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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

ABSTRACT
This project illustrate solar heating systems types, such as space heating and water
heating system, passive and active systems. And it is compare between collector types such as
flat plat collectors types and evacuated tube collector types, it is illustrate the efficiency which
depend on heat loss. The functions of the main components were illustrated and best materials
were selected according to the optimum efficiency required and operation environment which
affect material durability, cost, and system live. Manufacturing process was illustrated of each
part of the system such as pipes, heat storage tanks, glass tubes. Heat transfer medium fluid
selection is important because it is hygienically and effecting the performance of the system.

Solar collector orientation is one of the important considerations to provide high


performance to the solar system; collector has to face south direction with tolerance of 60  to
west or east direction. Facing the north direction is negatively affecting the performance of
solar heating system. The design process of solar heating system illustrated to match the heat
source to the load, and to match the high saving amount of energy. The hot water load profile
was designed to save energy, assuming that the system meets the highest heat demand. A
computer modelling designs were created for the solar heating system components by using
IDEAS. The economy of solar system is high rather than nonsolar system, because it will pay
back the initial cost of system, since no a cumulative cost of gas or electricity during the
lifetime. The positive effect of using the solar heating system is to reduce CO2 emission to the
environment, which cause global warming.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to give appreciation to my parents and my wife for encouraging me and patience
with me for the whole period of the studying. In addition I would like to give thanks and high
regard to Dr Alan Shaw for the support to complete this project and I would to thank Dr Paul
Shelton for helping me during last two years which help me to do the project.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........................................................................................................2
TABLE OF CONTENTS..............................................................................................................3
LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................3
LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................................6
GLOSSARY OF TERMS..............................................................................................................7
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE RESEARCH.............................................................................12
CHAPTER 3 DESIGN CONCEPTS.......................................................................................58
CHAPTER 4 COMPUTER MODELLING.............................................................................64
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION ...................................................................................................71
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................80
REFERENCES............................................................................................................................82
APPENDICES.............................................................................................................................83
Appendix 1..................................................................................................................................83
Appendix 2..................................................................................................................................84
Appendix 3..................................................................................................................................85

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Building with passive solar heating system..........................................................11
Figure 2-2 Passive Storage......................................................................................................18
Figure 2-3 Passive Storage......................................................................................................18
Figure 2-4 Unglazed Collector................................................................................................19
Figure 2-5 Flat plate collector.................................................................................................20

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-6 Flat plate collector types........................................................................................21


Figure 2-7 Evacuated tubes collector......................................................................................22
Figure 2-8 Copper type absorber ............................................................................................23
Figure 2-9 Absorber Surfaces Plating.....................................................................................24
Figure 2-10 Insulation.............................................................................................................25
Figure 2-11 Heat pipe assembled with header........................................................................27
Figure 2-12 Evacuated transparency tubes.................................................................27
Figure 2-13 Getter.............................................................................................................27
Figure 2-14 Header................................................................................................................28
Figure 2-15 Solar gain & Heat loss in flat plat collector.......................................................29
Figure 2-16 Solar gain & Heat loss in evacuated tube collector...........................................29
Figure 2-17 Evacuated Tube enclosed flat plat collector type................................................30
Figure 2-18 Concentric tube collector.....................................................................................31
Figure 2-19 Concentric tube collector radiation collection...................................................31
Figure 2-20 Concentric tube collector components................................................................31
Figure 2-21 Evacuated tube with slip in absorber assembly..................................................32
Figure 2-22 Evacuated tube with slip in absorber components ............................................32
Figure 2-23 Glass forming by float bath.................................................................................33
Figure 2-24 Direct Draw process.............................................................................................34
Figure 2-25 Direct Solar Water Heating System....................................................................35
Figure 2-26 Active Indirect Solar Water Heating systems layout..........................................35
Figure 2-27 Passive Indirect Solar Water Heating systems layout (Thermosyphon system)36
Figure 2-28 Solar collector orientation...................................................................................37
Figure 2-29 Collector minimum distance to blocking building ............................................38
Figure 2-30 Water storage.......................................................................................................39
Figure 2-31 Water storage.......................................................................................................40
Figure 2-32 Rolling process.....................................................................................................40
Figure 2-33 Rolling equipment................................................................................................41
Figure 2-34 Welding process...................................................................................................41
Figure 2-35 latent storage tanks..............................................................................................43
Figure 2-36 latent storage tanks..............................................................................................43
Figure 2-37 Different types of seasonal heat stores (latent storage)......................................44
Figure 2-38 Circulation pump.................................................................................................45
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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-39 Pipe cuter.............................................................................................................47


Figure 2-40 Fitting brush........................................................................................................48
Figure 2-41 Paste flux..............................................................................................................48
Figure 2-42 Lead-free solder...................................................................................................48
Figure 2-43 Welding torch.......................................................................................................49
Figure 2-44 Welding process.....................................................................................49
Figure 2-45 Extrusion process................................................................................................50
Figure 2-46 Extrusion process................................................................................................50
Figure 2-47 Extrusion process................................................................................................50
Figure 2-48 Extrusion equipment...........................................................................................50
Figure 2-49 Pipe insulation.....................................................................................................51
Figure 2-50 Pipe insulation.....................................................................................................51
Figure 2-51 Control system......................................................................................................54
Figure 2-52 pyranometer.........................................................................................................55
Figure 2-53 Control system diagram.......................................................................................56
Figure 2-54 back up system.....................................................................................................57
Figure 3-55 Total energy production/Day...............................................................................62
Figure 3-56 Total energy production/Month..........................................................................62
Figure 3-57 Thermal power ratio supplied by the thermal solar system during a year........63
Figure 4-58 Solar system components ....................................................................................65
Figure 4-59 Evacuated tube.....................................................................................................66
Figure 4-60 Multi ports header & heat pipes..........................................................................66
Figure 4-61 Header tube & heat pipes....................................................................................67
Figure 4-62 Header & heat pipes............................................................................................67
Figure 4-63 Heat exchanger & Tank......................................................................................68
Figure 4-64 Circulation pump.................................................................................................68
Figure 4-65 Inlet and outlet tubes...........................................................................................69
Figure 4-66 Inlet and outlet tubes...........................................................................................69
Figure 4-67 Heat rejection system...........................................................................................70
Figure 5-68 CO2 emission per million metric tons by energy sector.....................................72
Figure 5-69 Comparison between flat plat collector and evacuated tube collector...............75
Figure 5-70 Efficiency of Solar Collectors.............................................................................76
Figure 5-71 Tube handling ....................................................................................................78
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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 5-72 Seals fat coating ..................................................................................................78


Figure 5-73 Thermal grease coating.......................................................................................78
Figure 5-74 Clamp screw tight................................................................................................79

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Coefficient of linear expansionfor materials in solar systems:..............................47
Table 2-2 Solar collector liquid properties table:....................................................................53
Table 3-3 Projected electricity prices (£/MWh).....................................................................60
Table 3-4 Estimated energy production by 15.41 m² solar collector in Darlington...............61
Table 5-5 National DHW Sizing Guidelines (Low-Medium-High)........................................73

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
SWH Solar Water Heating
DHW Domestic Hot Water
k Thermal Conductivity
Btu British Thermal Unit
UV Ultra Violet
EPDM Ethylene-Propylene Diene Monomer
∆T Temperature Change
HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
PV Photo Voltaic
Δl Length Change
lo Original Length

α Expansion Coefficients
T1 Collector Panel Temperature
T2 Storage Temperature
GBP Great Brittan Pound
N North
W West
kWh Kilo Watt per Hour
MWh Mega Watt per Hour
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
Qhw Heat Energy required to a volume
V Volume required per day
ρ Density
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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

c Specific heat equal to 1.0 Btu/(lb. ° F),


Tset Thermostat set point
Tsource Inlet water temperature
Q s tan dby Standby heat losses
U hw Thermal conductivity
Ahw Surface area
Ta Surrounding temperature
VAT Value added tax

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Introduction

The history of the solar water heater market in the UK dates in the main from the oil
crisis and formation of OPEC in 1973. Initially with government assistance for research and
development the market expanded rapidly which resulted in considerable imports from
southern Europe to meet the demand. The market continued to expand until the early 1980’s.
Since 1991 there has been a revival in the market partly due to a growing awareness of
environmental issues. In 1992 the government reassessed it strategy on solar hot water heating
and in 1994 published Energy Paper 62, “New and Renewable Energy Future Prospects in the
UK”. The paper recognised SWH as being technologically possible and commercially
available and suitable for inclusion in government research, development, demonstration and
distribution programmes. [1]
Solar energy can be used in a planned direct or indirect way. In the case of indirect
utilization of solar energy by considering the usage of renewable energies which are
secondary effects of solar energy such as wind energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, and
secondary energy from photosynthetic process that is mostly connected with the use of
biomass and biofuels. Using solar energy in the direct way; by applying two fundamental
methods of energy conversion:

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1.1.1 Photo thermal Conversion of Energy of Solar Radiation

a) Active low temperature solar water and air heating or cooling systems, which
includes:
• Solar water heating systems with flat plate or vacuum solar collectors
• Solar air heaters, including crop driers
• Solar space cooling systems coupled with sorption refrigerator
• Solar stills for distilling water
b) Passive low temperature solar heating (cooling) systems, which constitute solar
architecture.
c) High temperature solar systems with solar concentrators, in which a working
fluid can drive a conventional heat engine.

1.1.2 Photoelectric energy conversion of solar radiation:

a) Electric power system with the distributed concentrating collectors.


b) Power tower.
In most places of the world much more solar energy hits a home’s roof and walls as is
used by its occupants over a year’s time. Using this sun’s light and heat is a clean, simple,
and natural way to provide all forms of energy needed. It can be absorbed in solar
collectors to provide hot water or space heating in households and commercial buildings.
Solar radiation can be converted into useful energy using active systems and passive
solar design. Active systems are generally those that are very visible like solar collectors or
photovoltaic cells. Passive systems are defined as those where the heat moves by natural
means due to house design which cause the arrangement of basic building materials to
maximize the sun’s energy. Solar DHW heating is the most common structure of active
solar heating in the world. Systems for DHW heating are relatively simple and inexpensive.
Water heating is required for the whole year in most applications; therefore, the annual load
factor on the solar system is high.
Passive solar system uses the building structure as a collector, storage and transfer
mechanical equipment. This definition fits most of the more simple systems where heat is
stored in the basic structure such as walls, ceiling or floor, and it is provide beautiful

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

connections to the outdoors, give plenty of natural light, and save energy throughout the
year. [2]

Figure 1-1 Building with passive solar heating system


(www.geocities.com/dieret/re/Solar/solar.html)

Utilization of solar energy has a very wide range and is a complex problem. The type
of applied solar technology depends on the climate, social and environmental concern to
determine the method of solar energy conversion and its use. The solar energy treating
environment in a more global and continues way, and its treats the problem of energy
supply and energy use in the same way. [2]

1.2 Aims of the project:

• Design Solar Domestic Hot Water System using computer modeling software (I-
DEAS).
• The purpose of this project is to explain accepted methods of solar engineering
design and to specify important information required.
• Design solar water heating system with optimum energy out put to reduce fossil fuel
consumption to 0% in households.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE

RESEARCH

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2.1 The Solar Radiation:

The thermonuclear fusions at the core of the sun release energy in the form of high-
frequency electromagnetic radiation. The theory which currently is most accepted states that
electromagnetic radiation can be represented as either a combination of rapidly alternating
electric and magnetic fields (or waves) or energy particles called photons. This definition of is
difficult understand and visualize but the theory behind it allows us to describe and predict
how radiation will act. Radiant energy is produced at the solar core at a temperatures estimated
between 10,000,000° to 14,000,000° Celsius. The average temperature at the surface of the
sun is only 5,500°C. [3]

The energy traveling through space is made up of radiation in different wavelengths.


Electromagnetic radiation is classified according to its wave length the more energetic the
radiation, the shorter its wavelength. Radiation is emitted from the surface of the sun in all
wave lengths, from long wavelength radio waves to very short X rays and gamma rays. [3]

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Although the sun radiates energy in many wavelengths, it radiates proportionally more
energy in certain wavelengths. At an average temperature of 5,500°C the sun radiates most of
its energy at Very high frequencies (short wavelengths).Visible light makes up 46% of the
total energy emitted from the sun. Visible light, or the wave length to which the human eye is
sensitive, extends from 0.35 to 0.75 microns (the unit used to measure wave length is the
micron or micro meter which is equal to a millionth of a meter). It is made up of all the
familiar colors from the shorter wave length violet (0.35 microns) to blue, green yellow,
orange and the longer wave length red (0.75 microns). 49% of the radiation emitted from the
sun is in the infrared (below red) band. Infrared radiation, which we experience as heat, is
radiation at wave lengths longer than the red end of the visible spectrum (greater than 0.75
microns). The remaining portion of the sun is radiation is emitted in the ultra-violet band at
wavelengths shorter than the violet end of the visible spectrum (smaller than 0.35 microns). [3]
Appendix 1 illustrates the solar radiation wavelengths.

All electromagnetic radiation leaving the sun travels through space at a uniform rate, in
the form of diverging rays, traveling at the speed of light which is 300,000 kilometers a
second. The Solar Constant, which defines the amount of radiation or heat energy reaching the
outside of the earth's atmosphere, is 429.2 Btu's per square foot per hour (1.94 calories per
square centimeter per hour). The total amount of energy intercepted by a surface consists of
not only direct radiation, but also diffuse and reflected radiation. The total amount of radiant
energy intercepted by a surface is greater than that from the direct rays alone. Diffuse
radiation, or the energy scattered by the atmosphere and redirected to the earth's surface, can
be as much as 50% of the total when the sun is at a low altitude, and 100% on a completely
cloudy day. [3]
The intensity of radiation reaching a surface from a reflective material depends upon
the quality of that material’s surface finish and the angle of incidence between the solar beam
and the reflector. The larger the angle of incidence, the more the radiation will be reflected. It
is important to realize that the collection of solar radiation is dependent on the area of the
collecting surfaces. The energy content of solar radiation is fixed by the output of the sun. To
collect a certain amount of energy from the sun, an area large enough to collect it is necessary.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

This applies to all solar heating systems from south-facing glass in a residence to
collectors that focus the sun's energy. The area intercepting the sun's rays will determine the
maximum amount of radiant energy that can be collected. [3]

2.1.1 Reflection, Transmission and Absorption of radiation:

Since solar radiation strikes the surface of a material, three things can happen. The
radiation can be reflected, transmitted and/or absorbed. Depending on the surface texture the
material, reflected radiation will either be scattered (diffused) or reflected in a predictable
manner. Rough-textured surfaces will scatter radiation while surfaces such as mirror or highly
polished aluminum will reflect light in predictable parallel rays. In contrast, a very smooth and
highly polished surface will produce a predictable reflection (In this manner, light and other
radiant energy sources can be controlled). The angle at which the rays strike a reflecting
surface will be equal to the angle of the reflected rays. Or, to put it another way, the angle of
incidence will equal the angle of reflection. [3]
Solar radiation absorbed by a substance is converted into thermal energy or heat. Solar
radiation absorbed by the molecules at the surface of a material will accelerate their
movement. As the vibrational movement of molecules in a material increases, the heat content
of the material increases. As heat is added to a solid material, its temperature will rise.
Therefore, temperature is the measure of the intensity of heat, which is defined in terms of the
movement of molecules; the more rapid this movement, the higher the temperature. [3]

2.1.2 Heat Transfer Characteristics

As it is heated by solar radiation, a material seeks to achieve equilibrium with its


surroundings through three basic heat transfer processes: conduction, convection and
radiation.
First, as solar radiation is absorbed by a material, the absorbed energy will redistribute
itself within the material as it is passed or conducted between molecules. Conduction is the
process in which heat energy is transferred between molecules within a substance, or between
two substance physical contacts, by direct molecular interaction. The warmer molecules bump
into and pass some of their vibrational energy to adjacent molecules. The direction of heat
flow is always from warm to cool. As the molecules at the surface of a material are heated by

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solar radiation, they pass this energy to cooler adjacent molecules dispersing the heat through
the material so that it takes son a more uniform temperature. The rate of heat flow or the
thermal conductivity (k) of a substance is dependent on the capability of its molecules to send
receive heat. [3]
Second, a material will transfer heat energy from its surface to the molecules of an
adjacent fluid by Convection:
Convection is defined as the transfer of heat between a surface and a moving fluid, or the
transfer of heat by movement of the molecules from one point in a fluid to another. In
convection process heat gain always moves from warm to cool. As the cool molecules of a
fluid such as water or air come into physical contact with a warm surface, some of the
vibrational energy at the surface of the material is transferred to the adjacent fluid molecules.
The greater the temperature difference between two substances, the more heat will be
transferred. [3]
Conduction from the surface of the material to the fluid is the initial heat transfer
process, but as the fluid is warmed, it expands, becomes less dense and rises. As the warmer
fluid molecules rise, they are replaced by cooler molecules. This results in a continual
movement of the fluid. When heat alone is responsible for this movement, the process is called
natural convection. If the fluid is pumped or blown across a surface, the rate of convective
heat transfer will increase .As a cool fluid comes in contact with a warm surface, the fluid is
warmed. Since the rate of heat flow from the surface to the fluid increases as the temperature
difference between two substances increases, the faster the warmed fluid molecules are
removed from the surface and replaced by cooler molecules, the faster will be the rate of heat
transfer. [3]
And third, all materials radiate energy all the time. All materials are constantly
radiating thermal energy in all directions because of the continual vibrational movement of
molecules at their surface. In contrast to solar radiation, which consists of short wave radiation
emitted at very high temperatures, thermal radiation experienced as heat consists of long wave
infrared radiation emitted at a much lower temperature. The output of thermal radiation from a
surface not only varies with surface temperature, but also with the quality or emissivity of the
surface. In general, that way so it can absorb heat at a later time. The capacity of a material to
store thermal energy its called specific heat ,which is defined as the amount of heat (measured

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

in Btu's) one pound of a substance can hold when its temperature is raised one degree
Fahrenheit. [3]

2.2 The General Solar Heating System

1. Active solar heating system


2. Passive solar heating system

2.2.1 The main components of solar heating systems (active or passive):

• Solar collector
• Thermal storage
• Nonsolar auxiliary system
• Distribution system
• Control system
These components are interconnected and the specific configurations of each
determine the nature of the solar heat production process. For example, an active liquid
based system uses a solar collector from which heat is removed by a liquid. That heated
liquid is transferred to thermal storage. Some of that heat is distributed to building energy
demands. [2]
The controller determines the heating demand of the building to control the heat
collection and distribution. Also, the nonsolar auxiliary is activated if solar storage is
exhausted. The control system physically small but it is very important component. The
same components present in passive systems, such as thermal storage wall type the solar
collector consists of the glazing and wall surface. The storage could be integral with the
absorber surface, and made from concrete or water wall directly behind and in contact with
the dark-colored collecting surface [2], as illustrated in figures 2-1 and 2-2.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-2 Passive Storage


(www.geocities.com/dieret/re/Solar/solar.html)

Figure 2-3 Passive Storage


(www.geocities.com/dieret/re/Solar/solar.html)

The nonsolar auxiliary heating system is used to satisfy the demand if passive storage
has been exhausted by a long period of cloudy or very cold weather. The control elements
of a passive system does not use electronic signals and actuators but are integrated into
physical components of the passive system. Back draft dampers are one of the control
features of a storage wall system. They prohibit a reverse thermo circulation through the
wall air slots used during the day as a heat supply. [2]
Solar systems of all types respond to the environment and to certain characteristics of
system components. For example, the location of a solar system, the imposed heat load,
ambient solar intensity levels, and ambient temperature all determine the response of the
system to its load. Identical solar systems will function completely differently in different
locations.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

2.2.2 Major characteristics of solar systems:

• Collector size
• Collector tilt angle
• Collector orientation
• Collector flow rate
• Storage size
• Heat exchanger size
• Required delivery temperature
• Interconnection and control of these various components

2.2.3 The common solar collectors of heating system:

The majority of heating systems use the flat-plate collector, with air or liquid as heat
transfer medium. These collectors provide a sufficient outlet temperature to drive most
space and domestic hot water heating systems and provide an excellent thermodynamic
match between the load and the collection process [2], collectors types are illustrated as the
following:

1. Unglazed collector (low temperature system):


Produce up to 10 C° above ambient temperature, and are most often used for
heating swimming pools. The collectors are extruded from polypropylene or other
polymers with UV stabilizers, and it is less expensive if compared to other
collectors [4], figure 2-3 illustrate the unglazed collector.

Figure 2-4 Unglazed Collector


(http://www.wbdg.org/resources/swheating.php)

2. Flat plate collector (mid-temperature system):

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Produce water (10 to 50 C°) above outside temperature, and are most often
used for heating domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating. And it is divided
into several subtype depending on the applications, cost, and amount of heat
required [4], the figure 2-4 illustrate the flat plat collector and is components.

Figure 2-5 Flat plate collector


(http://www.southface.org/solar/solar-roadmap/solar_how-to/solar-how_solar_works.htm)

Many types of flat-plate collectors have been manufactured and the figure 2-5
illustrates the cross section of each type of flat plate collectors:

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-6 Flat plate collector types


(The Solar Heating Design Active and Passive System-Jan F.Kreider)

3. Evacuated tubes collector ( high temperature system):


Produces temperature more than 50 C° above the outside temperature, using
evacuated tubes around the recipient tube gives high levels of insulation to reduce
the heat loss, and often focusing curved mirrors were used to concentrate sunlight
to increase the collector efficiency. The application of the high temperature
systems are absorption cooling or electricity generation, also used for mid-
temperature applications such as water heating systems [4]. The figure 2-6 shows
the evacuated tubes collector.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-7 Evacuated tubes collector


(www.volker-quaschning.de/.../index2_e.html)

2.3 Solar Heating Systems Components

2.3.1 Flat plate collector components:

Covers:
It is a transparent cover of glass or plastic, and it is the topmost component of a flat-
plate collector. One or two sheets are used to trap a layer of air 1.3cm to 2.5cm thick,
providing thermal resistance to heat loss from the absorber plate. Glazing must have a high
transmission coefficient for solar radiation. And it has to have dimensional stability,
durability in its severe environment, and the capability of resisting environmental stress
such as hail, rain, and snow are most important [2].

Cost and durability are the mean concern of using plastic or glass cover. Weight is the
second consideration to specify the cover material. Although plastic collector covers are
secure and low cost. Solar collector temperature may range from - 29°C to well above
150°C in the course of a year which cause thermal deformation to plastic cover. High
expansion and contraction of the plastic cover cause sagging and fluttering on the cover
when the wind blows. And that will lead to fatigue, and certain plastic materials will finally
fracture, or the material may sag so close to the absorber plate which causes cover melting.
Glass could be avoiding most of the plastic disadvantages such as it does not discolor
or stretch, and it has good resistance if tempered to large temperature changes. To reduce
thermal stress effects, the edges of the glass should be polished before tempering. Glass

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

with very low quantities of ferric oxide has high solar transmittance. And it has high
resistant to snow, wind, and hail and has good performance to exposure to sunlight. Plastics
tend to get worse after several years with reduced transmittance [2].

Absorbers:
Different types of Metals are used to made absorber plates of the flat plate collectors.
Commonly used metal are aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum is light and has high
thermal conductivity. But it is very difficult to repair in the field; because the collector has
to be detached and delivered to workshop for repair [5]. Copper has very high thermal
conductivity and corrosion resistance. And it is easy to repair in the field, that’s why copper
is the choice of many solar system manufacturers. Figure 2-7 illustrate copper type
absorber.

Transparence
cover

Collector
housing
Copper
absorber
and vessels

Figure 2-8 Copper type absorber


(www.suntrek.net/solar_hot_water-system.html)

Carbon steel is the third solar collector material. Carbon steel has very low thermal
conductivity if compared to other materials, but it is much cheaper than other materials. So
the amount of steel required in a tube absorber is high, because the thermal conductivity of
steel is lower than in each aluminum or copper absorbers. This increases the weight and the
time constant of a solar collector but probably has little cost impact because of the lower
price of steel relative to copper and aluminum [5].
Steel is a proper material if used in solar air collectors, because it inexpensive and
low conductivity is not important in such an air collector as in a liquid collector. It consists
of a shallow steel duct, and black painted on sun exposed side. Rectangular ducts are easy
to make from steel. The corrosion resistance of steel are improved and it can be depends on.
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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Absorber Surfaces:
The effective solar absorber surface must convert at least 90 % of the incident solar
flux to heat. The surface must be durable over a high temperature. The high-temperature
flat black paint is the most common absorber surface used in the flat plat collectors, it must
not outgas at temperatures up to 210°C, and out gassing is a process by which solvents and
other components of paints and materials in solar collectors vaporize at high temperature.
The gases condense on the inner glazing surface which reduces the cover transmittance.

Figure 2-9 Absorber Surfaces Plating


(www.sunraysolar.com)

Plating is used to improve the solar collection of the absorber surface by reducing
thermal radiation losses. The most common types of plated surfaces are black chrome and
black nickel. Black chrome has excellent durability up to 233°C. Black nickel also has
acceptable high-temperature stability but is easily get worse by humidity, which cause
oxide to form and that greatly reduce the surface absorption. Plated surfaces have the
advantage of low infrared-radiation emittance. The low emission factor for plated metals is
most important at high temperatures [5].
The construction of absorber plates must accommodate the highest expected
temperature to which the surface may be exposed. And because of the different thermal
expansion of the metals used in the flat plat collector; the tubes might be soldered or
welded to the absorber plate, or very tightly clamped to avoid fall over the lifetime of the
collector.
A steel collector might first be coated with a layer of copper, and then the chromium
can be plated, because chromium could not be coated on steel directly. And then chromium
is converted to black chrome; chemical baths with current passed between the bath and the
absorber plate, finally chromium changed to black [2, 5].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Insulation:
Losses through the insulation depend on its conductivity and thickness. Collector
insulation should be designed to operate at 205°C continuously. It must not worsen, outgas,
expand, or contract excessively at temperatures between -35 and 205°C. The insulation
must also have structural integrity which means not settle when the collector tilts. It is
possible for some moisture to accumulate within the insulation, so it is important that
moisture should not be absorbed by the insulation.
Several types of insulation are commonly used. Mineral and ceramic fiber insulations
are designed for higher temperatures than required in flat plate collectors and are more
expensive than necessary. The Polyurethane foam and polystyrene foam have very poor
performance at high temperature. Fiber glass is the most common insulation used in solar
collectors. But some fiber glass types which contain binders and other materials must not
be used, because it outgas and reduce the transmittance of the inner covers. So the fiber
glass which is not contains binders should be used, because it has the suitable properties for
flat plat collectors and it is low cost [2].

Figure 2-10 Insulation


(http://www.acoustic.co.uk/H&H/fibrous.htm)

Housings:
The housing is used to protect it contents such as insulation and the absorber plate
from the environment, and also providing collector mounting. The amount of labor used to
install the solar collector is very much determined by the type of mounting and piping and
how well both interface with the building.
Different materials are used in collectors housing such as aluminum, galvanized steel,
fiber glass, or high temperature plastics. Wood has been used in a few housings, but

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

because of it disadvantages such as poor dimensional stability and the risk of fire (wood
ignition temperature is less than 205°C) it is not recommended to be used in the collector
housing. Fiber glass may worsen at high temperature but is light and easy to attach to any
structure. Corrosion is the most problems if metals, steel must be protected by galvanizing
and coating of an etching primer and paint [2].

Seals:
It is essential that all openings be sealed to prevent dust from entering the collector.
Dust partially deposit on the absorber surface and reduce its absorption. The using of seals
blocks dust, rain, and snow which can worsen the insulation, the absorber plate, and even
the collector housing. The sealing material must be resistant to ultraviolet light, ozone, and
high temperatures. Seals must be flexible to accommodate expansion and contraction of the
absorber plate and the repeated motion of pipe and connections. The glass seal must be able
to withstand very high temperature, very low temperature, the differential expansion and
contraction of both the cover and the housing. Seals must permit easy removal of the
covers. In case a cover is damaged, it is essential that the glazing be replacable without
removal of the collector from the building and return to the factory. Therefore, seals and
their retainers must be designed accordingly. A recommended seal material is silicone seals
or EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) [2, 5].

2.3.2 Evacuated Tube Collector components:

The evacuated tube collector has different types, but with same main components which
is illustrated as the following:
1. Evacuated transparency tubes (inner and outer glass tube), illustrated in figure 2-11.
2. Heat pipe (copper) and insulation, illustrated in figure 2-10.
3. Absorber (selective coating), illustrated in figure 2-11.
4. Getter, illustrated in figure 2-12.
5. Header (copper multi ports pipe), illustrated in figure 2-13.
6. Seals illustrated in figure 2-13.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Insulation

Heat pipe

Figure 2-11 Heat pipe assembled with header


(http://www.crossoversolar.com/panels.html)

Figure 2-12 Evacuated transparency tubes


(http://www.btfsolar.com/specifications.htm)

Figure 2-13 Getter


(http://www.crossoversolar.com/panels.html)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Seal Header

Figure 2-14 Header


(http://www.btfsolar.com/specifications.htm)

To improve the efficiency of the collectors is by reducing the heat loss from the
absorber plate to the environment. The heat loss occurs primarily through the glazed surface
of the collector. If the air gaps could be completely evacuated, the heat loss by convection
and conduction could be completely eliminated. This heat loss in a flat-plate collector is
between 30 % to 55 % of the heat loss from the front surface of the absorber plate, figure 2-
14 illustrate heat gain from the sun (it could be direct or diffused irradiance) and the heat loss
such as by (conduction, convection, and radiation), also the shiny surface cause energy loss
by reflection of irradiance [2, 5].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-15 Solar gain & Heat loss in flat plat collector
(www.volker-quaschning.de/.../index2_e.html)

Flat-plate evacuation is not useful, because the glass cover could not stand the load
applied after evacuation, and it will be breaks under this load. In addition, special seals
would be required to maintain the vacuum within the flat-plate collector over a long period
of time.
Opposite to a rectangular glass prism, a glass cylinder has a very high compressive
strength when evacuated. Several solar collector manufacturers have used cylindrical glass
enclosures. In order to completely hold back convection and conduction losses in these
collectors as illustrated in figure 2-15 which shows that 80% of heat were absorbed after
eliminating the conduction and convection heat loss.

Figure 2-16 Solar gain & Heat loss in evacuated tube collector
(http://www.btfsolar.com/specifications.htm)

An internal vacuum of the order of 10^3 to 10^4 mm of mercury is required to


eliminate the convection heat loss. This level of evacuation is within the abilities of
commercial fluorescent tube manufacturers [2, 8].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

The figure 2-16 shows an evacuated tube collector enclosed flat absorber surface. The
absorber plate is treated with a selective surface to reduce radiation losses. As a result,
conduction, convection, and radiation are small. But, there is a slight optical penalty
incurred with this collector, the reflection losses are high. Usually the tubes diameter used
are 50 to 100 mm.

Figure 2-17 Evacuated Tube enclosed flat plat collector type


(www.geocities.com/dieret/re/Solar/solar.html)

The concentric tube collector illustrated in figures 2-17, 2-18, and 2-19 it is consists
of three concentric tubes. The innermost tube is the fluid inlet, connected to a manifold in
the collector assembly. The annulus between the inner tube and the center tube is the fluid
outlet, also connected to a manifold. The outermost glass tube is the vacuum jacket. And a
selective surface is used on the absorber tube. The glass used in this collector is
Borosilicate Glass (Pyrex TM ); it has very high resistance to thermal stress at elevated
temperature. One of the difficulties with this type of collector is the large amount of fluid
contained in it. The fluid must be heated to a useful temperature each morning before useful
energy delivery can take place. Warm up lasts approximately 5 times as long as it would in
a flat-plate collector. When the one of tube collector need a replacement the system has to
be shutdown and collector array liquid has to be drained [5]. There is a risk of collector
liquid freeze in cold regions, which cause the glass tube to break and fell. This problem can
be solved by using antifreeze solution, and it could not be affected in the freezing regions
which have temperatures exceed (-20°C). Also the system needs a periodic maintenance,
and it has to be done by professional person.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-18 Concentric tube collector


(www.rayotec.com)

Figure 2-19 Concentric tube collector radiation collection


(www.rayotec.com)

Figure 2-20 Concentric tube collector components


(www.rayotec.com)

The third type of tube collector is shown disassembled in figure 2-20. It consists of
only two concentric glass cylinders forming an evacuated annulus similar to a wide-mouthed
Thermos™ bottle. The absorber is placed in contact with the inner surface of the inner tube.
Basically the absorber is a rolled sheet to apply a press to fit against the inner surface, and
increase the absorbing area [2, 5, and 8].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Evacuated
tube
Heat pipe

Absorber

Figure 2-21 Evacuated tube with slip in absorber assembly


(http://www.gtasolar.ca/index_02.html)

The heat pipe is enclosed in the rolled sheet, a none-toxic liquid used as heat transfer
medium between the bottom and top area of the heating pipe, the heat transfers to the water
which in the header illustrated in figure 2-21.

Figure 2-22 Evacuated tube with slip in absorber components


(http://leapltd.co.nz/plumbing/solargenius/solargen_et.php)

The slip-in absorber assembly is attractive since the system need not be shut down if a
glass cover should break. A replacement evacuated jacket can be slipped over the metal
absorber without interfering with fluid flow. This cannot be done with the concentric tube
collector shown in figures 2-17, and 2-19.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Snow and ice build up between tubes and on top of tubes is one of difficulties of
using tube collectors in very cold climates. Because the tube collectors have very low heat
losses; therefore, it is close to the environmental temperature. As a result, snow normally
does not slide from these tube collectors as quickly as from flat-plate collectors. Ice on tube
collectors does not completely stop energy collection but does reduce the amount of solar
radiation. When snow or ice does finally melt from a tube collector, the melted snow and
ice has to be moved away from the collector array surface [2, 5, and 6].

Material used to form the collector cover and tubes:


The flat plate collector covers and the evacuated tubes collectors are usually made of
Borosilicate glass, which is a neutral glass product consist silica and boron oxide, it has a high
chemical resistance, and very low thermal expansion (3 x 10-6 / C) making it resistant to
thermal shock, and it has impact resistance which is enough to resist hail [6, 9].

Flat glass forming:


The float bath process used to form the flat plate collector cover and it is divided into
stages starting with melting and refining, float bath, coating, annealing, inspection, cutting to
order. The figure 2-22 illustrates float bath process [7].

Figure 2-23 Glass forming by float bath


(http://www.britannica.com/eb/art/print?id=254&articleTypeId=0)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Glass Tube Forming:


Tubing and rods are formed by Direct Draw process. The material is continuously
pulled from a vessel of molten glass at temperature of (785°C). The figure 2-23 illustrates the
Direct Draw process.

Figure 2-24 Direct Draw process


(http://www.bd.com/accu-glass/PDFs/Accu-Glass_Brochure.pdf)

2.4 Types of Solar Water Heating Systems:

Solar DHW heating systems are classified in two general types:


• Direct systems
• Indirect systems

2.4.1 Direct systems:

The direct solar heating systems generally are passive system, which does not use any
source of energy accept the solar energy. The direct system process starts by heating the
clean water directly in the solar collector, the density of water decreases when its heated up,
which make the cold water (the denser liquid ) to replace the hot water place; this called
the thermodynamic motion. The direct systems require a solar collector capable of
withstand the city water pressure. The use of potable water in collectors limits the collector
material to copper. If galvanized piping or aluminum collectors are used, severe corrosion
is expected. In addition, the pump impeller must be bronze or stainless steel if untreated tap
water is used in the solar collector [2, 15]. The figure 2-24 illustrates the direct solar heating
system layout.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-25 Direct Solar Water Heating System


(No 1- is solar collector)
(Solar energy utilization by: D. CHWIEDUK)

2.4.2 Indirect systems:

The indirect systems use a separate heat transfer fluid in the solar collector loop. And
they require an increased initial investment because of the heat exchanger, extra pump, and
special collector fluid. However, indirect systems have increased reliability in freezing
climates since the working fluid has a freezing point below the lowest ambient temperature
expected, although the annual difference may be only a few percent between direct and
indirect systems [2, 15]. The figure 2-25 illustrates the active indirect solar water heating
system; it is called active because it has control system and pump to operate the system.

Figure 2-26 Active Indirect Solar Water Heating systems layout


(http://www.therenewableenergycentre.co.uk/solar-heating/)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Passive solar heating system:


The simplest type of indirect water heating system is illustrated in Figure 2-31, the
collector water heated up by exposing to the sun, and the density of water decreases after it
get hot which make it to rise and enter the tank to heat up the clean water which stored
there without mixing. The tank contains a backup heater to heat up the water if no sufficient
heat available [2, 15]. The figure 2-26 illustrates the components and the cycle of the indirect
passive solar heating system.

Figure 2-27 Passive Indirect Solar Water Heating systems layout (Thermosyphon system)
(www.suntrek.net/solar_hot_water-system.html)

The main difficulty either with the direct or indirect systems in freezing climates is
the difficulty in preventing collector freezing. There are several methods to prevent
collector freezing, the first method by operating collector pump to circulate warm water
through the collectors to prevent freezing, but that consume additional energy. A second
method of freeze protection, involves draining the collectors at night. When properly
designed and built, drain down systems will protect against freezing. But the most
economical method is by using the evacuated tube collector with heat pipe, this type of
collector no water is flow through the collector; the water only flow through the header
which is fully insolated and its extract heat from the heat pipe. So the need of freeze
protection is avoided [2, 5, 6].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

2.5 Solar Collector Orientation:

One of the major decisions which must be made regarding the installation of a solar
collector is the orientation relative to the sun. In UK the solar collector panels have to be
facing due south and at an angle between 30 and 65 degrees from horizontal. At the
summer solstice the sun is at its highest elevation. And in winter, the sun is at its lowest
elevation above the horizon at noon. Therefore, the orientation of the collector must be
related to the position of the sun at the time of the year during which solar collection is to
be maximized [2]. The figure 2-27 illustrates the acceptable and unacceptable orientation
directions.

Figure 2-28 Solar collector orientation


(http://www.rvr.ie/default.aspx?subj=html/solarintro)

Collectors used for active solar heating should tilt at an angle equal to the latitude
plus 15  . These orientations will give the best performance over the course of the year. The
angles are not critical; they can vary by ± 5° and the annual performance will show very
little effect. The accuracy due south orientation is not necessary, however variation of ±
20  from due south have very little effect on the annual performance of most system.
Small variations from the nominal values will have very little effect on annual system
performance.
The collector has to be installed with minimum distance of (2.5 × high) of the building
which blocks the sun ray from reaching the collector surface, as illustrated in figure 2-28.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-29 Collector minimum distance to blocking building


(http://www.rvr.ie/default.aspx?subj=html/solarintro)

2.6 Thermal storage for Solar Heating Systems:

Nearly all practical solar heating systems contain storage sufficient to heat the
building over a 1 or 2 day period. Storage is required in any solar thermal system because
of the variability of solar flux. In winter when heating loads are significant, solar energy
can be collected for only 6 or 8 hours. This heat will be used to supply a relatively uniform
load over a 24 hour period. During poor weather, solar heat can be used only if stored from
a previous sunny period [2, 5].

2.6.1 Sensible storage:

The types of sensible thermal storage for solar space heating system:
A. Water for liquid systems (widely used), as illustrated in figure 2-29.
B. Rock for air systems (widely used).
The temperature range is approximately 37 to 93°C in heating applications. Water has
one of the highest density specific heat products. The density specific heat product of rock
is low. The river gravel is commonly used for storage in air based heating systems.
Because of high specific heat of water; same amount of heat can be stored in rock as in
water at the same ∆T but the quantity of rock has to be three times the water. Rock is
generally used in air based space heating systems because of its large surface area, low
cost, and excellent performance [2, 5].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-30 Water storage


(http://www.preheat.org/technology-products/sensible-storage/water-tanks/)

A. Water Storage:
The water are used as thermal storage medium it has the advantage of economy
because of availability and the high heat capacity, the mean types of water storage systems
are as the following:
1. Open heat storage.
2. Pressurized heat storage.
Open tank system is relatively simple but can have high evaporation rates.
Evaporation is unwanted for several reasons. First, it represents a loss of 2000 Btu per liter
of water evaporated. This is an important heat leak and is the major difficulty with open
storage. As water evaporates from storage the concentration of water hardness increases,
which effect on the heat exchanger efficiency because of the salt build up on heat
exchanger surface.
Closed pressurized storage tanks are more expensive. The tanks can be metal (steel or
aluminum), concrete, or fiber glass. Metal tanks are most common used because of their
reliability and availability. Fiber glass tanks are widely used to store liquid fuels but are not
usable in solar systems above 71°C. Above this temperature fiber glass deforms under
pressurization. Concrete tanks are difficult to use, because it need special care in their
insulation and sealing [2, 5]. Metal tanks are usually cylindrical as illustrated in figure 2-24,
and can operate reliably for 20 or 30 years with proper corrosion control. The most
39
Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

important thing it avoids most of difficulty of concrete tank or fiber glass tank problems.
The figure 2-30 illustrates the water storage tank during operation.

Figure 2-31 Water storage


(http://www.bfasolar.com.au/installation_photos.htm)

Metal water storage tanks are manufactured from welded sheets with a cylindrical
shape. The metallic sheets are rolled through a pair (or pairs) of rolls to form the required
shape and to improve the mechanical properties. The figures 2-31 and 2-32 illustrate the
rolling process and its equipment.

Figure 2-32 Rolling process


(http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=rolling)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-33 Rolling equipment


(http://www.wjsuk.com/)

And then the sheet welded to gather to perform cylindrical shape. The welding
processes have to be done to the inner and the outer surface, to get the required strength of the
welded joints. The figure 2-33 illustrates the welding process done to form the tank shape.

Figure 2-34 Welding process


(http://www.ericksontank.com/inside.html)

Insulation now a day is improved and it is achieve the requirements of all


applications, different variety of insulations are available in the market and it vary between
temperature and application.
A common guideline for the amount of insulation required states that no more than
2% of the stored heat shall be lost during one day. Storage tank insulation is done either in
the field or at the factory. It is simpler to order a steel tank insulated with foam from a
factory, whereas concrete tanks must be insulated in the field at the same time they are
poured. Such insulation tends to be less reliable since insulation joints may not be sealed as
carefully as if factory installed. Pipes entering and leaving storage are also to be insulated.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

B. Rock Bed Storage for Air Based Systems:


The air collector efficiency is lower than liquid collector efficiency at the same inlet
temperature. An air system must operate at a much lower inlet temperature than a liquid
system. It is not possible to use liquid storage with an air based space heating system and
still achieve acceptable performance. Clean river gravel approximately 38 mm diameter is
used. The rock is usually confined in a cubical container in the house, and the volume of

storage is typically ( 1 2 to 1 m 3 ) of rock per square meter of solar collector area. The

storage unit can be constructed from wood or concrete. The major practical problem with
rock storage is air leakage. Concrete seems to be less leak prone than wood. The proper
method for characterizing the size of rock bed storage is by its volume or mass and thermal
capacity [2, 5].

2.6.2 Latent Storage:

Phase change materials rely on either the heat of fusion or the heat of solution
evolved in a change from solid to liquid. The most familiar phase change involves the
freezing and melting of water. To melt 1 kg of ice, 288 Btu is required. Of course, the
freeze-melt process occurs at 0°C a useless space heating temperature. Other materials have
phase changes at usable temperatures 26-54°C. The usage of the phase change storage was
limited. A number of difficulties have prohibited the wide use of phase change storage,
such as the materials used are salts which are corrosive and needs special and expensive
materials. The thermal transport properties of the salts are poor and a relatively large
surface to volume ratio is required in order to transfer heat sufficiently rapidly. The
repeatability of the freeze melt cycle is poor for some materials. Some chemicals used
require a progressively increasing amount of sub cooling and superheating with age in
order to initiate phase change. This difficulty has been resolved for the most part by using
special additives to the salt materials to eliminate solid phase settling and to initiate the
phase change at a repeatable temperature [2, 5]. The figures 2-34, 2-35, and 2-36 illustrates
different type of latent storage tanks.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-35 latent storage tanks


(http://www.icebuilder.com/prod03.htm)

Figure 2-36 latent storage tanks


(http://www.icebuilder.com/prod03.htm)

The seasonal storage is uneconomical for three reasons:


1. Relatively high losses from storage because of large area.
2. The high cost of very large storage tanks.
3. Disastrous effects of major leaks.
There are two criteria to determine the location of storage:
1. The availability and cost of space.
2. The controllability of heat loss from the buried tank.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-37 Different types of seasonal heat stores (latent storage)


Source: (www.science direct.com-Solar Energy 76 (2004) 165–174)

The volume of any liquid varies with temperature. Fluid expansion and contraction in
hydraulic systems is compensated for by an external expansion tank. The volume change in
the storage fluid over the expected range of temperatures is the basis of tank sizing. Bladder
type expansion tanks consist of a rubber bladder which separates an inert gas charge above
the bladder from the storage liquid. As the storage fluid is heated and expands, additional
fluid is forced into the expansion tank, and the gas above the diaphragm is compressed. As
storage fluid cools, the gas charge forces fluid from the expansion tank back into the
storage tank, keeping the storage volume completely filled. Over rang of temperatures
involved in most water based solar systems, the volume change will be 10 to 11% [2, 5].

44
Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

2.7 Heat Transport Subsystems:

Heat transport subsystems are present in all solar systems, and it is divided into
pumps, fans, heat exchangers, and control valves operated by the control system.

2.7.1 Pumps and Fans:

Several pumps and fans are typically present in any active solar heating system.
These devices move fluids from place to place in pipes or ducts and are sized according to
conventional design rules of the HVAC industry. The figure 2-37 illustrates pump attached
to the system.

Figure 2-38 Circulation pump


(http://www.bfasolar.com.au/installation_photos.htm(

The pump parameters have to be specified according to the system environment.


Because in a solar domestic hot-water system, a pump may be exposed to city water
pressure in excess of 8 bars; therefore the pump casing must be able to withstand this
pressure. Temperatures in excess of 100°C may occur in solar heating systems in summer,
and the seal material, impeller material, and motors in a pump or fan designed to operate
with fluid at this temperature must be specified.
The casing and impeller material has to be determined by the type of fluid pumped. If
city or well water is to be pumped, a bronze or stainless steel impeller must be used to
avoid corrosion. However, if an inert working fluid is used, a cast iron impeller is
satisfactory, since no chemical reaction should occur. Since corrosion is not a problem in
air heating systems, steel fans are used.

45
Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

A collector pump on a residential system may be rated at ¼-hp; and 400 W will be
required to operate the pump if its efficiency is 50%. PV panel could be used to power the
pump by free energy, and a pack up electricity source used just in case of no sufficient
electricity from the PV panel [2, 5].

2.7.2 Pipes:

The major design parameters which must be specified for fluid conduits are material
and size. Piping may be copper, black iron, galvanized iron, and infrequently, aluminum.
Steel requires proper water treatment and dielectric protection from copper components.
Pipe and duct sizes are determined by an economic trade-off. The HVAC industry has
developed duct and pipe sizing guidelines which give sizes close to the economic optimum.
Also, in liquid conduits, high velocity may cause erosion, a velocity less than 2 m/s in
copper pipes is recommended to avoid erosion [11, 12].

Flow networks are subject to expansion and contraction according to temperature


changes. The resulting expansion and contraction must be accommodated by the design of
fluid headers. If expansion and contraction is not provided for, large forces will be
developed which can buckle and destroy pipes, ducts, structural members, and other
components of solar systems [11, 12].

Table 2-1 illustrates the expansion coefficients α for a number of materials used in

solar energy systems. The values given are averages over temperature ranges encountered
in solar systems. The coefficient of linear expansion is defined as the fractional change in

− ∆ l
length (Δl/ lo ) per unit temperature change ΔT, or in equation form, α = ×
lo ∆T

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design


Table 2-1 Coefficient of linear expansion α for materials in solar systems:

− −
Elastic modulus
α( °C −1 ) ×10 6 α( °F −1 ) ×10 6
Material N/mm 2 ×10 −6
Aluminum 23 13 0.06894757
Brass 19 11 0.103421355
Copper 17 9 0.131000383
Glass 9 5 0.06894757
Steel (carbon) 15 8 0.199948
Concrete 14 8
Source: KREIDER, JAN F., The Solar Heating Design Process: Active And Passive Systems, McGraw Hill, (1982).

Therefore, not only expansion of solar system components accounted, but also
differential expansion must be considered. For instance, if a glass collector cover is
attached to an aluminum housing, the housing expanding at a rate roughly triple that of
glass, that could cause openings to occur between the cover and the aluminum housing. Or
if aluminum housing were attached to a steel structure, the expansion of aluminum, being
twice that of steel, could cause deformation of the collector supports and mounting
brackets. The cooper pipes are usually used in the domestic water supply; because of the
numerous advantages of copper materials, such as high strength, resistance to corrosion,
low coefficient of expansion [11, 12]. The copper pipes are joined using soldering processes
which need special tools, and it is illustrated in figures 2-38, 2-39, 2-40, 2-41, 2-42, and 2-
43.

Figure 2-39 Pipe cuter


(http://www.rd.com/familyhandyman/content/18276/)

47
Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-40 Fitting brush


(http://www.rd.com/familyhandyman/content/18276/)

Figure 2-41 Paste flux


(http://www.rd.com/familyhandyman/content/18276/)

Figure 2-42 Lead-free solder


(http://landscaping.about.com/od/watergardens/ss/garden_fountain_6.htm)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-43 Welding torch

Figure 2-44 Welding process


(http://www.rd.com/familyhandyman/content/18276/)

The extrusion process used to manufacture small diameter pipes. The bar stock is cut
to length and heated to 1,250 °C. The billet is then extruded through a steel die. After extrusion,
the final tube dimensions and surface quality are obtained with a multi-stand reducing mill. The
figures 2-44, 2-45, 2-46, and 2-47 illustrate the extrusion process and equipment used for pipes
manufacturing [10, 12].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 2-45 Extrusion process

Figure 2-46 Extrusion process

Figure 2-47 Extrusion process


(http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/metal-forming-2/printall.php)

Figure 2-48 Extrusion equipment


(http://en.wxyuanchang.com/ArticleShow.asp?ArticleID=65)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Since pipes and ducts carrying fluids above environmental temperature present a
significant surface area through which heat loss may occur, all piping and ducting in solar
systems must be insulated. This is most important whether the fluid conduits are outside or
inside. Therefore, it is preferable to insulate all solar piping and duct work to reduce as
much as heat loss [2, 5]. The figure 2-48 illustrates pipe insulation which used in heating
system.

Figure 2-49 Pipe insulation


(http://kingsolar.com/catalog/mfg/other/611812.html)

Insulation on solar piping exposed to the environment must be jacketed. The jacket
protects the insulation from worsening by rain and snow. It may be plastic (polyvinyl
chloride) or aluminum. What ever the jacket material, it must be unaffected by ultraviolet
radiation and must provide a durable seal against weather (including hail) for many years.
The components of a solar system which require insulation include piping to and from
collectors, collector headers, piping within walls, piping in mechanical spaces, heat
delivery piping and ducting to load [2, 5]. The jacket insulation protection is illustrated in
figure 2-49.

Aluminum Unjacketed
jacketed insulation
insulation

Figure 2-50 Pipe insulation


(www.polyglass.com.my)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

2.7.3 Fluids:

Water is commonly used in liquid-based collectors, glycol antifreeze protection


mixed with water as it required in subfreezing weather. Other types of nonfreezing liquids
may be used, including organic heat-transfer oils and silicone fluids.
The important properties of a liquid to be used in a solar system include:
1. High specific heat
2. Low viscosity (particularly at low temperature)
3. Low vapor pressure
4. High boiling point
5. Relatively high surface tension (to avoid excessive leaks)
6. High density
7. High thermal conductivity

Water has the best combination of heat transport properties for any liquid based solar
application. The only reason for not using water is its high freezing point and corrosive
nature. The transport properties of antifreezes should approach those of water as closely as
possible. For example, ethylene glycol solutions, although excellent from the freeze
protection viewpoint, are not best from the heat transfer viewpoint, since the specific heat
and thermal conductivity are lower than those of water and viscosity is higher. The effect of
reduction in specific heat and density is that a greater fluid flow rate must be used to
transfer the same amount of heat [2, 13], table 2-2 illustrate solar collector liquid properties.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Table 2-2 Solar collector liquid properties table:

50% 50%
Ethylene Propylene Silicon Aromatics Paraffinic
Property Water glycol/ glycol/ fluid oil
water water
Freezing
point ° C 0 -36 -33 -50 -37 to -32
Boiling
point ° C 100 110 None 149 - 204 371
at
atmospheri
c pressure
Requires Requires pH Requires pH
Fluid pH or or inhibitor or inhibitor Good Good Good
stability inhibitor monitoring monitoring
monitorin
g
Flash point
°C None None 315 315 63 to 149 235
Specific
heat at 22 0.68 to
° C, 2.0 1.6 1.7 0.96 0.72 to 0.92
0.84
Btu/kg. °
C
Viscosity
centistokes 0.9 21 5 50 to 1 to 100
at 22 ° C 50,000
Depends Depends on Depends on
Toxicity on inhibitor inhibitor Low Moderate
inhibitor used used
used
Source: KREIDER, JAN F., The Solar Heating Design Process: Active And Passive Systems, McGraw Hill, (1982).

Liquid loops, which are not subject to freezing, will normally use water. These fluid
loops include the heat storage loop and the heat-delivery loop as well as the backup loop. In
these water circuits deionized water is used with a corrosion inhibitor. If the local water is
free from "hardness," it may be used in place of deionized water. Boiler water is treated in
the usual way [13].
Air used in active and passive systems is less difficult since it does not freeze or boil
and does not corrode. It is the ideal fluid from a reliability standpoint. However, air does
have very low density, relatively low specific heat, and low thermal conductivity. As a
result, its heat transfer capability is below that of water. By proper design this difficulty can
be over overcome, and air heating system can operate as effectively as liquid systems [13].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

2.8 Heat Exchangers:

Heat exchangers are devices which ideally perform a heat transfer between two fluid
streams which must not be mixed. In solar systems heat exchangers are required to isolate
glycol solutions used in collectors from water used in storage. Heat exchangers require a
temperature difference between the two streams in order that heat transfer may take place.
The temperature difference will cause the outlet stream of the heat exchanger to be at a
lower temperature than the inlet stream. The heat exchanger has to be correctly insulated to
reduce heat loss to the surroundings [14], a spiral tube heat exchanger are illustrated in the
appendix 2.

2.9 Solar Heating Systems Controls:

The design of control systems for solar heating systems is one of the most critical
parts of the design process.
The control systems consist of subsystems such as:
1. Sensors.
2. Controllers.
3. Actuators.
The figure 2-50 illustrates an integrated control system and its components.

Figure 2-51 Control system


(http://www.rvr.ie/datastore/solarimages/images/flowcon.jpg)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Sensors are used to determine the state of control point variables such as:
1. Collector temperature.
2. Storage temperature.
3. Sunlight level.
4. Building room temperature.
5. Time and other inputs required.

The control system operates the solar system in approved mode. The controller
subsystem determines what operations are required on the basis of information from the
sensors. Actuators such as mode selector valves or pumps carry out decisions made by the
controller. The Controller is used to operate the following components:
1. Solar collector pumps.
2. Storage pumps.
3. Backup systems.
4. Mode selector valves.
5. Energy delivery pumps and fans.
6. Dampers.
7. Heat rejecters.
8. Freeze protection units.
Most controllers are solid-state devices using operational amplifier chips and
thermostat or resistance temperature detector (RTD) sensors to measure temperature. In
addition, some solar control systems use solar intensity level measured by a solar cell or a
pyranometer [2, 4, 5, 14], the figure 2-51 illustrates pyranometer which used to measure the
solar radiation flux density.

Figure 2-52 pyranometer


(http://www.hizook.com/imagenodes/pyranometer)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

The temperature difference between collector and storage required to cause the
collector and storage pumps or fans to operate. If the collector temperature itself rises
above a maximum design point, irrespective of storage temperature, a heat rejection device
may be actuated. Various functions of this type are programmed into most commercially
available controls. The desired modes of operation must be specified to get the best
performance [2, 4]. Schematic diagram of the control system used in the solar heating
system is illustrated in figure 2-52.

Figure 2-53 Control system diagram


(The Solar Heating Design Active and Passive System-Jan F.Kreider)

A Wheatstone bridge is used to determine the difference between two temperatures


T1 and T2 measured by thermostats. Temperature T1 could be the collector panel
temperature and T2 the storage temperature. When there is sufficient differential between T
l and T2, the associated resistance difference causes Wheatstone bridge imbalance
sufficient to cause the relay to engage. Contacts in the relay operate the collector and
storage pumps or other devices. In this example system, T1 and T2 are the sensors; the
Wheatstone bridge and operational amplifier is the controller; the actuator is the relay plus
whatever electromechanical components are controlled by the relay. The required
difference between T1 and T2 for engagement of the relay is determined by the variable
resistance R1 and the gain resistor R2. R1 will be selected based on physical characteristics
of the system such as pump flow rates, collector area, and so forth. R2 is selected to give
the proper gain to pull in the relay at the desired temperature difference. During system
operation T1 and T2 may approach each other in value. This may occur if solar intensity is

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

reduced by a cloud passing by the sun, then the controller will determine that it is no longer
worthwhile to operate and the relay will open [2, 14].

2.10 Backup Heating Systems:

A capacity of 100% solar heating system is almost never cost effective. This is
because a 100% system must be capable of carrying the maximum expected heat load
which needs too large system. The solar system designed to delivers between 60 and 80%
of the annual heating requirement. The remaining 20 to 40 percent of the annual heating
load will be supplied by a nonsolar auxiliary system. This system does not differ in
substantial manner from that which would be used in the same building if no solar heating
were provided. The backup system may range from a gas furnace to an electric boiler to a
heat pump. The design of the backup unit is usually taken to be unaffected by the existence
of a solar heating system in the same building.
The type selection of backup system should be based on expected availability and
cost of fuel over the lifetime of the building. Natural gas or off peak electricity with a
storage tank can be used as a backup energy sources. The criteria to choose between the
backup systems are long term availability of energy used and low cost of the energy used
[14]. The figure 2-53 illustrates heat pump system used as back up for the solar heating
system.

Figure 2-54 back up system


(http://www.earthtoys.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=07.02.01&article=ecr)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

CHAPTER 3 DESIGN CONCEPTS

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

3.1 The Solar Heating Design Process

The solar design process can be summarized as a matching process:


• Matching heat source to the load (magnitude, rate, location, phase)
• Matching costs to benefits (saving amount , comfort)
• Matching complexity to situation (residential smaller and simpler; commercial, larger
and more involved)
The design process of solar systems must be well integrated at the establishing time. A
specific level of details has to be developed to estimate of project costs. Early in the design
process it will not be clear whether an active system or a passive system is most
appropriate. However, as the design proceeds it may become clear that a passive system is
unsuitable because of the high heat demand and low sun availability during the year.
Then the decision would be to use an active system with collectors mounted on the
roof. During the next step in the process, a specific type of system have been selected on
the basis of many criteria; such as the solar collector type if it flat plat collector or
evacuated tube collectors; which depend on heat demand and temperature difference
between the load and the collector environment. And the back up system preferred to use
like electrical heating element or heat pump would then be chosen. Finally the optimized
system becomes the basis of the construction [2].

3.2 Planning

Planning is the first phase of the solar heating design process. At this level, the hot
water demand and time are measured, operating time, and many other criteria. Building
orientation is roughly determined and a site inspection is used to estimate the solar energy
resource. At this level, it is not possible to carry out a solar design in any significant detail,
but well-established rules can be used to estimate active or passive collector size [2].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

3.3 The Economy of the Solar system

The initial cost of the Solar heating system is expensive if compared to the nonsolar
sources heating systems such as electrical or gas heating systems. The energy collection
and conversion over the expected lifetime will pay back the cost of solar energy system.
The initial cost in a nonsolar heating system is lower than the initial cost in a solar system.
However, the cumulative cost of gas or electricity throughout the lifetime of the
building is much larger for a nonsolar building than for a solar-heated building. In the two
systems the distribution of costs occurs at different times. The concept of life-cycle costing
provide a meaningful comparison between the high initial cost of a solar system and the
high year-by year fuel cost for the nonsolar system. The comparison determines that the
solar system is economically attractive relative to nonsolar systems. The table 3-1
illustrates the electricity price which rises yearly [2].

Table 3-3 Projected electricity prices (£/MWh)

(http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file28429.pdf)

3.4 Energy Costs

Energy costs are expressed in terms of GBP per million British thermal units (Btu). In
many cases the cost of energy in this particular set of units is not known initially and
conversions will need to be made. For example, fuel in the winter of 2007 sold for about £
1 per liter. A liter of fuel provides 35,000 Btu.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

If this fuel is burned in a furnace with 65% efficiency, it delivers approximately


22,750 Btu of useful heat. Thus, fuel heat costs £ 44 per million British thermal units. This
type of calculation is used for all energy sources. And according to the increasing of the
energy demand; the energy cost will increase [2]. Appendix 3 illustrates the latest fuel price
which is on February 2008.

Energy was calculated on a domestic water heating system to specify energy


production for a specific location, by using the (aterEco) renewable energy calculator website.
Darlington north east of UK was chosen to estimate the daily and monthly solar energy
production. The location and the orientation of the test are 54° 31' N, 1° 25' W, and the
collector slop is 45° with area of 15.41 m² [16]. Table 3-1 and figure 3-1 illustrates the daily
energy production on each month of the year.

Table 3-4 Estimated energy production by 15.41 m² solar collector in Darlington

Lowest Highest Average Total


January 1 2.8 1.5 48
February 1.9 4.5 2.7 76
March 3.1 8.6 4.9 151
April 5.7 14.1 9.6 288
May 9.1 16.9 13.6 422
June 9.1 17.4 14.7 441
July 8.1 17.3 13 404
August 6.8 15.3 12.3 382
September 4.1 11.6 8 241
October 2.1 7.2 3.8 117
November 1.2 2.8 1.9 58
December 1 1.7 1.2 38
Total Annul Production / kWh 2666
Source: (http://www.altereco.co.uk/index.php)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Total Energy Production / Day

18
16
14
12
10
8
Low est 6
4
Highest 2
Average 0
Low est

January
March
May
kWh

July
September
November
Month

Figure 3-55 Total energy production/Day

Figure 3-2 illustrate the total energy production on each month of the year, the system
used in the test are designed to produce 4367 kWh per year, but at Darlington it is produces
only 2666 kWh, that mean the system at Darlington can produce 61% of the designed load.
The positive effect from the system, it is reduce the carbon footprint by 1,146 kg of the house
[16].

Total Energy Production / Month

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
Total 100
50
0
January
February
March
April
May
June

Total
July
August
September

kWh
October
November
December

Month

Figure 3-56 Total energy production/Month

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

The total heat energy supplied by a solar heating system during a year is illustrated in figure
3-3 which shows the highest heat energy supplied which is during June and July, and the
lowest heat energy supplied which is during December and January [17].

Figure 3-57 Thermal power ratio supplied by the thermal solar system during a year
(Solar thermal systems: Advantages in domestic integration/ Christian Carboni, Roberto Montanari-
www.elsevier.com/locate/renene)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

CHAPTER 4 COMPUTER

MODELLING

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

4.1 Description of the modeled solar collector system:

The solar collector illustrated in figure 4-1 consist of a cylindrical evacuated glass
that works as the receiver of solar energy, and a heat pipe which made of copper is
placed inside the receiver to collect heat, then the energy transferred to the water which
flow through the header which connected to one end of the heat pipe. The heat
exchanger transfer the heat collected from the header to the water stored in the tank.

Solar
Solar System
collector Header
Panel

Tilting Close Lope


angle of the Solar
house roof System
Pipe

Figure 4-58 Solar system components

4.1.1 The evacuated tube (receiver):

The dimensions of the evacuated tube are as the following: tube length 1800mm,
outer diameter 58mm, the evacuated thickness is 8mm, Inner diameter 47mm, and wall
thickness1.6mm. The figure 4-2 illustrates the evacuated tube components.

Outer
tube

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Air
Inner evacuation
tube

Figure 4-59 Evacuated tube

4.1.2 Heat pipe (heat absorber):

It is a closed ends copper pipe includes non toxic liquid antifreeze, the heat pipe
acts as the collector of the heat energy from the sun and it is transfer heat to the water in
the header. The dimension of the heat pipe is 1750 mm long and 14 mm diameter. The
figure 4-3 illustrates the heat pipes as it is assembled to the header through the multi
ports of the header.

Header
cover Heat
pipes

Figure 4-60 Multi ports header & heat pipes

4.1.3 The header tube:

It is 26 mm diameter copper tube with multi ports, each port used to enclose the
heat pipe. The header used to guide water to flow around the hot end of heat pipe, the
assembly of heat pipe and header tube illustrated in figure 4-4. The header pipe covered

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

by insulation of 60 mm thickness, and the insulation covered by tightly sealed metallic


cover as illustrated in figure 4-5.

Header Heat pipe


tube

Figure 4-61 Header tube & heat pipes

Header
Cover

Header
Heat pipe tube

Figure 4-62 Header & heat pipes

4.1.4 Heat exchanger:

It is 14 mm diameter a spiral copper coil located in the water tank, the water flows
through it to transfer heat from the hot water header to the water stored in the tank. The
spiral ring tube length is equally divided into ten portions. These portions start at the
inlet of the pipe and end at its outlet as illustrated in figure 4-6.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Heat
Inlet tube exchange
r

Water Outlet
tank tube

Figure 4-63 Heat exchanger & Tank

4.1.5 Water storage (tank):

The water storage has a cylindrical shape with in side dimension of 600 mm
diameter and 1050 mm height, to hold 296.73 Liter which required for single house
occupied by 3 persons. The tank can be steel or copper to with stand the operation
temperature it can be coated by ceramic to avoid corrosion. The tank has to be insulated
by a proper type and thickness which depend on the tank location and environment, the
figure 4-6 illustrate the tank and its components such as the heat exchanger, inlet, and
outlet tube.

4.1.6 Circulation pump:

A centrifugal pump used to circulate the liquid between the header and the heat
exchanger tubes, and as illustrated in the figure 4-7 it is delivers the liquid from the
bottom line of the tank to the header.

Pump

Outlet
tube to
the
header Tank

Figure 4-64 Circulation pump

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

4.1.7 Inlet and outlet pipes:

The domestic water enters the tank from the bottom (inlet tube) which is the
lowest temperature in the tank, the domestic water heated up gradually by extracting the
heat from the heat exchanger. According to the increases of the temperature of the
domestic water the density decreases which make the water to go up. And then the water
reach the top area of the tank which is the hottest area of the tank, the water leave the
tank from the outlet tube to house hot water system. The figure 4-8 illustrates the inlet
and outlet tubes. Inlet and outlet of water are from and to the meddle area of the heat
exchanger, as illustrated in the figure 4-9.

Solar
system
Domestic
water
Hot water
inlet
outlet

Solar
system Domestic
water water
outlet inlet

Figure 4-65 Inlet and outlet tubes

Domestic
Water enter water
in the inlet
middle of
the heat
exchanger

Figure 4-66 Inlet and outlet tubes

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

4.1.8 Heat Rejection system:

If more solar heat is produced in summer than required for DHW heating, heat
rejection is required. Heat rejection may be done in several ways. The heat rejection method
used in this solar water heating system is by deactivating the solar collector pump and draw
off hot water from the top of the collector to reject heat from the solar collection loop; it is
done when the water storage temperature rises above a maximum set point 94°C. And it is
continues until the water storage temperature has dropped below the maximum set point
temperature. Although this method will work in space heating systems, the time delay
between the draw off of hot water and the resultant cooling effect on the solar collectors is
relatively long. The rejection problem is an infrequent problem in most solar heating systems
but must be included to protect the system from over heating. The figure 4-10 illustrates heat
rejection system used in the solar water heating system.

Inlet tube with


an energized
Outlet tube close solenoid
with an valve
energized
open Heat
solenoid rejection
valve tank

Figure 4-67 Heat rejection system

This method required an energized closed solenoid valves to dump the antifreeze
solution into its holding tank upon out of power and if the storage water temperature reach
the maximum set point. And an energized open solenoid valve used to allow the damped
solution to fill the loop after the storage water temperature decreases below the maximum set
point.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

5.1 The Solar Energy Systems and the Environment:

Global warming of the earth is the most environmental crisis at present time. It is
effects the geographic distribution of the continent lands and the agriculture, which caused by
droughts, floods, and severe storms; finally it is harms human health and lives. The global
warming is caused by emission of carbon dioxide in atmosphere which generated by intensive
burning of fossil fuels; in order to satisfy the growing energy needs of humanity. Also nitrogen
oxides and sulphur dioxide which is polluting the environment are emitted from fossil fuels
burnings [17]. The figure 5-1 illustrates the CO2 emission per million metric tons by energy
sector, and shows that the residential sector reaches 1250 million tons in 2004.

Figure 5-68 CO2 emission per million metric tons by energy sector
(http://watthead.blogspot.com/2006/01/us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-up-2-in.html)

The Kyoto Protocol suggests solar energy is rich in the summer period, represents an
interesting solution to limit usage and consumption of fossil fuel during the summer [17].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

5.2 SWH Heating Load calculation

The energy demands can be calculated according to the amount of hot water required.
The amount of heat required is calculated by using equation Qhw =V ( ρ.c).( Tset −Tsource )
to specify the solar collector size. Another equation has to be used to specify the amount of
standby heat which is Qs tan dby =U hw Ahw (Tset −Ta ) . The total heat demand equal the water
heating demand in addition the standby demand. Reducing the standby losses from a water
heater by decreasing the value of U hw in the Qs tan dby equation; and it is done by adding
insulation to an existing water heating system or using better insulation level. If insulation
is added to an existing water heating system, it is important that this insulation not insulate
the control unit which my cause it overheats and fail [2, 5].

Table 5-5 National DHW Sizing Guidelines (Low-Medium-High)

Hot Water Demands and Use for Multifamily Buildings


Maximum Peak 15 Maximum day Average day
hour minutes
Low 2.8 gal (10.5 1 gal (4 L)/person 20 gal (76 L)/person 14 gal (53
L)/person L)/person
Med 4.8 gal (18 1.7 gal (6.4 49 gal (185 L)/person 30 gal (114
L)/person L)/person L)/person
High 8.5 gal (32.5 3 gal (11.5 90 gal (340 L)/person 54 gal (205
L)/person L)/person L)/person
Peak 5 minutes Peak 30 Maximum 2 Maximum 3
minutes hours hours
Low 0.4 gal (1.5 1.7 gal (6.5 4.5 gal (17 L)/person 6.1 gal (23
L)/person L)/person L)/person
Med 0.7 gal (2.6 2.9 gal (11 8 gal (31 L)/person 11 gal (41
L)/person L)/person L)/person
High 1.2 gal (4.5 5.1 gal (19.5 14.5 gal (55 19 gal (72
L)/person L)/person L)/person L)/person
Note: These volumes are for DHW delivered to the tap at 50oC.
Source: http://www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/96/960713.html
The estimated hot water consumption can be getting from the table 5-1; to use it as
volume in equation Qhw =V ( ρ.c).( Tset −Tsource ) to calculate the amount of heat required
for a normal house occupied by 3 persons.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Maximum daily water required V = 3 persons ×340 liter =1020 liter / day
Average daily water required V = 3 persons × 205 liter = 615 liter / day
The previous hot water consumption are for high consumption cases; which means that
it possible to decrease the consumption by the occupiers; as illustrated in table 5-1.
ρ =1.086 kg / m3 At 50  C

c = 1.871 kJ / kgK

Tset = 50  C

Tsource = 15  C

The amount of heat required in maximum demand of hot water case in three person’s
house Qhw =1020 × (1.086 ×1.871 ) × (50 −15 ) = 72539 .044 kJ/day. So the heat required in
Btu/hour = 2864.7 after conversion which = 839.57 Watts/ day
The amount of heat required in averaged demand of hot water case in same house
Qhw = 615 × (1.086 ×1.871 ) × (50 −15 ) = 43736 .777 kJ/day.

Finally the heat demand for the house after using the resulting energy which is in
Btu/hour = 1727.26, which = 506.21 Watts/ day.

5.3 Technical data (size & dimension)

Vacuum tube dimension:


• length 1800mm
• Outside diameter 58mm
• Inside diameter 47mm
• wall thickness1.6mm
• weight2 kg
• material borosilicate glass 3.3

Collector characteristics:
• Selective surface Cu / SS / AL N triple deposition
• Absorbance ( a ) +95% at AM 1.5
• Emissivity ( e ) 5%@80degC
• Vacuum P=5x10-3PA
• thermal expansion 3.3x10-6degC

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

• heat loss 0.8W/m2 deg C


• strength (hail resistance impact) 25 mm

Heat pipe:
• dimensions 8 x 1750 mm
• diameter 14 mm
• efficiency + 95%
• heat transfer fluid non-toxic inorganic refrigerant

20 vacuum tube collector:


• Length 1980 mm
• Width 1650 mm
• Height 170 mm
• Area 3.07 M2
• fluid flow rate 5.6 L/ min
• fluid pressure rating 65 psi max
• power: watts 1,024 W,( Btu/hr) 3,493 Btu/h
• efficiency + 70%

5.4 Comparison between flat plat collector and evacuated tube

collector:

An infrared camera were used to compare the heat loss between flat plat collector and
evacuated tube collector under cold wither condition; and it is illustrate that the flat plat
collector (left) is dissipating heat to the environment, and no heat is dissipating from the
evacuated tube collector (right) as illustrated in the figure 5-2.

Evacuated
Flat plat tube
collector collector

Figure 5-69 Comparison between flat plat collector and evacuated tube collector
(http://www.btfsolar.com/specifications.htm)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

5.5 Efficiency of Solar Collectors:

Efficiency is one of the most common effects of performance of a solar collector. The
efficiency is defined as the amount of useful energy delivered to the working fluid divided
by the solar radiation striking the collector. The efficiency can be measured by a formal test
or calculated. Figure 5-3 illustrates the form effects of several parameters on efficiency.
The higher the inlet temperature; result high collector overall temperature and the greater
heat loss. The effect of increasing ambient temperature is to increase collector efficiency.
Efficiency increases with solar radiation level as shown in the third part of figure 5-3. Heat
losses are fixed at a given temperature difference; therefore, the amount of extra energy
available for conversion increases as the solar radiation level increases. Another factor that
affects the performance of a collector is the fluid flow rate [2].

Figure 5-70 Efficiency of Solar Collectors


(The Solar Heating Design Active and Passive System-Jan F.Kreider)
To get the optimum efficiency from the system the glass has to have the following
properties: minimum reflectivity to avoid reflection of solar radiation received by wall of the
tube, maximum transmissivity to allow solar radiation to pass to the heat pipe and hence to
improve the thermal performance of the cylindrical solar heater.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

5.6 Solar system cost and saving:

The design aim is to maximize savings to the owner of a solar system subject to any
constraints present. Savings from investments in solar systems are treated some what
differently, from a tax viewpoint, than are savings from other sources. Fuel costs saving.
Wide-scale use of solar energy to replace other energy forms will occur only if there is
significant economic incentive. System cost for Household 1-2 persons who needs one
panel and 200 liter water storage it is cost 1270 + VAT, and for Household 3-5 persons
who needs one panel and 300 liter water storage it is cost £1890 + VAT.

5.7 Economic concern

The payback time for a SWH system depends on a variety of factors, and it would be
reduced if system costs were lowered, or if the cost of conventional fuels was increased. Most
of UK residence use gas or oil for their heating and hot water which is cheaper than electricity.
Therefore, for the majority of residence, the payback is significantly greater than the
minimum. Several factors may reduce system costs in addition to lower cost technology:
· Larger market may lead to reduced production costs
· Higher public awareness may reduce marketing costs
· Incentives and subsidies would reduce costs.
VAT rules which relates to solar water heating systems needs changes, to encourage
homes owners to fit solar water heating system. Until April 2000, purchasers of solar water
heating systems had to pay VAT at the rate of 17.5%. VAT for professionally installed solar
water heating systems has now been reduced to a lower rate of 5%. This reduction of VAT
charged on the sale of solar water heating systems is expected to give a significant increase to
growth in the UK solar water heating market. Solar water heating systems provide a
significant energy contribution over a long period (typically 20 years or more) [2, 18].

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

5.8 Evacuated tube solar collector installation:

Figure 5-71 Tube handling


http://www.btfsolar.com/sp20assembly.pdf

The tubes have to be handled vertically to prevent cracks, and it is have to


be kept covered before installing or the condenser will expand because
they are quick to heat up.

Figure 5-72 Seals fat coating


http://www.btfsolar.com/sp20assembly.pdf

The upper rubber boots (seals) have to be coated by fat for smooth glass
tube insertion.

Figure 5-73 Thermal grease coating


http://www.btfsolar.com/sp20assembly.pdf

The condensers have to be coated with thermal grease before inserting


into manifold.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Figure 5-74 Clamp screw tight


http://www.btfsolar.com/sp20assembly.pdf

The clamps have to be screw tight but not over tight.

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

6.1 Conclusion:

• Solar collector type depend on application and heat demand and it is cost
effective, such as unglazed, glazed, and the evacuated tube which is high
temperature and high cost.
• Absorber coating used to improve the solar collection of the absorber surface;
Black chrome mostly used because it has excellent durability at high
temperature and corrosion resistance.
• Insulation is one of important components of the system, there are several types
of insulation, it must not worsen, outgas, expand, or contract excessively at
operation temperatures, and it should not absorbed moisture.
• Material selection of each devise in the solar heating system is depending on
the durability, thermal coefficients, maintenance, and cost.
• Copper and steel are used in hot water systems, PVC and the galvanized pipes
are not suitable at temperature above 54 C  , because PVC loss its strength and
galvanize goes into solution.
• The system will bay back the high initial cost of the solar heating system by
lowering energy bills over a period of time.
• Solar energy can reduce the national demand for conventional fuels, reduce the
damage to the environment, as it is a non-polluting free energy, and reduce the
need to build new power stations which require huge investment.
• A major advantage of the evacuated solar collector system is that it is not
necessary to direct it to the sun because of its circular shape, where as the flat
plate collector should always be directed to face the sun with a certain tilted
angle to get the best efficiency.
• One of the major decisions which must be made regarding the installation of a
solar collector is the orientation relative to the sun, solar collector panels have
to be facing due south and at an angle between 30 and 65 degrees from
horizontal.
• The evacuated solar collector has an additional advantage of having a lower
heat loss because it is has evacuated glass tube which has low heat convection
and a copper pipe which has very high thermal conductivity.
• The main advantage of using evacuated tube with slip in absorber is no risk of
liquid freezing in the collector because no liquid go through the collector tubes.
• Using evacuated tube with slip in absorber is useful during maintenance; because
no need to shot down the system if one or more of the collector tubes needs to
be replaced.
• Using water as thermal storage medium has an economy advantage, because it is
available and has high heat capacity.
• Heat storage can be made from concrete or metals such as steel or aluminum
which are most commonly used because of their reliability and availability,
Fiber glass are not usable in solar systems because it deform at temperature
above 71°C.
• Insulation required to not loss more than 2% of the stored heat during one day.

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REFERENCES
[1] http://www.itpower.co.uk/swhmarket/Vol2-Home.PDF
[2] KREIDER, JAN F., The Solar Heating Design Process: Active And Passive Systems,
McGraw Hill, (1982).
[3] Edward Mazria., The Passive Solar Energy Book: A Complete Guide to Passive Solar
Home, Greenhouse and Building Design, Rodale Press, (1979).
[4] http://www.wbdg.org/resources/swheating.php
[5] Jeffrey M. Gordon (Ed), Solar Energy - The State of the Art: ISES Position Papers, James
and James, 2001.
[6] http://www.thermomax.com/Downloads/Thermomax%20Handbook.pdf
[7] Innovation investment: Pilkington float glass as a case study Bricknell,DJ 2007, 48, 2, 59-
65
[8] Philip C. Eames, Vacuum glazing: Current performance and future prospects, Eames PC.
Vacuum (2007), doi:10.1016/j.vacuum.2007.10.017
[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borosilicate_glass#column-one
[10] http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/metal-forming-2/index.php
[11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HVAC
[12] http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/serv/pipeline/en/about_pipelines/pipe_mfg.htm
[13] http://www.solartwin.com/training.php
[14] C. Bales, T. Persson, External DHW units for solar combisystems, Solar Energy 74
(2003) 193–204
[15] D. CHWIEDUK, solar energy utilization, OPTO-ELECTRONICS REVIEW 12(1), 13–
20 (2004) Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences
[16] http://www.altereco.co.uk/index.php
[17] Carboni C, Montanari R. Solar thermal systems: Advantages in domestic integration.
Renew Energy (2007), doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.07.004
[18] UNTAPPED MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOLAR WATER HEATERS IN EUROPE
- VOLUME 2 http://www.itpower.co.uk/swhmarket/Vol2-Home.PDF

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APPENDICES

Appendix 1

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Appendix 2

(http://www.trendsetterindustries.com/?q=solarwater)

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Appendix 3
FUEL PRICE REPORT FEBRUARY 2008

A 10 per cent fall in the oil price during January has barely registered at the pumps for UK
drivers. And, with the price of Brent crude again reaching the high $90s, petrol and diesel
prices may resume their rise in the coming weeks.

Nationally, unleaded prices have fallen by 0.3ppl to 104.0ppl in the past month. Diesel
prices have risen by 0.1ppl to 109.3ppl. The price difference between unleaded and
diesel has risen from 4.9ppl to 5.3ppl.

London recorded the highest price for unleaded at 104.8ppl followed by East Anglia at
104.7ppl. Scotland recorded the lowest price for unleaded at 103.3ppl. Northern
Ireland and East Anglia recorded the highest diesel price at 109.8ppl. The North
West still has the cheapest diesel at 108.6ppl.

Supermarket prices for unleaded also fell over the month by 0.7ppl to 102.5ppl. The gap
between supermarket prices and the UK average for unleaded has increased to 1.5ppl.
Overseas prices have fallen. The UK has the sixth highest unleaded price in Europe and
the second highest diesel price.

Garages and Unleaded 95 Diese Super LPG


Supermarkets Octane l Unleaded
litre (gallon (gallo (gallon
s s) litres ns) litres s) litres
104.
Northern Ireland 6 475.5 109.8 499.16 111.3 506.0 N/A
103.
Scotland 3 469.6 109.2 496.43 110 500.1 53
104.
Wales 1 473.2 109.6 498.25 108.4 492.8 49.9
103.
North 4 470.1 109.1 495.98 111.2 505.5 52.4
103.
North West 4 470.1 108.6 493.71 110.4 501.9 50.6
Yorkshire & 103.
Humberside 4 470.1 108.7 494.16 110 500.1 51.8
West Midlands 104 472.8 109.3 496.89 111.1 505.1 54.2
104.
East Midlands 1 473.2 109.3 496.89 111.5 506.9 55.2
104.
East Anglia 7 476.0 109.8 499.16 111.4 506.4 56.1
104.
South East 4 474.6 109.6 498.25 110.7 503.3 55
104.
South West 1 473.2 109.5 497.80 110.6 502.8 54.8
London 104. 476.4 109.6 498.25 111 504.6 55.5

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

8
104.
UK AVERAGE 0 472.8 109.3 496.89 110.7 503.3 53.8
Per cent taken as
Tax 63.3 60.96 60.4

Unleaded 95 Diesel Super


Supermarkets Octane unleaded LPG
litre (gallon (gallo (gallon
s s) litres ns) litres s) litres

SUPERMARKET 102.
AVERAGE 5 466.0 107.7 489.6 107.4 488.3 50.6
Per cent taken as
Tax 64.0 61.64 61.8

The AA Public Affairs Fuel Price Report uses data sourced from Catalist Ltd & Arval (www.catalist.com)
They are an average of mid-month prices from the respective regions.

OVERSEAS PRICE COMPARISONS

Using currency exchange rates as at 18 February 2008 quoted in local currency and UK
pence equivalent.
Source of overseas price comparisons: European prices - European Road Information
Centre (Geneva), and based on figures as at 18 February 2008. USA prices - Energy
Information Administration, US Dept. of Energy – as at 18 February 2008.

EUROPEAN FUEL PRICES

Local Currency UK pence per


per litre litre
Unleade Unlead
Country Currency d Diesel ed Diesel
Austria Euro 1.17 1.14 87.66 85.71
Belgium Euro 1.44 1.15 107.98 86.31
Czech Republic Czech Koruna 30.30 30.60 90.00 90.89
Denmark Danish Krone 10.54 9.82 106.00 98.75
Finland Euro 1.41 1.20 105.43 90.13
France Euro 1.32 1.18 99.21 88.18
Germany Euro 1.37 1.26 102.58 94.26
Greece Euro 1.08 1.09 80.76 81.66
Netherlands Euro 1.54 1.22 115.10 91.71
Hungary Forint 293.00 297.00 83.50 84.64
Ireland Euro 1.19 1.20 89.16 89.68
Italy Euro 1.37 1.34 102.73 100.78
Luxembourg Euro 1.15 1.02 86.53 76.19
Estonia Kroons 15.20 16.60 72.83 79.54
Norwegian
Norway Krone 12.25 11.94 116.07 113.14

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Muath Alnuaimi Solar Water Heating System Design

Latvia Lats 0.69 0.70 73.34 75.15


Lithuania Litas 3.53 3.60 76.69 78.21
Poland Zloty 4.28 3.99 89.79 83.71
Slovakia Koroan 38.94 40.85 88.58 92.92
Slovenia Euro 1.02 1.03 76.64 77.24
Portugal Euro 1.37 1.17 102.66 88.03
Spain Euro 1.08 1.04 81.21 77.91
Swedish
Sweden Krona 12.49 12.64 100.73 101.94
Switzerland Swiss Francs 1.74 1.89 80.90 87.87
United States of
America US Dollars 0.8037 0.90 41.26 46.06

Note: We receive international prices to 3 decimal places and calculate the UK pence per
litre on that price. Therefore, some countries will show the same price in their local
currency to 2 decimal places, but the UK pence price could be slightly different.

http://www.theaa.com/public_affairs

87