ~"emull]isrelll ef I~U'! k~<lI!dl'::TS of vacciaia viral [InRN.As t]ial oruoocapflbh} of efflc:ile~lIlciilp~ , ':11 .. ' ~I· '.' I· ,(, I , ~~) II"> ~ , , .., .~. U'lit.JiOPC'l1:ldcJJ]t U&18' OTIiUOfl ' ,_, .i .". uC~Clm,.fI at lyHS

12:2.5

I

REPORTS
Olltc

f,ot:y(A}+t:rn~~S<1[ the ,3,' end stimlUl,lnl:e eukl:UY~' translation I~H'Ol.lgh conserved POIYlA)-

lRESildi

vji~y to.

Ima;il1i'1~l1Iwi.ld4ype'mm[js!<'IiI:i(lll1,

b]f!di:D1gprol:ciJr~!(PAJ],Ps)l tfua[ eQ~J~lmm;]Htion, by ml~s;ll'1!.IO mechan:(\"m~,: Slabili,zing e~f £IG's ]mC'lramilO1l with [he5'e'~ld ():fI1~e11~RNAlhrolJl~h d:irlli:cl i~ltn.'ru:~ti(Jm,hetwe\'m, ,PAB.Pa:nd en' 4{j,md

of the FLOB go:ulC '!,WIiSa]~crOO,To test \l(I~~et:J1er I;hi$ rodUClh!1 in Ho8 [so pfulj'8.lalbgi~dly sign~fic.;rn:r., 'we ~~~YOOUlC}lolJ, AlJ.i'£S No
OI~l.cr [caJtlUlre

mruli'Lllt strojn ibrinvmuy(:: gl)()WIJ:a and fOr e,I'!.pf:eSr sion ofF£. 1:1i1RNA. \.'lihi eh rCl.l~lires FLOB (2'O~ TIle {loR MRES ml!ooluis ch::foc-1ivc for both irn-, '!,ItL,,,ivc g~\N'U~ (.Filg.4D) and forlml~crip:lio:~ of

on

~tim1:uiI~ulillg ,60s riborome $UiJ:ulJ1l:i1 j:oiJTIJ:ing'f 14., I 11i11ri.nc:ipl!e" bolJli ofthese p :llmcti,ollS of' Pf.U3.p cOl!:!ldbe perfQ~ncdby bj!ldi~lglopoly(A) in the 5'I.JfR T~)reSl U~C hypo(!J:~cs,is lha~ the yea~l ,PAB,P; Palh],~ 5Iti:mu~3te:> ~~lr-il.ld~l1dem 'nmn;s.., :~f1(j,cm, ofYlWR 1Bt t' specil:k:alJ:ylhlollg)h bi:ndimllg ro[hc: 5'IJT R, "v~~;fim:illOO nml1s,lalion of mRNA£j,

~n.

A,

«l
~, 110<:t'

,.;

....
,(JJ

b

a
4.J

"

,"

....

...
~'

~ 1.5
'ij
~i

~

~s,
.~

llac.ting po~y(A) mils. Addlition of eNo£,en01Jls, poly{A), RNA dl~tic:;dlyil1h1bi rodnl1!g;lfi~ijOtl of~!l ApppG-CIll'pped, ~I~i,tpinRN Aoo:n~a:ini:~g m the :5'UTR ofYMR:181c, a dcfed I1mt wasrescued by (hI(: adl(litiollliyf[1coomiJrimuu .Paib1 {fig .. 3Cl ]mll.cfl.Y<u!!ii~]gPab.~. eO:liLoel:l~m'luon sp(,"C~iti.ea]~y (fiJ= hail:oodu:an~~Lion~~!J~,!ldlC w~ld-~ypcl~/'Vrl? Ic J.8

o ~~
III

....... ~ ~

~21

=

,:::l!:

~,

1

~.

~. OJ]
.£...I......aI..---.I~_

,0'

(I

pal¥{A)

P.eIJ'1

+ .", •+

IE
0;7 I'
1M!
c'

IF

5'llTR compm;l;ld 'iil!i:ilih.the tJ.A mUUl!ut lRESornn
nO£:Jppp(i-capi)OO Hle;&><I:ge lacking (JJ p~)~.y{A) taill (Fig" 3,0)" To re<;;[\~]ctherP~b I. bindsthe .rJWR 18.1e 5 'lJIR d~:reC'I,]y, we 'pel:funned fiIIDCif~' biifidii:ligass.'i,YZ;; 'Iil,ii~,lf'C(iomlbii1aa:1t pmLoin. Pnb~: bound dglnly ami spccii]caHY!Q the fJ\IR:'l8h·

i ~o ~
+.-'"

1141 :>. 1i2:

a,
~
IDE

~6
112: 8
4.

~
d LI;

CI)

,~

ro

lilI:: ,(I.S Hli.!i
,~',{Jo

Qj

o
12

I

b

as

:):,(1

,9\!S

4,.0

~tl
Ill: 1)

RNA

\)I{uih

.an apiPlltrcnu dissociation

OOlliS'UliEl.l

(KrJ)

~IPab'H ~Im

JE.

5''UT.R of )'\e~:st PABJ had rob[L~t.IR.ES :fI(;~jvilylin

Alm,unst!il!(~~'f'ed poly{A) tract Imedi61tes lPab:!l-delpeodelrn~ IRES ,a(~i'i!Hy, (A} Tran:statJon 'oF ApppGc!1!PIPed IF~LucIr,eporll:ers containing YMR181c :s:eqjlJj(il~res:'or (he ~eve~:5e complement {f'd in lIIealsl: extifad5 (a) '0 I" (~~.I:s(11),)1 (h~s(llribedilill Fig.. 1. Tiliil!@ 12:"imllt. seq !JjlliiinOe' dell.~'ed in M 15 IIJjIJ1;dJerlillil.ed. (18) N o~mlem blots as of If.-i!![( mR.Nh i$,olateiff~o'lillil (C) IIIiiI'!Ii~j''()Itr,]lns1ati'Ql1 .ApppG~,ca pped F~wc rnllRINA [~ackin 9 ,11poly(AJ ' ,of 11 ism for YMR HUe tR ES a.cl'hril)' :requir[]lIg tain~1.00 I!l!g e';'!'.4)geo'[}us poly{~} RNA ±100 ng ,o;f recombintant P~,bl. lIihea.ctii'l1]ty from the reactio'![l speeifie bind,i![!! of Pilb 1 ~o [h(: 5 'UTR a:nJd s.u~tth~,l bil:idillg of .PoiIb.llD th<! $'Ul'R C1in:1, witllo~t aoy2lddiitiOl'ls was se;t eqiWl![ll to 1, At1em;pts to~'stli1'nle eHects ,of P.'albl dep1e1tioli'n usingl BllTilltiloo'Qlies re'[juired hi9~ (:o'mentralriQ,mus g,f ,antibody ,i3I'!1!d pr:olo'llged~;mtibatijof~5 thaJ~ re'sull.ed in nons:pedfk rlltllcl.ionaUy slJhstim.a:le for ~\C<!lip R1I1d'r.::[,I~4E jltil, ~'nactTI;\!.atioll'ill ID:~r(ljI!~5.{D)iralf'illstatiQn of 1iIlI,1'G;pppGI"~a iled {biac!Q, ApPpGi"C!iliPped+ IIRIES of P (whl~e) air rc-.r;:[iU,il:itugelPilG. This, mechanismis not unique .ApppG"capp~d+1 RESM, (g rav) I~"l!l!l:c IUIJ.Ai!l[ladkilfll!Q po!LVOOh11jils] in Un~ p:J'Ies,enoe of 100 .200, or ,400 Il:ll.g: m LO .}'MJ?,NJJc.: The n6-nt 5'U]"R from BOll r,Pab1 01' b!illiffew. Ai\il~ualge:;:liC:l:i~ity ~rom Ule readioll"l + lb!!lllr'fer lo'Va'!l ~et e!!qjU1f1l.ro, 1 fOI" ea(:h [Jo'i'l$truct:. (I:) cQ~~I~ins silujl;:a:rAUG-p~1(i~ma~ p()ly(A)k':~u:;[ 3! Fike!'~billflding ~ls~~lyfoj' bindili:l!.g! (j;f rP~b,'1~o'!f@Ilnol,is YMR18U5rlJlT1l~:~~qi.ie,~,~es %It;vrin:gth~' f:~iluiG~ 3;[iJi:I n:qlliire~ llii.nd:ung [0' PilbJ for [RIE$ activity bO~II!:1Idl(,or e'al~1 c'om~efll~rali:on oW wIP'!lJlbl. (iF) Tr~Mlis;l~atiol1! vitro {a)a!'ild fn \!~~o '(b) ,of f-lUic rep,;t)ilwllf$ in (fig" S5),. Nota.blly.we found Ihai the' l7] 4U Ciootai!l1ling :5~lnR5 O'f YMll81,c and P~B'l, rnorrlma~,f!i:edro' mR.NA ievels by Nortlhero btot. ~i;9.~.

of 1125 ± 'fU15 !AM" oomp~rOO\!;,~lh lbe revel:$e compkmollit oonool.RNA (.K(jJ"" .~. ± o.~ ".M.)~ ,52 3 d.ele<I:iO:I:i of the poly(A)l;iac~ elil]i:Jlill,[lI,ed ~pe(;ii:fit b:indif~g '(K.iI = 3..29 ± 0,41 ~~) (Pig. J, E). 'laken ]og.l:ll.hcr" these d'lH~STll.ppon a meeha-

3
!4;;

4
III

w.

1

,

VJlro and. in vivo (Fig. 3F).<t'l'~d Ukc the IJTilNaslw gro\<vw lR ESg, the flAB I IRES was l"QOOf,glly Fiiig. 4. IR.E.s,~@peil1ldenttr'amlatil:On e;[P!lO-depe:UJ:dc:l!l!l Olg, Si6). C~ll-~,~d,(.':',pcndcln o~ F,L0'8 is 1~~QI,i~~~d :r'O;r iDWa~v~ growth, (A) Illn vitJl'Q' Ira n!Si~a,1iiQImI Qif [H.'Odu(;~io~.l1[' bo]h~lbl ( (Fig•. 3F) ~m]d~~f4(i ,ApppG-,capped F-lUJc m'RNAs 'con(Flg, 2!C)1 could sustaun nec:ess1U}' tt<n:lslllI!li.on t'l'iiil~ng ~m.L'l ~lJl~l~~ength S'UII'Rfrom dllrJ:l1Ig pro,~.om~goo poui.ods of decreased CilpE it 08 W1ii!.d~t¥lIe lW1l1} or a de~.e~:on d:c[)Cf1dcnt irlEH~l~OI!l!. mul:ilrrut ~addng In,M:dleotnd:es,,,,,,,60 to The discovery orlRES~iil nume:rous cIllicary-' -1Il1t~J, Ir1Iorflil~HZ!ed~, llniRINA Ileveits oilie r~g~]~l.ory genes: slli!.g~c~ts that ~RES~,
1

/11.,

B

·Ref.
1,:;l9i,S,1 ,21 M'onaifl;red FIb8JRef
An~r Wasil

pliily s iii (:r'~ll:::inJ ilr:JJc.clllu~"u role adjnpt;}lu~O'r11 (16~J9,. 1"0 ll!Jstillris:hypo1h~sis: dire(1'", :~y, we d.cl:omlinoo C\~,dh'iJr 11~ FLOS [RES is OC\(luiDlCd fot .PL08 lnncttllon, by erom.Jri1lga y~:;t s,\minJII'l whkh~ePI08 gc:rn.c '¥asreploooo '>vi,ihII. ~TI;;!J~an[ v,~r.sioll !<lCikir:JJg residues -130m -IJin the
l67";IIIl S'UTR (flaB MRES). 111is ]~r~rm'd dl':]e-·
tiea, which rem.fiV~ [wo pl!.y(A) I:i'aCJns {fig. S7)I rOOljood .1,R£S~epC';i;U.deIUm1J1Slali(nl of a tq)Odl!['
gl:.':11C

de~l~.dcnirini}i~lkm

bF'Nm'tihem Ib!l<l! {inseU, (I)We,stern blot o~ f,~oa, '(WIlIlI tJM)']nde",P>@nd~lnIt. ~!loLal~s~a(h of M FW8 DII'~O to

13e1'!O~,

W8!«n
I~

~]iIL£l mutali'llt. stlraijni) OOil:iltfl~llirllg a

C-~~rl!'i'iinal hema,g,91~I;a~lrqlil'i(IHAl ~p~:. mpe 'tag" 'WlhJeeferenC!~ band f!Re:f,) r ls aJ croos-;rea,c!ting prO'oonlil detedt:ed

'WT

by 60% ~n

Vil'ro

U~ig. 4A}. IDC!eti.OlJiI of

!uJdootide:;;, -601'0 -ll fto'U! theCll!dgg~ol!.!is .FLOBloC:~1!£ s,im:nilmly rnduood. Flo8 pm'Wl:ll .Iev~]s,
~r1 \lj\~g (F:i,g,. B) 'wil:JmOl!;Jll I:ff~cl'~n,~ FUJ8. :mltNA 4 a lc'!l~~ (Fig.~C), ro.lIii~is'rml Vll.itll1i;:i. rl~:q[i~.m],lI.enl .Ib:r

in 1~lI1Itagged S!tt~]ns. ReL.at:iv€ ~ve[s cd Fto8~1A.!ilJwein,dlicatlil'd be~o~y.{C} Nmthem b~ots !Q!f R,Nt\. i50~ilIi1:ed from th~ extraus: pm:par@d in (B.),. (Ii)) Inl'
f1fi"",'''h a~":>!j'!i''Q''~ WI U/.ir!J'· '~1 AI'I"'e rt!t!I!.,_ _ _~~I~? 111_. ~ aII'Id-!SOw!·~ lM str"lns •. I'or~iol'ls'of the wltlu,es as:)a'y~d in (lEOa nd(C) werle s~QUed OI'nW' ,uic,hmed]urn a.ll'ldp!l'1,o'tograpi1JedaUer gmwthi ;jji~ ,3!l)gC Invas~ve grow~hl was, photographed ain.~f' wa:sh]ngtlhie samFI~ pLat~ undec!~'.fI, 'glent[E!' ~~j'I~almofwatElw.
lI:.rrill'" __ I~;;J!! ,_,,~
;i;I!
'!,I

'!

31 AliGUST 2007

VOIL 317

S(::IENiCIE

ViMw.sde:noolmag.oFg

REPOIRTS
.FlDU (Fig. 4C), Th~e
d<lit~ slrnDlgly afl!:;'1liC

fara.

6. F. IHlre: aI.• ,Mol: (j

Cdl

U:.lnill2'0o.l~'.

physi)o~ogiCili~.roif!JIliromC'UlJI: for. m.ES~dopcmclcnt

tra~_sll!.!ti.ofl i,rn)I~Sl in \~h·e~O\'\.lith. OlJ!:!'findm_gs.
d.em!:li!IL.:;tmtt;:·a direct GP[lr!oo'n;io~ beet\l\~erl ]RES ~1ivity and ccl[hJmr diff~renJlia[io:~ and ~gge!j;I!l coheu~ll[ 11.1.o:lew.lar mechanism for iljltM:l;<l~.i['D:ili.~ . lioJfl OIl oo:nJUI"J[-me-:i'lir.gcsdl~l m.a:ybeconscrvcd ill1. h~hcr IOuika[yolCS.
tl1t:e:fe~!!2n(jes <lI1I111l1'ollles tN L P.l. o.lIhm, 'Go F.•:Sprd'!iul;: )•• , Ptoc. MId. ACifiri. 5d:.U.5:A, 97·.l361:\l~~OOOI). 2. M. [P. Mhe, 'S, tL De W!'ilj, A. B. :s.acihs:,. M.oI. BioI. GMU. 83.3 (2000). 1" L t". Hlolrn5, S. G, ·Calllpbtln., 5. K. I)e l®mi!!J, A. IB. S~dl5, M. P. AshE', oMQl. Gill!: ,BfoL 24, 29'~8 (20(D~). ~+ r, Mi~~ el· ~l,.,Ii':r()r;. NQltk,~. 50. U.S.A, :m03, 1,;8,4,6,

7. ,Pt. r4i~.dZwiEd::a1~. ;f:l[" J. Mol. Sial" 3:1'9,61:5 (200e). S. M~lm~1s ;!illdlIT@lh(ldsiill~ j!'o!\I~Ii3hoo. ,i!~ Sl!Ippmi'tirltg rnl!ltenai on S(imce O.nlin~. 9. R. .l. Ji'ldk;~Q~ SirKilmt Soc, li'Qn.s:. :iI:J, 12']1 ~2'OO5~', un. 1L wi1I def' Haar, J. t" Mrcfarllir!!" Mim1. Mkrabiil[ 4,6, '531
{2lJCm. c,. Bf!~'~~ It. irradhsel, M, .AUllll<lnlil, Pwc. ~1Jt'I. limO', :Sd.. u:.S.A, 1}i~.4,26~ ~'1l998]. 12. It Babll!!o'l.an" S. It GOIW!I~m~M. l>!eb.i!n, A.. lit l~ml1jil\l!!, W, C,. M e-,mdl;, J'. V!'nll. liS. 4449 tJ:991'l. B. l. Mutoe(,. M. I~. RooellilsCiQ" ill. A.. Seamolll5, G. J. ~ltr"!TI, }.. VfroJ.72,. 8Bi13 (:l.9'98J.

:Il7. [, \!ii. Wil~.ef et ,fil., N:atlitt ,44,6, n9' '(2oon lilt .A.A Kmll3r,m llimogtllu •.J. .Biol O'lfm :!:SO,23425 (2005}"
19 .• M. S~OIi'l@i@)!', E., Willis, On'~~g.~IJ~23, 3200 .A,
(20M),.

I

:no

20,. It Li(!JI, C. fA. Styles. IGIIt FI:n~, Ge.lM'U(s 1-~'1, 67 jU9!6t 9 21. W.e !hank M" Helll~~ It Wit~li'I:~r, and IHt Madlfrani [Q<F genMrJrlJ(s;typro~difi~1 pnam1,ii!ls"oo,;,east SlrnilflS,; M. Swansoo 'lor providili\'g a lfI'1iibo>!!lies; IlIElr'gl!ieiisel and ,M, 1Ji" Zmimo of llire TIh:~maMI lliil:rd~5 (jDWFtBr 'ier'lltD~: 111M m~mbf!rs; o~tfu~ Ilkil.ldm~ labo:rallL'!ry for fu ~prr!JIl distlJ~t[lIl1s..
JIAD. is OIIIiil!)Wilrd IHl~hes ~ir;allli!'!M'ilute It!r!!Nstig:~to~. WJI: .G.i5 a [I\ilmolii! RUiTlrM f:eH:OW~~PGrled !w'lhe Damonl Ii:lJJln~mOr.M~1f fMea[rn WiIltlUlidIMilJirl {[IRoG· Ht~2·®~).

(2mMjl.

5, C. S~1111'ki, Y.lficl'fi,Y. KasliJ.iwagl, rmst 2:0, 4~H [:l:000:t

1-4, .A. ~h~ffi\1rlll,. \I; V. $'O'it~n, It Su~8rij~h,.M, N. M'IB:~~,t~Il!QIJ', N. SlDnenb!l'~g, Genes Dev. 19" lG4 f2®o.5~', 15. ,p.,. 1l,,~1l5.' iml !i!'Msl",ti:otml (v.mrol ()J <fime f:')ptessiM, N. SOO~Iil'tre-~. J. W. Il" lHer5fu:~'I" W. (, l!lt"Nrri[~, Ms. {Cold 5pnlngl H<lrtGr L:abolfatt'!'Y IP~s, cotd Sn,!ring Ib~b{lf, UV".200m, p~, 4.47-466, 16. M. t; Ma~f, 2ndl, .l A.. [)"A~ml(!1,O. ~gig, II. 'iI"}i.a1n, Gmll'$ :DeNt, .21. :m, {lOO7J"

Si!J! p(lrtllflg O!1!~.ilfle Milterild. p wWi'Mdien~.elil1;aqloJM!qn/oollll~li~uIJll3i7.t5'B42ti2:24/IDC1. M.afurilills 11 00.IhDd~ Fig,~.51 ,ilM 57 Tab'~eo:s51 ~Ol 53 Re:[tl\einces
30 AIlfU2007; ;aa:epledI20
]t!ly ~OOif

1:0.1:12 6Is1:irm~.114 11467

Strand-Biased S:lpr,eadillnlgl lof ,Mlutalt:i0 ns D ulri nlg Somatic IHyp termutati 0 n
1

residues, the cverall :;eque~ce c-Q!llpos]tio~l. of
TgA .<mdTgT was: ldentical, Tlhe tr.nlsgenes: TgG
~ml TgC a:re :id~lllic<l~; iO TgA .[)~]dTgT, 1:e.~~~C,.· [.ivcl)'~ \.\Ilthlllu,: C~Et.'PiLior'iI:i1.~tIIl hc:y CC1ll1illina, [ siii:iiQleCG (TgC} Clil' o:C rr~G)bi~~C: filli" iiiii~'i~ P ccmm]repeaJ. {Fig.! B}.

TIle ropy nrunIDe:D' aI1;de-~:p:rossio:WIi level ofdlC:

rem!ii~i1S poorly undei':S'Lood. Vlr.t'1! demo:i1is~rat~tha!~ a s~i'fiQ1Le ,!:yto$ine (H'I the '~op(1ii'!lolnte:mplate) ~tli'a ndis sui·fide:nt~o recJ!Jjj~ AII[O, (ljnd~ad to mlL!~fions of 11:i!p:~treamand ,dOItVrl5tream Am l~esl!dIUies. Ilfil con~m5t ~hie ta.~ge,ti!1g o·f Icyt~i5ine:s On:! the bOilit:om s,tJrand by AID d'oles, notlead t:o S!ulb:5ta!1tia~~.ml.lita,t!oP'l of neig~lb{)lrili1igl res~du;es,ThiS5IH!'~H:1 as:vmme~~i'5 lelimilr1l'at.ecl in mice d!efi:cient: ~In !iI11lrism:atch re:p:'C!i,r. ffindiGlItilrll.g' tl1!1I1I.~Im.eeiF.ror·p:rorIie miSimatclbr,epi!~r tma!.!Ch]ne:ryp:refe:rentiaUy targetstoip·stnl'rndl I_Ira(i.~s]n ili way lIa~ IP~,omoll'e.~ HM dl.lfing ~~@ai'lltibody re:~pon!ie. S

(SHM) is a major [mea rJi5 by w;mch d~versmty'is ,~chije~ed ill o1!ntltbody gei~e~l it and ~illil1l]tniflt{lcl by the' deam~!ffilflltq.afl(If (vto~n:e$ to Il!l~;ad[~s~liil DNA hlfi1lct:liva~:Qn"~ifldwi:ced deamlln!1!i5e (AID). · H!oiJ,,vever,, processm at teo1ids fll'o,.m thesei,n~ija~lIllg d~a:mlnatio!lilJ e!VIEmltsto ml.l~tl:OI1!Sat Oilt! e:r m.sidue.s the
501~grti!( hYlpennwtil!.tio:!:1I

rOtlmJe'r li;nlCS:fm each tmm"gene shO\!Lred ~arge 'iII~ri'fb[ioJl(18), l'Cooi~g usto seilecllfmHilplc: ]lil.1cs of each 'nr:ans.~eimO for l'iii:'tl'i(\'l[' ilI:nalysis fr~ble ~.illlil.d

or

lig. S2). B cdJs were ~~O:lflrucdrom Peycis p.aruchcs f
.aged

~mre, ;:~nd DNA,

was

plCpi:l~d.

foorll.':I

a0livc],y hyp::~~~malblg §cm'l.&.~~<e!lrer 13, cells

(B2-2H'CD tW"GL tl~~1cl nOIlm.'I:~I.a~i1l'1g OC(l!l:l11r,O] ~D.lJjgenninm-'OenJlcr B celis, {D22rfCD[9+Gl7 J

A .5l3.:tJp Slrold~,~.ooJXIpl'l:88ingmost ,of tlrn,e VJ region of 'dlCt'l'<"lI1Sgfll~.clg gene, ifb.dllldif~gdl~ Afr uurt,. was <:llnalr~ ~br~:n,'1matio:l1sFigs.. 1 .aUld 2~ (

D

mclryrernain:> un!;;J!~O'\'H.F~!1lli~e.m'n.orc, jll'~ net u~·bflg. ~~nm~ll~ response, B cells le~ "E~rod inb~l~miI1l3.1 c,e[ti!e~of t~~.e Iy.mp~, been 'ro.~ublelolink potrtiw1 tir AlI mlltrntions 10 nedes .,mdi Sp'~ee~ mUl<rm:: ~he va:!1,abl~ the deamin!)]ioJ:1 of ;II d!~ifl[led Cresid~.cjle~\'~~
1

43

10

6~~% of the ~eocesfrom
l).wi[h

'nhe OLT

sHmples were rnmlru.~d (llIbk:

leg~,oJ~o:nhc'~]" i!.'tt,:IJI1HIliOglj01:1L;JJI;~n1I ([g)t genes al

higi:1,

SC'\r()r;d,ccntl<a][ qtHi!sliom.

about Sl~.IM.[HnillJiSWieled:

rates by the precess 0 f som<ll:lk hYJPljl:m'lrmatiofi (SIF]M). SHM is critical for the gellern[~!)n of hig,h·.a:liJ:1nity a:i11ibodi:es s;!1:ci cfflcie!lt imnume res:pt:nl:!le5< {l}.. ~m;:: :reactio!] is il~ii:U~[iCd by the
d.t'3m:inilt]01'l

ofC to U iml.ig. genes hy;u;tivali()il'~-·

Er'liCh:UCOO deanllnase (A1D) fFig. ~A) (2~3) •. 'nl~S~ U's lu,e deLected ~i~hc,r by uraci I DNA gl~'C~' syla;sc,(UNG)a~ua prore.'iood by 'Urn.c NOO cxcisl.o[!, repa.ir padn:yay (4) or by dlC Msh2lMsh6 ·dirnef irnlld prooessedby the m:is~mlltoh rr:;:iP'I~1i pOlllh.way (5-1l) (F]g .. I A)., Abem'lnl rep1lurby ~m.ese p.tIil1~~. wa.ysill OOI1JUfld.iQ:I1LM,~ith C(oor1]lrol1:o po~.)':Ilfbe['~, fi::J~ U 2,),cip~ciaUypO:IYi.n~Ri~C'ifI ,(./.1-10). .I~ k'l a chamctc:rlstic ~~tml of Im.U!U~Ol1S (Fig. IA)

(:1)Do rop- and bOt]Ol1:it ...glramtd d~.aI1l];in.31]oJlJJ c\ilcJ:1l.ts lead LO similar or dliff-cre~l o\uoom.e:t? (ii.) Om a deamindo~. eveat lead ~Q JV'f [~m.1!!al.l.m:1iS, upstream and dO\Vl1stfCa~n 'Qf ilt or d~'[llUla~:&OIl:li spread ]rl O[l~)' 01~:Cdil©C1·ioTll'! {iiil) Q'fCf whflt disn,lillDoec.m ~mJl.l]iolllS spread from il. sin[Jlc d~

seqt,:l.oo~s possessing ml.ly ill Mut:.11l~n:m.observed in d:ifli~I!C[1J1 .Iiil].~ ,of the S<l:roo tnlti~£ :slm:o\.vOO slmlw panerns 0Thl1<ili pooled \\rcro

:m(ll!;[mult1ill~ singk: m~ulalnon.

and preseUllCd OOgetJ:lt'l: (fig. SJ :!l!ndmbl~ S I), 'lfhe rogjQil,t')lU.:sidcoflJiI.c.Wf mc~ s~~O\'vooom~~parn:ble n'llUIl;alion.~, bet~ni~le difll:remcQ:ns<tTl.IclS (Pig.
2;\). ,\P",fe;,d:s.o s:eql1cm:ed~:If:~g heavy chait[l .m~1A
irlllffHll froa:a]j~lC'

sarl.'ilC: DNA :!lampi'es to as.scss
cx:p,ecmd. to

in w~rich A~$idlu:e-s are~a:rge>tedap'pro:l(imatdy tWice mi f"i1cqlllentl:y <liS'II~Ud'[l:r.;s on l!l~.e[i{)1fIL[riIilll-· ~crib edlOI) stw,m,d,I( 17). "rhe oiriigin Qf~;~js. a~I]]~
H@Willrd H!J!gh'~s Med1ici!.l~ ios<til!JL~ and IDep~rI~oenl ·Iilf ImmlJnobiot0!9I.~, Yal.'e Ulllv.~r5ijly Schoo~ of .Med:idrle, IMIlw
Ha;iO\enl, 06811, n USA. "'To !tIi11®ffiIl MI7f5PQI1demle davld,S1dlilalt2@!!!a~e.oou

~h~tJIJ be ,lldOlre53!1d. E-rnai~:,

'-;0 ~ddr~ll]c::;cb:;,gy,(iti;,.lmn&gcn~c mjlce !"VCre be hca.vily mut~rod (h~'. B oe:lIs ~lom iniac: ge:~eml:OO~."'itb SliM sli;!l)si!.w~s t]mt c~!u~~eda ~~:afb(lr.iijg dfll:ere!H ~ra~sgefles had cQmpm-al"lle: IOO-.~l~~ 'P<1]f {bpl region dc;:;yoid of·orw.itful <cm~ly IQ'ileis of mlJt.:1tkms: 1[1the Jh4inrn:m (fig. 84), a silllil,gh:1'Crcsi.dlllc ;aJ[\.villJi,ct:i the Je:olclior'i ccmkl A.Jl<'lly;'l:i~ the TgA i]nd TgT l:i~cs S~lOwCtJi of lJ~ma~ (Fig. Iil) (.18). Fo~r va:DilllTil.u ,of U~ f~~t lite rnuUltiolllnOlChlliLDty 'was ]lflrgC~.y iJ!Xp~roi1!ta]Vtd6711!lEPS ,1g,lCl,l'atilS:gCilc (19) !;l,!Cre dljdccl from 1:he.MrlmC] (PiS. 2:B). TIl£[llIImbt:t of m!J[fl~:iiDIlSw~s :s;ignificfI:!1lly ~o'!;verdUlJ]~ pr,c-, ge~'Cml:ed 1h.m di'fl'ef·ed! o~I.ly i~l a Sl!'lCl'Ch oof.M nu!cleO[id~ins(lrood n~r [he 3" end orllle dieted by tb@ ~nl!;u!abi.1 ~ndex ol'&e regJom I(P "" ity OJ{I002 <'Ind. OJJO [ 6 fcu: Tgt\ ~md T gl~resper::(i \!',eva~~M.el1~gioll (Fig. Un TIu:: ~Toulsgerll':' TgA oonJlai[l!ed 1Thverepeals ·of a 2.0-0,11 :regio]] oonsistlyJ~ The fewllllJlt.1[ions th<ll. Wel1e'seen oocll:li~cl ~:n~ iin:g (l,'IIcllls;iv,ely of AI[ nll(~(lotides,i~l a. £iCq~jC'tl!Ce theIJer:ilpM;ernl porltOD:l!il () f the. .M.· IlrncL~ ijjjpto ~:8: or 29 bp ftrom the ilil~t C residue h] t~c ,5'01:" Y ChOSCflLO mrodmnizctl:nc 000lilITCrI~ of hOISPOUi 2.0); tllms. w·e preSl!!lle SHM (20) '0fig. 1Band t1lg, S 1). The t!1~J1iSlgene tla~llk_s,.r,espoc[!'III'cly [nflll thc;:y il!1'l)se'Ii'Onlli~:u:: cleal1IlJi~]i'litiol1i f el1CS~~ o vmi<l!lll Tg:I conlk1iJnccl ~fu.esame ~ 00 bp inse'floo ~I] the reverse O1"ie~]11it iOll. Bec~us.l': O'meentire 1UQ.. dlUCs .in tlirue :rr1l'1!nk~.lI'I.!1:~giorls,. Tl'ne oo.mp]etc 'pI10lec,.

runiml~liofl evoo~?

~ll'l!U!I;3.~iol1"i~ ro,~~OliiIoHhc· genom;c a ,

rm

eng.

l:iudool:i:d!e (nt) Slf1.':lch ,t(}]lrsiifSled,o:fSO A. <{ltd 50 T

[iCili

,ofthe

cer:ilfDti.l pO:rr'lion

Qfthc AffIrncrin

TgA.

12:27

I

REPORTS

A

IOOmJO
lAm
J

~ba~'111?l~j, (.~~

tit X t ~ t
IP~I'l1

I

rrm lIDO
Fig. I. (A) Mut1H.on pa:thw.:lysnirll somaItk hil'pelmumtil!on., :l'he smeimatic 'is booed 0111 Models IpI'10pose:d, b1 mi f!!J'O]fI ei ,aL ,(1), IBase aUeil'j]llions ,awe s!h,oWll'l lin Ir,ed. MiIliIR, mi~ma~cJl\iI repair; IBEJR, bas;e' ex,cis,]on felpaif; P10~ polYim,erase'. ~B) lr,al1sge!lles usedin the si!JlIdy. The pa~e!l1tal ~:giK'bansgeP'le VK167/PEJPr:5

TgT

"'15'
"

a.a!t.ta't.'" '.alt.aat.iIl.ab<lI[,

J'

'l"'gC

'-* 41~: ~',~::!~~~~!:;
'i:'.

J' t't'taataaataattattat.l

5'

In WgA a in;dlllgT 'c~l'Iitain five ~,epeaJts,of al 20'=bp' M $!eqlJem,e '{bhJJe ~riall'ligles). la;ai'illsgenes; TgG and TgC ar,e idell1ltka~. migA illl1LdTg~T. r~p.ediv~~y.baJlt IhilYe ill single C:G ergC) olr G:'C [base pair {TgG)~n the C{1(mlltr:all r,elPeat '{wthJ.1te ~Fiil!!Pl;glle5t Pril!ihe\~:5PEJP530 and liliEP5.37R ~lI'ereused i:o'r reverse t!1ans!cripijo![l (~14 k.b~'indlll!des~he \1]1~ieg]o!'! and iPJiQ!'!1Iloter (a!To~~,;the' (onSi!:ant re,ghll!'lll PQ~Y!1lil!ie~,~t5e 'Cihaim rea;c1iol~1~lltili'·PCR)j 9i!ll!d primers IPEPS30 and! PIEP53111R were (Cd; the Igll(' ~inlrO:li'lkared! ,3' !em~fnla!nc,er,elelillil@nts (no'~ mown); andsn E1PS ~~dI to ,amplimy a 706~bp Ir,eg]on, o~ wihidl ,fl, central ,SB,.bp mgi.ornl m:s tas..!i~ttll',wh~lch'l;a: rmut:lt~on=prrQin:e rnpetRW1l'!! sElqlUlell1lc:e<U9'). TIm,eAIr lin:;eil'~ seq!lJiEmmd,.

faMe

not d:ooe.

::IL.SUll'lllImairy of mUitaltio,~ data. Ths P(IR e:rror luat~ was 2.9xl!O-Il, ir'gA WT

mUftaitio:~s pelf'

basepa~l". n.d,
[gil WT

TgG S'U.ggesm '!fum a C on '~]e 1!ml~mn !>tmnd had lin1e or ne a:biUly to directnmt3.1lilo.l'iIs h) n~;}tlYy Atr residues l1'ii:s·w;l;s ~~Ol.due 1.0 fh-e r3J~ur'eor (k,fla1~[infl~i(ltl ,ofw.e C on jhc bonom slrnnd,.

Nillmlol!!w

~r 1]IlI!l!s
1,~3; 6~.,.6::1 6"-:;;.,6~,

two iHdept:::!lJde'l1ullli.l!j]~thJI[lll (fro1l1! djflliren[ lWI1~ellic mill!~) OOCI,l!OOd <IltUl:iswc,s.idue
b.--X::SJlI!8C ~lICfI_m

e'.4:amh'iJedl!J C'OIPY m.!lnlber fJ<plre:'i~,i(l~' per (Opyt MUlt~l11ion ~ireQuem.)I' (JIf ";L.71o (mutlatii!O:J1slba S!E! pa1ir)

3,4-192.6

1,6-22.4

1.6-22,4,

2;-14 O.,6-16A

2~14 0.6-16.4,

l-ll2

4"O~36.4

(.Fi;g.13,~ We tDmu,;k~:cl1:-!'Iha'l. alIdiQU.gJl [Qp;-J[~.d OO1I:om,sl:rJiI1:d C residuesase 'lJO~;l,I'airg~LS. of AlD" dl.f!y S\~PpOrt dislincl outcomes d(nriw.1:g SHM. T]Lm. a lop-sua[~dC ~1[lo'V5d~.esp:rea_c.I ofmma·, [ions [:Q n~rby iVr [~sidue$, wllC'.!'ea£ a bQUlll;!i'!!smund C doc.s so' poor~y Or illlOil ,U. aU.

MlItaJri'orl fire'lueml,cy
e:lfGlT:j: (!ifllut;atl:o:nslb~ se p~lir) IFr,~qlJeliilqr or mti;f:,U~d sequIi:!II1CC:5,of
GU ....(II,lD)

o
6.8 5 .•1Il.

n.d,

rut

Th~ 'pattern of mutlll.0lmS .in.d1.esel:m[lsg~$l.es I:-evcan no ve.~inlbml<'lJti.on'loorlil 5: hew ]]lUlaluam; at AfT residues adse from. a deantimu:od C dUr]~~,g

S [J~M.M!.l!mmio~s ~ccl!!nulatoo on bath ~dcs of
1.~
!'I.d.
4.3

1.3

~.2
OJ]

f~,(i!quelil!cy (If mUllaruE!d sequence's ~f GU-t (%)

0.0

OJ]

0.0

n.d.

thecCl1ilmi Cresid!i.licin TgC. Pru'~,Cl'!]s!fl!y :ndk~~g ~re 'ChJSl~~a,flm.II\.\;lR'iolls91.0 [;5 bp IJPli:tre~m ~!Ild !:lID ] 0 bp dm~f!~"'l:le<un afttlc C. ]'cg~m.1s'~1'lil <lire never mnt,u:edin TgA. er TgT.TIlis g:tJi(~l1gJy
SUggCiii~l'iiluU

·lNllIlllib~roff di~'lIl!nt rounder !jill'S ~mllDwhlcliJIlilI~tiItiDlndl_ataWf!lr~ '(j[]'lAect'~ll 1t~n.9.1! ,[IIr ~p~~ioo of th~'1r.m5g~'liU!ilflthe iiiile5.a!l!l1!~ for mUlatiQofi\S ceail!~edl by quant'iIOllj.w Ri-peR: ;,m,dl !i!Qo~!I!Ii:ii:zedto the ~pI'e5~ton ~' the RSIi,IJ'!'fl~~e!'le: m and

~I'u!'[i!I,1fI)I' i1iumoor of '~iKln bil~l!nii!:
seq~;e!i!Clesr(!f ,ea~1i1i !OGJI&n;uct

linE.Th~ 1!.:q;rl!Sliilm of mb'l was; usilldl as.a liIintul'IJal.

OOI1l~ro~

{I;g. S~~'.

:jJII'JDr,~lilarn:250

tm

by tli~,C dcamimunon 0 f CC3!i'i c.v.:,LCildu) b~t!ll, the 5' aiJ1id 'side.J'io,fL]~e U, This is fm:i:~~f sl(Ipporredby 3 the ab.'lefvallimrut~1il~:~C Afr nnel .in "fgA <I!I1I.d Tg'f aocumlll~l~d. .1l1IlJitmiol'iI.:ii: ne~r bo~~. flIllfib. TleresI.!lILl:J,lI.I,:llOpliovidc i.ras:ighl ]I]to, hOlVl1 fHffi' ~nr~II:a,~ifiriSClll!n liPread. during S,HM,fCvcalillig fh..~t £ t8 nt dOWI1istr'e~nl and 2:9 nt ij![lS~~1ll ,!()f an ini[i.a]irug C-clc;J]]]inmtutiOIl event This rnughl reflect [he s~!Zeof thi!.: ~p (:~x! m(:d,d!J:riI1lg nennal (CrTm'-. a li:ee)I'fi:ilii~mJ:!tl1,repair, ~,pariin:ftal.ernm previ.ouls!y measueedin vllvo.

~hc eNOr"'pro~l,cgaprep~:irini~~.ated

~he gap

'0

fmo:r-pmt~erepmr

C... 1J:1

extend ·a;uJ:emil

and T residues requiros;~Be p:re~~r1ceor a DO base pair nearny ..
111 ti~mji1~ilt. w~1!hsueh ameehanism, TgC aoC'~mllllililed a SigJl~fiC'allt ~llil;ln'bcil0i1.·mul111iOlllS ]1],

!tU1,c1 gl" slm!]g 1)1::SIJJ!,gg,eSL"mlijl'l~lC ~nl:;!J!altkm of A T

1nIJ;;1~ ie:ldill!]g a Y

m~~Wrtkm Pllf!i~u [1nucl~more sim111<\]" LiNd efthe COl~:s[ruCl'S, hacking the' ooml1lll. C liO
residue, The 0:[11.)1 1:lI);~ul:atllCnlJilll I!he' A!T [raCI.~.eOlIi the G:C base p:tIir Qif Tg,G was ~ocil!te.d 12 bp aw'aY (FlIg, 2:13).®.mi,it was not dbvious\"'~lclhc:r~hilifi 00" CU1TOO asa censequence of ilmgcth1ig ohhe eennal C em d~.eboU'o:m slmnd OJ because of~h,~

lheNT

si:llgh~e residue '011 thetep slmnd is SlJm(Jiell~ to ]l'Iilia~e'mUlal:r()]liS at ne~rby AI[ re,,>idue£,. UO'w~

lra.cl (Fig.2B). dennonslJ~lingDhal

a

The di.rrcr~n emcomes
[-OJl~<md boUonll=stm~d

\VC

observed with

ever, TgO sh.owecl 'ilery few miJta:lt[)llSUil the Afr

dean1!ina]~o[l of a CIJe.<;ijdi~~~ b,p all1aiyin mle 32 dowI1S;ltC:iimfl!:1lM'i:lt (Pug. 2.9). Thce resu]t'Si frtlJ:ru VOIL 317

C .f!!!;:sid:~ves could ~ri$C largeting o:l'C'il~]er Am er subsel1lueIUre'J?<'Ii:1" :S'I~p.'l,. Iamiee de:fi,eu(:i'it u:[IJ boH]

fmm.asyrnmc!cic

11228

31 AliGUST 2007

S(::IENiCIE ViMw.sdenoolm.ag_.oFg