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y A job description describes the responsibilities of a specific job. A job description is a written statement describing the general responsibilities and duties of a given position. It should be considered an advertisement for the job as it often lists the results expected from the person in the position and tells to whom the person reports. It may include general working conditions as well.
y A job specification describes the qualifications a person will need for the job. A job specification normally provides a list of the qualifications anyone filling the post should have. These qualifications might include necessary education, previous work experience and specific skills needed for the position.
Job Description and Specification Job descriptions describe the job and not the individual who fills the job. They are the result of job analysis within a given organization and are essential to the selection and evaluation of employees. Job advertisements or postings are based on the job description. The character of the organization is the basis for the description of positions. Information about the organization might include Name of Company Main Product(s) and/or Service(s) Location Number of Employees Company Structure Names of Officers Hours of Work Job analysis Job analysis is the systematic assembly of all the facts about a job. The purpose is to study the individual elements and duties. All information related to the salary and benefits, working hours and conditions, typical tasks and responsibilities is required for the job analysis. The results of job analysis are job description and job specification. is the systematic assembly of all the facts about a job. The purpose is to study the individual elements and duties. All information related to the salary and benefits, working hours and conditions, typical tasks and responsibilities is required for the job analysis. The results of job analysis are job description and job specification. Job description Job description is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected
attitudes. Job analysis ranks among the most critical tools of human resource management and strives to ensure hiring candidates with the required skills. that is to say. A job analysis helps determine job descriptions vs. it lists the qualifications. relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. job specifications. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons Job Description Vs Job Specification Scope . that is to say. Typically it includes Job Title Date Title of immediate supervisor Statement of the Purpose of the Job Primary Responsibilities List of Typical Duties and Responsibilities General Information related to the job training requirements tool use transportation Signature of the person who has prepared the job description Job Specification Job Specification is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job.of anyone in the job. contribute to achieving organizational goals whereas a misfit employee or an employee lacking in key competencies or attitudes can wreck havoc on business plans and objectives. Normally. competencies. Typically it includes is a written statement that defines the duties. Good employees who have the competence and temperament to do the required job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job. this would include is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job. and the right temperament for the job. it lists the qualifications. Typically this would include Degree of education Desirable amount of previous experience in similar work Specific Skills required Health Considerations The quality of the workforce plays a big role in the success of any business. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job.
and the job specifications become irrelevant. Job specifications on the other hand. help the hiring manager to shortlist appropriate candidates who would most likely fulfill the demands made in the job description. Hiring without job specifications could also lead to an incompetent person occupying the position. including the designation and the level in the organization¶s hierarchy The reporting relationships of the designation. the concept of rigid job descriptions have undergone significant dilution. With the shift from traditional human resource management to strategic human resource management. . Relevance Job descriptions play a major role in traditional human resource management. A properly crafted job description consists of the following elements: y y y y The job title. Hiring without job descriptions could lead to the selection of a person not interested in the position. It also provide a basis of setting standards and asking questions for the selection process. in terms of skills. including who the person will report to and who will report to the person A summary of the position's major and minor duties A list of tools and equipment used or machinery operated A job specification describes the requirements to perform the job. Job descriptions help organizations determine the nature of the position ± full time. or independent contractor. competencies. or selecting a skilled person but incompetent to do the required job. Once the hiring process is over. experience. and provide a guide to potential candidates. both are relevant and both become especially important during recruitment.The job description is an outline of the duties and responsibilities of the position. part time. It includes y y y y y y Job title Educational requirements Desired experience Specialized skills or knowledge required A listing any other special requirements associated with the job Any hazards or risks associated with the job Application When considering ob descriptions vs. and the like. or a description of the role of the job in fulfilling a company's objectives. the job description becomes the basis to assign and evaluate the employee's work. job specifications.
As such. outcomes. tasks.Organizations now look at flexibility and expect the new hire to perform a wide range of diverse tasks. the attitude. tasks. working conditions to perform the job. Definition: A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties. necessary skills. grown in stature in the new age economy and strategic human resource management. KSAs. and performance development planning within your performance management system. Job specifications have. however. Definition of Job Analysis Job analysis is the systematic method of jobs to identify work activities. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description. The more information you can gather. temperament. With the emergence of strategic human resource management. and competencies of the new hire is of critical importance for the well-being of the company. y y What Is Job Analysis 1. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans. which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. hiring managers focused on filling up the numbers and looked at hiring people with the basic skill set to train them for organizational needs. with reporting relationships and hierarchies fast becoming obsolete. and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position. the easier the actual writing of the job description will be. and y articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position. Organizations have also tended to grow flatter over the years. and responsibilities. or matching employees goals with organizational goals. responsibilities. doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs. In the old world order. y researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs. the skill set. The job analysis may include these activities: reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees. HR managers look at an employee-organizational fit. position postings and advertisements. and work environment of a particular job. and the job specifications reflect the type of people the organization plans to induct. 2. Purpose of job analysis Purposes of job analysis are to identify: Job description & specification Recruitment and Selection: Job evaluation . y analyzing the work duties.
Job analysis methods Methods of observation includes direct observation. Task Analysis Inventory Job element method Diary method Competency profiling Examining Manuals/reference materials Technical conference Combination of methods etc Checklists and rating scales 5. . and the critical incident technique. Work Profiling System (WPS). Reference documents: Process of job analysis Methods of job analysis Job analysis questionnaires Job analysis sample (near 10 forms of job analysis). Functional job analysis. unstructured interviews. MOSAIC. work methods analysis. including time and motion study and micro-motion analysis. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS). Job analysis process Process of job analysis includes 8 steps as follows: Step 1: identify purpose of job analysis Step 2: selecting the analysts Step 3: selecting the appropriate method Step 4: train the analysts Step 5: preparation of job analysis Step 6: collecting data Step 7: review and verify data Step 8: develop a job description and job specification 4. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ). Job design Compensation: Performance Appraisal: Training: Compliance with labour law 3. open-ended questionnaires Methods of questionnaire include Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Interviews methods includes structured interviews.
Purpose of job analysis Classification of job analysis methods Practical problems with job analysis Information source of job analysis HR career ebooks .
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