This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 ± 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. The scientific community and much of the general public came to accept evolution as a fact in his lifetime. However, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ (French pronunciation: [pj teja d a d ]; May 1, 1881 ± April 10, 1955) was a French philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of both Piltdown Man and Peking Man. Teilhard conceived the idea of the Omega Point and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of Noosphere. Some of his ideas came into conflict with the Magisterium of the Catholic Church, and several of his books were censured.
Teilhard's primary book, The Phenomenon of Man, set forth a sweeping account of the unfolding of the cosmos. He abandoned traditional interpretations of creation in the Book of Genesis in favor of a less strict interpretation. This displeased certain officials in the Roman Curia and in his own order who thought that it undermined the doctrine of original sin developed by Saint Augustine. Teilhard's position was opposed by his Church superiors, and some of his work was denied publication during his lifetime by the Roman Holy Office. The 1950 encyclical Humani generis condemned several of Teilhard's opinions, while leaving other questions open. More recently, Pope John Paul II indicated a positive attitude towards some of de Chardin's ideas. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI praised Teilhard's idea of the universe as a "living host" although the ecclesiastical warnings attached to his works remain.
historian.F. quality. logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. statesman. Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. 1220±1292). Substance is always regarded as the most important of these. He was also admired for his exemplary life. 6. time. was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on empirical methods. To take the place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism. condition. and is is the chief representative of the Eleatic philosophy. He is commonly represented as a disciple of Xenophanes. Friar Roger Bacon Roger Bacon. Aristotle himself. and include the following ten: substance. action. given the evident allusion to Hericlitus: ³for whom it is and is not. Parmenides wrote after Heraclitus. first. however.M. next of what kind it is.. philosopher. and in conscious opposition to him. also known as Doctor Mirabilis (Latin: "wonderful teacher"). uses the term ³logic´ as equivalent to verbal reasoning. we ask. intellectual reformer. That must have been in the middle of the fifth century BCE. or shortly after it. The Categories of Aristotle are classifications of individual words (as opposed to sentences or propositions). second substances are the species in which first substances or individuals inhere. and champion of modern science. They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would ask in gaining knowledge of an object. he proposed an entirely new system based . and natural magic). 8). the same and not the same. and there became acquainted with the youthful Socrates. what a thing is. essayist. He is sometimes credited as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by the works of Plato and Aristotle. From their perspective. (c. situation. For example. to which they ascribed the prosperity and wealth of the town. He was held in high esteem by his fellow-citizens for his excellent legislation. A ³Parmenidean life´ was proverbial among the Greeks. born of an illustrious family about BCE. then how great it is.Parmenides Parmenides was a Greek philosopher and poet. Albans) was an English lawyer. place. Aristotle Aristotle¶s writings on the general subject of logic were grouped by the later Peripatetics under the name Organon. at Elea in Lower Italy. and all things travel in opposite directions´ (fr. relation. passion. O. Substances are further divided into first and second: first substances are individual objects. Little more is known of his biography than that he stopped at Athens on a journey in his sixty-fifth year. Early in his career he claimed all knowledge as his province and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. humanism. quantity. 510. or instrument.
and information science. "Oiler" 15 April 1707 ± 18 September 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He wrote primarily in Latin and French. which is at the foundation of virtually all digital computers. history. 1716) was a German mathematician and philosopher. Leibniz. psychology. fluid dynamics. He is also one of the most prolific mathematicians ever. and Leibniz's mathematical notation has been widely used ever since it was published. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology. read Euler. In philosophy. philosophy. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals. and arguably one of the greatest of all time. Leibniz occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. Euler spent most of his adult life in St. probability theory. theology. he is our . but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition. English approximation. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. and astronomy. in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or a priori definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (sometimes von Leibniz) (German pronunciation: [ tf i t v lh lm f n la bn ts] (July 1.November 14.on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions. in a restricted sense. Leibniz developed the infinitesimal calculus independently of Isaac Newton. and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in biology. geology. such as the notion of a mathematical function. e. Prussia. The collection of manuscript papers of Leibniz at the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Bibliothek Niedersächische Landesbibliothek were inscribed on UNESCO¶s Memory of the World Register in 2007. linguistics. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy. and in unpublished manuscripts. particularly for mathematical analysis. his collected works fill 60±80 quarto volumes. Petersburg. He wrote works on politics. Leibniz also developed the binary number system. medicine. Russia and in Berlin. optics. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation. there is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz. law.[3 Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler (German pronunciation: [ l ]. the best possible one that God could have created. his conclusion that our Universe is. As of 2010. He is also renowned for his work in mechanics.g. a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for the use and benefit of men and the relief of the human condition. Leibniz is mostly noted for his optimism. 1646 . was one of the three great 17th century advocates of rationalism. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Euler's influence on mathematics: "Read Euler. along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza. ethics. He is considered to be the preeminent mathematician of the 18th century. and philology. in tens of thousands of letters.
he is the master of us all. read Euler. He is also credited with using closed curves to illustrate syllogistic reasoning (1768). These diagrams have become known as Euler diagrams.teacher in all things. He is also credited with using closed curves to illustrate syllogistic reasoning (1768). These diagrams have become known as Euler diagrams." which has also been translated as "Read Euler. German. These diagrams have become known as Euler diagrams. He is also commemorated by the Lutheran Church on their Calendar of Saints on 24 May ± he was a devout Christian (and believer in biblical inerrancy) who wrote apologetics and argued forcefully against the prominent atheists of his time." Euler was featured on the sixth series of the Swiss 10-franc banknote and on numerous Swiss. The asteroid 2002 Euler was named in his honor. . and Russian postage stamps. He is also credited with using closed curves to illustrate syllogistic reasoning (1768).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.