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**The following points are important to understand.
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Electronic gates require a power supply. Gate INPUTS are driven by voltages having two nominal values, e.g. 0V and 5V representing logic 0 and logic 1 respectively. The OUTPUT of a gate provides two nominal values of voltage only, e.g. 0V and 5V representing logic 0 and logic 1 respectively. In general, there is only one output to a logic gate except in some special cases. There is always a time delay between an input being applied and the output responding.

Logic is a form of human reasoning that tells us a certain proposition is true if certain preconditions are true. In 1854 George Boole developed a mathematical system for formulating logic statements with symbols, so the problems could be written and solved in a similar manner to ordinary algebra. His system is called Boolean Algebra and it is used in the analysis and design of digital systems. The basic building blocks of digital circuits are called logic gates. A gate is a circuit that performs a simple logic operation. Gates can have one, two, three or more inputs and the basic gates have a single output dependent on the inputs. Each output is also called a digital ‘bit’ of information (or ‘bit’ for short). The behavior of a gate can be shown in a truth table which systematically lists all the possible input states for a gate and the corresponding output states. Gates can be represented in five ways.

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Consider the AND gate:

AND.• A zero ( 0 ) corresponds to a low voltage. . An inverter logic gates converts a low voltage ( 0 ) to a high voltage ( 1 ) or vice versa. transistors and resistors and connected together to provide a circuit output that corresponds to the logic operations OR. A one ( 1 ) corresponds to a high voltage. NOT performed on the inputs to those circuits. Some alternative meanings for 0 and 1 are as follows: Logic 0 False Off Low Open switch Logic 1 True On High Closed switch • Digital circuits can be put together using diodes.

NSW. Electrical and Information Engineering. EELAB Student Pages. The University of Sydney. These gates combine the basic operations AND OR and NOT which make it relatively easy to describe them using Boolean Algebra. .• NOR and NAND gates are used extensively in digital circuitry.

AND gate The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputs are high. for example +OR is equivalent to -AND and -AND is equivalent to +OR. This is useful when drawing and interpreting diagrams of logic circuits. These gates are the AND.e. NOR.) is used to show the AND operation i. you will have noticed that each logic gate is represented uniquely. AB OR gate . The basic operations are described below with the aid of truth tables. NOT. NAND. EXOR and EXNOR gates. A dot (. In working through the above information about logic gates.e.• • Negative logic circuits can also be used where the positive logic gate is equivalent to the complement when acting in a negative logic circuit. A. OR. The set of symbols is as follows: Name AND Symbol Input Two signals Output One signal OR Two signals One signal NOT One signal One signal NAND Two signals One signal NOR Two signals One signal XOR Two signals One signal Logic gates Digital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates.B. Bear in mind that this dot is sometimes omitted i.

The outputs of all NOR gates are low if any of the inputs are high. NAND gate This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. The small circle represents inversion. The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low. or A with a bar over the top.The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more of its inputs are high. This is also shown as A'. but not both. The diagrams below show two ways that the NAND logic gate can be configured to produce a NOT gate. the inverted output is known as NOT A. If the input variable is A. NOR gate This is a NOT-OR gate which is equal to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. It can also be done using NOR logic gates in the same way. The small circle represents inversion. as shown at the outputs. It is also known as an inverter. The symbol is an AND gate with a small circle on the output. EXOR gate The 'Exclusive-OR' gate is a circuit which will give a high output if either. of its two inputs are high. NOT gate The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input at its output. . A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation. The symbol is an OR gate with a small circle on the output. An encircled plus sign ( ) is used to show the EOR operation.

Note: A function in sum of products form can be implemented using NAND gates by replacing all AND and OR gates by NAND gates. The small circle represents inversion. A function in product of sums form can be implemented using NOR gates by replacing all AND and OR gates by NOR gates. The symbol is an EXOR gate with a small circle on the output. The NAND and NOR gates are called universal functions since with either one the AND and OR functions and NOT can be generated. Table 1: Logic gate symbols Table 2 is a summary truth table of the input/output combinations for the NOT gate together with all possible input/output combinations for the other gate functions. Also note that a truth table with 'n' inputs has 2n rows. of its two inputs are high. Table 2: Logic gates representation using the Truth table . You can compare the outputs of different gates.EXNOR gate The 'Exclusive-NOR' gate circuit does the opposite to the EOR gate. but not both. It will give a low output if either.

In fact the number of input terminals is unlimited. and a special type of information processing technique invented in the middle of the 1800s by George Boole. called Boolean logic. Boolean logic puts it very simple. Basically. The situation reverses when all of the input bits are . Boolean logic operates only in the binary system by following a couple of simple rules. We'll start with the simplest of all . which practically designates an operation similar to multiplying. If one of the input values is '0' logic. The OR gate. This basically means that when a '1' logic bit is applied on the 'a' terminal for example. Another logic gate of critical importance is the AND gate (upper left corner). the 'c' terminal must produce a '0' logic bit.b) and an output terminal (c). The NOT gate has one entrance and one exit and has the role of inverting logic bits. As you can see. There are about seven simple logic gates that need to be studies in order to understand the full picture of how Boolean logic and computer microprocessors work by combining logical gates in a single electronic circuit that may contain several million transistors. operates according to the logic that if one of the input terminals bears a '1' logic bit. the logic gates. Inversion is one of the basic operations in Boolean logic. only when all input bits are equal to '1' logic. but have you ever wondered how a piece of silicon manages to process information so accurately and at such a high speed rate? The answer lies behind the basic building blocks of the processor.the NOT gate. the AND gate has two input terminals (a. The situation is reversed when '0' logic is applied on the 'a' terminal by forcing the 'c' terminal to output a '1' logic bit. A '1' logic bit is present at the output terminal.How Logic Gates Work As we all know the microprocessor is the 'brain' of the modern digital computer. lower left corner). or the logical inverter (see bottom image. then the value of the other bits is irrelevant and the output will always produce a '0' logic. then the 'c' terminal will always produce a '1'.

The last two significant logic gates are the XOR and XNOR gates. The input columns are usually constructed in the order of binary counting with a number of bits equal to the number of inputs.'0' logic. All permutations of the inputs are listed on the left. . XNOR gates produce XOR reverse values. XOR outputs a '1' logic only when a single input value equals '1' logic. using logic 1 for true and logic 0 for false. but the output value is always reversed. both of which can be constructed by using the basic logic gates (similar to the case of NAND and OR gates). Truth Tables A truth table shows how a logic circuit's output responds to various combinations of the inputs. Their logic is basically identical to that of AND and OR gates. but it can be extended to any number of inputs. In other cases the output produces a '0' bit. A truth table for two inputs is shown. The NAND (NOT AND) and NOR (NOT OR) gates can be imagined as an AND respectively an OR gate to whose output terminals a NOT gate (see image for symbols) is connected. and the output of the circuit is listed on the right. The desired output can be achieved by a combination of logic gates.

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The equivalence is shown by the application ofDeMorgan's theorem. . It amounts to changing AND's to OR's or vice versa and inverting all input and output lines compared to the implementation in gates shown at left.Negative Logic Gates Each of the basicgates has a negative logic equivalent as shown.

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