Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

Richard Puthota Cookson India Ltd December 2010

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Disclaimer
THIS DOCUMENT AND RELATED MATERIALS AND INFORMATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITH NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, OR ANY WARRANTY OTHERWISE ARISING OUT OF ANY PROPOSAL, SPECIFICATION, OR SAMPLE. COOKSON INDIA PVT LTD ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY ERRORS CONTAINED IN THIS DOCUMENT AND HAS NO LIABILITIES OR OBLIGATIONS FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING FROM OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT. COOKSON INDIA PVT LTD MAY MAKE CHANGES TO SPECIFICATIONS, PRODUCTDESCRIPTIONS, AND PLANS AT ANY TIME, WITHOUT NOTICE.

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PCB
A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD PROVIDES A MECHANICAL PLATFORM FOR ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS (ACTIVE SEMICONDUCTORS, RESISTORS, CAPACITORS, CONNECTORS, ETC.) A PC BOARD PROVIDES 3- DIMENSIONAL ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECT FOR DEVICES INCLUDING SIGNAL, POWER, AND GROUND CIRCUITS. A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD IS SIMULTANEOUSLY AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE, A MECHANICAL DEVICE, AND A THERMAL DEVICE.

Courtesy : Multek

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00004 0.025 1 Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .000025 0.000001 0.001 0.04 ANGSTROMS 250 10000 250000 10 7 MICRONS 0.04 1 40 INCHES 0.000 MILS 0.001 0.Capability of a PCB Manufacturer MEASURING UNITS FOLLOWED IN PCB INDUSTRY UNITS MICRO INCH MICRON MIL MM MICRO INCHES 1 40 1000 40.025 1 25 1000 MM 0.001 0.

PCB Process flow Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

.PCB Process flow .Confused? PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

PCB Value flow .simpler way Sales CAD /CAM Engineering Plotting Inner layer Processing Electroless Cu DeSmear Drilling ML Lamination Dev/Etch/Strip PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Process flow Outer-layer Processing Electrolytic Cu Strip / Etch / Strip Tin Solder mask / LP Hot-Air Leveling Optional Final Q/C 100% E-Test V .Scoring NC Routing Immersion Gold Shipping PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

using relatively benign chemicals PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .Why Copper? Copper is an excellent electrical conductor Electrical resistivity is approx 1.6 micro ohm cm An inexpensive metal Soft and easily workable Easily processed and patternable by photolithography.

Copper Foil Copper is the dominant metal for interconnection use. oz per sq ft (305 g/m2).e. PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .5 g/m2). It is usually produced by electrolytic deposition on a flat mandril. These correspond to foil thicknesses of 17. The copper foil is normally specified by weight i.5 and 35 microns respectively. and is about 99.8% pure and has a tolerance on thickness of about ± 10%. one half oz per square ft (152.

Copper Foil Copper can be easily electrodeposited onto a PCB Laminate – problems however! ADHESION! The adhesion is far superior from bonding copper foil sheets by the combination of heat. pressure and adhesive. Common adhesion tests include measurement of Peel Strength – ‘how easy is it to peel the copper foil off’ and Pull off Strength – how easy is it to pull up the copper foil from the substrate PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

PCB Substrates Reinforcement Materials Cu FOIL MFG PROCESS PREPREG MFG PROCESS PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

PCB Substrates Reinforcement Materials PREPREGS PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

PCB Substrates ( Laminate) MFG Process Flow PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

PCB Laminate MFG Process PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Tg The glass transition temperature or Tg of a polymer is the temperature at which a polymer transitions from a glassy to rubbery state upon heating and reflects the degree of polymer Chain motion. PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

PCB Substrates

Typical Dielectric Constants
Material FR4 Fiberglass Epoxy Teflon Teflon Glass Polyimide Polyimide Glass 4.7 2.2 2.5 3.5 4.2 Dielectric Constant

PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS

PCB Substrates

PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS

PCB Substrates

PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS

Resin Phenolic Reinforcement Paper Glass Epoxy Polyester Silicone Teflon Glass Glass Glass Glass Maximum temperature 'C 100 250 120 120 250 200 PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .PCB Substrates One important non-electrical characteristic is the maximum temperature at which boards can be operated. This is also relevant for the curing of printed epoxies and thick film pastes on the boards.

Abuse can include: Changes in temperature – sometimes rapid and hot and cold Flexing – the boards may have to be flexed. particularly during processing stages. solvents. Physical abuse – to a certain extent being dropped! PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS . fluxes. Resistance to chemicals. acids etc.g. e.Robustness of Boards The produced laminate boards must be robust enough to withstand abuse during processing stages and in later life on the finished product.

Single Sided PCB Board Double Sided PCB Board Top layer has been patterned in alignment with bottom layer Holes are drilled through board and then copper is electrodeposited to interconnect top and bottom layers PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

heated and bonded in a similar process to before. Insulating layers between the conductors can also be added. Holes then drilled in appropriate places for subsequent electrodeposition of copper to interconnect layers. PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS . copper patterned laminates are stacked on top and bottom of each other.Multilayer Boards On multilayer boards. the individual. Often begin with double sided board in middle and work outwards Laminates then pressed.

to ‘peel’ off Resistance of metal conductors can also be different when substrate is flexed PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS . e. Typical problems – flexing substrate can cause metal tracks and components etc.g.FLEXIBLE PCB’s More and more interest being shown to flexible PCB’s Applications include flexible interconnections. polyimide etc. mobile phones – and large ‘roll up’ screens Common substrate choices include polyester. Advanced applications include small screens.

FLEXIBLE PCB’s Flexible circuits can reduce weight of PCB Flexing can allow easier installation and servicing Production can be inexpensive PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS Flexible Displays can take up less space (rolled up) – more portable Active elements can be TFT’s deposited by vapour deposition (amorphous silicon) – also printed organic materials PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Pre Clean Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Laminate Photo Resist Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Image & Develop Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Etch & Strip Photo Resist Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Prepare Target & Tooling Holes Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

AOI Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Oxide Coating Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Lamination Of a 6 Layer Board Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Drill & De-burr Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Desmear & Copper Deposition Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Coat. Image & Develop Photoresist Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Copper & Tin Plate Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Strip Photo Resist Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Etch & Tin Strip Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Solder Mask Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Solder Mask PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Solder Mask PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Solder Mask PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Typical Surface Finishing Technologies PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Hot Air Leveling Air knife off-set Clamp to hold PCB PCB Solder PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Advantage of greater thickness control in Pb Free HAL Sn/Pb Stencil Laminate Improved gasket sealing during solder paste printing on fine features. Stencil LeadFree Laminate PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

OSP Organic Solderability Preservative Manifold PCB OR Coating Chemistry Sump C O A T I N G P C B C H E M I S T R Y Conveyorized Dip Module PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Cookson Electronics PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .OSP VISUAL INSPECTION CRITERIA Courtesy : Enthone.

Comparison of PCB Surface Finishes Cost Fine Pitch Multi Pass Wave OK Ease of Mfr Warping ENTEK OSP Lowest ® HASL Medium Poor Excellent Excellent Difficult High FST™ Immersion Sn Medium Excellent Good Good Medium Low Ni-Au Highest Good Good Poor Difficult Low AlphaLevel™ Immersion Ag Low Excellent Good Good Easy Low Excellent Medium Variable Easy Low PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Highest = 1 Pin Testability of Bare Board Most Pin Testable = 10. Easy to remove = 1 Solderability at Wave Solde ( No prior Reflow) Highly Solderable = 10.Life Longest = 10. Can't wire bond = 1 Hot Air Solder Leveled Rosin / Resin Coating ALTERNATIVE COATINGS Benzo Triazole Amidazole/ Immersion Electroless Benzimidazole Bismuth Nickel/Gold Immersion Silver 5 10 9 1 1 8 1 6 5 10 10 3 3 10 10 7 4 6 10 10 7 10 7 10 10 1 10 9 10 10 5 10 9 10 10 10 2 2 2 10 10 10 10 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 5 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 10 9 PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS . Non Planar Pads = 1 Risk of removing Protective Coat Not easy to during rework remove = 10. Shortest = 1 Ionic Cleanliness Least Contamination =10. Least = 1 Solderability at Wave Solder (after 23 reflows using no clean flux) Highly Solderable = 10. Least = 1 Wire Bondability Wire Bondable = 10.Comparison of PCB Surface Finishes PROPERTY COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE COPPER PROTECTIVE COATINGS ATTRIBUTES PROPERTY OF COPPER COATING Cost Of PCB Fabrication Lowest Cost = 10. Most = 1 CO-PLANARITY(FLATNESS) Flat Pads = 10. Least = 1 Shelf .

Tip Plating – Apply Plating Tape Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Solder Strip Fingers Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Nickel Plate Fingers Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Gold Plate Fingers & Strip Tape Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Component Mark Printing Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Fabrication Rout & Chamfer Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

Courtesy : Multek PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS . before shipping to the customer.Electrical Test (BBT) Electrical testing checks the boards for any open or short type defects.

Key Take Aways • For a company manufacturing electronic equipment. This can be very significant in times of great technological changes. Another important advantage of having a number of regular PCB suppliers is a broader spectrum of PCB technology at the customer’s disposal. the conclusion is that any OEM or EMS company should always utilize a number of approved and regular PCB vendors. PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS . this takes time. it is risky to depend on just one PCB manufacturing source. when • • • • Thus. or the documentation package can seem inadequate to the PCB manufacturer. thus requiring additional communication with subsequent adjustments. It is important that the PCB manufacturer and the OEM / EMS are thoroughly knowledgeable about each other’s capabilities and expectations to ensure compatibility and cooperation. HDI (High Density Interconnect). and inevitably. or laser drilled boards. There can easily be differences in the perception of quality. especially introducing SMT.

May This Information Improve Your Ability To Weather The Storms PRIVILEGED AND CONFIDENTIAL MATERIALS .

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