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Technologies that can automatically respond to changing conditions are expected to show 66 2009 AEI Tech Awards up increasingly in future automobiles.org aei APRIL 2009 3 . contents On the cover 24 A winning iQ SAE members voted Toyota’s new microcar the Best Engineered Vehicle for 2009. efficiency. in particular. and technologies to be 30 Engine upgrade displayed this month at the SAE 2009 World With displacements headed downward but Congress in Detroit. and superb overall execution. vehicle of today. The iQ shows its smarts with brilliant packaging. “Racing to Green Mobility. aei-online. Features 18 Diesel or gasoline hybrids? 50 Smooth riding ahead 62 Innovating toward profitable As the global financial crisis deepens. evolving sensor technologies and strategies are helping to give a boost to engine performance. output expectations undiminished. and emissions.” aims to help the with the European OEMs. auto industry ensure the survival of the debating their hybrid strategies. Integration and continuous development are sustainability companies must hone their R&D programs the key words as chassis dynamics head into This year’s SAE World Congress theme. The editors of Automotive Engineering International highlight some of the more 58 Meeting the challenge of innovative new products and technologies on mechatronics display by suppliers at the SAE 2009 World Traditionally separate engineering disciplines Congress. Can an extended vision of model-based design help? 68 What’s New at SAE 2009 AEI continues its preview coverage of the products. and attempt to choose winning technologies. this century’s second decade. services. city-friendly efficiency. based on the latest information may not be capable of handling the intelligent provided by exhibiting companies. 54 Building in smarter materials planet—as well as its own long-term success.

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and advertising sections of this publication. ET and examine current and emerging 36 Lotus begins tests on VCR two-stroke electric-vehicle technologies as well as solutions to obstacles Energy/Environment facing plug-in hybrid and battery-electric vehicle manufacture. PA 15096. Editor of HybridCars. and 76 Scott Harrison: Azure Dynamics ripe for Coulomb Technologies’ CEO Richard Lowenthal during SAE’s Powertrain innovation next Telephone/Webcast. Volume 117. you will learn about equivalency dues. 38 A hard look at batteries This webinar has been organized and will be moderated by Electronics 80 The Big Picture Bradley Berman. During SAE International and printed in Brimfield. Information: 38 New consortium focuses on infotainment 80 Opel/Vauxhall Insignia www.org aei APRIL 2009 5 . Ford’s Director of Sustainable Mobility 34 Technology Report Technologies and Hybrid Vehicle Programs Nancy Gioia.htm. Magna International’s 76 Insiders & Insights CTO Ted Robertson. therefore.S.” it will be May 7 from small package 78 Ad Index 11:30 a.sae. For permission to reproduce articles in quantity. offers insight into how the 1065 regulation will affect your engine testing regimen and. Readers should independently Analytical Product Specialist.com. Engineering Supervisor–Analytical Systems. POSTMASTER: Please return formulae and how many of your current tests may be form 3579 to Automotive Engineering International. 400 Commonwealth Dr. and advertising sections of this publication that are important to him/her and rely on his/her independent evaluation. OH.. SAE is not responsible for appropriate for part 1065. PA.org/mags/aei/ month time frame of the claimed issue’s publication date. Innovative design on a budget | Design 44 A Tier 1 body-trim supplier is born 6. additional single copies. EU sets long-term climate and energy goals | Interiors Regulations/Standards 43 TRW’s active head restraint shortens 3. Rooney.m. Periodical postage paid at Warrendale. (ISSN 1543-849X). aei-online. Simulation tools for in-cylinder combustion Design development | Simulation 49 Johnson Controls’ concept highlights cabin design 10 Iosis Max points to future Ford C-segment MAV Webcasts 12 5 Series Concept GT: BMW’s big hatchback? 12 Shape of a future British-built Nissan? 68 Product Briefs 14 Aston Martin unveils Lagonda Concept 14 Citroën DS concept to become reality in 2010 74 Companies Mentioned 16 Rolls-Royce shows ‘small’ model 16 Hyundai concept debuts future powertrain technology 75 Regulations & Standards 17 Kia Number 3 on sale this year? 75 Merits of California greenhouse-gas rule debated Experts debate electric car future 17 Pop-up aerodynamic roof solution from Rinspeed The future of electric cars will be the subject of a discussion with Compact Power’s CEO Prabhakar Patil. The Automotive Engineering International title is registered in the U. Souriau makes new racecar connections | Motorsports 10 Global Vehicles 2009 Ram launch 2. BMW Z4 gets folding hardtop | Vehicles 45 ‘By-wire’ boosts hybrid vehicle dynamics 8.org 8 Focus Simulation Top articles of the month 42 Efficient tools and processes deliver smooth 1. $237 overseas. Automotive Test Systems. Volvo gets press shop tooling aid from Corus | response time Manufacturing Body 5. Claims for missing issues of the magazine must be submitted within a six. Titled “Keys to the Electric Car Future: 34 MCE-5 VCRi engine offers high output in Batteries.m. to 1:30 p. the accuracy of information in the editorial. The regulation revises the Audited by procedures for testing most categories of non-road engines. Antonov answers Chinese desire for automatics | Emerging Markets Manufacturing 9. Annual print subscription for SAE members: first subscription. Bac2 the future for fuel-cell materials | Materials 4. as well as heavy-duty highway engines. and for use in other media. Speakers are Michael Akard. articles. Number 4 is published 12 times a year by new tests and test conditions that must be implemented. and Rick evaluate the accuracy of any statement in the editorial. April 2009. Horiba Instruments. contents Department highlights What’s online 6 Editorial Testing 40 Customized test rigs used for in-development technology @ aei-online. $26 each North America. contact aei@sae. abstracted in the SAE Global Mobility Database®.org/tele-webcasts/electric-car. Horiba org. your compliance to it. and additional mailing offices. Drivetrain & Infrastructure. Prices for nonmember subscriptions are $135 North America. Information: www. contact customersales@sae. Patent and Trademark Office. Copyright © 2009 by SAE International®. Bosch team on hybrids | Powertrain Chassis 7. and includes a number of Automotive Engineering International.org. Warrendale. PSA. GM Holden to build Delta car line | Vehicles 47 DiMora deploys pattern-less casting technology 10. software 40 SuperSpeed USB on tap for cars? Decoding EPA part 1065 “Decoding EPA Part 1065: Engine Testing Procedures.” a free interactive webcast on May 19 at noon ET.sae. $20 included in this 60-minute webcast. articles. $31 each overseas. and Automotive Engineering International is indexed and webcasts.

S. E-mail: customersales@sae. Germany. buses were the focus of attention at last Wayne Silvonic vance the country’s economic recovery. public demonstration as ordinary taxis Lisa Arrigo Custom Electronic Products Editor my in turmoil with consumers unwilling and transport for Olympic officials. roads by 2015. all automotive companies are late in 2008. we report online that the Graphic Artist just a few months ago and U. from gasoline to Phone: 877-606-7323 724-776-4970 (Outside U. John Kendall. year’s IAA Show in Hanover. we cover how To keep up on the fast-moving world European OEM startegies.org gasoline hybrids?” feature.sae. passenger-car hybrids newest on hybrid and electric vehicles. Jörg Christoffel. of hybrid and other vehicle engineering Editorial developments. BYD of Shenzhen. a prototype hybrid long-haul truck had Ryan Pristow Senior Designer The initiatives come as fuel prices have been shown. said to be the first time that Senior Designer vehicles on U. Mercedes-Benz displayed a concept Tim Matisko Senior Designer tainability. Harry Evans. be sure to Display–Linda Risch Classified/Web–Debby Catalano that will be way beyond the financial sur. William L. gradually introduce China’s people to Carolyn A. an- programs and attempt to choose winning nounced the world’s first production AEI Offices 400 Commonwealth Drive technologies. Dan Carney. Paul Weissler. Hineman to part with their hard-earned money on Olympic hybrid car program had been Global Field Sales Manager hineman@sae.org or sae. as well as buses.S. Periodicals & Electronic Media efficient vehicles. the first stage in a far-reaching plan to dent and other energy-efficiency advo. Terry Costlow. Warrendale.org tion-engine component. where Jack Yamaguchi Asian Editor tion and deployment projects. Axor long-haul hybrid truck developed Brian Fell lion plug-in and extended-range hybrid with Eaton. visit our website at aei- Phone: 724-772-8509 are evolving. consumer Beijing Olympics last year saw a total 80 Scott Sward tastes slowly migrate back to larger. in particular.org big-ticket purchases. sign up for one or more of our new Phone: 888-875-3976 vival kit of any one automaker. Peter Chang.S. but also ad. President Obama announced Hybrid plans and Senior Editor two major programs intended to drive technology develop- Lindsay Brooke Senior Editor development of next-generation hybrid ment are moving so quickly that we have Patrick Ponticel and electric vehicles in the U.S. In this issue’s “Diesel or plug-in hybrid car. to the reduction of petroleum use and Although distribution trucks and urban Jenny Hessler. are Stuart Birch ponents.S. And Jodie Mohnkern globally. And to E-mail: aei@sae. carolt@sae.S. you can read about the role of Matt Monaghan commencing two competitive solicita. as well as up to $400 million for perhaps some of the more obvious ben- European Editor transportation electrification demonstra. Stephen Barlas. Editorial Director 6 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. At AEI Ryan Gehm Assistant Editor Act. one of China’s newest car Circulation and Mail List Manager mohnkern@sae. The Marcie L.S. Jennifer Shuttleworth. the U. hybrid technology in heavy trucks (see Assistant Editor tions involving up to $2 billion in federal www.A.org As the U.org can divide and subdivide from micro to Subscriptions full electric assistance. & Canada) diesel and other fuels for their combus- Fax: 724-776-0790 Kevin Jost E-mail: customerservice@sae. Add to that an econo. U. Linda Trego greenhouse gas emissions. financial crisis has spread environmentally friendly vehicles. eficiaries of hybrid power systems.org to pursue more than one hybrid solution. Fax: 724-776-9765 There will almost certainly be a need online. Art Director energy security. Schall dropped nearly 50% off their highs of In China.org Extending range Kevin Jost Editorial Director and content Jean L. As part of decided to supplement this month’s fea- Assistant Editor the American Recovery and Reinvestment ture with extended online content. Peter Wright. the investments will not only contribute recycle braking energy. Broge In March. China’s fast-growing car industry (/6135).org finding that they must hone their R&D manufacturers. The end goal is to have 1 mil. and environmental sus. Department of Energy is Online.aei-online. the continual stop/start driving cycles Contributors The Obama Administration hopes that offer many opportunities to recover and Steven Ashley. Of all the Technology eNewsletters. Taylor the concept of energy savings and more Marketing Manager cates face an uphill battle. So clearly the presi. less hybrid and alternative-fuel vehicles on Publisher.S. Web: www. Bruce Morey. get the latest technology news delivered Advertising but chasing “many” looks like a luxury directly to your e-mail box. Drozda Director of Publications thomasdrozda@sae. including the 724-772-4086 (Outside U.org . PA 15096-0001. editorial Thomas J. & Canada) Fax: 724-776-3087 possible solutions. collection routes. we report.org/mags/aei.org/mags/aei/5958) and in Matthew Newton Assistant Editor funding for cost-shared agreements re. lated to the manufacturing of advanced Heavy vehicles on urban delivery and Kami Buchholz Detroit Editor batteries and related electric drive com. Mark Wilkinson.

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But we must ex. but if you cannot. Italy. In the coming months.htm. affecting mobility engineering. We must charge forward and use Of course. Also. Mexico. Brazil.Automotive eo on YouTube about an amazing new. Please feel groups located in the United States. This month. Romania. Ryan III International Airport.sae. by contacting Sections@sae. how do particular section or group is available from they get much of that same information? SAE Headquarters. best use these technology. Sure. A complete listing. With each advance in Brian R. Ph.Commercial Vehicle self-driven vehicle. electronics. Saunders Ahmed A. Group.org. Davis gineering professionals. Petek and “cool” don’t necessarily translate to It is an exciting time. 2009 President necting flight at Washington Dulles speakers’ presenta- Thomas W. But what about those busy profession- sae. other SAE Executive Vice President With communication and information International events—including the SAE and Chief Operating Officer at our fingertips at all times. that speak to the most germane issues and India. Saucedo uses of these services.” Also. SAE International holds its As always. along with their respective officers. which enables users to access and Chief Operating Officer 8 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Bharadwaj pondering is how do we. Congress. Belarus. regardless of AeroTech Congress and Exhibition and the Directors where we are. the question I have been SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Aravind S. the Mark L. SAE affiliates operate in the United Kingdom. Schutt my flight home. Membership and Section Programs. Jeffers information to our members and custom. technology theaters will be offered virtu- Richard E. along with downloadable pre- Charla K.org. but what about the nology inevitably could seem outdated. More new technologies are on the We possess a tremendous amount of rel. strategic business issues. Soliman professional and business applications? That is not a label we want to see here at David Stout These are the types of questions we SAE International. Egypt. more Michael D. Adjectives like “new” Virtual Conferences will take you there. Matthews bold. and Israel. For the SAE World Jacqueline A. viding them to you. more ways SAE Publications Board evant technical and educational informa. and high- Carol A. Andris Lacis Ronald D. Canada. Russia. Rhoades downloaded the video onto my iPod to featuring industry experts talking about Treasurer watch while on the plane and quickly powertrain. the SAE and constructive input to this topic and SAE International has 86 sections and World Congress. Those who attend in any other issues on your mind. Kapellen ers? The answer is: in a variety of ways.org . That is nearly 40 h of digital video Terence J. Douglas Patton which is what the modern engineering Until then. We look forward to pro- Daniel R. Congress and Exhibition—will use this Gregory W. Kleine Vice President . we know the social technology comes a time when that tech- Victor E. stay connected and keep Mark L. In recent months. focus SAE International ‘We’re changing the world Board of Directors with technology’—Bill Gates Officers The other day while waiting for a con. as mobility en. held in February. Gregory E.org/sections/sectlist. Leonard Tedesco ponder each day at SAE International. SAE International David L. person benefit from executive panel dis. One way is virtually. Hong Kong. energy. I welcome your feedback SAE Section. free to e-mail me at focus@sae. I ally.Chairman tion. Cernansky Andrew J.D. we must consider the rest on our laurels.Aerospace Twitter message on my phone from a sentation files. Pedrazzi professional demands. cussions and timely technical sessions Ukraine. For starters. Madley . Taiwan. digital videos of James E. can be found at www. all presentations from the three Vice President . Additional information regarding a als who cannot attend in person. Hal M. Story Assistant Treasurer finished a blog posting before catching level. Being short on time. Dedo friend who wanted me to see a new vid. I was updating my tions and panel dis- 2008 President Facebook profile when I received a cussions. Richardson applications. your profiles updated. Pedrazzi ercise some caution. But how do we best provide this ways to provide solutions for today’s mo- Nicholas P. bility engineers. Wise Vice President .org/hybrid. Oge this technology with the pioneering spirit the events in person and experience the Douglas Patton by which it was created. but not a time to Mark Pope “effective. Heule I believe there are several answers to is already available in the Virtual Laura Hitchcock that question. we still want you to attend Cuneyt L. The SAE 2009 Hybrid Vehicle Mazen Hammoud technologies? Technologies Symposium. Smith. Malaysia. and Affiliate Activities signature automotive event. Schutt has rolled out its new Virtual Conference SAE Executive Vice President Center. to help increase member value. meetings firsthand. we must be Conference Center at www. Nicholas K. David L. way from SAE International.

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act as spoilers chan- neling airflow across the tailgate glass to im- prove aerodynamic flow. An automatic stop/start sys- became the Kuga multi-activity vehicle (MAV. the center console and a touch screen control panel are featured inside. as well as Ford’s Powershift dual-clutch C-segment MAV. which meet with frameless Ford’s Iosis Max concept features a 1. By using turbocharging and direct injection. The interior adopts a four-seat layout. global vehicles global vehicles Edited by Kevin Jost Iosis Max points to future Ford C-segment MAV The Iosis Max became the third European Ford It was about more than design. Ford says it can deliver a 20% reduction in fuel consumption compared with a larger capacity gasoline engine of the same output. automatic engine stop/start. the Iosis Max uses lightweight materials to reduce weight. table for any future product with an internal- cept gave a glimpse of how Ford could develop combustion engine. too. its kinetic design language for a possible too. Apart from the aerodynamic design. which Ford describes as a “flying buttress” design. also part of the efficiency-improvement package. John Kendall 10 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Skeletal seats suspended from improve efficiency. and narrow tires to help The Iosis Max has sliding rear doors and B-pillarless construction.6-L 180-PS (132-kW) four-cylinder gasoline engine. The tailgate itself is a two-piece design.org . Other features will include variable valve timing on both inlet and exhaust cams. and Iosis Max had that. the Iosis Max con. automated transmission. Ford reckons on fuel consumption reduc- tions of 5 to 15% for the automatic stop/start inclusion and a further 1 to 2% for the regen- erative braking system. The chosen EcoBoost engine for the concept is Ford’s 1. tem with regenerative charging is perhaps inevi- or compact SUV) last year. For the Iosis Max. The dashboard center panel is finished with a smooth Plexiglas surface. fol- lowing the trend for a center console that runs the length of the cabin. scheduled to concept became the Mondeo and the Iosis X appear next year. The car features Powershift automated transmission. which acts as a touch-screen display similar to those of the latest mobile phones. The seat con- struction consists of a lightweight carbon-fiber skeleton with nylon mesh insert panels. Crowning the tailgate glass is a full-width spoiler. the console is a structural element sup- porting all four seats. the trapezoidal lower grille that has become part of the Ford kinetic design language. The concept car to carry the Iosis name at the 2009 concept was also a showcase for Ford’s global Geneva Motor Show. active cooling ducts that are closed when not required. already an offer in the current Focus and C-Max model lines. not to provide a choice of sedan trunk or hatchback rear access but to ensure that the tailgate can be opened in con- fined spaces. The C-pillars. The concept showed new features including sliding rear doors.6-L EcoBoost engine. An­d just as the original EcoBoost gasoline engine family. it includes three horizontal chrome-rimmed bars to distinguish it from current Ford models. In the case of the Iosis Max. and front doors without a B-pillar. giving them the appear- ance of floating in the interior.

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2 ft³) of trunk Above the doors. there was the 1960s 2000 Touring and more form at Geneva. the lower section features a touch screen to control a range of functions.8 in) tall. at Geneva—the company’s take on the large hatchback. the focus was firmly on the design. Perhaps that is not a pants—574 mm (22. the cant rails are more or less straight. plant in the U.6 in) from the ground for front occupants—a height surprise for a vehicle that will be Nissan’s replacement European small falling between those of the X6 and 5 Series sedan.8 in) long. Studio Chief Designer.6 in) and measures 4060 mm (159.3 ft³) of trunk space accessed with the complete Although the front grille echoes the design of the current Nissan tailgate raised. says BMW. then fold the rear seats and it high on the wings with headlamps set into the deep front fender. A removable partition wall keeps cabin occupants separate from the outside world. According to Atsushi Maeda. as much headroom as the X5. if the NV200 is a suitable yardstick. the design team “realized this image with the motif of a modern-day beach buggy and four-seat motorbike. central 10. For the Qazana. The car offers a slightly raised seating position for its four occu. which slide back and forth no B-pillar. The result provides BMW claims that rear legroom matches the 7 Series sedan with almost better access to the rear seats than a more conventional design. can only be operated when the front doors are open. The Nissan Qazana compact crossover concept is inspired by beach buggies The coupe body and motorcycles. Newspress Individual rear seats of the 5 Series Concept GT are separated by the cabin-length center console and feature electric adjustment.2-in control display. and the rear side doors through 100 mm (3.9 in). The concept is the work of Nissan Design Europe based in London. Shift them forward and trunk space grows to 570 L (20. Daytime running lights are mounted wall that separates the cabin and trunk.org . With the top section closed. whose aluminum in places through the leather covering. but few can claim success. The NV200 concept has been shown extensively at European shows.1 ft³) roof contains a pair of slender glass inserts running the length of the while rear legroom matches a 5 Series sedan. John Kendall 12 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. A split tailgate adds versatility. BMW is no Since the company also revealed its NV200 minivan in production stranger to hatchbacks. and 1780 mm (70. Nissan has al- shift to sedans. design of BMW’s 5 Series Concept GT incorporates a split tailgate. a panoramic glass roof of similar length lightens the number of large holes. light commercial vehicle. Like other Geneva concepts. the one-piece acrylic molding is a dummy grille.1 in) wide with short overhangs front and rear. while the space. while providing 430 L (15. Apart from a reference to all-wheel drive. and the finished item is a more conservative design. lightweight carbon fiber is used for the seat structure. visible Front and rear doors feature frameless windows. global vehicles 5 Series Concept GT: BMW’s big hatchback? Shape of a future British-built Nissan? Hatchbacks take a large slice of the European market. to replace the Micra. A large central first time on a BMW. How much trunk space is available depends on the position of the the Qazana’s two-door appearance conceals rear-hinged rear doors and individual electrically adjustable rear seats. the for the daytime running light corona rings around the headlights for the Qazana’s seats are suspended from the center console.K. will open up 1650 L (58. With the rear seats in the regular position. while above. touch screen carries a range of information from navigation to the four- John Kendall wheel-drive system and air-conditioning. and there was a strong hint that So it was surprising to see the BMW Concept 5 Series Gran Turismo we should expect the production model to be Qazana-based. The doors are all electrically operated. Taking another design cue from the Nissan Navara King Cab pickup. offering sedan or hatchback flexibility. Qazana buyers might expect a much more conservative recently the 2008 X6. Fold down the partition roof to admit more ambient light. The Concept 5 Series GT sits on a 3070-mm (120.9-in) wheelbase. dominating the Concept or preview? That was the question posed by Nissan in displaying volume sectors. range. The dashboard features a black-panel instrument display and door mirrors. calling on a design feature seen on the The Qazana control panel Skoda Superb last year. design for the production model. A mesh fabric is used for the body surrounds are milled from one unit. 1570 mm (61. Nissan was not talking driveline. from which the Concept draws a few influences. opens like a conventional decklid. But shift up in size to large cars and there is a marked the Qazana concept at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. Inside. ready stated that a small crossover model will be built at its Sunderland backs.” The Qazana sits on a wheelbase of 2530 mm (99. and cooling air is The center console runs the length of the cabin separating the rear admitted through the dark molding below the bumper containing a seats. Volume manufacturers have dabbled with large hatch. LED lamps are used center section of the seatbacks. Transparent acrylic moldings are used for the interior.

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Those old enough to remember Citroën’s iconic DS may Aston Martin engine. DS Inside concept hints at future Citroën design. but with a 6. we will have to wait before we can reflecting 1920s and 1930s designs. shoulder line. The DS3. A possible price range would be about $215. signer Mark Lloyd. and matching door mirrors. Ulrich Bez as a “four-seat inter- national cruiser and avant-garde luxury car. Aston Martin is still planning to introduce its four-door Rapide. will be launched in early 2010. the all-wheel-drive vehicle. Aston Martin’s Lagonda Concept. years. and flanks. “We are still very much in the concep. and China. revealed in a darkened side room in the varying from admiration to disbelief. the DS3. who added that hybrid. DS5. The design team was headed up by British de- version.2 s. which is destined and for two low-volume products a year later.” the bluff-fronted concept has a commanding presence with high waistline and letter-box rear win- Newspress Aston Martin’s Lagonda Concept uses a Mercedes-Benz GL platform but has an Aston Martin V12 engine. fitting different market niches.000 to $290. Citroën’s DS Inside concept.org . which accen. managed to inspire both. according to a Based on a Mercedes-Benz GL platform. Top speed is 305 km/h (190 PS (110-kW) diesel engine. Citroën also announced a Euro 5-compliant 150- 380 kW (509 hp) and 570 N·m (420 lb·ft). It sits on 22-in wheels. diesel.000. Citroën promises two further DS models. which revives the have thought the new concept was shamelessly riding on the DS coat- Lagonda brand name. in keeping with current marque identity philosophy but also showing the outside of the Inside. It is a serious project that could reach production in 2012-13. and flex-fuel Inside is based on the smallest of the DS concepts. but younger respondents thought the DS reference was to challenging road environments in the world. The engine will drive through a six-speed au- tomated transmission with quoted carbon dioxide emissions of 152 g/km. And Citroën was only front grille. Founded in 1899. John Kendall 14 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. is designed particularly for some of the more tails. OK until you try it in French. see the interior. the two emphasized by the two-tone color scheme featuring a vivid pink roof cars will be distinctly different. Citroën has tried to avoid the issue by suggesting that DS stands for eation between cabin.” stressed Bez. Described by Aston Martin boss Dr. Lagonda became part of Aston Martin in 1947. Nintendo’s handheld video-game console. global vehicles Aston Martin unveils Lagonda Concept Citroën DS concept to become reality in 2010 Concept cars can cause many reactions at an international motor show. There is something of the Mini about its appearance. tuate its high ground clearance. to follow. which will be available in the C4 Picasso com- mph) and 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph) acceleration time is 4. due for technology could be part of the mechanical elements of a production launch early next year. Citroën booth at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. sion. the V12. including South America. India. The DS tual stage. The production DS will not replace an existing model but is part of The name was used for a 1993 concept created by Ghia Design in 1993 the company’s new “Créative Technologie” philosophy. to produce a new Citroën model every ­six months for the next three Aston Martin also took along its new DBS Volante (convertible ver. pact multipurpose vehicle range from May 2009. Nonetheless. A diesel particulate filter Stuart Birch will be standard equipment. cues from the V12 LG6 Lagonda of the late 1930s. as well as for metropolitan Europe but not essentially for urban use. related split among potential buyers polled in France. based on the DS Inside. The car has a very large Different Spirit.0-L V12 Citroën source. together with the latest Vantage ver.0-L V12 engine produces Besides the DS Inside. the concept is the shape of things to come. Its 6. dow. Design Director Marek Reichman underlined the concept’s clear delin. generated an age- revealed at the Geneva Motor Show. based on the V8 Vantage. code-named DS4 and sion of the DBS coupe) to Geneva.

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the Ix-onic emits a claimed 149 g/km of carbon dioxide on the EU combined test cycle. under Chief Designer dynamics and off-road ability of an SUV.” Ian Cameron described the 200EX as “a touring saloon with more than a little panache and perhaps more bravado than one might have expected from a Rolls-Royce Motor Car.6-L four-cylinder engine with turbocharging and gasoline direct injection. and Santos Palissander wood veneer. Inside. unparalleled refinement.7-in) wheelbase. exquisite quality. and built on a 3295-mm (129. Integrated spoilers on each side of the rear window are Despite the modern interpretation. LED headlamps flank the modern interpretation of the Rolls-Royce The floor is covered with an ice blue ribbed carpet. Ian Cameron. Drivetrain details released were limited to the engine. is responsible for the 200EX.8 in) wide. doors open to 83˚. John Kendall 16 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Fabric with a greater focus on breathability is used for ‘Parthenon’ style and more like a jet intake. Hyundai says this has enabled designers to give the rear window a much more 3-D shape.” Newspress Hyundai’s European designers based in Germany shaped the Ix-onic concept. on the 200EX Experimental Car. and confident de- sign. long bonnet with short front overhang. the corporates the roof spoiler in the top section.7 in) wide. and dynamic Rolls-Royce that bears all the hallmarks of the great cars that have gone before it: effortless perfor- mance. was the source of the a contemporary four-door saloon that shows the direction for RR4. global vehicles Rolls-Royce shows ‘small’ model Hyundai concept debuts future powertrain Rolls-Royce unveiled the 200EX experimental car at the 2009 Geneva technology Motor Show. first seen on the Phantom too. Tires are 255/45 R 20 tires at the front and 285/40 R 20 at the rear. and black steering wheel.” said Cameron. External design features include a rear window constructed from Forthcoming Rolls Royce “RR4. and raked A-pillars.2 in) long. a Ix-onic compact SUV concept on display at the 2009 Geneva Motor new model series from Rolls-Royce due for production in 2010. cashmere blend headliner. which set the scene for the mm (72. eyeball air vents. Their design brief was simply “to create a modern. The Ix-onic offered the first sight of Hyundai’s 1. a six-speed dual-clutch automated transmission. The Show. the ice blue reflected grille.org . it is a V12. delivering maxi- mum power of 170 PS (125 kW). and drive to all four Newspress wheels through an “intelligent” transmission system. Part of the display ries the rear-hinged rear doors. is likely to draw heavily Lexan plastic developed in cooperation with SABIC Innovative Plastics. 1850 200EX follows on from the 2006 101EX.0 in) tall. violin-key switches. The five-seat design.” due in 2010. European C-segment hatchback and is said to offer the on-road driving The same group of designers and engineers. measuring 4400 mm (173. Combined with idle stop and go. The interior is finished in natural grain Crème Light leather. which moves downward automatically when the dipped beam headlamps are Rolls-Royce claims gives the widest rear access in the car industry. In other words. which the BMW subsidiary described as a design study for Hyundai’s design studio in Rüsselsheim.0 in) tall. 1948 mm (76.6 in) long. Other features include LED daytime running lights. lithe. an X-shaped visual theme is repeated throughout the cabin. Germany. The composite window also in- tures that mark it out as a Rolls-Royce—such as the elevated prow. the seat center panels. The car car. “We wanted this to be less reminiscent of the traditional in the trim seams. The 200EX is 5399 mm (212. 1550 mm (61. The switched on. and 1650 mm (65. with Cornsilk carpets. which John Kendall itself incorporates a number of violin keys and a roller-ball control. 200EX carries many design fea. is slightly larger than a Phantom Coupe launched in 2008. A blind-spot-warning light is incorporated in the There are plenty of traditional features in the interior such as the rearview mirror. designed to reduce aerodynamic drag. it is small by Rolls-Royce standards.

moves the visor to shield the driver from direct Nonlinear. Two cables are used to close it. the car with a relatively long wheelbase and Built by engineering services company Esoro. said the ebullient Rinderknecht: “At the push of a button. Swiss automotive design and engi- hicle concept unveiled at the 2009 Geneva neering company Rinspeed can be Motor Show presented the future face of all Kia relied upon to reveal a quirky con- models. wheels by AEZ. and battery interface. the rear of the passenger “bubble” rises by about 150 mm (5.0-in) absolute figures. project.3 in) The entire adaptive roof section tilts forward wide and 1600 mm (63. Number a ZEV.9 in). Inside. The Swiss Federal Ministry of Energy (Bundesamt für Energie) is s­upporting the iChange To help prevent dazzle. the concept has a curb weight of some 1050 kg rear of the roof of the three-seat Rinspeed tour line on the front grille panel is illumi. for launch later this year. industry: “It is clear that only those companies will survive that have innovative an- swers for the demands of a new automotive era. The E-LFT composite parts weigh more than 30% less than comparable steel parts. Performance figures include a claimed top speed in single occupant aerodynamic mode of 220 A central control unit gives access of the navi. which will combine the radiator grille. a sun visor.or long- crystal tread pattern.0 in) tall. haul driving. connections to the driver and front passenger Siemens’ central research department supplied integration technology for the motor. headlamps. Rinderknecht believes the adaptive The roof of Rinspeed’s iChange concept can be raised or lowered at the rear by 150 mm (5. and the car has custom-made forged alloy which continues to the rear spoiler. Power is transmitted via gation. cept at any Geneva Motor Show. ics. Number 3 concept. due Rinspeed boss Frank M. as seen on the and this year was no exception. At the front. providing to allow passenger entry to the car. lent textile finished in a matte gold color. audio. stated Esoro. It is described by the company as making The seats are upholstered in a water-repel. It has been designed body is right for a changing auto to improve aerodynamics if only the driver is on board. rear seats can be adjusted independently or The tailgate of the production Smart ForTwo represents the first series production application of folded down. large-scale production of high-strength and lightweight composite parts affordable. which includes its sunlight. air-conditioning. shod with Pirelli P Zero tires with aerodynamic shrouds. strong orthotropic FEA and crash simulation are part of its work. the rear end of the teardrop-shaped car magically pops up. how a particular forthcoming Kia model.” The zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) electric iChange is certainly innovative and can morph from single-seater (driver in a central position) to three-seater (two rear passenger seats). claimed to be the world’s Centre Europe in Frankfurt under Chief Designer first car with a body that adapts to Gregory Guillaume. Eberspächer developed an iChange-specific heating system suitable for Echoing other Geneva concepts. (2315 lb). might appear. Its electric motor produces 153 kW iChange. Stuart Birch aei-online. Details and is powered by lithium-ion batteries available extend to the tires. in varying sizes to suit the It has come up with the particular model. Weight savings was a design target from the outset. Solar panels on the top and sides of the concept’s roof provide HVAC power when required.” wheelbase and measures 1760 mm (69. 3 features a full-length panorama glass roof. nated when the engine is turned on. E-LFT production technology for Weber Automotive. which include a snow in two stack configurations.” In fact. global vehicles Kia Number 3 on sale this year? Pop-up aerodynamic roof solution from Rinspeed The Kia Number 3 Compact multipurpose ve.org aei APRIL 2009 17 . allowing an optimum Cd when only the driver is Frankfurt-designed Kia Number 3 maps out the frontal treatment for future Kia models. section. equipped with a solar sensor. E-LFT. and Internet a six-speed preselector gearbox adapted from the Subaru WRX. Developed at Kia’s Design iChange. for short.9 in) driven by an elec- tromechanical system and supported by a pair of gas struts. John Kendall The company is now developing a new process called Melt Embossing for the production of high-end thermoplastic component parts with low initial investment for structural and semi-struc- tural applications. nal roof support helps to reinforce the roof The car’s navigation system includes an energy-saving route guidance system. km/h (137 mph) with 0-100 km/h (0-62 mph) acceleration in just over 4 s. automatically Esoro develops fiber-reinforced components from initial conception to preproduction levels. The Newspress idea behind this nifty trick is to take every op- portunity to achieve improved aerodynamics. An electromechanical system raises the short overhangs. on board. it also gave an impression of the number of passengers on board. Number 3 provides seating for five. and brand logo. the white con. Rinderknecht says the comparative Cd figures have not been measured: “It is more im- portant for the thought and the vision than the Number 3 sits on a 2615-mm (103. electron- at the turn and push of a button. A diago.

Diesel or Diesel or gasoline hybrids? gasoline hybrids? Land Rover is developing its ERAD (electric rear axle drive) for use with a hybrid diesel system. to choose winning technologies. one of the most comprehensive of its type in the world. money is no longer available for multiple- with the European OEMs. companies must hone able. gasoline and diesel. Time is running out for the auto in- dustry’s uncertainty on the matter of future powertrains. Head of Laboratories at Millbrook Proving Ground. There will almost certainly be a need to pursue more than one solution. CNG (compressed natural 18 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. for most manufacturers. senior execu- tives’ stock phrase that “many possible solutions are being As the global financial crisis considered. Confident decisions have to be made because.org . hybrids remain prominent as they gain market momentum.” said Andy Eastlake. “At Millbrook.” While the gasoline-hybrid versus diesel-hybrid debate con- tinues. but chasing “many” looks like a luxury that their R&D programs and attempt will be way beyond the financial survival kit. but even they by Stuart Birch divide and subdivide between micro and full. Of all the possible solutions in the frame. including internal-combus- tion (IC) engines burning biofuel. companies will have to make deci- sions as they focus on new products to meet CO2 legislation in a declining market. researched. satellite issues still circle it. and developed” may no longer be vi- deepens. in choice answers to the single but very tough question of what particular. There is great caution. As the global financial crisis continues to tighten. debating their hybrid powertrain technology to back as the credit-crunch virus spreads to become a technology crunch. we are seeing OEM programs cut or delayed. strategies. “OEMs are now concentrating very hard on where they can put their powertrain R&D money as they realize that they can no longer support every possible solution and must narrow their focus.

Programs. This Millbrook. become complex and expensive. In reality. powered concentrating hard on where consumption of 4.” sel hybrid is the right approach for its Land Rover is working with the UK vehicle range and cites its LRX concept Technology Strategy Board on several as making the point.7 L/100 km. rear axle drive) hybrid concept. ancillary systems. off-road. as hybrids become highly sophisticated. Also. are collaborating on a new polyetheretheketone friction con. from 194 to 179 g/km. Compared with the con. with aei-online. marked that despite the higher unit cost “The next milestone on our route map of an engine and NVH challenges. with a stop-start system on the recharge the battery. hybrid and other green technologies. while claims as the world’s first intelligent CO2 emissions on the NEDC combined homogeneous-charge compression-igni. Aftermarket hybrid technology shake during shutdown. Rover’s design and technology Eastlake makes the point that. tor] micro hybrid. CO2 figures are down 8%. (19 km). cycle by better than 35% and produce a tion convergence engines such as ventional diesel Freelander. together fully capable off-road 4 x 4 system. In the U. Director of Land Rover legislation requires. The to place their R&D money.K. The applications span all-wheel- drive. Powertrain | Energy Feature a conviction that the CO2 and fuel-con. zero-emissions range of at least 12 mi Mercedes-Benz’s DiesOtto remain tion is improved by 12% in the com. He noted that one little- considered aspect of sophisticated hybrids is the effect on the nonrunning IC engine when the vehicle is being operated in electric mode over a poor road surface and subject to shaking and vibration.. Cranfield University. the kinetic ure of 120 g/km and a NEDC (New hybrid (with a flywheel energy-recovery Millbrook’s Andy Eastlake said that OEMs are now European Driving Cycle) combined fuel system). and the series hybrid. a spinoff of mechanical systems of the Freelander is all-wheel drive. and The Another change made to the regular ing running in electric mode only in Electrical Power Group. Range Rover and less than 100 g/km on Particular challenges were to reduce a Freelander-size vehicle. This was A further objective is to develop a There is also the possibility of hybrid achieved by precise control of throttle parallel hybrid drive compatible with a aftermarket solutions. the with switching off the alternator to re. is Land Rover’s diesel ERAD (electric Advanced Lead-Acid Battery duce engine load. which it The target for the REHV is to reduce gas). advances in battery tech- system for front-wheel-drive cars. vehicle would have a small three-cylin- duction diesel hybrids has already be. full-time by battery electric drive. stop-start SUV. and scaleable. facilitat- Consortium. this would mean CO2 somewhere over the time and budget bined cycle. tion with supercapacitors. consump. Of course. and sedan models. any hybrid system should remain relatively simple to achieve an early cost/benefit ratio and return. a manually switchable retrofit hybrid trol plate for the dual-mass flywheel. PSA Peugeot Citroën.org aei APRIL 2009 19 . The company be. ally. and liquid petroleum gas. der IC engine driving a generator to gun. ed hybrid vehicle (REHV). direction for future hybrids.2-L Freelander 2TD4_e. emissions below 140 g/km on a future horizon. and Mercedes- Benz. Seriously diesel European companies that are taking diesel-hybrid technology very seriously include Land Rover. It would be modular Oxford University. lieves that a production vehicle of the These include the plug-in range-extend- type would be able to return a CO2 fig. Volkswagen. Land Rover has stated that it has sumption advantages of diesel are so very extensive diesel hybrid plans. too. opening and fuel ramp-down. ide.” said Murray ures that end users expect and future Dietsch. “It will be used in conjunc- Land Rover is adamant that the die. the is a belt-ISG [integrated starter-genera- technology provides the efficiency fig. The work is funded by the UK The LRX concept indicates Land Energy Saving Trust. The company’s initial move into pro. Provector. hav- ing the rear axle electrically driven on demand. 2.

ium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are lighter. and ufacturer of hybrid products. this year with a gasoline engine. with 2.” Stop starting in 1994 Although production micro hybrid sys- tems might be regarded as a relatively recent technology. Volkswagen intro- duced one on the diesel Golf Ecomatic for MY1994. pected to reach production for MY2011 high-end sedans can be challenging. Rover quotes 2500 W·h/kg compared is 300 N·m (221 lb·ft) at the front wheels Mercedes is set to claim it as the world’s with 1400 W·h/kg for a NiMH. But perhaps the most convincing argument is the combined strength of the diesel engine on the open road and on the motorway. electric drive. returning 7.” said Prof. Claimed fuel consumption is 4. The IC engine will drive the Director of Hybrid Electric Technology generates 15 kW and step-off torque of 20 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. reducing NOx by 25%. which have a greater energy density. PSA Peugeot Citroën’s kW (275 hp). diesel is the best choice. is engine size. is benefits in terms of rapid absorption of consumption. regards the choice of diesel Peugeot plans to launch the diesel hybrid 3008 for 2011 production. “While the e-motor of a typical hy- brid model just supplements the com- bustion engine.5-L TDI IC en- gine. and a DSG (dual- clutch) transmission.0-L HDi diesel engine was seen at last particularly in stop-start operation—for are competent by today’s standards. so the TwinDrive has been designed to achieve an average of about 50 km (31 mi). vehicle with a conventional powertrain. and offer achieve a 35% reduction in CO2 and fuel has espoused the diesel hybrid. with a new 1. VW Group Chairman. Land The T84’s maximum torque delivery S400 BlueHYBRID will have a 3. compared with a similar launching its first production hybrid the charge from regenerative braking. Peugeot’s Prologue Hybrid 4 cross. The S400’s IC engine produces 205 diesel hybrid with drive to all four Eric Breton. VW decided that the limited range—just a few kilometers—in ZEV electric-drive mode of some hybrids eroded their practicality. while its electric motor wheels.9 L/100 km km and CO2 emissions an exceptionally for the NEDC combined cycle and CO2 Prologue to the diesel story low 109 g/km in the NEDC combined emissions of 190 g/km. the exact opposite is true of the TwinDrive. most economical luxury sedan with a times more useable energy per kilo.5-L V6. A diesel hybrid will produce 30-35% less CO2 than a diesel engine— so environmentally. ideal candidates for the technology. “A diesel hybrid reduces CO2 emissions by 50% compared with a gasoline engine.org . As well as cost and NVH issues. an electric motor the rears. as the 3008. for a hybrid system as a matter of com- mon sense. with the advantages of electric power in urban areas. per se. PSA Peugeot Citroën is also planning a cycle. October’s Paris Motor Show and is ex. While over—codenamed T84—concept with achieving satisfactory quality levels— nickel metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries 2. the limiting factor for diesel hybrids for cars nology and capability remain high on front wheels. The The energy-to-weight ratio is high. Its Golf TwinDrive. VW is another company that is focus- ing on diesel hybrid potential. Small diesels may not be the “need to achieve” list of every man.1 L/100 gasoline engine. Gasoline hybrids are hardly better than the best diesels in this respect. is being fleet-tested in Berlin. Distribution of power: VW is developing a diesel hybrid Golf via its TwinDrive program. large diesel-engined hybrid systems in recharging is a lengthy business. Martin Winterkorn. PSA is also looking to That is why Mercedes-Benz. The current Passat BlueMotion incorporates a development of that technology. Diesel or gasoline hybrids? Programs. Lith.5 and 200 N·m (148 lb·ft) at the rear.

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a group’s research budget reaching €5 billion. “I would love to And that is precisely the predicament in which so many have a breakthrough technology where we focus all our re.” said Daimler boss Dieter Zetsche. I do not think that companies @ aei-online. and ending up with a view—a fact that will concentrate minds very much more ZEV with battery-energy storage or a hydrogen tank and fuel. 160 N·m (118 lb·ft).” no such thing as a silver bullet. sharply on deciding likely winners and losers in the power- cell creation of electricity. The car will have another claimed first for a production car: a high-voltage lithium-ion battery. mid. The car’s systems include a stop-start function and brake energy regeneration. though. such budgets must be under constant re- stop-start. And we have to go through the entire manufacturers can only dream. Mercedes will also launch the gasoline ML450 BlueHYBRID SUV this year. and following its application to the Smart. companies now find themselves. Unfortunately. see AEI feature articles on trucks at www. cautions for a leave any of those fields untouched.and B-Class. and emissions of 127 g/km. stop-start is being fitted to several versions of the A. or long term if we were to 22 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Diesel or gasoline hybrids? Hybrid luxury is scheduled to be delivered by Mercedes- Benz this year via the S400 BlueHYBRID. As the world’s combination of all those technologies that will lead us to financial crisis continues.” he told AEI.2-L four-cylinder diesel has a combined IC/electric motor torque output of 560 N·m (413 lb·ft) and a combined fuel consump- tion of 5. combined fuel consumption of 5.org/mags/aei/5958 and on developments in China at /6135.sae. Mercedes’ has an annual re- sources and push like hell and be the first ahead of the whole search budget of about €3 billion. initially. aei Zetsche said that. It is an unprecedented pragmatic approach to new powertrain technologies.” train stakes.org technology. “but now What’s online To read more about the latest hybrid it is difficult to find an S-Class customer who does not ask when a hybrid can be bought. Also significant is the DiesOtto-powered Mercedes F700 research hybrid that combines 175-kW (235-hp) IC engine out- put with a 15-kW electric motor for a maximum torque of 400 N·m (295 lb·ft). “It is difficult to find a Mercedes-Benz S-Class customer who does not ask when a hybrid can be bought. energy management of the vehicle.org . The Vision GLK BlueTEC Hybrid with the company’s new OM651 2.9 L/100 km. The Zetsche view Daimler AG boss Dr. it is like a puzzle with many pieces. And even within the security-tight walls of Mercedes-Benz “Then you have to go for electrification. But Mercedes specialists agree that it is clean diesel hybrids that potentially present the greatest fuel savings. like us could survive short.3 L/100 km. Dieter Zetsche. beginning with research centers. with the whole Daimler industry. Mercedes thought that the hy- brid concept might be some sort of marketing tool. these are figures about which most where we have to go. “There is challenge to be ahead in all those fields at the same time. progressing through hybrids.

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Its exterior dimensions put it squarely in Europe’s A segment. They awarded the BEV to creature.8 ft).000-strong execution. the Volkswagen Golf. There is only one category and no limitation on vehicle retail price. is the industry’s only prod- shows its smarts with brilliant packaging. the human-machine interface. now in its the Best Engineered Vehicle for 2009.A winning A winning iQ iQ A conch shell on wheels? What a difference makes in SAE International’s annual Best Engineered Vehicle (BEV) award a year voting. including Nissan’s GT-R supercar. “Engineers increasingly are focusing Remarkably. and other competitive metrics. members shifted their interest The bodyshell of Toyota’s tiny iQ was influenced by to the opposite end of the vehicle spec- a ubiquitous marine trum. mass and package efficien- cy. SAE members reg- ister their votes for the BEV in an online voting process that applies standard by Jack Yamaguchi and Lindsay Brooke engineering criteria such as technical innovation.” As this year’s favorite of SAE mem- bers. Drag coefficient is less noted SAE Editorial Director Kevin than 0. SAE’s 110. global membership.org .30 Cd. the Hyundai Genesis sedan. the new iQ topped a formidable field of technology-heavy BEV contend- ers. The iQ ninth year. Toyota’s new iQ—a diminutive “micro premium” four-seat car that almost ap- pears capable of fitting into a full-size SUV’s cargo area with room to spare. and the muscular 24 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. The iQ is a lesson in ultra-efficient vehicle packaging and superb overall execution. after reviewing the ’09 BEV bal- lots. SAE’s annual BEV award. But its performance is superior to Toyota’s own B-segment Yaris. however.” Toyota’s B-segment Yaris. the new iQ is 31 in on greater overall vehicle efficiency (787 mm) shorter overall than within new-product development. bill-of-ma- terials reuse. “We expect Toyota’s iQ to be widely benchmarked because it repre- sents the current state of the art in small-car innovation. This year. Citroën’s C5. Honda’s hot-selling Fit. uct award based on peer voting within the automotive engineering profes- city-friendly efficiency. Jost. the BMW 7 Series. and superb overall sion—in this case. cost. Lotus’s Evora. per- formance and fuel efficiency. and its quality and attention to detail rival that of many midsize D-segment offerings—all from a vehicle with an overall length shorter SAE members voted Toyota’s new microcar than 3. Last year SAE members gave the top BEV honors to GM’s Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon and their clever two-mode hybrid powertrain.0 m (9.

Remarkably. To the conclusion that. Officially. steering gear all around the world! It’s a great car!” Sumitomo Wiring harness (60%) Toyota Boshoku Seating systems Yazaki Electrical relays. “We came to cube in shape and a cue to new value and lifestyle. however.” Denso HVAC Eberspächer Auxiliary heater for northern markets “Toyota engineers reach the aim of making a true four-seat car in 3 m of length. in order to ensure a sustainable future. It also connotes volved with Toyota’s hybrid vehicle program. and packaging a large car into a small one. size. He joined Toyota in 1987 upon finishing graduate study in Engineering Research at Kyoto University. economy. the iQ’s steering gear and linkage are positioned at mid-height of the front suspension struts. with a central gear takeoff. the first letter of the iQ’s name stands for indi- Five key enablers viduality. Leading the runners-up ballots for ’09 were the In 1993.org aei APRIL 2009 25 . handling. while at the same time expressing innovation and The iQ program was kicked off in late 2003 by engineers in. Note close-coupled rear seats. fuse box. the car’s 2985-mm (117. iQ.” of the company’s vehicle R&D at the time of the iQ’s 2008 A new. Vehicle Feature To optimize interior space utilization. The capital Q stands for quality. wiring harness (40%) aei-online.5-in) overall length is Forty-six year old Hiroshi Nakajima was the iQ’s Chief Engineer.” KYB Rear hydraulic shock absorbers “Originality. Advics Foundation brake hardware Aisin Transmissions Bosch Common-rail diesel direct injection What SAE members Bridgestone Tires said about the Toyota iQ Daihatsu Gasoline and diesel engines “A unique fusion of new thinking/design. friendly with the NSK Steering column environment. dedicated front-wheel-drive platform underpins the Geneva Motor Show unveiling. the nameplate represents Toyota’s aim “to there was a need for a radical change in vehicle packaging. price.” disprove the conventional fallacy of vehicle size hierarchy that recalled Vice Chairman Kazuo Okamoto. ing the Yaris and Lexus RX. who was in charge small must be basic. Nakajima. intelligence. The “inverted” final drive/ differential unit also is positioned ahead of the transverse powertrain axis instead of the typical rear position. high technology—the iQ should be delivered Showa Front MacPherson struts. mainly designing ex- stylish Opel Insignia sedan and Ford’s stalwart and much. Pontiac G8. terior and interior components for a variety of models includ- improved F-150 (see sidebars). he moved to body engineering. Nakajima Toyota iQ Supplier Highlights was first assigned to the manufacturing engineering division.

0-L gaso. leav- Despite its tiny exterior.” of the iQ’s system is used in both left. He said the interior noise bogey was a European D-segment vehicle. Safety first: rear-end airbag The iQ exterior design was inspired by a conch shell—“Truly nature’s beautiful and geometric creation. add- ing that the iQ’s passengers can carry on normal conversation volume levels through the car’s speed range. the front seatback is thinner by 40 mm (1. No spare wheel is carried. This arrange- ment pushes the front wheels to the extreme corners of the car. facilitating ingress 800 mm (31. Curb weight of the 1. and rides on a 50:50 split and can be folded flat.48 ft3).4 in). to maximize space utilization.” noted Nakajima. The fifth enabler. capable of line-engined model is about 900 kg (1984 lb).5-seater. “Apply this to a Yaris and you would have gotten an addi- tional 120 mm of room lengthwise.7 in). with a central gear takeoff. The accelerator pedal position is closer to the front bumper face by 120 mm (4. Second. Yaris’s 660 mm (26 in).org .9 in) more stroke than the driver’s seat. according to Nakajima. is the HVAC unit devel- expect a fourth adult to fit in behind me. It provides 50 mm (1.7-in) wheelbase. however. Seats are supplied by Toyota kieretsu seating specialist Toyota Boshoku. I would personally call this car a versus the Yaris HVAC unit’s 42 L (1. The seat employs a conventional urethane foam cush- ion and has an integral head-restraint. Nakajima is proud of the iQ’s NVH qualities. the iQ can accommodate four 170. The rear part of the console is eliminated for rear passengers to stretch their legs. occupying a 33. and by far the most significant in terms of “With myself—185 cm tall. A winning iQ enablers for the iQ’s impressive package efficiency. the right-side mount is a fluid-filled type. Nakajima observed with candor.1 in) wide. It may be tween the front-seat hip points is 710 mm (28 in) versus the the world’s smallest of its kind in a passenger vehicle. He cited five The iQ’s seating positions are unique for Toyota passenger vehicles. and Toyota’s C-segment Auris’s 705 mm (27. with a blower placed in the upper part of the unit in- rear-seat hip-point is about the same as the new (larger) Fiat stead of the usual passenger foot area. Wider spacing between the front seats allows side-by-side placement of the shift and parking-brake levers. The third enabler is the flat composite-plastic 32-L (8.8-ft3) volume. from an attaché-case size to a 250-L (8. The iQ front-passenger seat’s fore-and-aft adjustment range is an extraordinarily long 290 mm (11.9-in) -tall people. 1500 mm (59 in) tall. in that the fronts are pushed outward from the car’s centerline.6 in) ver- sus the Yaris’s. 500 and BMW‘s Mini. Fourth. ing room for a shallow hidden storage bin under the floor. of the iQ’s three engine mounts. providing extra knee space to the rear-seat oc- cupant.” described Nakajima. a small child maybe. enlarging luggage space 2000-mm (78. more sound absorption materials are applied to critical body parts in the rear. The iQ is and egress as well as seating flexibility.7 in).18-ft3) volume in reasonable comfort. two Nakajimas can sit used in Toyota vehicles. The distance be- The Denso HVAC unit was purpose-designed for the iQ. at mid-height of the front suspension struts. steering gear and linkage are positioned higher than the norm. The rear seatbacks are 1680 mm (66. This allows the rear wheels to be located forward. oped and supplied by Denso. It is the smallest HVAC of any On the other side of the cabin. I don’t space saving. The windshield is a sound-insulating type used in Toyota’s luxury cars.” tial unit positioned ahead of the transverse engine-transmis- sion axis instead of the ubiquitous rear position. taking two sets of golf clubs. Also. The basic design 3. cm (66.4-gal) fuel tank placed under the front-seat floor area. damping noise and vibrations from the powertrain.and right-hand drive The distance between the passenger-side IP face and the models. “Our designers digitized their surfaces and sec- 26 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. according to Nakajima. the drivetrain has an “inverted” final drive/differen- iQ program was “to disprove the conventional fallacy of vehicle size hierarchy that small must be basic. Chief Engineer Hiroshi Nakajima’s primary bogey with the First.5-L (1.5 in) shorter than the B-segment Yaris. Because of the short distance that separates occupants from the rear wheels. and the rear pair placed inward. sitting behind the wheel.

21 ergy-absorbing member as well as the [car] frame.” For Europe-market iQs. multi-layer structure designed to absorb energy. mated body and about 60. 67 hp) at 6000 cessitated to provide adequate steering lock in a transverse.and mini-car special- unique powertrain configuration that push the wheels further ist.org aei APRIL 2009 27 . crashes and lifts up and holds the passenger in place. versus more conventionally kinked front rails ne.0 L . The straight side rails are advantageous in ed switch engages ECO mode.” but their true function is to smooth airflow. and maintaining higher transmission ratios for optimum fuel Crashworthiness was another serious development objec. with audio control performed by Additionally.8% by mass in the underbody structure. Vehicle Feature tions. we used the front-suspension carrying frame as an en. tive. housed in the top opening area and navigation system is mounted in a specific taller Vee console. “Because of the car’s very short Toyota claims a Japanese urban 10/15-mode fuel consump- length. the side airbags are transmission. Inspired by the manta ray. Inside. the car is equipped with a standard rear-end a steering-wheel spoke-mounted switch. moderating throttle opening structural stiffness and impact-crash-energy absorption. side VVT-i. aei-online. driver’s. tion of 23 km/L. Its rated output is 68 PS JIS (50 kW. the Vee-shaped center console was inspired by a As for mandatory rear-end collision evaluation. Toyota’s safety en- tors. the Toyota-owned small. used an opposing crash vehicle in the two-ton weight catego- HVAC controls and display are placed on the center console ry running into the iQ’s backend to ensure a survival space. rpm and 90 N·m (66 lb·ft) at 4800 rpm. Nakajima asserted. inline Slight bulges on the front and rear bumper corners serve as aerodynamic enhancements. applying their marvelous findings to the car’s exterior. or an updated type 1ND-TV common-rail. economy.” larger and protect upper and lower torsos. leaves no room for a knee airbag. The flat-bottom steering wheel facilitates entry and exit. A floor console-mount- engine vehicle. deploying downward in case of rear-end collision. Daihatsu. Audio control is by a steering-wheel push button and IP display. the first of its kind. designed and supplies the engine equipped with intake- to the front. An optional GPS airbag. with the passenger side further forward than the each corner of the front and rear bumpers are called “protec. Side-by-side shifter and parking brake leave rear foot space. Nakajima gineers devised a unique thigh airbag that inflates on frontal said the car’s drag coefficient is less than 0.30 Cd. and the theme is repeated with other interior trim. Toyota manta ray. thanks to the iQ’s CVT. and on a slightly more real-life JC08 mode.9% by mass in the upper three-cylinder DOHC gasoline engine displacing 1. A single swiveling map lamp is another rational and func- tional item in the interior. The asymmetrical He pointed out that a long inverted triangular bulge on dashboard. to Toyota’s electronically controlled steel-push-belt Super- The front side frame members run straight. Toyota offers two engine choices: The iQ is equipped with nine airbags.0-L triple with a five-speed manual occupants are more outboard than normal. the latter equating to about 50 mpg. the iQ’s minimalist central console has only HVAC controls. face in the standard version. 99 g/km CO2 The iQ’s body is a conventional welded-steel unibody with The iQ’s powertrain for the Japanese market is the 1KR-FE high high-tensile steel content—24. It is a km/L. Since the front-seat the gasoline 1KR-FE 1.

HVAC ously adjust drive torque between the front and rear axles as conditions module. A caster angle of 8.1 in) long over. steering shaft. their efforts resulting in 0. the Insignia is available in front. handling. A young chassis engineer told AEI during the iQ’s intro- Insignia is offered with nine engine choices—five gasoline and four duction that the front MacPherson strut and rear twist-beam diesel ranging from 82 to 194 kW (110 to 260 hp). said to be much more maneuverable than another ultra-short tem.26 Cd on the Sports Tourer.7 in) longer than the Vectra. All iQ models are equipped with equal-length driveshafts fuel economy. Additional chassis smarts are provided by an optional FlexRide harness). car’s roll-understeer characteristics. a rare feature General Motors made a big splash last summer when it unveiled the in small-displacement diesels. combination rear lamps. the new 2. according to an engineer.0-L CDTI sensors. Engineers also focused on reducing aero.” the engineer ple. 3rd stop lamp. A winning iQ four-cylinder turbodiesel displacing 1. The diesel em- Second place: Opel/Vauxhall Insignia ploys a 1600-bar (23. electrical/electronic distribution (except ECM require.” Nakajima stressed his team’s goal for the iQ’s vehicle dy- Produced in Russelsheim. Pressure sensors Bridgestone Turanza and Potenza tires integrated in the glow plugs measure combustion pressures as high as Continental Gauge cluster. “The front shock absorber’s inner rod diameter is about turbocharger.27 Cd on the standard Insignia. This was achieved by adding an under- body panel to minimize turbulence. The engine is Show. namics: “Combine low. it is the overall execution of a 99 g/km number. fuel lines ZF Clutch. headlamp cleaning device Mitsubishi Electric Starter motor for HFV6 and FAMB engines TI Automotive Fuel tank top lines. displays. The gas- While its exterior form influenced by the GTC concept has been oline engine version is Toyota’s CO2 emissions champion with widely lauded within the design community. stability. territory. “Superior structural stiffness was our target. The aesthetically bold new Insignia replaces the lackluster Vectra mated to a new six-speed manual transmission with greatly and moves GM Europe’s D-segment flagship into decidedly premium improved shift feel and reduced internal friction. For stability. MagnaSteer. Ficosa Auto-transmission shifter trim. Peak torque the same as the Lexus RX’s. It combines a 160-hp (119-kW) 2. airbag ECU and sensors. The iQ’s steering is by a column-mounted. within a claimed accuracy of 98%. electronically sumption (MVEG) with manual transmission in the Sports Tourer is 8. a lane-departure-warning sys. Average con. Toyota engineers explored and refined the dynamic drag.3° is 0.2-ksi) piezo injector system. and a new generation of adaptive lighting with nine settings to car. vacuum brake booster lines. etc.8-in) wheelbase. The new model rides on a 2737-mm (107. Opel Insignia does it the best. ultrasonic and inclination sensor and sounder mechatronic chassis system. fuel and brake bundles. fuel injectors. hoses and reservoirs. front camera (for traffic sign recognition.36 L. The largest gasoline engine is the 2.and all. external temp sensors Insignia’s optional Adaptive 4x4 system equipped with electronic Cooper-Standard Brake lines. 5 emission standards. lane departure warning). It generates 162 kW (220 hp) at 5300 rpm. redesigned outside about twice as acute as that of the Yaris. Either engine satisfies Euro 4 emissions standards. knock. 180 bar (2610 psi) in each individual cylinder up to 300. surge tank. quick 15. Its Insignia’s long technology list includes a Front Camera System (FCS) turning radius. dynamic limited slip differential uses sensor inputs from the ESP. while being very visually attractive and at a mainstream cost. I-shaft 28 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online.3:1 steering ratio and ample lock ensure agility. cooling.. For exam. of downsized cylinder displacements with forced induction. the new 2.0- and 2. and a 10-mm (0.000 times per inertial measurement unit (sensor cluster). fixed compressor. gasoline DI including ECUs. Automotive seals and accelerator pedal and a Haldex hydraulic rear clutch to continu- Delphi Hydraulic steering gears.org . The sedan measures 4830 mm (190.9 L/100 km. wheel speed minute. sensor. pedal sensor.5 hp) at 2009 Opel/Vauxhall Insignia sedan at the British International Motor 3400 rpm and 190 N·m (140 lb·ft) at 2000 rpm. Eberspächer Startup catalytic converter for 2.4-in) lower ride height. A five-door Sports Tourer wagon version followed at the Paris show. meet specific road conditions. all certified to Euro suspension are damped by sturdy twin-tube shock absorbers. is only 3. It is claimed to improve vehicle stability and provides real-time. FlexRide ZF Lenksysteme Steering column. a closed-off grill.and mid-speed agility and high-speed wheel-drive versions. the Smart Fortwo. It is also 150 kg (330 The car’s packaging is unique on such a short wheelbase.8 ft).8-L gasoline V6. safety. The gasoline engines reflect GM Europe’s strategy the front pair by Showa and the rear by KYB. window-regulator and door- latch cable Hella Headlamps. body control module BiTurbo diesel features two-stage turbocharging and closed-loop cylin- der pressure control to minimize engine-out emissions.8-L gasoline engines selected driving modes. And it is that can read and memorize road signs. underfloor cat for 2.” all—about 220 mm (8. continuous damping control. mirrors. DVD800 navigation system. Its CO2 emission level is about on par with “Most of the [2009 BEV] candidate vehicles are well-engineered the Prius at 106 g/km.9 m (12. electric park brake. curb to curb. Nakajima proclaimed. A lb) heavier. electronically controlled damping via three driver. The lowest CO2 emitter among the Insignia diesel models is the Opel Insignia Supplier Highlights ecoFlex. On the high end.” wrote one engineer.0-L with direct injection is equipped with a twin-scroll said. cle-weight ratio. based off of existing platforms and providing balanced performance. It is rated at 66 kW (88. The diesel model is Insignia and GM’s use of the new Global Epsilon architecture that clearly really a performance car with an outstanding torque-to-vehi- has SAE members singing the car’s praise.0-L turbodiesel four with Behr CRFM reduced aerodynamic drag to trim fuel consumption and reduce CO2 Bosch Common-rail diesel injection. brake booster. dual mass flywheel. “I believe the from the forward-mounted final drive. various engine emissions to below 140 g/km. seat memory system.” of 350 N·m (258 lb·ft) is on tap between 2000-4000 rpm. which produces 194 kW (260 hp).8-L turbocharged V6.

15:1 final drive ratio. Other BEV voters who preferred the F-150 noted the new truck’s signifi- cantly improved fuel efficiency—a top engineering priority of Chief Engineer Matt comprises front 14-in (356-mm) ventilated discs O’Leary and his 1000-strong development team on the P415 program. Talk about giving truck buyers EBD and ABS. Nakajima said that was considered an “evolutionary” step forward. module. O’Leary noted in an AEI inter- no other factory could accommodate the car. also benefits from a 6% reduction in aerodynamic drag. and rear 180-mm (7-in) diameter drum brakes. and a cargo management system. window lift and multifunction switches. smart power distribution junction box. for the 5. the ’09 F-150 is approximately Federal-Mogul Intake and exhaust seats for the 4. aei preciate the sheer build complexity of American pickups. various NVH reduction treatments. Corolla. there is no plan to either sell or build the with improved aerodynamics. Ford F-150 Supplier Highlights That significant achievement. rain and light sensors Magna Ladder frame (dual-sourced with Dana) Meridian Automotive Magnesium radiator aperture Material Sciences Sound-damping steel panels Multimatic Tailgate step system Tenneco Automotive Exhaust muffler TI Automotive Brake lines Yazaki North America All wiring. Vehicle Feature controlled. fering great useful options. and low-roll- with the gasoline version. The steel ladder frame.6-L 2-V V8 camera. O’Leary noted that ex- tensive interviews with truck owners and Ford dealers enabled the P415 team to reduce build complexity from approximately two billion combinations on the pre- vious F-150 to “just” 10 million on the 2009 model. thermal frame. transmission oil cooler lines. fuel delivery modules. brake line assemblies. Because of as any vehicle development organization in the world.org aei APRIL 2009 29 . oxygen sensor structure. cab structure. Even though the ’09 F-150 its unique size and proportion. new lightweight steel seat structures developed by Ford’s in-house driver seat module. The iQ is manufactured in the Takaoka factory. which is available on SuperCrew XL and XLT short-bed 4x2 The Japanese model is fitted with Bridgestone’s models.3 kg) lighter and 10% stiffer in torsion compared with the previous (P221) Automotive chassis fuel bundle. retractable box-side steps. the assembly is mounted “It’s a truck that keeps on improving on past design and safety features. Behr Radiator and condenser for all engine families In the process they exceeded newly raised internal quality targets while reducing Bosch Electronic stability control system. transmission mounts. engine emission tubes. fuel injectors. the F-150’s SFE (superior fuel efficiency) package delivers an EPA- plied by Advics. new truck’s 0.6-L.403 Cd is the lowest in the segment. electronic throttle body Ford engineers claim that the chassis and structural mass savings offset mass Dana Ladder frame (dual-sourced with Magna) gained through new standard features such as larger cabs and cargo boxes. wheel speed sensors. electronic throttle body for 4. This was achieved using hydroformed rails in the fully-boxed frame’s front management system. engine the number of physical prototypes by 40% through greater use of virtual tools.. is 25 lb Cooper-Standard Fuel tank bundle. 3. V6 and 4. Despite adding literally a truckload of features. along with major mid-program engineering changes (including new sheetmetal). various belts and trim aperture from Meridian Automotive. hydraulic solenoid and control unit for Cost and mass savings were also realized in P415’s new chassis and body auto transmission. control unit. Ford’s F-series engineering group knows its business and its customers as well the home of Yaris. radiator hose and heater hose section. and incorporating many new customer-delight fea- iQ in the U. seat memory system. side- curtain airbags.S.4-L turbodiesel V8. kept O’Leary’s team going at a grueling pace. brackets. static and dynamic Other lightweighting techniques include a cast-magnesium radiator support sealing. Advics also supplies that ing-resistance tires. passive antitheft system.5-L EcoBoost turbocharged gasoline B250 tire that employs “Donut” construction. pistons for the 4. an Aisin affliate. engine and tion and crossmembers. Ford claims the Ecopia low-rolling-resistance tires of 165/65R15 size. dual-sourced from Dana and Magna. brake system. Average fuel economy across the ’09 F-150 model range is 8-12% greater than in 2007. and of- high for space utilization. optional backup purge valves. The rear two-thirds of the frame is HSS. rear disc brakes are the best of both worlds. AdvanceTrac. (11. powertrain control components. electric-power-assisted rack-and-pinion system. fuel tank/pump control unit. For Europe.6-L 2-V and 3-V V8s Ficosa Door latch cable GKN Driveline Electronic limited slip differential Hella 3rd stop lamp. view the many challenges of combining rugged style. and rigorous mass-reduction targets on all interior plastic booster. exhaust seats 100 lb (45 kg) lighter than the equivalent ’08 model. As noted. interior lighting. and Scion xD. while stability control (VSC) system is standard as well as still providing 7500-lb (3402-kg) towing capability. power running boards. SFE combines the base 4. tailgate step. It is built up with a Showa steering gear and Third place: Ford F-150 NSK column. In development for The European model may likely use the brand’s MY2011 are two new engine options: a 3. and high-strength (HSS) and ultra-high-strength alloys in the center sec- assemblies. stowable bed extender. sup. O’Leary said. hydroformed-steel square tubing in the Continental Sync module.4-L. brake seat engineering team. The package.6-L three-valve V8. power distribution box aei-online. superior utility and payload Currently. tures while minimizing mass and cost. Indeed. although the company has been gaug. Toyota’s vehicle rated 15 mpg city/21 mpg highway—best-in-class among full-size pickups.” summarized one SAE member about Ford’s 2009 The gasoline-powered model’s brake system F-150. Passenger-car engineers often cannot ap- ing customer interest. industry-exclusive Multimatic-sourced Delphi Advanced steering column. 18-in aluminum wheels. 6R80 six- specified with the diesel model and are optional speed automatic.

and injection and variable valve timing to improve efficiency.” said Ken Kridner. Given the wide range of engine sensing technologies used today. “It depends on the technology you’re using. the increase in sensor usage is hard to quantify. Engine Management System Manager at General Motors. But it is significant. 30 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. emissions. according to iSuppli Senior Analyst Richard Dixon. That means shipments will hit nearly 200 million by 2013. “When you get into cam phasing and cylinder deactivation. but we’ve probably seen a 25% increase in sensors.Engine upgrade With displacements headed downward but output expectations undiminished. growth should average 6% an- nually over the next five years. Improved sensors let General Motors’ 3.” In pressure-sensing alone. you see a significant increase in the number of sensors.org . There has been huge growth in sensing over the past few years as engine designers attempt to boost engine power with- out altering any other parameters. by Terry Costlow E ngine designers have been challenged to deliver more power with less engine displacement while also saving fuel and reducing emissions. Foremost among the tools they are using are the sensors that provide input for electronic con- trol units.6-L V6 employ direct efficiency. evolving sensor technologies and strategies are helping to give a boost to engine performance.

Features such as variable valve tim. these electronic systems will be Sensors move into a virtual world It has usually been the rule that monitoring another parameter meant adding another sensor.” said Dan Sweeny. provide accurate information that is up. independent from their related Powertrain Engineering Director at variable valve timing and cylinder deac- gasoline engines.” said Steve Smith. Clever engineers are increasingly using input from a couple sen- sors to monitor a third parameter. sensors are getting smaller. Minor measure temperature. position. tivation. detection function. To do that. even the Denso. which deter. “We look at the air/fuel mix and detect it based on the oxygen sensor. determine the level of Terry Costlow ethanol in fuel. Engine Management System Manager at GM. and gasoline gine sensors. That saves component costs and complexity. Other sensors are being used to virtually monitor other aspects of emissions control. “By referencing a lookup table resident in the EEPROM of a pres- sure transducer. GM’s 3. the first E85 vehicles had an ethanol sensor. Ethanol sensing impacts both fuel consumption and emis- sions. However. helping these designers tweak existing dated at high speeds. Sometimes. aei-online. it’s rolled back so the engine can have a up to a solid improvement. Coupled with new functions such as sensors. these virtual-sensing systems must cross- reference engine speed (rpm) and barometric pressure. In start-stop systems. Sensors let engineers more precisely direct injection all rely on sensors that crank sensors must include a reverse control every aspect of engine activity. These solid-state parts measure a range of parameters. This technique is already seeing use in production.” Many virtual-sensing applications are in critical aspects of vehicle operation. Focusing on accuracy ing. adding only the code needed to determine the additional parameter.6-L engine uses an oxygen sensor to mines the altitude of the vehicle.org aei APRIL 2009 31 . back. Increasingly. systems (MEMS). Hybrid systems have their own set of seamless start. For example. the crank will change positions. faster. “The majority of E85 vehicles have virtual ethanol sensors. but General Motors has largely eliminated that part. he added. exhaust stream components such as NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO (carbon monoxide) may be predicted using sensors in others parts of the system. so improvements in a few basic operations and a range of other parameters that let the crank sensor needs to see how much such as fuel injection can together add engines run at very high precision. and more precise. The components “Sometimes when the vehicle rolls systems and add new functions. Transportation Sales Director at Custom Sensors & Technologies. Electronics | Powertrain Feature Denso’s cam-crank sensor has Many of the sensors used to provide evolved to address the needs of more input are microelectromechanical start-stop engines. MEMS sensors improve performance over alternatives. The advent of virtual sensing has changed that. we may be able to determine oil temperature rela- tive to a specific lubricant when we know the media’s pressure. Sometimes. other times they make it possible to develop new systems. simplest hybrid systems can impact en.” said Ken Kridner. pressure. Virtual sensing is also being used to yield more information on oil properties. cylinder deactivation.

which positively impacts both emissions and efficiency.” tively improving accuracy. “We can adjust for the combustion process. “The industry’s looking at parts that may see cated control algorithms and improve- use in five to seven years. The next step will be to offer the sensor as a standalone device more filtering and compensation. Management for Hella Electronics Corp. One way to get the utmost in precision is to place sensors right in the middle of the Engineers are making big strides in soft- activity they are observing.” Kristoff Coddens. silicon gallium arsenide.” said Dave Monk. so it has to be protected from eters that alter sensor performance. automotive engineers always Terry Costlow need to balance their goals of improving performance with the need to keep costs down.” said that in software.” even be the same type of material.” Kridner said. time. which is critical input. before long. But silicon is fragile. improved tools make it possible to do gines with glow plugs. That is simple for jobs like airflow. using it to adjust for changes in when engineers want to place sensors deep inside the engine.” said Mark The sensors must be included early accuracy is very important because you Brainard. perfor- 32 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Sensor Business Unit Manager at Melexis. “There’s a lot of design effort up front so you optimize the system. The sensor provides a feedback loop on racy. Small size makes temperature. but it is extremely difficult ware. the task. Automotive Sensors Product Manager at Melexis. Sensor Business Unit becoming a reality outside the lab. to improve ruggedness.” ments in the sensor performance lead to Some note that.” Kridner said. contactless inductive sensors provide more accuracy in turbos even when temperatures rise.org . They are already seeing use in diesels. effec- on gasoline engines. There is optimism that they will migrate to gasoline ally associated with long timeframes. long track record and the low cost usu- sors are integrated into glow plugs. bution. which is both good and bad.” Advanced electronics now make it viable to use different technologies. That gives critical elements in the drive to meet systems. engineers may have to turn to silicon-on- insulator. position sensor.” Monk said. “It is currently being offered on high-end auto-combustion en. and other param- it easier to embed them in cylinders. which will response of a sensor or alter its accu- provide exacting detail on engine operation. but they are now being displaced as alternatives pro- vide improved performance at effective price points. for decades already.” said Kristoff “It looks like the Holy Grail. high temperatures and harsh materials like gasoline. “Cylinder-pressure sensing is likely to become a mainstream technology in the near Modern programming techniques and future.” Advances in hardware are not the Inside job: sensors move into cylinders only factors in improved performance. Vice President of Program in the design. “Small imprecisions can lead to large losses in fuel economy. in cylinder pressure and temperature sensors. sensors for this application must be fast enough to the performance of sensors that have a follow combustion-process dynamics. Engine upgrade Hella’s contactless inductive position sensor help turbos run more efficiently. That’s a shift from past need to control the spark and fuel distri. Software can also be used to enhance Along with size and ruggedness. For example. new fuel efficiency standards. added fairly late in the development which “drift” when they get hot. “The more precisely the turbo system set new levels of accuracy is no simple “With something like a crankshaft. where sensors could often be them an edge over Hall Effect sensors. where sen. “More sophisti- Manager at Freescale Semiconductor. can control airflow to the engine. Conventional Hall Effect sensors were used in turbos for years. This probably will not occur overnight. or other alternatives. These sensors are small silicon chips. In newer applications. “There are effects that can delay the Those are big challenges slowing the adoption of in-cylinder sensing.” Coddens said. better the fuel economy. accuracy. Observers note that it will be a while before “Lambda sensors have been in use this new advance is proven effective enough for widespread use. they may be something besides silicon to get to the Though there is a trend to higher temperature needed and to meet corrosion levels. “In-cylinder sensors may not more efficient and cleaner engines. Deploying these sensors in systems that process. [both] Coddens.

often an ASIC (ap. power. the transistors stop work- ing power brings a number of benefits. there is a push to inte- grate multiple sensors in a single pack- age. When sensor. but they do not “We want to use more smart sensors magnetoresistive element with an IC have transistors. “If you need to understand the pressure and temperature of a fluid. Electronics | Powertrain Feature Accuracy and cost will always be tradeoffs in sensors. MEMS sensors are One is that network wiring can be used. ing. resistant. “Exhaust sensors operate in very- adding a bit of intelligence to packages.” Kridner integrated in the sensor. The processor can analyze the devices will not fit.” Though it is quite common to com- bine sensors for measuring parameters such as temperature and pressure. you don’t lose as This intelligence. mance may win out. adding intelligence does with a minimal amount of processing not alter the package size. The associated network- ing costs often outweigh the cost of a  standalone sensor. cost cutting reigns supreme.” Sweeny said. much. we use a also made of silicon. functions. Discrete components sometimes offer more flexibility and lower costs. critical steps that let engineers add new around 150°C. aei-online. also makes it simpler to improve there are some applications where logic precision. the number one factor is cost. Automotive Sensors Product Manager at Freescale Semiconductor.org aei APRIL 2009 33 . a technique commonly called sen- sor fusion.” plication-specific integrated circuit) Typically.” Sweeny said. said Freescale’s Dave Monk. there are quite some engine designers can monitor a range hurdles for a large-scale adoption of of parameters. “By increasing intelligence on a “That gives you more precision. mation. you’d like to combine both sensors into one device to reduce space.” Kridner said. “Although it is attractive from a con. so they are more heat to reduce the number of wires. sensor fusion. “Customers will back away from accuracy if there’s a signifi- cant cost benefit.” The more the merrier Though engineers want more and more input.” close to the source. that combination is not always the best way to go. “For variable valve timing.” said Dave Monk. A growing number of companies are controller is working with precise infor. they do not want more and more sensor packages. “In manifold absolute pressure and barometric absolute pressure that are commoditized. As with most aspects of electronics. “We’re trying to combine as many as possible into one component. There are also areas Smarter packages input and prepare digital data so the where logic chips cannot be used. However. Freescale offers an array of sensors so ceptual standpoint. we can combine two or three you put the chip that does the analysis wires. but in more mature designs. Adding these chips is one of the high-temperature environments.” Coddens said. At Adding even a small amount of process. aei said.

7 have a piston. maximum 2010. the ideal situation would be to provide variable valve lift. technology report technology report Powertrain MCE-5 VCRi engine offers high output in small package MCE-5 Development. when the system will rod.” said Rabhi. “Normally you Peugeot 407 in the Green bocharging.” Rabhi ex- in France. engine. said Mr. a equipped with its variable. displayed a equipped with two-stage tur. but such a system is not yet available for the VCRi system. Compression is varied by altering the height of a sec- ondary piston.org . Rabhi. from cylinder. company quotes combined. lean-burn strategies are served.0 L/100 km for piston. We have improve- ments to make in the com- bustion chamber geometry. plained to AEI. two racks. so you compression-ratio four-stroke power output is 217 hp (160 be applied to a direct-injection have three new parts in the engine technology. variable valv­e tim. “The brake specific fuel consump- tion (BSFC) map has to be considered as an intermediate one because we work on the combustion chamber at the moment. Gear teeth on the opposite side of VCRi can vary the compression ratio from 6.0:1. that the system reduces inter- Compression Ratio. and a compression ratio L/100 km and has a target of crankshaft.” Rabhi also claims company calls VCRi (Variable rpm and maximum torque 420 The technology was in. based the 1484-cm³ gasoline engine.” The variable-valve-timing system reduces the valve over- lap in high-compression mode because less overlap is need- ed. In European testing.0:1 by raising and lowering the the wheel engage on a sec- drive piston in the cylinder bore. cycle fuel consumption of 6. ond rack attached to the bot- 34 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online.0:1 to 15. gent). vented by Vianney Rabhi. Here we have a powered by an engine that can be varied between less than 6. a rod. the mission system. HCCI strategies. The compression ratio can be rently head of strategy and The engine will support Figures provided by the varied independently for each development at the company. a wheel. The height is altered hydraulically. But as Mr. and a Pavilion at the Geneva Show ing. It also re- moves the potential for con- tact between valves and the piston crown. which the kW) between 4000 and 5000 gasoline engine. cur. and a crankshaft. N·m (310 lb·ft) at 1500 rpm. which moves vertically in a chamber parallel to the drive piston. Rabhi pointed out.0:1 and 15. “It is based on a gear trans. nal friction. which engages the teeth of a gearwheel whose pivot point is the “small end. intelli. “HCCI and all company suggest that. The secondary piston is attached to a rack.” attached to the top bearing of the connecting rod. 6.

As €44 million in 2009. Rolls Royce.berlin-partner.hotims. telematics and logistics are active here. the drive region. Mobility for the 21st century. wheel and connecting rod. the large gearwheel www.org .zab-brandenburg.businesslocationcenter.de causing the drive piston to rise www. the rack reduced. over 60 technical partners and proximity to decision-makers and markets. Leading companies in the automotive and rack has a finer rack on its piston is lowered in the bore aerospace industries as well as in railway techno- opposite face. Bombardier. raising the com- pression ratio.de/mobilitaet in the bore. a small gear wheel. As the second- THE GERMAN C APITAL REGION MORE VALUE FOR YOUR INVESTMENT aeix. the secondary piston moves John Kendall Your contact to the region: down.com/22868-235 aei-online. technology report 11: take off 20 Ready for rn ati o n al in B ra n d e nburg Inte Airport Berl The essential components of the VCRi system include the large gear wheel and the two racks which can alter the height of the drive piston to vary the compression ratio.de pivots around the small end. low costs. Daimler and many related moves up and down against MCE-5 Development has network suppliers – all profit from the strategic the small gear wheel transmit. and development to exceed ding infrastructure. ting the piston’s motion to the expects investment in research above average productivity levels and an outstan- crankshaft via the large gear. This ary piston moves up. www. which engages and the compression ratio is logies. The development of innovative mobility solutions has a long tradition in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital tom of the drive piston. More value for your investment.

very wide range compression ratio adjustment.org . ence from an earlier Lotus the variable compression ratio der pressure. a turbocharged. every bit as durable and reli. although the we would expect the engine to What you need to have with a The engine uses the Orbital test variant on display had the be slightly lower than a four. “That is entirely vali. so everything “With a spark-ignition engine.0:1. it cannot run a three-way catalyst be- The Lotus Omnivore test cause you have excess air. The VCR two-stroke allows enough because it cannot run the fuel. Turner. we should get low NOx. (VCR). able as you would need in an eccentric arrangement that just moved across a very big two-stroke unit designed to automotive engine.” The charge trapping valve is a mechanism that continu- ously varies the opening point of the valve. so you want to gen- erate as little as possible even if you have NOx aftertreat- ment. injector positioned to one stroke. ing the compression ratio. So suffer from throttling loss. said Omnivore prototype engine at in outboard engines. all the VCR mechanism onto the cylinder as well as the fuel exhaust valve. wet sump. Theoretically. the transfer ports arranged at made from proprietary compo. but you can’t renewable fuels by varying the compression ratio. vari.” trolling its emissions well using compressed air to inject side. Without the valvetrain won’t be needed in a produc. two-stroke is a means of con- FlexDI direct-injection system. You engine has the potential can have a catalyst to control to improve efficiency using CO and HC. So you run it essentially in HCCI (homogenous charge compression ignition) mode. technology report Powertrain Lotus begins tests on VCR two-stroke Lotus unveiled its latest dated and in mass production and out very simply via the sim. “We can control the closing point via this mechanism and that allows us to trap more or less exhaust gas in the cylin- der.0:1 to nearly renewable or gasoline fuels. explained Turner. 50.” said Turner. The charge trapping valve. a separate cylin­der head. “puck.” The project is really about 36 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. “We “The two-stroke is the so- the testing program. Research at Lotus told AEI. That probably because the friction is a lot project. but it can be able-compression.” Jamie Turner. have a catalyst to control NOx as easily. the exhaust nents. The something the same height as mass. fundamentally you have to Omnivore is a piston-ported puck up and down at the top and in actual fact you could get control the air mass entering two-stroke with a modified of the cylinder.” gine can vary the compression while operating on a range of The monoblock comprises The system designed so far is ratio between 8. That will influence the compression ratio. the two stroke doesn’t Chief Engineer of Powertrain puck can hold both injector anything else on the engine. and spark plug.” continued Turner. explained Turner. so we trap the retained heat and residuals in the cylin- der with a controllable mech- anism. and the wanted to have the authority to lution people reach for when Omnivore draws on experi. under a stepper motor control. The monoblock eliminates at the top of the engine. away from the head.” contin. “The puck doesn’t Geneva. “The mechanism has an move cyclically. they need high fuel economy. but the point here is that we have a completely independent. Lotus is about to commission the bottom. lower. “The puck can be driven in the gas exchange to be moved stoichiometrically. the en- improve engine efficiency ued Turner.” which is the key to move the puck against full cylin. Theoretically. moves the puck up and down range. “The mechanism can move the would be very slimmed down. so it’s ple mechanism on the top. the tion version. thereby vary.

So theoretically you can increase optimized in order to achieve maximum fuel efficiency.” on drivability due to these measures is compensated or even over-compensated by the Lotus is running the Omnivore pro. environmental and economic reasons. social. Energy needed for support at low engine speeds University Belfast and Orbital Corp. In comparison to a reference vehicle.com/turbohybrid aeix.zeyen@AVL. A detailed analysis of the fuel economy potential offered by hybridization of a gasoline cohol fuels now because you’ve got con. The impact helps to displace fossil carbon. The strategy of recharging the battery through engine over-boost operation has been successfully demonstrated on the test track and in real life operation. stop/start) have less potential but can be gained only by a hybrid system. fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are the key challenges for the automotive industry on the road to improving the combustion and getting sustainability. Also under full load conditions a charging of the battery is possible. Consequently the overall powertrain has to be anyway. added Turner.org aei APRIL 2009 37 . technology report Omnivore monoblock shows the open cylinder bore where the variable compression AVL Turbo Hybrid: Clear advantages in high fuel ratio puck is fitted. For all vehicle classes. available through the UK Government Renewable Materials LINK program. will be purchased.Klarr@AVL. of is gained back at higher speeds by using the over-boost capability of the turbo-charged Australia. additional usage of an electric drive. through minor engine cost increase and reduced costs for the electric components.com Vehicles Email: Klaus-peter. to allow gram in collaboration with Queen’s the torque support from the e-drive. If two vehicles show better thermal efficiency. AVL has developed and patented a unique strategy to guarantee sufficient battery charge. engine shows that shifting of operating points of the engine is one main effect. resulting in the Turbo-Hybrid. cost reduction and outstanding driving fun Due to legislative.com/22868-237 aei-online. The injector is fitted top right.avl. Sponsorship has been made combustion engine. efficiency.com www. “You can get better efficiency on the al. AVL developed the Turbo-Hybrid powertrain in a BMW 3-series demonstrator vehicle in John Kendall cooperation with Bosch and LUK. In order to maintain sufficient battery charge. overlaid with similar fuel consumption. the proportion of vehicle miles traveled on an alternative fuel. Hybrid Applications Product Manager Hybrid & Electric Email: Jerry. There is also an overall lower drive train cost and a better cost benefit ratio compared to other hybrid systems. which of course Downsizing of the engine with turbo-charging and down-speeding by wide ratio spread and optimized final drive ratio leads to a tremendous increase in fuel efficiency. AVL Contacts: US EU Jerry Klarr Klaus-Peter Zeyen Director. The trol of the one thing you’d like to change “classical” hybrid functions (regenerative braking.hotims. in most cases the one which offers more fun to drive & comfort renewable alcohol fuels. this has to be achieved but there has to be focus upon customers expectations regarding drivability and fun to drive. a fuel consumption reduction in the New European Driving Cycle of 10% has been demonstrated with an improvement in the overall driving performance and fun to drive.

ics. using pack. ty vehicle that has variable Consortium members feel more arduous conditions than tems. nology advances. simulation. and the power battery packs and their cation development companies chemistries involved. to the Tier 1s and OEMs on use and will not likely offer a in head-unit designs. infotainment “When you have 120 cells. Dean Harlow. The facil. hybrid transmissions.” he said. Ricardo the capability of pro- That could shorten automo- Development Center in based technologies. of consumer devices.. Group connected services. “There is electronic management systems. tablished Battery Systems ment cycle for new battery. the com- ing them closer to the life cycle Ricardo Innovation & ity. Globally. “If one to gain steam. a that Linux is a solid software would be possible via in-vehi.org . Technology Director Jackson If the alliance effort proves ment by the company in the working with a wide range of feels that pure-electric ve- successful. and inte.K. Ricardo is battery systems for hybrid and transport solution for general head units need to interact with investing more than $40 mil. viding fully integrated. will be “among But despite possible bat- goal is to accelerate the imple- Shoreham Technical Centre. it could ruin the focuses on infotainment. and that leads to a more ex- Visteon. analysis. the latter of which is battery development and sys. just an electric car. Magneti requires large investment— Marelli. and total cost of ownership. They must also handle tele- nical centers. PSA Peugeot Citroën. Delphi. mance and quality in a vol- Engine to HRH The Duke of York at the opening of the Sir Harry The GENIVI Alliance was ume product suitable to pow. hope to reduce time to market a struggle to get repeatable. simulation.” said Neville Efforts to unify software inter- Jackson. how they and integration of advanced high. A related Sustainable Transport Centre. “Those with city vehicles a mix of rapidly-changing con- lion in a rolling three-year pro. consortium and one of the central chal- lenges now is to achieve man- focuses on ufacturing consistency. “So the question remains: Do matics connections that are like- The new Detroit facility will gration of advanced high.” he said. analysis. Major centers on detail differences Center in Detroit is the focal point of Ricardo’s design. They pensive product. and appli- are manufactured. tem integration facilities. therefore.” source in-vehicle infotainment Jackson said the problem The Battery Systems Development (IVI) reference platform. ers. company’s expertise in the compromise?” base for their adaptable soft- cle testing. it will make open- R&D of clean. technology report Energy/Environment Electronics A hard look at batteries New The battle for better battery technology is far from over. Those nologies. automotive. part of a $9 million invest. turn- tive develo­pment cycles. sustainable customers from cell suppliers hicles will be limited to city source software a critical factor transport and associated tech. consistent perfor. and Wind River. innova. battery open-source software tech- manufacturers struggle to get niques supported by a number repeatable. But at present. bring- Detroit and at the Sir Harry tions. the industry’s most complete tery and electric-vehicle tech- mentation of telematics and U. General To achieve that consistency Motors. electric vehicles. Intel. each has to perform to the software required level. President pany says. That could mark a turning also focus on improving the controls. The Center is the focal will probably need more than sumer products like MP3 play- gram at its international tech. we have more vehicles with ly to change continuously over enable the company to test power battery packs and their different utilities or an all-utili- the lifetime of the vehicle. Group. Combined with the uses—and is. effectiveness of the develop. and develop batteries under electronic management sys. communications. and products. The latest effort goes down. formed to develop an open- er electric cars. Work there will development of electronic Stuart Birch ware. and vehicle systems. consumer electron- between batteries. Group Technology faces and reduce costs continue Director of Ricardo. Ricardo CEO Dave Shemmans explains the operation of a highly efficient micro-combined heat and power system based on a Stirling of major vendors. point of Ricardo’s design. consistent performance and Founding members are BMW quality in volume production. Ricardo Innovation & Sustainable Transport Centre. key battery systems. said Ricardo Inc. point for the open-source oper- 38 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. are collaborating to create a The challenge of electric common software architecture cars is one of the areas being that is scalable across product tackled at Ricardo’s newly es.” use. it gives lines and generations.

Wind River Linux. This platform provides a base for automakers and sup- pliers to add differentiated products and services that in- clude music. setup. suspensions. sign consists of Linux-based core services. and military wheels Ideal for Road Load Data Acquisition.com/22868-239 aei-online.005% FS/ °C (0. Linux may become ten much interest from the the base for infotainment auto industry but so far seen systems from little in production. a prototype that uses implementation will be made Electrical Systems. USA. and tires. and telephony.com ISO 9001 Certified � A2LA Accredited to ISO 17025 � AS9100 Certified aeix. news. biaxial wheel test systems. This reference Executive Director of Global able. and open application layer inter- faces. Other benefits include: � Up to 8x faster and easier to mount. “Having a common refer- ence platform will be critical for the greater auto ecosys- tem in developing innovative and sophisticated in-car enter- tainment applications. interactive navigation. which has got. Delphi and other The GENIVI reference de. Controls Intel’s Atom processor and available as open source code.875:Layout 1 3/19/09 3:12 PM Page 1 MULT I-AXIS W HE E L F ORCE T RAN SDUCE R A Force To Be Reckoned With… PCB® Series 5400 Multi-Axis Wheel Force Transducer is a rugged one-piece sensor that delivers highly accurate road load data measurement and superior performance in a durable water-resistant package. The first technical deliver.com � www. and Software at GM. technology report ating system.org aei APRIL 2009 39 . align.hotims. Inc. middleware.this summer. brake systems.” said Hans-Georg Frischkorn. will be out Terry Costlow Auto_Auto_Eng_WFT_0409_7x4. and calibrate compared to other transducers in the market � Maximum operating temperature of +150 °C (+302 °F) � Superior thermal compensation of 0. GENIVI consortium members. PCB and ICP are registered trademarks of PCB Group.003% FS/ °F) � Exclusive application of fastener technology to achieve robust clamp load and assembly � Cost-effective universal hub adapter option for © 2009 PCB Group. Series 5400 PCB Automotive Sensors Division Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0014 � 24-hour SensorLine 716-684-0001 SM E-mail automotivesales@pcb. Inc.pcb. and the development of stability control. alternating between European. Internet and multimedia.

” devices can conserve power in measuring the response time of However. Super­Speed USB moves them faster.” Ravenscroft said. technology culty of matching automotive “The design phase for au.” explained Brian Saylor. said. Because ArvinMeritor’s Active The USB Implementers may make sense for some of SuperSpeed USB has ben. Terry Costlow quicker. but they become “We’ve added five wires: A component test bench can ter. increasingly better as volumes two transmit. USB Implementers Forum. “The typical shock absorber dynamometer rig is capable of only displacing the damper.” Ravenscroft system. and the response rate performance version that is products. That is more all components in the system of SuperSpeed USB will force definition video will also cre. and mov. spring rate easily. A suspension supplier took the design cycles with rapidly tomakers is long. sleep modes. speed connection for portable to poll all USB devices every inflation. The new spec could be cates bidirectionally at the anything designed to test and That is well above the 480 particularly attractive to con. “It for rear-seat entertainment. having high It also reduces power con. iSuppli Corp. A faster ver. bringing larger files into ve. It communi. and one ground. video games. “Today. about to change.” testing and verifying in-develop- ment technology for passenger vehicles. which now ships in thing into a car. the emergence The trend toward high. The host waits for spring module can be generated dicts that a third of all avail. for partial adjustments is even more costly or employ the tems. consumers will be test rigs ers who like its universality.org . minor for files smaller than a tions. “there has never been which moves data at 5 Gbits/s. Response automakers to decide wheth. are good. ate more demand for a high. pre. there is no communication. us to test an infinitely variable dard. especially comprehensive apparatus for gies. piston based on force and pres- connect consumer products to lets you play or simply move sure off the vehicle’s electrical sure. efficient than with current and the system itself. said Saylor. peak rate. technology report Electronics Testing SuperSpeed USB on tap for cars? Customized The USB interface is being rapidly adopted by automak- commodity standard now and then migrate when advances ies all migrate to more realistic images. but they’re low reso- lution. ArvinMeritor’s Vehicle Dynamics Technology Center. run the AAS module without the The advance comes just as rise. throughout the consumer in. With SuperSpeed. completed in November. files quickly. SuperSpeed. cycle.” enhancement. it will take 16 or 17 s. two receive. said. sures within the air spring and 2 billion per year quantities. When “The test bench and support- USB interface options this to 15 min. vehicle. gigabyte. An external input into the vehicles. The time savings are data flow going in both direc. Ravenscroft. Our system incorporates the controls to make adjust- ments to the air system pres- sures on-the-fly while evaluating the damper.” said Jeff people are going to want high. today. “Going forward five years. the damper and the variable spring rate air suspension is a single unit. Air Suspension (AAS) system is Forum has completed an up. batch tests 40 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. ing equipment is capable of year. to data rates for video or audio sumption to take some pres. able vehicle models will offer movie using USB 2. In addition. President of the definition content. and it can control pres- standard.” should ship in the third quar. used for in- development but the consumer interface is dustry create more demand hicles. As navigation sys. them to go directly to efits beyond its basic speed unlike anything on the market grade called SuperSpeed USB. trol unit. customization route to obtain a changing consumer technolo.0 takes 14 have data to deliver. underscoring the diffi- Proponents say the latter course may be best. automotive screens sion is moving into produc- tion. who adds that the USB links now in widespread video or lots of audio into a stances when there is heavy test rig’s custom controls “allow use.” Ravenscroft presence of the electronic con- automakers are deploying the “When you bring some. effectively doubling develop this sort of product. up from 16% in 2008. “Downloading a 5-GB slave devices to tell it they via load or displacement. In our active air systems. Manager of As files get larger. for SuperSpeed USB. versions that require the host rates are as fast as 80 ms for full er to design-in a very high.” Mbits/s for the High Speed sumers who want to bring throughput in the few in. First silicon for the stan.

all-weather perfor. can be adapted to optimize • Electric hybrid system the performance of automotive • Integrated motor and generator applications while lowering • Series/parallel modes overall integrating costs. plications to meet the start of Jeff Lloyd. production requirement of Engineering Team Leader for been under way for about mance.hotims. technology report The ArvinMeritor-designed Active Air Suspension test bench is ArvinMeritor’s Jim Keane stands near an adaptive damping flow test designed to measure pressure and spring-rate response times under bench that tests adaptive damper valves at various flow rates for a variety of load and input conditions to determine performance performance characteristics and durability. coupled with power-dense electronic inverters and control software.org aei APRIL 2009 41 . We • Compact design can also supply you in volume.” noted Testing and development ing involves “validating dura. characteristics.com/22868-241 aei-online. • Matching power inverter and controls COME VISIT US! SAE World Congress (booth # 1054) aeix. TM4 • High speed electric motor through 4-way clutch has the skills and resources • Brushless permanent magnet technology • Unique and compact design to assist you throughout • High specific power (4. READY IF YOU ARE TM4 delivers electric drivetrains for electric and hybrid vehicle manufacturers. End of 2008 test. and NVH performance 2011. on select vehicle-specific ap- of experiments data.” said Lloyd. Clean. can be run to generate design ArvinMeritor. the company’s advanced permanent magnet electric motors. two years. affordable and highly efficient.6 kW/kg) the vehicle integration of the • High efficiency over driving cycle electric traction system. Advanced Chassis work on the AAS system has bility.

Describing one environment. according to valve performance over a the current chief engineer. tem.” said Saylor. tant programs in the Dodge trol over the valve environ.org . quite tools contributed to a disci- ArvinMeritor. ing finite-element meshes. with these prototypes can and the design automation pension application.” How did they do it? explained Jim Keane. tensive use of Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) tools. the key enabler for efficiency. In addition. As well as adopting CATIA ogy as morphing. “Although CATIA signs created from the same the knowledge stored that is panies. we wanted fer.” said Michael Cairns. prototypes. It was important to be ing new vehicles efficiently able to measure accurately with high quality. “It used to according to Cairns. Skin pro. we will start the story. Those [problems] are plined. This includes regenerat- “When we built our first ‘skin’ rating best practices in design. “The into production in early 2009 year before launch. plifies everything. Occurring about a Dassault.” said side [design] especially. problems Knowledgeware capabilities for an off-highway seat sus. ment via pressure and flow It launched on time and with control so we could properly better quality than programs characterize and evaluate the of similar size. sim. quality execution on that are unique to the testing suppliers. They are used to test Bob Brinchek. that transforms the entire sys- was a well-integrated design. Cairns notes that using groups. door. This comparatively fewer engineering changes. Chrysler Development Ram at the Warren Truck Assembly Plant went smoothly with System (CDS) repertoire. “We look The 2009 Ram was the first program designed entirely ence. While the framework at our testing capabilities as CAD in general. such as FEA.” To him. everything fit to.” said efficiency. a key lesson in today’s challenging environment. Testing mean disastrous missed capabilities [were recognized] for adaptive damping. they are make the necessary modifica. Damping technology goes included complete adoption of CATIA V5 along with ex. more ef- totypes are typically built after early. the pressure was high. As one of the most impor- the ability to have servo-con.” said neering. stone of their strategy. lineup. then tion [helped us meet] our timeline as well as improve heavily in the Knowledgeware plex model—such as a body- we can design the test rig KBE tool supplied by Dassault. “This decision without ques. meeting cost and technical The supplier’s Adaptive targets. AAS. schedules and cost overruns if as a huge productivity en- and other advanced products expensive hard tools need to hancer. current Chief Engineer gone because the models tell the 2009 Ram. ket demands while incorpo. ever to designing and launch- up. ago in the body engineering Center in Troy. engi- evaluate compression and neers are more dedicated than rebound in the same test set. Maybe the high flow rates up to 80 L/min 2009 Dodge Ram 1500 pro- and low flow rates less than 2 gram has some lessons to of- L/min. the more comprehensive solid model Chrysler uses it to standardize and window glass—and make Saylor. side aperture. Automotive Cairns. Developing customized V5 has been around for a while. 100% to fit our needs. CAD system in particular. be changed. with Dassault’s CATIA V5 very tributed to a faster. ficient] program. “For products frankly. on CATIA V5 from Dassault Systèmes. “For valve develop- Efficient tools and processes deliver ment. this was the first pro. Limiting the complexity of the architecture was also impor. more efficient. test rigs for advanced prod.” KBE as a project was is done at ArvinMeritor’s tant. Simulation oped a customized testing rig for its adaptive damping tech- nology. The result myriad of regulatory and mar. Speaking from first instituted about a decade Vehicle Dynamics Technology his over 25 years of experi. “Chrysler started working “Without question [this con- gether. The body- all parts are released by engi. and all de. If nothing is close. it is an advantage over other com. is supplied by Dassault. wide range of parameters. MI. vehicle.” automatic template technol- with a rig that is close and for the Ram product line. Chrysler also invested able to take an existing com- tions. What helped were new Advanced Chassis Engineering tools added to the basic The on-schedule manufacturing launch of the all-new 2009 Dodge Team Leader for ArvinMeritor. even those from our out the design mistakes.” said Cairns. technology report ArvinMeritor also devel. and KBE was a corner. we wanted a flow smooth 2009 Ram launch bench that could be operated bi-directionally so we could Despite troubled times. take us months just to sort Cairns believes the KBE ucts is definitely common at gram that used it for all de- signs. how engineers meet today’s a design change to one part Kami Buchholz base in V5 made CAE. door trim. V5. He describes this as the design intent of the entire Marketing Manager for especially useful for the Ram 42 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online.

said to be faster and less com- and powertrain permutations metric for comparison is the mated. Limiting options re. shortens ity. through with their designs. “You can have collisions. In recent years. reducing “Really. SEISSENSCHMIDT has Phone: +1 248 275 18 72 the experience to meet your most Fax: +1 989 764 59 05 demanding application. with its standard cab. “While a structured plicated than competitors’. combos led to less last-minute problems]. reduce injury during rear-end Motors or Ford. TRW Automotive is assembly plant. A T R U S T E D PA R T N E R T O T H E A U T O M O T I V E I N D U S T R Y aeix. it does move forward during acci- build combinations. of late engineering design but if you don’t have people begun offering restraints that gineer and qualify as many changes.” tems. but they’re now be- thereby reducing design and rather than product changes. “While oversimplifying a bit. suppliers were se. launch of product]. 659 South US-23 From blank forgings to ready-to-fit Postal Box 297 Harrisville. changes.” claimed Cairns. “The lowered build every gate [with containable We move the automotive world! With precision drive train components SEISSENSCHMIDT will meet your chassis demands for innovation and reliability. we had half the number the best process in the world. regular cab. The blending of advanced engineering simulations with human response ality of parts across platforms. These are KBE are important. plained Cairns.seissenschmidt. Manufacturing likes it during the critical final We met our launch date with that employ active safety sys- because it reduces cost in the months prior to V1 [the quality vehicles. USA components. but they’re mately four times less than is released and supposedly passion that is required to often not adjusted properly to similar offerings from General frozen. with passion behind it.com/22868-243 aei-online.schaffluetzel@seissenschmidt.com www.” Though process and tools entering this growing market pares the build/option com.org aei APRIL 2009 43 . in 1969.” dents to better stabilize the overall workload. changes required after a part want to underestimate the dence of whiplash.hotims.” ex. It resulted restraint in a huge savings in design work while improving qual. we design and produce performance critical components in our state of the art SEISSENSCHMIDT Corporation forging and machining facilities. of the 2009 Ram 1500 as number of late engineering process like CDS and tools like Conventional head re- roughly comparable to the changes required. technology report pickup. Michigan 48740. the personal with a head-restraint system plexity in body style. Head restraints were one of plexity. coming a tool for automakers testing. u. I don’t straints have reduced the inci- Toyota Tundra and approxi. “Compared to other execute a program well. (Dassault Systemes) time the program was to limit com.com Innovative solutions.” said track the whole way. Finally. number of companies have rectly from not having to en. tude. together at the end? A useful touch cannot be underesti. and quad cab variants. “The ‘09 programs of a similar magni. team focus on launching. Cairns. a Ram program benefited di. Cairns com. a key decision in insight and passion offers a way to deliver new vehicle programs more efficiently. our finances were on track. weight. So how well did it come are important. Engineered for the future. We met Bruce Morey passenger’s head.” KBE also contributes to standardization and common. which helped the lected on time and came the first passive safety systems duces product combinations. Interiors crew cab. this program was on not work. As a global development partner to Corporation the automotive industry. it is al- TRW’s most as simple as ‘hitting a active head button’ to reflect one change in all four models.

they don’t have to lean for- includes Guardian’s European wide. Strategy for SRG Global.org . incorporates techniques used Lexus TRW Vehicle Safety in the basic seatbelt latches.” Steffens nizations including NHTSA. plants and technical centers. Terry Costlow “We do high-value-added to open in Poland in April ployment. partially in response to man. Western Europe and China straint. Drivers can known as Lab Radio. SRG Global is also center in China. lighter. That mechanism is employed trant. the system. including some 3100 in Most electromechanical ward during the drive home. coatings on plastic parts— 44 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. DeGaynor. Other business includes archi- designers put the restraint far when crash sensors are acti- enough away from the driver’s vated and send a signal. in China and Central Systems. This movement lets seat That sequence begins Robert Automotive. Steffens said. which is a 16 parts including fasteners. ing a seatbelt in place. manufacturing systems use solenoids to trig. is the latest en. Its products include Nagoya.and rear. ones. The full time period straint systems. It greenhouse systems. Safety weighs about nine pounds side systems. “We trigger in seven to dates from agencies and orga. the mechanism locks more use than electronic into position. Steffens said. front. The actual movement of the Insurance Institute for the head restraint consumes Highway Safety. Japan. Steffens mused. trim—any decorative or de- tomotive supplier: SRG sign-based features on a ve- TRW’s active head Global. Siegel-Robert. passive head-re- rior assemblies and ornamen. unveiling an electrome. special. or passenger’s head to be which typically takes 10 to 15 comfortable while still mini. Europe’s New Car TRW’s proprietary design Assessment Program. response time will TRW’s system also has few- supplier to most OEMs around an operational and technical be a key differentiator. usually by car place without using much brushed chrome and nickel. the components back into finished plastics. ms. The company employs so they must be taken to deal. Then the solenoid is trig- mizing the amount of head gered. said Charlie Steffens. after the solenoid is triggered chanical system that it claims and a spring extends the is faster. eight milliseconds. the largest automotive suppli. previously its six U. Systems Inc. body side moldings. which generally takes movement.” around 25. TRW’s unit has a Tier 2 suppler to some of pany has engineering and milliseconds faster. tion. follow. Vice President of less than 10 ms. he added. TRW predicts that electro. sales offices in Yokohama and lot given that the whole event while most competitors have ers. and simpler module. the launchpad for a new au. body is planned for Mexico in 2010. and the com- “Our system is five to ten ing offerings. technics to move the restraint Once the accident is over. than units now on the mar. largely because elec. A Tier 1 technical center in Spain and the market. SRG Global specializes in chrome-finished plastic trim such as grilles. including are represented with two op- ily be reset. module and tries to push it mechanical systems will see back. for vehicle body trim.” explained Jon restraint triggers in grown out of the trim opera. er components than compet- the world.S. which around 4000 people world- ers after deployment. to supplement U. trim operation. “When the head hits the ket. as well as further growth at TRW Occupant Safety integrated. erational centers and one owners.S. tions of Guardian Business Development and Automotive and Siegel. The company has hicle. click a lever and then squeeze izes in producing chrome. much like lock. Europe—a plant is scheduled is comparable to airbag de. as well as inte. As more systems hit muscle. produc- Systems Technology Director less than competitive seat- end systems. These springs can eas. Future growth is only 50 to 60 milliseconds. depending on increasingly deploying them. tation.” tronic systems use small pyro. ing Guardian’s acquisition of tectural glass and coatings. and the remaining 30 to 40 ms. he noted. technology report Body A Tier 1 body-trim supplier is born The Geneva Motor Show was grilles. said. drivers can reset the unit so The new company. ger springs that move the re. Automakers are 10 to 20 ms.

technology report

2010. Chassis
“Part of bringing this to-
gether gives us the critical
mass with customers like
‘By-wire’ boosts hybrid vehicle dynamics
Toyota, with Asian and Due to consumers’ increased weight of 1200 kg (2645 lb), work when the engine stops.
European customers. We have environmental awareness and which is true for virtually all This would be the case when
a critical mass with sales and rising gas prices, the market hybrids in production today. a HEV comes to a stop, or
also the engineering capabili- for hybrid-electric vehicles As the combustion engine more importantly when it’s
ties to offer support in any (HEVs) has grown immensely typically powers braking and propelled only by the electric
region of the world,” over the past 10 years. Hybrid steering systems through hy- motors.
DeGaynor told AEI. technology is viewed as an draulics or vacuum in conven- Therefore, alternative pow-
How is SRG Global looking important step toward a more tional vehicles, they would not er assistance is required that
at future developments?
Examples for the Use of Regenerative vs. Friction Braking
Production processes, durabil-
Situation Friction Regenerative Reason
Strong deceleration x Friction brakes can be controlled more effectively
(emergency braking) improving stopping distance and yaw stability
Batteries full, high SOC x Batteries cannot take any additional charge
Moderate speed (20-80 km/h; 12-50 x Batteries can take charge and power; no safety hazard
mph), moderate deceleration
Low speed (especially around zero) x Electric braking torque is difficult to control at low speeds
(jerkiness and/or vehicle might even move backwards
after standstill)
High speed, low deceleration x Batteries can take charge and power; no safety hazard
High speed, moderate to high x x Batteries cannot take all the power that results from
deceleration deceleration and speed

sustainable use of the auto-
mobile, but so far has mostly
INDUSTRIAL MICROHYDRAULICS

been understood as a power-
train topic that mainly touches
the engine, transmission, and Smallest Shuttle
Valves
energy storage.
Other vehicle systems re-
quire some fundamental ad-
aptations as well. Chassis sys-
tems and vehicle dynamics,
for example, are directly influ-
ity, and environmental pro- enced by the powertrain con-
cesses are all issues the com- cept, and need to be consid-
pany is evaluating. ered carefully as safety and
“We’re working on a fully comfort characteristics can
change significantly compared
green plating process,” said
to a conventional vehicle.
Superior Performance, Compact Size
DeGaynor. “Secondly is find-
ing ways to get beyond wet Specific braking and steer-
chemistry, looking at vapor ing systems need to be inte- • Simple One-Piece Construction
deposition or other dry chem- grated into a hybrid concept
to maximize the benefit of • No O-rings or Threads
istry processes to give the
same feature functions and features like electric driving or • Slips into a Drilled Hole
also to improve the durability regenerative braking.
Accomplishing this goal basi- • Press to Lock and Seal
of the vehicle. Our drivers are
cally requires electrically as-
mass production, alternative • Pre-tested for Bubble-Tight Leakage
materials for design flexibility, sisted systems that use “by-
as well as design features like wire” technology.
different colors.” Electric driving and engine Innovation in Miniature The Lee Company
start/stop have a significant 2 Pettipaug Road
John Kendall
impact on chassis systems. Westbrook, CT 06498
sorvillon@theleeco.com
Usually steering and braking Tel: 800-533-7584
systems are power-assisted on
all vehicles exceeding a curb
aeix.hotims.com/22868-245
aei-online.org See us at SAE, Booth #1217
AutoEng_LEEShutValve.indd 1 aei APRIL 45 AM
2009 11:15
3/9/09

technology report

By-wire technology is a key enabler for safe and
comfortable hybrid-electric vehicles, according
to BMW engineers. Shown are the company’s
X6 and 7 Series ActiveHybrid concept vehicles.

that feature the driver input
(i.e., brake pedal) not being
works independently from the directly connected to the
combustion engine. wheel brakes and a controller
Electrically assisted chassis applying the respective brake
systems are ideal, because the output.
hybrid system already requires g). That way the driver does Regenerative braking also
a powerful electric infrastruc- not notice any difference that the total brake torque has some interaction with the
ture. whether regenerative braking (friction plus regenerative suspension. While longitudinal
The most fundamental is applied or not, and the re- braking) always equals the tire forces from friction brak-
change for chassis systems is covery of motion energy can driver’s input. ing are compensated by the
necessary because regenera- be maximized. Since there is Such a system layout uses suspension (anti-dive), regen-
tive braking needs to be inte- no fixed connection between many aspects of by-wire tech- erative braking forces are
grated into the conventional brake pedal and friction nology. For example, electro- compensated by the drivetrain
friction braking system. A hy- brakes in this case, the brake hydraulic and electro-mechan- (anti-squat). If anti-dive and
brid vehicle does not have controller needs to ensure ic systems include solutions anti-squat characteristics dif-
regenerative braking instead fer too much, the resulting
of, but rather in addition to, change in body pitch might
friction brakes. Depending on compromise ride comfort as
the situation, regenerative CPU the brake controller shifts be-
ay
braking is applied exclusively,
ABS… secondary tween regenerative and fric-
together with friction brakes, tion braking.
or not at all.
MRGN shifting To avoid these implications,
SOC
A decoupled braking sys-
T primary the suspension should be de-
tem becomes necessary to signed with similar anti-dive
apply substantial braking
vx shifting and anti-squat characteristics,
torque (i.e., when regenera- or the shifting between fric-
tive braking alone can yield tion and regenerative braking
deceleration of more than 0.1 should be performed slowly
enough so change in pitch
happens without jerkiness.
EM = Electric motor This example shows that pure-
CE = Combustion engine ly mechanical chassis compo-
CPU = Central processing unit (i.e.,
brake controller) nents also need to be consid-
ay = Lateral acceleration ered for a HEV to accomplish
ABS = Antilock braking system
MRGN = Regenerative braking torque the ride quality of a conven-
+
SOC = State of charge tional vehicle.
T = Temperature
vx = Longitudinal velocity
System complexity usually
does not have a direct impact
on vehicle dynamics or chassis
Concept of a decoupled braking
system with adaptation of systems, but there are some
regenerative/friction braking and indirect implications. As the
all-wheel drive according to vehicle C powertrain becomes more
dynamics (secondary shifting).
Primary shifting would only control
regenerative (red dash) and friction
EM CE complex with additional elec-
tric machines, energy storage,
(blue) braking so that the total brake and controls, weight is added
torque always equals the driver’s
input.
to the vehicle.

46 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online.org

technology report

Increased weight impacts driving, engine start/stop, Manufacturing
safety and comfort aspects boost, and regenerative brak-
such as braking performance,
handling characteristics, and
ing, these aspects need to be
observed more closely to eval-
DiMora deploys pattern-
vehicle body motion. As a uate their impact on vehicle less casting technology
result, stopping distance dynamics. And regenerative
DiMora Motorcar Co. in lion sport luxury sedan. By
might increase because the braking, in particular, is un-
January took another step signing ProMetal RCT LLC,
tires carry more vertical load precedented in the field of
toward producing its $2 mil- an Ex One company, as its
without increasing maximum vehicle dynamics given the
longitudinal forces by the characteristic of using two
same rate. The same applies relatively diverse braking op-
to lateral tire forces so that tions in one vehicle.
impeded lateral tire perfor- To ensure yaw and braking
mance limits maximum lateral characteristics similar to a
acceleration and handling conventional vehicle, the re-
qualities. Additionally, a high- spective controller needs to
er body (sprung) mass increas- limit regenerative braking to
es body displacements such as low and moderate lateral ac-
roll, pitch, and heave, which celeration, suspend regenera-
has a negative impact on tive braking at the latest upon
safety and comfort. the intervention of vehicle
Adapting tires, springs, dynamics control systems, and
dampers, and antiroll bars control the center clutch or
according to the increased variable transmission of an
vehicle weight can easily miti- all-wheel-drive system de- Like the future DiMora Volcano engine, this Ford manifold casting was
gate some of those implica- pending on the actual use of produced by ProMetal RCT directly from a CAD file, without patterns
or fixturing.
tions; but increased weight regenerative braking.
cannot be compensated for The implications for safety,
completely. That is why some comfort, and controls show
compromises in vehicle dy- that a detailed integration of
namics are conceptual for a hybrid architecture, driveline
hybrid compared to a conven- concept, vehicle dynamics O-Flex has developed a new energy absorber that
tional vehicle. controls, and suspension is meets the requirements for EURO NCAP Pedestrian
There are three main as- necessary. A decoupled brak- Protection and US Federal front bumper Standards.
pects in vehicle dynamics that ing system that controls fric-
need to be considered: safety, tion and regenerative braking NCAP Requirements
comfort, and controls. When a simultaneously is a key com- Acceleration < 150 G: PASS
HEV is derived through rede- ponent for such a concept. Bending Angle <15°: PASS
sign of a conventional vehicle It appears that hybrid and Shear Disp. < 6mm: PASS
in particular, these aspects by-wire technologies comple-
need to be regarded carefully: ment each other perfectly as
• Safety—yaw stability, they use the same electric
handling, and braking perfor- power architecture and ben-
mance should not be affected efit equally from electric chas-
by the interactions of the hy- sis systems. Hence, an inte-
brid system with powertrain grated approach of those two
and braking systems advanced technologies in-
• Comfort—roll, pitch, and creases powertrain efficiency Low cost - 100% Recyclable
vertical motion should not be while maintaining vehicle Proven results - Production ready!
affected by the changes due safety on a high level.
to the hybrid system This article is based on SAE technical
paper 2009-01-0442 by Sven A. O-Flex is your single source solution provider for impact
• Controls—driver/passen-
Beiker, formerly of BMW Hybrid protection. Whether it's interior head, side impact or
gers should not notice any
Technology Corp., and Renate C. pedestrian bumper and barrier impact protection
changes in steering or braking we have the energy solution for you!
Vachenauer, BMW Group. The paper
characteristics when hybrid
will be presented at 11:00 a.m. on
controls interact with power-
train or braking systems.
Wednesday, April 22, in Room O3-45
of Cobo Center as part of the Vehicle
"We stand out!"
As the most important fea- 1531 Sarah Court, Murfreesboro TN 37129
Dynamics and Simulation session at the
www.oflex.com phone (615) 898-1910
tures of a HEV are electric SAE 2009 World Congress.
aeix.hotims.com/22868-247
aei-online.org aei APRIL 2009 47

technology report

Pattern-less casting from
ProMetal RCT is being used to
build low-volume production
engines for the $2 million Natalia
luxury sport sedan from DiMora
Motorcar Co.

latest technology partner, it used today [with this process] parts would be more cost- model. ProMetal joins more
secured a method for produc- include nested cores, spiral effective using RCT. than 50 technology partners
ing castings for the 1200-hp vents, volute shapes, and inte- The system seems to be a that are sharing their technol-
(895-kW) Volcano V16 engine gration of multiple compo- good fit for the Volcano en- ogy with DiMora, both to help
that will power the Natalia nents, in-situ cores, and gine. “This technology is at build the Natalia and expand
SLS 2. An integrated product unique rigging geometry to the forefront of digital addi- their own development. The
and process team will use the minimize turbulence.” tive manufacturing for the Natalia may only be the first
ProMetal digital 3-D printing The DiMora program production of complex 3D car DiMora produces. Once it
technology to produce engine builds on the success ProMetal shapes,” said DiMora proves its basic technology,
castings without the need for has had delivering three S-15 Motorcar Founder Alfred look for a mass-market car to
patterns or tooling. RCT machines to Ford­Motor DiMora. “During the design follow, according to DiMora.
ProMetal’s rapid casting Co., which uses them to build process, being able to accom- Digital data is a key en-
technology (RCT) is an addi- prototype engines. The plish in a few hours what abler in this new business
tive-manufacturing process ProMetal S-15 machine deliv- used to take days allows you model. “[Digital design data]
that automatically builds sand ers a maximum build envelope to refine your design through eliminates overhead and al-
molds and cores directly from of 59 x 29 x 27 in (1499 x 737 additional iterations. lows me to share quickly and
CAD data. Bypassing the need x 686 mm) with a surface res- Eliminating patterns and tool- easily with my partners,” said
for patterns, the print head olution of ±0.012 in (0.305 ing saves time and reduces DiMora. “For example, I just
builds layers of silica sand that mm). waste, making the entire pro- send a CAD file to ProMetal
are chemically bound for co- “Many times, we segment cess faster, cheaper, and and tell them to build it. We
hesion. the casting to produce parts greener. The size of the cast- look at any problems over the
“These materials are ex- larger than we can print,” ing boxes is another thing Internet and over Skype. I am
actly what some foundries said Maas. He noted that the that attracted us to their tech- taking Silicon Valley, merging
use,” explained Dan Maas, contents of an entire job box nology.” DiMora noted that it with Detroit, and calling it
Director of Business is produced in about 48 h. the company expects to build the new Detroit.”
Development for ProMetal. “I While providing many ad- 75 Volcano engines for the The company is two and a
like to emphasize that this is vantages, the S-15 is currently Natalia program and an ad- half years into a five-year de-
rapid manufacturing, since a low-volume solution. ditional 100 engines for the velopment program for the
the alloys that are poured are Depending on the application, boat and marine market. Natalia. It expects to start dy-
exactly the same alloys cur- the break-even point for The digital nature of namometer testing of the
rently used in foundry pro- choosing RCT over a tradi- ProMetal RCT’s process may Volcano in about eight
cesses.” tional patterned method is a be just as important as its oth- months. Simultaneously, the
The technology obviates volume of pieces in the hun- er advantages. DiMora, the company will also test four
the need for parting lines, dreds. “Complexity really sole owner of DiMora engines on a track in test ve-
draft angles, and undercuts, drives the break-even point,” Motorcar, intends to build a hicles.
Maa­s said. “Design features said Maas. More complex new automotive business Bruce Morey

48 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online.org

that stows its 96 lithium-ion cells (each producing 22 A·h) between the front seats. For in. child in the rear seat much cept interior unveiled by more easily and safely. but those dis- tective coating.” said Larsen. stance. alternative that is made from Johnson Controls. and the HVAC mented our Mobile can fold up. it creates a new Mobile Device Gateway. hybrid instrument panel struc- re3 features a conversational Marni Epstein. because the radio controls ment. conventional instrument panel. in part. Marketing in North America.” said Larsen. it creates a triangular system is not storing the the driver’s reach. “We have two plays do not have a capaci- different viable alternatives tive-touch interface. “The that we can use for coating content represented in this the fibrowood to help protect [re3] extended cluster is based it from scratching and from around our connectivity port- staining. were displaced into the ex. “We don’t have a is 150% greater than on an profile seatback) can slide to ing a Visa credit card or a traditional center stack. Controls Electronics Ecospace instrument panel mental panel storage volume senger seat (which has a thin. Johnson The re3 also features the ture—means the total instru- seating design. “It is more nership with Visa. As a feature in this new occupy that space since the it card on the vehicle’s em. Mobile Commerce system controls were put into the Commerce system and our “When the [front passen. hybrid sedans.” cure financial transactions Larsen said. Johnson Controls’ from your vehicle. transaction will it actually thermo-molded plastic/metal Kami Buchholz aei-online. who ter composed of two separate led the design team for the reconfigurable displays: a 4. technology report Design Johnson Controls’ concept highlights cabin design Some of the advanced tech. sus a traditional leather. Controls Studio Manager- The seats use a leather Electronics Design Studio. Johnson bilization. ger] seat is in the rear-most of goods and services. rows. Marketing Manager. equates to a 26% weight savings compared to a environmentally friendly ver. the re3’s tended cluster. Mobile Device Gateway.3- re3 project. the natural material fi.” said Johnson accessed via an extended clus- Controls’ Danny Larsen. the surfaces using the fibro. folio. “By not covering in center cluster screen and an that with a cover stock. The interior of the re3 Johnson Controls Vice shines a spotlight on surfaces President-Design and minus the usual concealments. facilitates onboard buying seat wing. Music Management. displays in the 2010 Ford tion. Fusion and Mercury Milan browood would need a pro. We’re probably mid. “The storage opportunity within which allows interfacing with position.” ex- process as it relates to UV sta. we’ve imple- slim-profile 60/40-rear seat bedded card reader. By plac. parents can tend to a nologies showcased in a con. And that. technologies to enable “se.org aei APRIL 2009 49 . Johnson Controls’s interior concept re3 is a plug-in hybrid electric car we have a mass reduction of tive-touch technology. And average vehicle in this seg- the rear-seat area and virtually wallet containing a Visa cred. which outboard-mounted 7-in dis- is typically done in production. or three Johnson Controls at the adults can sit comfortably and 2009 North American interact with each other with- International Auto Show are out the typical barrier between said by the company to be the first and second [seating] production-viable.” said Michael Warsaw. tapped metal structure. plained Rodger Eich. and way through the development Mobile Commerce. the latter uses capaci. made of a thermoplastic/ an oil derivative. over time. storage space. “You actually see the exposed Infotainment controls are natural material. The front pas. for a few scenarios. any consumer handheld de- footprint for the remaining data.” said Epstein. and only when you combined with the Ecospace vice over a standard USB three seats.” ing dual instrument cluster In a production applica. duce the amount of sun fade hands-free speech interface.” said happen. play. structure. Johnson Controls is supply- wood panels of 30%. and that allows approve the financial technology—which uses a port. as well as to help re. The re3 Ecospace instrument panel.

Because as with other customized profile. providing comfort and safety. The Cabriolet’s redesigned chassis ers to ensure a well-integrated end automatic. are working to. for reduced mass. steering. steering. wheel suspension is supported by a areas of the vehicle. wheel-drive A5 manages this by crease vehicle functionality. by Harry Evans The new Audi Q5 uses aluminum The chassis began life as a simple extensively in the suspension components. All D-platform vehicles in 2010 will share one architecture and one common set of parts. trapezoidal-link axle. has a front five-link axle. come more important. as rear suspension enables a low cargo load handling. the Q5 model to a new modular chassis Cabriolet. feed. the complexity of the chassis—now unibody rather Platform optimization The system is also available on other than body-on-frame for most cars—has Audi has revised the A4 platform for Audi vehicles.org . and individual. magnetorheological (MR) technology on the cast lower control arms at the front in- CTS-V model. such as the new A5 increased with developments in tech. rates. the adaptive suspension. stemming More systems. the latter allowing a body to maximize rigidity. part of Audi’s ongoing quest ceed in a difficult marketplace. And at the transmission shift points. bolted to the product that meets or exceeds perfor. allowing for less unsprung frame on which to mount the primary weight. ting ride-control system that controls forward in the front section. originally the 50 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. The convertible boasts a per- nology. comfort. and ve- hicle stabilization programs. and added a four-set. These The Cadillac CTS rear suspension comes with include slightly improved geometry. and engine mounting the differential in front of the same time.Smooth riding ahead Integration and continuous development are the key words as chassis dynamics head into this century’s second decade. continuous devel. The 2010 Lincoln MKS. architecture with a longer wheelbase fect distribution of axle loads. The four settings are comfort. But over the decades. from electric steering and wider track. OE chassis engineers are responsiveness through altering the fuel clutch or torque converter. The A5 also offers in- tegrated adaptive ride. allowing almost instantaneous stead of stamped. dynamic. Ford Taurus. aluminum. working together with their key suppli. and Taurus SHO will share a common D-platform suspension architecture and components with significant changes compared to the current platform. and safety have be. floor. from the location of the front axle far to accident avoidance. and new upper strut stiffening or softening of mounts that can have different lateral the ride to meet road conditions. Parts of both the opment must be a driving force if an front and rear suspension are made of automaker’s new products are to suc. The rear- mance targets. The compact trapezoidal-link components. The front- gether to maintain ride quality and in.

yaw rate. nents to the Lincoln and the Ford Flex. As Ford dealing with that. the MR system can variations. The car features tilink rear suspension. amples of other installations of Delphi’s “The magnetic ride brought a lot to the netic ride control suspension. We started with architecturally was planned to accept driver but maximizing capability of the performance—what level of lap time V-specific components when it was de. stiffen that corner as well as the oppo. John Church. for use on the 2009 Cadillac CTS-V through cooperation variable suspension modes are available between the two companies. was developed help to steer the car. optimized McPherson struts and mul- nology GM has to offer. so it is no wonder that the CTS-V forms coming to the U.” said Piatek. all transparent to the they were looking for. Cadillac been optimized to meet the specifications required by the high-performance sedan. To obtain the most from of negative camber in the rear to im. entials. al. gram. car. Together they devel- though part of the D-platform. of performance. which enable cross-wheel drive. thus upcoming European plat- brand. stiffer harsher than a bump in tour mode. while fluid changes in case with the CTS-V team and its tire the damper improve response time even further.” said Edmund Piatek. so running over a special run-flat tires for that application. the nate any front to rear phase lag to bal. Michelin also worked with the For 2010.” he recalled. latest MR suspension permits removal specifically for the car. The CTS-V does share “The systems are integrated and defined project as to what performances the chassis with the 2008 CTS. a Delphi pro. had different levels of compo. trols. and the tire can be CEO Alan Mulally announced.S. crossover model that does not share the The active MR suspension is also “All systems are still highly inte- Theta platform with GM’s other simi. Acura. While tour mode is suppler and sport supplier. integrated with the stability control sys. ertial sensors. will maintain sports the most advanced chassis tech. global Next-gen variable damping platforms will be shared for financial Cadillac has always been GM’s flagship savings. details are not yet available. Audi. Michelin. and tuning tends to knuckles. grated without dramatic changes in larly sized crossovers. (local area network) system. aei-online. OE Project Engineer at The SRX may eventually get the site corner to keep the body flatter and Michelin. but at the same time. grams must work closely with their tire nificant changes: the piston design gives suppliers to ensure proper integration greater bandwidth between softest and and performance. That was indeed the firmest settings. and 1° to software changes and anticipatory tion control.org aei APRIL 2009 51 . the chassis is now Cadillac CTS-V Program Manager.” said Piatek. ware and parametric standpoint to vari- Infiniti. and body control. the software of the 19 in front and 285 x 35 x 19 in the rear. car. and focused on a car that is high perfor- veloped. ings having a clear direction and a well- Platinum Edition. This ”2. worked on the CTS-V pro- magnetic ride control currently in use minimize the transient weight distribu. Ford is quietly working on a variable where the tire would have had to pro- sis standpoint. that corner to dip. MagneRide system. oped together. The next generation will have the focus on understanding details of differ- The rear suspension will have new ride matched to the road settings thanks ent subsystems.0” version brings sig. but vide more comfort. The tread patterns have on the CTS-V: tour and sport. to anticipate what control needs to ations so that a set of aftermarket or While shared platforms are common. such as tires and trac- mount tuning. bump in sport mode would always be Both vehicles targeted extreme per- ics through revised geometry. formance levels. Rubber meets the road prietary system first introduced on the Chassis engineers for new-vehicle pro- 2002 STS. If there is a stability activation at character of the car. controls that use sensors on the LAN these systems. and behaved for the street. This Michelin Pilot Sport PS2 was designed specifically Similar to many other high-end cars. the latest generation of magnetorheo- logical (MR) suspension. of the linkage between the two modes. form. which working together. and Holden are just a few ex. that’s re. “We came from the initial meet- on the 2009 CTS-V and the Escalade tion change during that event. such as in. new shock tuning. Chassis Feature Taurus and the Taurus X (SHO). a new tems. We want perfection platform. and we coupled that with the mag. engineers have used the changes in the MR system to decouple the two settings. and throttle con. and improve driving dynam. so areas ally the key differentiation from a chas. steering wheel electronics must be robust from a soft- ance front and rear. and stiffer lower control arms. Rather. Corvette team on the ZR1 to develop economies of scale to maintain cost metrically linked. car that didn’t impact the tire. similar to BMW and angle. they have to be devel- prove vehicle responsiveness and elimi. Ford will take advantage of Previous versions were scaled or para. one corner and the brake is going to from a standpoint of integration and ments and architectures. 255 x 40 x Ford’s evolution of the Volvo S80 plat. suspension and damping system. structure. which would cause still want the systems to be robust to around the electronic limited-slip differ. which is mode is designed for maximum traction oped the Pilot Sport PS2 tires. Ferrari. brake position. which shares some of the ele. be at each corner of the car and adjust snow tires will not lead to a degradation Cadillac has introduced a new SRX each individually. Chevrolet’s mance on the track but well-mannered “We made some track changes to the Corvette.

rate springs with passive dampers in Towing capabilities are key for the dling simulations. and it also has retuned shocks intricate tire models. but XFE (Xtra Fuel Economy) versions of we’re not seeing much advanced tech. you could get away with a unibody structure. previous model. “Most programs come up with holding their own. “For a smaller vehicle. Ford uses Adams Software for han. While GM is planning continual re- The Chevrolet Tahoe is finement of their current full-size plat- available with a two-mode form.” The 2009 Ford F-150 boasts a new chassis.” said Bruce Arnold. so our customers no longer will accept Ford Chassis Engineer. truck market. has undergone changes to improve traction and ride characteristics. 52 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. OEM. while pre. with ride comfort. This move improved the The body-on-frame Cadillac Escalade ride by using electronics in shocks. The 2009 F-150 is remain- automatically based on inputs from several sensors. magnetic ride controls body motion. comes in once the vehicle design is com. This setup gives a soft or firm coil springs. sales of commercial trucks are rear wheels without powerhop.” The aftermarket truck-body business pension. just with a different we’re not seeing it change much. parture from the usually unchanging mode. The body-on-frame “Customers in [the full-sized truck] five to six tire submissions to tune the architecture is vital for that industry. and despite the the driveline to allow more torque to the the tire manufacturer to provide for the economy. “Body-on-frame does a good and wiring harness as the MR system job of doing what it sets out to do. “A short check. a tried-and. inputs based on chassis sensors on the pacity dropped to roughly 2000 lb (910 using technology such as MR damping rear track arms and the front upper con. all incorporated into the very true method. and GMC Yukon were altered for improved aerodynam- ics and mass reduction. with air-over rear shocks that are a two. but it gets an entirely new chassis. the shock tuning was changed to adjust for the spring rate of the tires. GM Truck Chassis Controls. ing a body-on-frame setup. and on the Escalade. which said Mark Grueneich.” said David Caldwell. coil-over front suspension. the pressure falls on uses chassis cab models. the 2009 Chevrolet Silverado. that it’s a rough ride because it’s a pick- list has over 100 parameters that we Chevrolet and GMC full-size trucks up truck. The multilink rear has two mized. with every sus- pension and frame component altered on the new model. The Ford specify to the tire supplier regarding are using multilink rear suspension and F-150 retained the Hotchkiss leaf spring wet/dry traction. trol arms. real-time Z55 damping system by suspension layout by changing to rear Body-on-frame trucks on Delphi. The controller and shocks. segment expect a pickup truck to be a tire along with balancing all the attri. giving 30% improved windup stiffness without in- creasing the vertical rate of the rear sus- stretched toward higher performance.” spring and damper systems: variable and tire constructions. you have to stay with body-on-frame. Cadillac Communications Manager. GMC Sierra. kg) below comparable Ford and GM to counter the less-refined ride and han. and butes of the car. This system is also connected products. and mass differences on the corners. but if you still want load-car- rying capability with a full-size truck. Smooth riding ahead Tahoe. although it was heavily opti- sistance. and rolling re. although the towing ca- series appears likely to remain as such. Development while not a departure from the layout of the Engineer. Ford recently redesigned its most damping system that adjusts popular truck. the results of which rear on the standard models. pleted. springs. The rear suspension has lengthened leaf springs. although aftermarket engineering car with an open box on the back. rear end. noise. aei dling inherent in body-on-frame con. Chevrolet nology in the SUV class. A lesser pinion angle helped Nevertheless. to the ABS and uses the same inputs struction. Since the rear trim was lowered. and Chrysler’s 2009 make up the lists of requirements to the mium models get lower-rate springs Dodge Ram made a more radical de- tire companies.” Arnold asserted. Chevrolet and GMC are also plan- ning to stay with the body-on-frame setup for their trucks to maintain strength levels.org .

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for example. and supply shortfalls as well as “not-invented-here” skepticism. more than 100. however. New Business Development Technology Manager for parts supplier Delphi.” he noted. some vehicles will feature components such as air dam louvers and interior grab handles that will use SMAs to move them- selves without motors. reliability issues. “are the fastest-growing segment in sensors and actuators for energy conversion in the auto industry. say proponents. Within the next few years. Although such a scenario.” explained Carl Telford. Self-healing exterior coatings and elastomeric weather-strip- ping components may also start to become common. commercial introduction has been slowed by the obstacles that often impede the adoption of new technology: uncompetitive costs. But imagine simply driving home and fixing the damage with a bathroom hair dryer. by Steven Ashley Finding your car in the parking lot with a dented door panel gener- ally means a trip to the body shop and a hefty bill. Talk about bouncing back from adversity.Building in smarter materials Technologies that can automatically respond to changing conditions are expected to show up increasingly in future automobiles. More and more smart materi- als. and the filing rate has doubled in the past decade. self-adjusting active vibration dampers and self-tightening fasteners could find their way into automobiles. If the door panel were made of a shape memory alloy (SMA) or polymer—types of “smart materials” that return to their original “memorized” forms when heat is applied—such easy DIY repairs would be possible. The ability of smart materials and technologies to ac- complish useful tasks almost of themselves has enticed many materials scientists and automotive engineers to pursue their development for a variety of applications. the overall concept is sound. a 54 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. are starting to approach viable costs at volume-production quantities for auto application.org . “Strictly speaking. is probably a decade or more away.” But even though auto engineers have known about these substances for years. “Smart materials. if truly practical.000 patents for smart materials have been issued worldwide. smart materials and technologies encompass systems that sense and respond to changing environmental conditions. Longer term. according to Andrzej Pawlak. Smart is as smart does To date.

” said Alan I. Many made of electrochromic glazing materials. OR. (such as terbium dysprosium iron. Active suspension systems that controlled temperature over a million times. we move things using motors. for automotive use are Centro Ricerche Fiat and GM Research Many types are so-called field-dependent solids that undergo and Development. releases. it often allows us to package a motive device in said. which will let us replace a conventional actuator at lower cost “A lot of technologies are already used in cars that the man and lower weight. “Consider all the components that we dimensional change (strain) in response to electric or magnetic might want to move in a car.” Smart materials. materials engineer who works as a technology analyst for SRI MagneRide system. teners. and magnetorheological or other actuators. Telford asserted. windshield wipers. feature components that we couldn’t fit a motor into. are considering employing In the near and farther future. but as purists tally satisfy the strict definition. or Terfenol-D). which helps them cial way so that it can reliably transform its shape at a well- meet emissions regulations. shape memory alloys and plastics. the brainchild of James Owen Design in Portland. torque transfer. Taub. vibration control.” fuel-injection systems with piezoelectric actuators that deliver Taub explained that GM’s SMA has been treated in a spe- precise quantities of fuel to the cylinders. which is available as an option on Consulting Business Intelligence (SRIC-BI). cables. are widely used in auto-dim- point out. he sees significantly greater ap- thermoelectric materials that directly convert heat into elec. “Not really. plication in the areas of actuation. These substances include piezoelectric ceramics (such Director for Science at GM R&D. as lead zirconate titanate) and plastics (such as polyvinylidene windows. which does not to- technologies and materials are called smart. is on the verge of a sub- exploit some inherent characteristic in a constructive way. “Now we can do so just by (MR) fluids. levers. and Ferraris as well. Some common-rail diesel engines.” Taub said. Telford continued. with fewer parts and less expenditure of on the street would not recognize as smart materials. among many others. The list includes door latches. Executive fields. self-repairing coatings and components. whose viscosity rises in response to an applied heating up our improved nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. smart fas- tricity to recover energy from the waste heat of hot engine ex. but people often place it in that category smart tires. they just behave in a ming rearview mirrors. for example. locks. for instance. stantial increase in the amount of smart materials that it uses. Others are “Traditionally. “It’s an area with General Motors models. light and hausts. and fluid fluoride and polyimide) as well as magnetostrictive materials sprayers.” Among the organizations that are pursuing SMA actuators Whatever one’s definition. or even ride high on their centers for ultra- low rolling resistance. nonetheless. magnetic field. In fact. Smart rubber donuts inside the tires morph from flat and smooth to knobby and grippy. clever manner. has become a catch-all SMAs in action phrase that also includes many “fringe” materials that merely The auto industry. Company re- employ MR fluids are marketed by Delphi and Lord in the searchers have demonstrated the ability of the nickel-titanium aei-online. smart materials are diverse. haptics and steering systems.” Telford energy. “Is that really smart in the sense of the definition?” he heat control. features Michelin EAP smart tires in which electroactive polymers (EAPs) vary the tread pattern with voltage.org aei APRIL 2009 55 . And smart glass a lot of promise but one with quite a lot of hype as well. Many car makers. and asks. they’re not actually intelligent. Materials Feature This Mazda RX-9 hybrid concept vehicle.

the longitudinal friction of a sliding Ford researchers have likewise been keeping an eye on belt would be controlled with piezo-driven ultrasonic vibra- electroactive polymers. If they do. as well as a simpler and more 56 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. is studying the use of these substances to monitor seems to be there. But we’re still waiting for somebody to put the loading force and rate on a seatbelt.” GM vehicles by 2012. which account for about half of the smart-materials patents issued in the U. In one scheme. said Lara Minor. nickel-titanium SMA materials. but Taub indicated that Artificial Muscle representative came into our labs and dem- GM will soon introduce “several applications that are much onstrated their technology. Only small percentages refer to magnetostrictive substances.” restraint. a mechanical engineer at Ohio State tractive for some actuation uses.” He expects these devices to appear on have not found an application for them. and the necessary reliability University.” Another notable potential application for smart actuation ma- stated Matthew Zaluzec.S. Magnetoresistive substances show up in 8% of patents. “An vated by electrical resistance heating. are certainly at. But deploy a rear air spoiler or an interior grab handle when acti. and then automati- it into production. Building in smarter materials Prepared by Delphi’s Andrzej Pawlak. the possibilities these SMAs. for example. but we more sophisticated. and electroactive polymers. “We keep up on all the new smart materials. we’ll tip our hats. is the leading supplier of these smart substances.. Other experts seem more skeptical about the prospects for Ah. thermoelectrics make up 6%. Marcelo Dapino. metal to open and close radiator louvers dynamically.org . magnetorheological fluids. reduced mass. It’s certainly interesting. A spin-off of SRI International. but so far we cally adjust the D-ring friction and belt tension for optimal don’t see it in a near-term application. Artificial Muscle better safety. whereas shape memory alloys account for 15%. between 1986 and 2006. Manager of Materials Science and terials in cars is adaptive seatbelts. Ford questions their utility in the short term. With Honda funding. again. which could find use as both actuators tions that alter its velocity. Principal Nanotech at Ford Research and Advanced Engineering. “The Engineer at Honda R&D Americas. Ferroelectric materials make up about 16%. he said. this conceptual map of smart-materials patents indicates the dominance of piezoelectrics. and to Inc. The approach could provide for and sensors.

“we see evolution of shape-memory materials into smart structures and components made of smart plastics and polymer-fiber composites that could warp themselves” when stimulated.” transfer to the car business. more and more smart materials in new car designs as their sembly for repairs or at the end of use. and availability increases.org aei APRIL 2009 57 . to boost passenger safety. and air dams. bushings. self-fixing automotive weather-stripping and flexible design. A new self-healing. which expands and tightens column that was designed to change shape instantly in a crash up the bolt. worked with the Swedish boat manufacturer Volvo Penta on lane that are dispersed in an oily suspension of ferrous nano. With support from Honda. thus resisting viscous flow. it expects to introduce more sophisticated applications later this year. said Daniel J. “we may see similar opportunities emerge in automo- SMAs. gine mounts. markets me- netostrictive materials to sense and control the vibration of chanical transmission clutches that replace standard clutch- helicopter rotor assemblies could soon translate into active plate systems with MR fluid technology that provide greater vibration dampers. ture use of smart materials. it is only the smart thing to do. most experts agree that considerable development one day be employed in shock absorbers. work on such morphing structures has already begun. would be required to make such systems practical. who have contemplated using similar schemes in automotive trans- hopes to develop magnetically activated dampers that may missions. or automated fatigue and wear monitors wear-resistance and long-term reliability. Although GM has demonstrated SMA-actuated devices such as grille louvers (top). If it senses any loosening. As tensile tests here show. the reformed bonds hold.” he explained. asserted SRIC-BI’s Telford. products is a radiator fan clutch. Inman and his colleagues have for several years aei-online. a haptic feedback system for an automated. Torque transfer technology is another area of possible fu- Recent progress in devices that use piezoelectric and mag. Materials Feature Seatbelt motion Piezo Base Piezo ultrasonic vibrations A prototype adaptive seatbelt tension mechanism developed by Ohio State engineers uses ultrasonic piezoactuators to alter the sliding friction on a belt in real time amidst a crash. and n-alkyl chlorosi. A self-healing bolt with a washer Industry observers expect that engineers will opt to use made of a “heat-to-recover” SMA could enable for rapid disas. for example. Honda is supporting work by Lizhi Sun. One of its current for ground vehicles. an engineer at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State After all. aei University. Inman. Telford noted. the OSU team also hopes to sense the initial impact forces with nanofiber sensors embedded in the belt webbing. costs drop. The particles align along field lines when exposed to helming system that reduces steering effort. resistance- 2007. Lord. could tive steering systems. General Motors is developing a range of prototype components that employ improved nickel- titanium shape-memory-alloy wires to create movement in small spaces. feedback to the pilot. interior grab handles (left). steer-by-wire particles. Lord based on particles of Terfenol-D. In worked on a self-tightening bolt system in which “a microchip fact. ThyssenKrupp incorporated SMA parts in a steering heating activates an SMA washer. other parts. Dapino said. In monitors bolt tension. supramolecular rubber invented by researchers Francois Tournilhac and Ludwik Leibler of ESPCI/CNRS mends itself when the torn ends are touched together. In the next 20 years or so. silica. and en.” he said. performance improves. Synthetic smart elastomers could find use in resilient. currently used mostly in electronics applications. If these marine devices are suc- The development of smart fasteners that incorporate cessful. Although some engineers an engineer at the University of California–Irvine. “It provides force a magnetic field. Smart materials may in addition someday find their way His high-efficiency magnetostrictive colloidal dampers are into steering and haptic (touch) systems.

comparator would require more than The electronic nervous system. development over a spectrum of design sive use of model-based design. Optimizing fuel economy. “Automotive electronic engineers engineering disciplines electronic. grate software. electrical. challenge. they assemble subsystems into unique capabilities. to mechatronics. Brute-force testing of a simple 32-bit cipal with Ora Research. explained Wally Rhines.” said Bruce Jenkins. extended vision software. or sus. Put simply. mechatronics is a philosophy taking on have a more complex task than most other electronic engineers. They develop may not be capable greater importance. key 600. by Bruce Morey electronics. according to Rhines.org . As chips grew from tens of “I think of mechatronics as mechani. many advocate aggres. a prin. most notably in the chips. verification became a problem. use them to create PCBs. CEO of Mentor pension systems through controls and Graphics.Meeting the Meeting the challenge of mechatronics challenge of mechatronics Traditionally separate Encompassing mechanical. electronic. is growing in complex. At higher abstraction. 58 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. and software engineers. cars need to be Chip makers once faced a similar of model-based intelligent to compete. Can an linking engines. “What they did is apply model-driven ity. veri- Engineering today’s vehicle requires an integrated approach between mechanical. transistors to a billion in just four de- design help? cal systems controlled by intelligent cades. electrical. abstractions. and intelligent vehicle the total driving experience requires such as braking or power distribution.000 years. safety. and software engineering. In response. Then. and inte- of handling the engineering of hybrid systems. transmissions.” of today.

” said Rhines.” controls. not intended for the whole vehicle.org aei APRIL 2009 59 . or electrical systems to optimize particular attributes. “Designing braking systems is different than fuel-injection systems and requires a [different tool environment]. combining more physical phe- nomenon with control system models. and packages in tions could occur. ciplines or to suppliers.” system is installed and then calibrated the vehicle. lenge he sees is bringing together the For an additional example. design and development cycles for elec- points to wire-harness design. lumped parameter model for simulating an entire vehicle platform. “Model-driven development already meets these challenges [of wire-harness design]. aei-online. say a transmission. another chal- design process. built. according to Orand. mechanical systems that they control. is used to design a control system. mechanical. Rhines “The combined dynamic is not a sim.D’s. LMS International’s Imagine. and maintaining this “local” usability.” said Orand. according to Nick Orand.lab as a simplified. LMS’ Imagine. it cannot be a tool only for R&D groups and Ph. is just as vital as capturing global complex behaviors. He sees their continuing chal- Teamcenter Mechatronics Data Model enables a single environment that supports a common lenge is in capturing ever more com- bill of materials within different engineering domains. fication is more efficient earlier in the functions as well as software and On a broader scale. However.” ex- tronic engineers need to collaborate to then when the parts are assembled into plained Orand. OEMs ple addition. “Once a real system is create a wire harness that functions. The simplified approach globalizes the essential behaviors a vehicle engineer needs. plexity. they are local optimizations. Orand stresses that LMS’ tool re- mains dedicated to specific applications. such as wizards and im- proved graphical user interfaces. Detailed design rests with Tier 1 suppli. are responsible for systems design. undesirable system interac.lab product emphasizes model-based design of entire vehicle late hydraulic. a CAE tool to develop the right specifi. Mentor also recently an- nounced the release of the Capital Architect tool for optimizing the physical architecture of vehicle electrical distribu- tion systems. the vehicle. “There is tremendous opportunity to find globally optimized solutions— across all disciplines—for a given ve- hicle and its in-vehicle software func- tionality. electrical.” Rhines said. the control meets weight targets.” said Orand. rather than connecting each in a point-to-point manner. Unifying the disciplines Extending model-based design to com- plete vehicle behavior is exactly what LMS International is doing.” Simplification. Just as importantly. cations to flow down. pointing to model- ing tools such as Mentor Graphics’ Volcano Network Architect and SystemVision. it runs on today’s computers. While integrating global vehicle ac- tions. If they do not. “Today. at present. lab product integrates physics to simu. either across dis. “OEMs need tronics and software with the physical. Mechanical. and elec. Simulation Feature Orand describes Imagine. “For this to grow. a simplistic mechanical design ers. according to Rhines. Director of Simulation Business Development.

” Hillhouse advocates the use of SysML as a modeling language because it supports using models as the primary According to IBM Automotive. tion for this forthcoming wave of Brett Hillhouse. Systems Executive for IBM Rational. electronic. ments is the key and forms the heart of standard. hydraulic.” Requirements management has long Telelogic Rhapsody together with IBM been in computer-aided software engi. he believes active those cycles together earlier. simulate. munication.—than the end result of product development is more than uncertain. the traditional heart of Although he admits techniques such Knowing what to test. IBM Telelogic DOORS and design is still ahead of us. “If requirements are only managed on software. For him. the Model Driven Systems While acknowledging that the bill of opment cycle. code. electric. the automotive industry certainly data sharing platform. Meeting the challenge of mechatronics is in need of CASE. gration comes late in the product devel. managing product require. evolution. best practices are building the founda- Meeting requirements neering (CASE). He noted that a graphical language that integrates well and adjusted through physical testing.” said Hillhouse. “Those world. according to the company. material (BOM). with SysML supports the AUTOSAR is a very lengthy process. facilitating com- business success than the BOM management: If a company builds products based on the wrong requirements. requirements engineering has an even greater impact on product of the process.org . etc. Siemens PLM Mentor Graphics’ SystemVision was specifically built for the mechatronics challenge through model-based design principles. and that inte.” Development (MDSD) methodology. 60 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. “bridging requirements need to be engineered.” said Hillhouse. is important. or product definition in the automotive as hardware-in-the-loop are bringing design starts with requirements. There are predic- tions that an average car may contain 10 million lines of code by 2010. and managing complexity through abstraction. The problem is more than software. not requirements engineering is the next the gap between controls and [physical] managed. “Requirements engineering is the start- ing point for MDSD. It ics. it does not matter how well the BOM is managed. and are not managed over the entire vehicle—including mechanical. Automotive Industry With each new generation of car or MDSD. truck containing millions more lines of Recognizing the need for a unified offers another emphasis to mechatron.

Model supports common industry stan. there “Having the system vision and the correct. engineer and uploading a fix. is just as important as control clude a Mechatronics Data Model. PLM XML. “An automotive engineer is becoming a electrical engineers into the automotive industry? If you look at the controls engineer. Simulation Feature The people crunch and CAE “The wealth of simulation technology we have today is hampered by provement in productivity is going to be required. ware-only fixes through the dealership. 214. Ford. The dards to facilitate transfer between elec. Software evolved its Teamcenter prod. If a dealership dis- ality because. 212. plines required for true mechatronics design and analysis. the While managing complexity by re. “A software- Despite downsizing. Our goal is to help ranty costs.” said Brett Hillhouse. RosettaNet. “We tie these dif. aei teractions and concurrent engineering companies manage those requirements. a lack of trained personnel. stand-alone system. Taylor. in productivity. facilitates contacting the responsible competitive.” said Bruce Jenkins of Ora Research. they are visible to shipped. collaborating with Siemens. Taylor sees BOM. Automotive Industry Systems Executive for IBM Rational. Bruce Morey Engineers trained in mechatronics skills may be facing a bottleneck. electrical vehicles. there appears to be a shortage of skilled people intensive company in Europe was able to achieve that 10-times increase needed to advance automotive innovation.” to write it. IVS has grated common source of knowledge manual process today—or maybe in a saved the company $100 million in war- enabling improved and continuous in. tronic CAD.” “One of the challenges is attracting talent to an industry with chal. Today.” Managing service requirements. “Automotive companies cated out through the BOM. critical assumptions on sys- are not enough engineers coming out of college in the next 20 years tem simplifications—these are critical skills for the system engineer.org aei APRIL 2009 61 . increased those that are working on the individual covers a problem it cannot resolve. using a model-based approach. or stored. The automotive world may need not only an improved process but lenges of its own.” said No physical hardware is swapped. By tracking soft- for Siemens PLM.” interactions. STEP AP 210. “This way. the aei-online.” he said. according to Dave Taylor.” explained Nick Orand of LMS International. together is through integrated BOM and bus analysis. spectrum. A 10-times im. Future plans include PDX and troubles with a vehicle. that does not happen very often. system through Teamcenter to isolate Senior Director of Automotive Industry and JT. quite frankly. software becomes the central player in best way to bring the different disci. need to manage complexity of function. rather than wait for phased gate and allocate them out to the BOM. system modeling. Standards include developed the In-Vehicle Software (IVS) management. mechanical CAD. Requirements management is often a mates that after three years. Ford esti- ferent domains through a tightly inte. amount of software alone predicted by the automotive world. The Teamcenter Mechatronics Data other end of the product development uct-data-management offering to in. How do we get the right kinds of software and also a shift in type of engineer. Requirements are as essential as the system enables downloading of soft- ducing it may be a strategy. 233. Not with the current level of productivity. ware loads to a vehicle through IVS. IVS functionality is how they are going to be parts and systems in the vehicle. it differently. “Requirements need to be allo.

and university specialists will dis- “Racing to Green thorny challenge posed by the car’s key role in climate change—not only could cuss a range of timely subjects related to green mobility during the panel ses- Mobility. Market?” and “Green Mobility—The tive to consumers and affordable. the ve. but guarantee its very survival in the long run. Such is the heady—even agenda will be near-term and future powertrain solutions. trend. is an example of the growing electrification of the automobile. Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regula- tual insights they gain to the rest of tions that are to become effective by the industry. big-picture concerns such as industry attacks this problem. Innovating toward profitable sustainability Innovating toward profitable sustainability Honda’s recent FCX Clarity. their best thinking on the manifold as. Alternative fuels will be con- by Steven Ashley pects of “green mobility” will help spur sidered in sessions such as “Energy: the industry to better address the threat Field to Wheel.” the theme of this year’s SAE World Congress. which generates its own electricity from hydrogen gas stored under pressure. survival of the from all over the globe will consider in a hybrid and electric propulsion systems. Another panel will discuss of engineers and other leaders can be the contentious topic of “Green Safety. organizers hope that the panelists’ dialogue will provoke useful discussion High mileage. agency ad- new black.” and others focusing on of global warming. The Long View” are on the program. It is no surprise that high on the help the auto red. 62 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. But even as the Difficult. including ad- industry ensure the Hydra-headed—issue that top experts vanced internal-combustion engines. “Does Green Matter in a Try-to-Survive hicles it produces must remain attrac. or concep.” brought to bear on it. This human-caused next-generation technology including conundrum is surely ripe for solution. low carbon and encourage the attendees to pass The new 35-mpg federal Corporate on any strategic. homogeneous its own long-term 2009 World Congress in Detroit. government policy-mak- Congress theme. This year’s SAE World I n today’s car business. a key part of the industry’s drive toward reduced carbon dioxide emissions and better “green mobility. The participants hope that sharing and next-generation electrochemical success. cellulosic biofuels and coal-to-liquids if only the full innovation and creativity processes. series of panel discussions that are and promising technologies such as gas- planet—as well as scheduled for late this month at the SAE oline direct injection.org . green is the Industry practitioners. being green—that is. meeting the ers. batteries. charge compression ignition (HCCI).” aims to help pull the auto industry out of the sions. theoretical. More than a mere fashion ministrators. 2015 pose a tough hurdle for carmakers.

but it remains to be seen whether that nation is ready to purchase clean diesels.S.” Downsized gasoline engines that match the performance of their larger predecessors but with better fuel economy is a recent auto “We assessed the opportunities that will emerge in auto- industry trend. offer potential advantages in cutting GHG and taking pressure off utilities by feeding the grid.org aei APRIL 2009 63 . Ford Chief Technology motive technology and fuels as we move along in time. “Middle measures. he added. is well placed to envision what may be in century. garding trends such as the likelihood of vehicle size and weight reduction. and narios in all price ranges. oil shale.” such as better en- gineering to place just enough material exactly where it is needed as well as greater use of high-strength steel. but in time they will be supple- with a range of propulsion systems that could work in all sce. but we won’t necessarily need expensive and exotic materials such as carbon composites to succeed. Petroleum supplies. The 1. Clean diesels will meanwhile find greater use outside the U. may be able to do the trick. levels off. “V8s will become V6s. “that the time scales To meet latest CAFE limits. said Gerhard Schmidt.” This result is especially true for the downsize their gasoline engines. mented by biofuels. The team analyzed the performance of new and 180-PS (132-kW) EcoBoost engine in Ford of Europe’s IosisMAX concept uses direct injection and turbocharging to make up for the improved engines. “Companies have to be prepared keep up with the demand. Gerhard Schmidt. lightweight structures will also be required to boost fuel mileage. but their higher costs could slow deployment. ”Next we tried to determine the It is unclear which technologies will be implemented in suf. Such decisions require other alternatives.” he said. will arrive armed with insights he and his colleagues gained when they prepared an industry report released last year titled “On the Road in 2035.” he noted. greenhouse gases. finding. but await improved batteries and a widespread recharging infrastructure to achieve significant inroads. John Haywood.” One of the panelists. reported Haywood. a mechanical engineer at MIT. he said. “There’s likely to be a long aei-online. Chief Technology According to the MIT projections. and then comes down over the next quarter Engineering at Ford. Using those estimates.S. we predicted the fuel con- is the type of vehicles that will be on the road after 2015. a panelist at the upcoming SAE World Congress.” he Officer. V6s I4s. Cloudy crystal ball Another panelist. The industry will continue to make substantial progress toward the electrification of the powertrain. Even less obvious gressed. in Europe and Asia. Schmidt added that more work needs to be done to perfect diesel exhaust aftertreatment technology. Schmidt expects most firms to of change are large. But Schmidt questions any true societal benefit from this course if most electricity is still generated mainly by coal- fired power plants. and other systems.” Besides techno- logical and cost issues. he said. fuel consumption tends Officer and Vice President for Research and Advanced to rise. with vari- ous flavors of hybrids gaining market share. Events | Energy/Environment Feature displacement designs that achieve equivalent performance using turbocharging. tar sands. “We’ll need to spend more resources to develop lightweight struc- tures that do the job.” the Ford exec believes. coal to liquids. and then estimated the deployment rate of each propulsion technology. he said. alumi- num. types of fuel and how much the fleet would use as time pro- ficient volumes to attain the mandated goal. more-advanced technologies. and magnesium. “industry and government have to collaborate to develop a cost-effective hydrogen-refu- eling infrastructure.” proposed by Schmidt. Schmidt noted that “interest in hydrogen fuel cells seems to be slowing down a little lately.6-L explained. however. direct injection.” he warned.” Whatever propulsion systems arise. and so forth. “India is 70% diesel. will not store for the vehicle fleet. and the resulting release of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission limits will be severe. when sumption situation in the U. tried to make reasonable assumptions re- size difference. that “we accurately gauge how much money it will cost to The group agreed with much of the propulsion scenario achieve what percentage improvement in fuel economy.. replacing them with smaller. An entire World Congress session is devoted to analyzing “Which Hybrid Concepts Will Rise to the Top?” Plug-in hybrids. Farther out.

pause before all-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell cars hit the large vehicle. claims Joseph Kanianthra. Is “green safety” a non sequitur? That is the ques- tion that moderator Joseph Kanianthra.S. which received good safety ratings de.” He pointed road in any numbers. “The problem with that thinking.org . will be part of the mix of future propulsion systems. The task of some serious behavioral and lifestyle changes on the part of the panel titled “Green Mobility—The Long View” will be to the owners/drivers. it bounces off like a billiard ball. “Reducing vehicle weight to improve fuel economy means less safe- ty. so more secure can make these changes. we oblique impact. and be- yond that. President of Active Safety Engineering LLC. according to panelists. Tier 2 Bin 5 standard.” new technology and substituting with alternative fuels. structure into the Smart.” he said. such as the one that powers the Mercedes- Benz ML 320 BlueTEC diesel SUV..” Vehicle weight does not necessarily determine Green and safe are not mutually incompatible. so that even if it hits a 64 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. The exhaust from the SUV’s high- mileage powerplant is injected with AdBlue urea additive to cut nitrogen oxide emissions. “We concluded that if we work really hard. as shown by Daimler’s Smart panelist who until recently was Associate Administrator for Vehicle Safety Research ForTwo. will toss to his panel. integrated technologies have be- come much better at protecting occupants. a Congress safety. Innovating toward profitable sustainability Clean diesel engines. He points out that the Smart ForTwo is a small. “It’s conventional wisdom that fuel econo- my compromises safety.” examine the feasibility of potentially game-changing transport technologies and infrastructures that lie on the far horizon as Green safety well as new concepts of sustainable personal mobility. at NHTSA.” Haywood stated. low enough to meet the demanding U.” Haywood expects progress by adopting might be needed to ward off neck injuries. new.” Kanianthra continued.” This argument was often used in the past to beat back federally mandated mileage standards. particularly outside the U. Achieving green mobility will necessitate some radical think- pense of other factors. a Smart could spin like a top. but he warns that the industry “will not be able to keep escalating Paradigm changers performance and vehicle size as it has been doing at the ex. out that even such an improvement has ramifications: “In an In general. but it’s seatbelt technology—such as four-point or inflatable belts— just about feasible. “is that it may be possible to prevent most crashes from occurring altogether.” said the former Associate Administrator for Vehicle Safety Research at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). so we have a chance to improve car safety while reduc- ing weight. so being greener incurs a penalty in crash safe- ty. The two-seater’s secret is a stiff spite being small. And there will probably have to be ing and probably some tough behavioral changes. “It won’t be easy. “The engineers built a stiff cage but lightweight safety-cage structure inside.S. fuel-efficient car that nevertheless gets good federal crash-safety ratings. he said.

he asserts. “Maybe we should enable more car con- ment of a pair of autonomous vehicles that had great success voying by engineering the necessary advanced sensors and in two recent Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency control systems. With a little thought. vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) com- (DARPA) Grand Challenges.” of a pair of autonomous vehicles that had great success in two In addition. Events | Energy/Environment Feature vehicle’s total energy use is consumed moving safety equip- ment around. aei-online. but in which everyone retains their own private.and cost-inefficient because buses. consumption—“more than that which is produced by drilling on the Alaskan shore. chip-based sets (inset).” Thrun said. the American car incorporates heavy safety systems and stiff body structures that absorb crash energy and restrain the intrusion of engines and other large objects into the interior compartment to pro- Sebastian Thrun. Sebastian Thrun. that a trail- ing vehicle can boost its fuel economy by about one-fifth by One of this panel session’s members. could enable such innovations. we can do better. precision GPS. many auto executives claim that 30% of a cur. a switch to “European-type” engineering stan- dards should be considered whereby a car design needs to provide comprehensive safety only to seatbelt-wearing occu- pants. many of which have been considered previously.S. which finished in second place.” Perhaps.” a driverless 2006 Volkswagen voying to save energy. Berkeley and elsewhere indicate. ty. which is based on low-cost. one of the participants in the upcoming Congress session on “Green Mobility—The Long View. “Right now. offers a series of provocative munications. mobility. they often focus somewhat superficially on energy subways. communications systems such as General Motors’ vehicle-to-vehicle technology. your car leaves the convoy. and trains continue to run even when they are emp- consumption in terms of fuels. he suggests “we employ vehicle convoying to create effi- ciencies. “Nothing of what I’m suggesting. and road infrastructure. The Stanford Racing Team entered the technology needed to perform vehicle drafting and con- 2007’s Urban Challenge with “Junior. and effi. “would rent car’s weight is related to maintaining passenger safety. “When people think about green systems. it means that the same fraction of a human driving. For example. since mass is the number one determinant of energy use. the driving less than 10 m (33 ft) behind a truck (depending on Stanford University computer scientist who led the develop. restrict people’s driving. cases. but maybe it’s time to take a wider view of the way cient transport that feels a lot like and offers the benefits of in which what we do affects overall energy use.” In many mass transit. such developments would augment said Thrun. Tests at the University of California– Passat. factors that determine energy use are not customized space and the ability to travel as you wish after obvious. Approximately 30% of car-based energy is equivalent to 5% of domestic U. which would provide a way to shave a vehicle’s energy consumption. “If that’s true.” aei Stanford’s Thrun wonders if we should not pursue advanced green transportation concepts such as convoying—the ability to form a closely packed line of vehicles that operates as one—to save the need to build more highways.” led the development tect passengers who don’t wear seatbelts.” ideas. Along with onboard sensors and precision GPS. speed and so forth). he advocates research to develop and install recent DARPA Grand Challenges.org aei APRIL 2009 65 .” he said. propulsion systems. Thrun reported. suggested Thrun. which are energy. but And rather than spending more on expensive mass-transit which bear another scrutiny.

visit booth 527 66 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Renault. with low impact on backpressure. This produces a neric tools to reproduce and as- has developed a formula to create tensile strength of around 1500 MPa (217. the to 880 to 950°C (1616 to 1742°F) in a furnace. according to simulation of the engine’s fre- vantage of highly conductive SiC and the company. These technology due to low backpressure. The SG4 offers SiC robustness mal unit value. rear side members. energy recov- sizing potential for the full exhaust system. and battery recharging. trucks. the company’s create greenhouse gas emissions petitiveness cluster and FUI Fund. visit booth 1155 plastic waste. visit booth 1013 For more information. HyHIL has validated three hybrid accommodate high washcoat loading dened landfills. ergy supervisor developed by IFP. Hot-stamped tailor-welded blanks With its first application in a production car.org . The physical mod- approximately 95% of the plastic eling of the components is done Silicon-carbide DPF on the LMS Imagine. trains. Imagine. This cata- enable OEMs to reduce costs brid mode. then Laboratoire de Génie Élec- stamped into a component. typical applica- tions are bumpers or roof rail reinforcements. sess the complex architectures of liquid fuel from most types of For more information.S. The formula will quent stop-start phases. simulation platform. with simulation of an alternator- Designed for DeNOx function integration nomics. a balance between energy. Piloting of sel particulate filter (DPF) features high tute for coal with a higher ther. and LMS of more than 30 K/s (54 R/s). and the subsequent rapid cooling results Natural State Research (NSR) platform that uses a suite of ge- in an extremely hard microstructure in the material. se- is suitable for use in cars. high soot loading operability.Lab AMESim into liquid fuel.560 psi). In addition to rear and front members. starter. Saint Gobain’s asymmetric cell design and offers fuel-economy-optimized and predictable resource for fuel. with onto DPF substrate. the powertrain test bench and porosity. and heavy equip. MORPHEE 2 test bench supervisor. The SG4 is available with by establishing a more permanent ery during deceleration phases. and tunnel reinforcements of the Audi A5 coupe and the new A4. engineering. in partnership steel designed specially for the process is first heated with IFP. with simulation of lytic function integration allows additional packaging benefit and down- while stabilizing the U. eco. a manganese-boron-alloy The HyHIL by D2T. With 60% porosity and narrow ment. NSR technology does not Supported by the Mov’eo com- pore size distribution. and hy- narrow pore size distribution. visit booth 960 architectures have been tested increased regeneration interval. Saint-Gobain’s silicon-carbide (SiC) die- ing 5% can be used as a substi. stop and start mode. over the course of several stan- Saint-Gobain’s assembling design and manufacturing process allow pro- dard driving cycles using an en- duction of substrates for any geometry and shape. Cell density is available up to 300 cpsi. and cooled very quickly in the die at a rate trique de Grenoble. thereby achieving architectures: pure thermal mode. For more information. based on the latest information provided by exhibiting companies. and environ. real-time functionalities of D2T’s vere regeneration. the SG4 takes ad- mental efficiencies. ThyssenKrupp Steel’s hot-stamped tailor-welded blanks are used in the B-pillars. This technology is used mainly in the production of crash-relevant components. microstructure is designed specifically to and reduces plastic at overbur. The high blank temperature during stamp. The fuel produced model execution are based on the that provides high thermal stability. is a virtual hybrid test Plastics to fuel ing ensures forming behavior. while the remain. With Test platform the hot stamping process. The process turns hybrid vehicles. and corrosion resis- buses. and For more information. market electric propulsion. 9009 AEI Tech Awards The editors of Automotive Engineering International highlight some of the more innovative new products and technologies on display by suppliers at the SAE 2009 World Congress. tance.

Large-scale mass grid. Autocoding software facili- voids can be quickly exposed. while models facturer may find it necessary to make changes to the door seal or the display the real-time simulation of a vehicle’s electrical system. Driven by a DynoLAB For more information. All data can be recorded for future use tates the development and implementation of control systems. Featuring portability. This Connector charge system. A hybrid vehicle battery test sys- partner MGH in the spring. profiles and road load simulations. EVs An integrated devel- Door seal sensor system opment tool chain for The Tactilus door seal sen. loads. oline operation. the original engine control crush-proof design. hardware-in- piezoresistive sensors. ECU cali- have an effect on wind noise. real-time environment to run test scenarios. the gaseous-fuel com. fuel efficiency. the same tool using the system. Design features for the con. vibration. than 10. back to the ac mains to improve gaseous-fu­el slave control unit for different engine versions. For more information. and it can test com- A map and positioning engine (MPE) strategy from Navteq offers im- plete hybrid drivelines and subsys- proved map-enhanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to all vehicles. The design is small enough to be implemented on a circuit board or distributed in the electronics architecture of the vehicle. electric vehicles from the utility Hybrid battery rent and future requirements of emissions legislation. Proper placement and construction of seals such as battery. visit booth 514 For more information.Gaseous-fuel control unit A gaseous-fuel slave control unit from IAV provides the means for upgrading gasoline concepts to run on gaseous fuels quickly and cost- effectively without having to modify the existing engine control unit. energy-efficient and can perform oline injectors are first fed to the control unit for the gaseous-fuel drive. the optimum gaseous-fuel injection times. Simulators and is available in a variety of graphical and statistical formats. including complex necessary adjustments—i. may differ from the values for gas. the master control unit. Because the original and offers improved material se. EM controller. In the system. various performance and durabil- A high-precision analysis unit processes the signals and computes the nector was designed for more ity cycling. charging the batteries of plug-in makes it possible to meet the cur. Prototyping and air quality. For more information. The signals for actuating the gas. the system can For more information. test system production of the slave control unit is scheduled to start at production nector include a compact size. manufacturers can use the same lection. visit booth 901 aei-online. such as pressure and temperature in the gas rail. tion. visit booth 1307 automate performance. A recommended MPE specification outlines deployment of the GPS. memory. Yazaki supplies high-voltage prod. waterproofing. support of up tem from Sakor Technologies is unit works with the slave control unit. and diagnostic tasks all can be performed with customizable. The system electronics use the sensor values from the ucts for many hybrid vehicles on line-regenerative dc power original engine management system as well as additional parameters the road around the world and source. tems with or without actual bat- including those without a navigation system. and safe. search. actual body of the vehicle. The system is development of ADAS applications embedded directly in a vehicle’s CAN available with voltages of up to bus or electronic sensor. Features include a high-efficiency. visit booth 1020 Integrated development tool chain for hybrids. visit booth 1354 designs for manufacturability. and inverters. and mize fuel consumption and reduce emissions. The con. The MPE map contains ADAS geometry and 1000 V dc and ranges in size from ADAS attributes with a reduced file size. and engineering and consulting services. During discharge modes. to a 70-A charge rate. and enhanced efficiency. create a virtual. electric motors. Using ware. durability. absorbed power is regenerated gasoline calibration is left unchanged. Through the system. depending on operating point. and interpret attributes on the road.org aei APRIL 2009 67 . bration systems. which is composed of the Yazaki has teamed with the SAE control unit. component integration. size reduction. and surface defects. and continuous cycling opera- tions. hybrid and electric sor system from Sensor vehicle applications Products analyzes contact from dSpace includes pressure between the seal prototyping systems. which.e.000 insertion cycles. the fit and pressure uniformity of systems improve control designs without manual programming to opti- the door seal can be verified. and all required software to predict information. For more information. calibration. the system is also fully Measurement. visit booth 1322 microprocessor. including full road load Map and positioning engine strategy for map-enhanced driver assistance systems simulation. touch-proof contacts. abrasion marks. of a door and the rubber ECU autocoding soft- seal of a vehicle. The solution accelerates the teries in circuit. A manu. J1772 Working Group to define a ponent set. controllers. standard connector interface for and the gasoline components. real- and statistical data instantly through its user-friendly Microsoft time automotive simulation models for simulating electric components Windows-based software.. It is always on and does not require a stored naviga- tion route. the the-loop testing sys- pressure-mapping system tems for electrical displays detailed pictures drive simulation. permitting broader vehicle adop- ±200 to ±2400 A continuous.

stop and start mode. Piloting of tion system. A over the course of several stan. valves from The Lee Company into a high-speed digital represen. visit booth 1101 Jetting technology to print thin precise power control of identical Steering measurement layers that harden immediately operations. and LMS The system features integrated PCB Automotive Sensors’ Imagine. These Process solutions provider Dasi InductoScan systems from to a noncontacting loop. and components to be inte. serial digital output. to provide both static and dy- decrease design cycles. with simulation of electric propulsion. the powertrain test bench and model execution are based on the real-time functionalities of D2T’s MORPHEE 2 test bench supervisor. its shipment to auto dealerships. home switching. Renault. to an analog output voltage and a ergy supervisor developed by IFP. visit booth 514 68 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. services. thus for improved performance. Alaris30 uses PolyJet Polymer completely different operations or For more information. and fuel economy. Objet’s form heat-treating applications namic torque measurement capa- PolyJet and PolyJet matrix tech- such as scan. with simulation of an alternator- starter. Windows XP PC-based human. is a virtual hybrid test torque and angle measurement 5300D Torkdisc inline rotary platform that uses a suite of ge. sess the complex architectures of compatible connection powers ing a rotary torque transducer hybrid vehicles. neric tools to reproduce and as. The incorporates dual analog outputs models in a compact system to units can be customized to per. and technologies to be displayed this month at the SAE 2009 World Congress in Detroit. Several automotive engine. visit booth 610 machine interface with color With this sensor system. feature a compact. ing 3-D printing machine. Test platform torque and angle. and Objet systems are equipped with two and chassis dynamometer testing Studio Software ensures that independent power supplies. visit booth 527 delivers a combination of detailed grated onto a common base. in partnership to determine whether the vehicle For more information. IMH 8-mm (0. For more information. lift/ bility and features dc bandwidth nology provide a complete 3-D rotate. simulation platform. nondetented. The physical mod. visit booth 855 with IFP. con. typing applications. and linear transfer. with a quick attachment to the torque sensor systems were de.Lab AMESim puter into a portable data-acquisi. pick and place.org . The allowing each spindle to provide sions. Supported by the Mov’eo com- petitiveness cluster and FUI Fund. Series 5300D For more information. vehicle’s steering wheel. rotary in. Rotary torque sensor trique de Grenoble. product briefs product briefs Edited by Matthew Newton What’s New at SAE 2009 AEI continues its preview coverage of the products. with simulation of the engine’s fre- quent stop-start phases. HyHIL has validated three hybrid architectures: pure thermal mode. and acquires the data from the Shuttle valve with limited axial space. The HyHIL by D2T. caused by wheel alignment errors.315-in) shuttle transducer converts torque signals on the LMS Imagine. energy recov- Induction heating ery during deceleration phases. 3-D printing systems tation and then transmits the data and battery recharging. which trols. Alaris30 desktop rapid-prototyp- a range of power supplies. The eling of the components is done sensor and turns a laptop com. and hy- brid mode. Objet Geometries on the design that provides flexibility for remote receiver converts the data dard driving cycles using an en. A sure the effects of drift pull prototype service bureaus. A USB- signed for test applications requir. Compact Logix/SERCOS Drive ment system from Sensor Engineers can improve production controls to eliminate the need for Developments allows vehicle from art to part without the ne- calibration. to 8500 Hz. An upgraded control system with UV light. operators graphics and program storage is can measure and record drift-pull interfaced to the machine’s pro. For more information. and manufacturers to accurately mea- cessity of outsourcing to rapid- servo homing routines. the has been properly aligned prior to Laboratoire de Génie Élec. Units are suitable for printing solution for rapid-proto- dex. without architectures have been tested Solutions has teamed with Inductoheat feature a modular risk of noise or data corruption. single-shot. powertrain. allowing them grammable logic controller. improving handling package features Allen Bradley The drift-pull steering measure- without powder or assembly. emis- models print accurately.

visit booth 1013 semiconductor sensor technology. spring-applied brakes and load-sensing applica- tions. All stainless steel construction pro- calibration data included in the geometry and shape. and 4 to 20 mA. The design is small enough Saint-Gobain’s silicon-carbide to be implemented on a circuit it quickly works toward a solu- (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) board or distributed in the elec- tion. Cell superior accuracy at competitive TGAR systems feature a built-in density is available up to 300 cpsi. parameterized via ODX or regeneration. The distinction tance. has developed a formula to create are not changed inadvertently. Pressure ranges 100 psi and above use high trary waveform generators that Diagnostic tester accuracy silicon strain gages molecularly bonded to a stainless steel diaphragm. 0 to 100 mV. and LabView- pressure ranges use a high stability semiconductor pressure sensor isolated via a fluid based software and built-in arbi. the PX309 Series pressure lower-cost TGAR system with a soot loading operability. or in-house diagnostics without having to duced file size. visit booth 900 (0.63 in) long and are suitable for auxiliary functions such as hydrau- lically released. It features simple menu- grade. is suitable for use in cars. transducers from OMEGA® deliver base current rating of 32 A. A recommended For more information. Software updates will Vector CANtech provides a quick Info@omegadyne. Pressure ranges 50 psi and below plus all absolute DUT test report. The isolation problems in manifolds solution accelerates the develop- and feature consistent long-term complete their diagnostic tasks ment of ADAS applications em- performance. beginning with various total features high porosity. The device. Indigo is vides high thermal stability. tic data. severe quire a stored navigation route. visit booth 1020 CANdela data. min) shuttle valves are 16 mm For more information. driver assistance systems (ADAS) testing. the Plastics to fuel diagnostic mode ensures that the company’s microstructure is de. offers a map contains ADAS geometry drilled hole. to predict information. It is always on and does not re- specific detailed views. This catalytic mal unit value. With 60% porosity and between configuration mode and narrow pore size distribution. loaded operating software. ing test drives. Indigo and interpret attributes on the Silicon-carbide DPF guides users in solving their tasks: road. The process turns The TGAR transient generator Designed for DeNOx function Enhanced driver approximately 95% of the plastic system from AR RF­/Microwave integration onto DPF substrate. including those of 100 A. uncomplicated access to diagnos- out the need for a hardware up. The compact 6 gal/min (23 L/ board. The SG4 is avail- diverse specifications that cur. assistance into liquid fuel. The SG4 tronics architecture of the vehicle. trains. The cartridge-style with a minimum number of com. eliminating the need use-case-driven perspective of and ADAS attributes with a re- for threads. while the remain- Instrumentation p ­ rovides the the SG4 takes advantage of high. plastic waste. product briefs selective design and improved embedde­d computer with pre- flow capacity over existing mod. and all required software without having in-depth knowl. visit booth 1131 liquid fuel from most types of Generator systems low impact on backpressure. and heavy equip- to all vehicles. which essen. the user-friendly system downsizing potential for the full can handle most of the widely exhaust system. and LCD monitor. bedded directly in a vehicle’s CAN valve is constructed entirely of mands. 0 to 5 Vdc.omegadyne.000 pulse verification and self-calibra. able with Saint Gobain’s asym. creased regeneration interval. ment of the GPS. pulse verification and system production of substrates for any compatible with most process-control equipment. The fuel produced fers improved map-enhanced automotive conductive immunity function integration allows addi.org aei APRIL 2009 69 . Valves also solve hydraulic without a navigation system. The system also includes ing that proves to be helpful dur- built-in auxiliary power supply. tronic control unit development memory. edge of these protocols. overview of vehicle status and http://www. The MPE stainless steel and installs into a tially configures itself. and manufacturing process allow psi. and corrosion resis. O-rings. allowing users to aei-online. filled stainless steel diaphragm system. gage pressures from 1 to 10. yet it is capable of metric cell design and offers fuel. Pressure Transducers: High Performance. high Employing the latest aerospace silicon company also offers a second technology. OMEGA’s PX309 Series generating custom pulses. and in. and 3 output ranges.com be easily handled via download. Both allow users to create custom The Indigo diagnostic tester from systems provide a rugged sensor with high accuracy and excellent long term waveforms. vehicle views and progressing to offers SiC robustness that pro. The transducers use the latest For more information. trucks. bus or electronic sensor. The economy-optimized technology due to low backpressure. which makes them tion. With a base current rating tional packaging benefit and buses. Economical rently exist. Users can MPE specification outlines deploy- execute diagnostic tasks in elec. For more information. ing 5% can be used as a substi- A map and positioning engine flexibility to adapt to varied and ly conductive SiC and narrow pore tute for coal with a higher ther- (MPE) strategy from Navteq of- ever-changing specifications for size distribution.html?ref=PX309-100MV&flag=1 able files from the website with.com/ppt/prod. microprocessor. visit booth 431 diagnostic protocols. vides the durability needed for industrial applications. date high washcoat loading with For more information. prices. key- els. permitting broader designs. address the details of the complex vehicle adoption. Natural State Research (NSR) configured project and settings signed specifically to accommo. search. These tranducers offer a choice Saint-Gobain’s assembling design of absolute pressures from 5 to 300 oscilloscope that allows for easy psi.

and environ. more lation of a vehicle’s electrical sys. according to interface based on customer feed- automotive. used in a variety of static or mov. Offering efficiency and time includes prototyping systems. F. Department of Material Science ECU calibration systems. Substituting the lighter- 70 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. The such as battery. calibration. product briefs ciency motor also offers a low- inertia inner rotor. driver switch to the brakes.0 soft. process for the production and tric-drive simulation. light- automotive simulation models for cables to entertainment consoles weight magnesium sheet with simulating electric components or under multifunction powered nanometer microstructures. the low-mass relative speed of both vehicles magnesium sheet with properties and diagnostic tasks all can be SBL300 features IP68-certified using a radar sensor installed in similar to steel and with a compa- performed with the same tool dustproof/waterproof construc. low noise. higher performance of over-temperature operating con. NSR technology does not of use and productivity for the ing to guarantee performance in to help the driver release the ped- create greenhouse gas emissions developer. the system activates the Human-machine brushless design reduces the number of wear components over brakes to decelerate smoothly. Simulators The SBL300 from SPAL USA is a technology Process. The formula will back and prevailing user-interface and truck applications. visit booth 1030 egrity and cost savings. Cable and wire carrier ers an out-of-the-box user experi. This release features a re- both performance and durability. University of Michigan and Prototyping systems improve con. Designed to meet the down or brakes. process. the front bumper. the DiSTI Corp.org . F. Development tools cost-effective organization and manufacturers of automobiles. In addition to the For more information. offers advantages in material int­ sumption and reduce emissions. real-time ing applications. visit booths 641 and predictable resource for fuel. application-specific colors. Kabletrax Worldwide’s F. alerts the driver through message nomics. movement needs. (Flexible Installation Tape) cable GL Studio is now being used by routing system allows flexible. gramming to optimize fuel con. brushed technology to deliver long-lasting motor life and to acceleration actuator is activated ware upgrade offers greater ease provide automatic power de-rat. loads. market interface upgrades.T. The high-effi. the SPAL motor incor- porates smart soft start—a re- duced in-rush current that pro- tects a stalled/resisted fan. For more information. according to the company. electric mo. deliv.I. by establishing a more permanent includes more than 30 generic For more information. tomer. Measurement. thereby achieving better overall value to the cus- highest engineering standards for driver behind to brake. hardware-in. bus. controllers. An integrated development tool rout­ing of wires and cables in a High-strength aircraft. When the vehicle ahead slows and reduces plastic at overbur. ECU embedded safety-critical displays. reduced axial dimensions. back the accelerator to help the the company.T. When a vehicle rable strength-to-density ratio as using the system. requiring the dened landfills. Due to its construc. and engi. tion and manufacturing process. GL Studio 4. completely sealed brushless motor The distance control assist (DCA) tion molding of magnesium al- ment to run test scenarios. eco. and space vehicles for chain for hybrid and electric ve- uses ranging from prototyping to wide variety of on-vehicle applica. and Engineering at the neering and consulting services. instruments covering a variety of and 2155 For more information. tion and integrated power and approaches close to the front that of steel but at one-fourth the For more information. al. vehicle and the accelerator is not weight. ence.0 Infiniti FX. ufactured in a wide variety of under the sponsorship of the trol designs without manual pro. visit booth 1055 DCA debuted on the 2009 while stabilizing the U. coupled with a new tutorial that illustrates how to develop advanced 3-D graphical interface designs. technology For more information. and configurations.I. such as routing marketing of high-strength. materi. architected GL Studio developer the SBL300 is recommended for and audio warnings and pushes mental efficiencies. the system a balance between energy. tively custom-designed and man. and ditions. Thixomolding is the injec- create a virtual.T. developed with the tors. systems can be cost-effec. visit booth 960 application types from speedom- eters to keypads and nearly 300 common user-interface texture elements. The foun- Autocoding software facilitates the dation of the technology is the development and implementation Brushless motor Distance control assist Thixomolding Thermal Mechanical of control systems. The engaged. visit booth 901 signal electronics. real-time environ. als. magnesium sheet hicle applications from dSpace tions. off-highway. National Science Foundation. while designed to suit a variety of air system from Nissan North loys.S. and inverters. both axial and centrifugal blower following distance as well as the formable. and lighter-weight tem. Fully customizable for OEM programs. through a push-back mechanism ment. Available in America determines a driver’s in a stronger.I. configurations. and resis- tance to vibration and harshness levels. visit booth 927 savings. the lightweight and flat Thixomat­’s NanoMag technology autocoding software. This content. vehicle seats. The enable OEMs to reduce costs design trends. can be easily installed and is an environmentally friendly the-loop testing systems for elec. engineering. The NanoMag process results models display the real-time simu.’s GL Studio 4. If interface development the accelerator is engaged. more reliable. the deployed application.

A specialized chemical is dosed into the system to ensure that the distillation process is kept clean. visit booth 1654 well as offers greater personal hybrid. electric provides the benefits of reduced damage does not retire the entire wheel sensor cables include ABS/ shift system. vehicle testing include crash im- control. early warn- The e-Sensing product line from users time. and and design. it can be used as a braking and accelerative boosting. Honda R&D production. aspects of the FCX Clarity: style wash process and returned to the built-in connectors make the unit lighting and cabling systems.org aei APRIL 2009 71 . complexity. visit booth 1125 the SAE Store at the 2009 SAE also recycled by pumping solution and handling. and human translation For more information. This system especially durable where cable cables with ADR approval. According to fications. has to not having to reheat the re- developed a software package placement water. include testing of off-road and GF-5 website Japanese www. and reduced freshwa. which incorpo- distance controllers. chassis safety. fill level. and applications 33 articles and papers on the the effluent associated with con. Transmission Synthesis saves package airbag. and new fuel-cell stack. questions address the protection in military applications. page. Closed-loop track its orientation in space with ments. protection. plot cupant recognition. post-processing calculations. electrical installa- The April edition of Honda R&D late an acceleration vector and tion wiring. This hot- Transmission cure recycling: results in water savings by not having to replace development software the tank volume on a regular ba- IAV. required level of regenerative In addition. The recyclable sealants high-speed impact environments the connection cable between the color publication are various are recovered during the cold. with capacity and inductivity re- newest technology initiatives from ventional impregnation systems The ruggedized unit is designed for quirements. where the hot-cure construction vehicles. and parking mm (1. piece in three-dimensional space. Applications in ESP sensor cables. rollover. Comfort ca- rates three linear accelerometers bles encompass categories such and three angular rate sensors in a as roof. visit booth 1354 sensor package. ings by not having to stop the planetary automatic. motorcycles. with materials and cables with the resulting transmission designed to the customer’s speci- Combined sensor architecture design. visit booth 1223 information.com website pro- is then returned to the cure tank motion measurement. active body seats. visit booth 2101 water is purified.hotims. Truck cables feature Honda Motor Co. pinch DTS includes the 6DX combined on transmission development. the simplest shift automotive cables include prod- logic. aeix.com/22868-271 aei-online. duces vehicle fuel consumption as and the required shift elements. geared neutral. Control cables include cial focus on fuel-cell vehicles and impregnation system time and. fuel-cell powertrain autoclave for reuse. precrash. Power cables are used for Honda R&D Technical (0. and has a 6000-g shock rating. seat.org. Ltd. For more information. The Transmission the effluent stream by up to 99%. ucts geared to six areas of appli- transfer efficiencies obtainable cation. Lastly. decreased effluent sensor package. motorsports. product briefs weight magnesium sheet for alu. Other applications World Congress as well as at from the hot-cure tank to a distil. soft-bound book includes free impregnation system reduces the kinematic motion of a test lambda probe. heating. and the optimum energy. and ride For more information. desired. The 246. weight and oc- the Honda Insight. lation unit. Technical Review is available at ter usage. The six channels of applications including lighting and Review output provide the data to calcu- cabling systems. with the appropriate sensors for rain.1 in) square and 17 mm assist. belt. provides energy savings due University of Chemnitz. effluent. and cost ing and closing systems. in cooperation with the sis. base material for manufacture of as well as the necessity of a fuel cells and electronic products.sae. and engine compart- Technical Review includes a spe. and PDU.67 in) high. The highly concentrated waste (usually less than 1% by volume) is collected separately for subsequent disposal. Featured in by 99%. suspension. results in efflu- suited for transmission system ent savings due to reduction of engineers. heated and cooled sealant usage. dual-clutch. the program can quickly calculate and evaluate all permutations for the optimum layout of the gear­train with the Multicore cables least number of torque-transfer Leoni Cable’s Adascar multicore components. Safety cables include IAV. the overall ratio spread. while changing the water. marine. The tractor and trailer or semitrailer. Ultraseal’s closed-loop. compact package that is 28 and climate control. ventilation single. If For more information. Synthesis program asks questions and creates manufacturing sav- about transverse or longitudinal. and For more information. The hot-cure effluent is pacts. the number of gears machine and lose production minum and other materials re. visit booth 1314 vides real-time information on the for reuse. With this type of For more information. or hybrid. and brake wear indicator. This clean water Lubrizol’s GF-5.

m. J. HybridCars.E. Compact Power. tions. Units can be fitted with range of tire sizes. Coulomb Technologies.11:30 a. is developing GF-5. braking tests. Chief Executive Officer. Editor.1:30 p. Drivetrain & Infrastructure Telephone/Webcast May 7. and table indication of testing required and status of each test. Inc.m.org/tele-webcasts/electric-car association with: TELEPHONE/WEBCAST ONE FEE + ONE CONNECTION = UNLIMITED PARTICIPANTS P90264 72 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online. Magna International Inc. either slip ring or telemetry signal eters. Director. product briefs website will provide users with key areas of information including an animated timeline that high- lights the steps required by the industry to take the specification from initial concept to commer- cialization. Chief Technology Officer & EVP of New Product Creation. ET via Telephone/Web Topics this SAE/AEI Telephone/Webcast will address include: • Current and emerging electric vehicle • Networks of smart electric recharging stations technologies • The critical integration of technology • Solutions for vehicle manufacture • Drivetrains (with specific vehicle case studies) • Developments in battery technologies Featuring Experts from the Industry: Bradley Berman. For more information. Chief Executive Officer. Units key member of ILSAC. information about the in- dustry and process. which Series 5400 wheel-force transduc. Sponsored By: Produced by the SAE Sponsored By: Continuing Professional Development Group in www. calibrate and adjust biaxial wheel Japan for MY2011 vehicles. Nancy L. Wheel-force transducer signal conditioning and calibra- cessful in preparation for the PCB Automotive Sensors offers tion circuitry. vehicles. Sustainable Mobility Technologies and Hybrid Vehicle Programs. Ford Motor Company Richard Lowenthal. a Japanese version of the and 749 site is now available.org . suspension. are available in aluminum. which in collabora. They ac- Standardization and Approval ety of sizes for on. and tires. This site will help Japanese customers be suc. visit booth 1101 Keys to the Electric Car Future: Batteries.sae. The transmission and offer onboard For more information. Suitable for heavy commercialization of GF-5. visit booths 743 tion. stain- International Lubricant ments and are available in a vari. and offsets. explanation of GF-5. and titanium. (Telephone/Webcast Organizer and Moderator). proposed ILSAC GF-5 specifica.and off-road cept modified rims to mount a Committee. the uct development of stability con- Manufacturers Association) is a rugged. less steel. Gioia. one-piece. “Ted” Robertson.com Prabhakar Patil. the units feature accurate measure. Designed to mount between the test machines and perform prod- JAMA (Japanese Automotive vehicle hub and wheel rim. 2009 . Inc. the sensors also is expected to be prevalent in ers for road load data acquisition. water-resistant trol. . wheel diam- tion with oil industry organiza. recent news and up- coming events.

The electric and bodywork that comprises two insulating drivetrain features a 50-kW (continuous) 70-kW panels with a sandwich of air. Purchase this Headline calendar online at http://www. insulating acid green-tinted glass. 226-N·m electric motor and a lithium-ion www.org/ technical/books/ AEICALENDAR2009 Renault Z.com aei-online. Concept This month’s Renault is furthering its CO2 emissions reduction battery pack. Its Z.E.lear.E.sae. the new Renault Kangoo be bop. including the employment of heat- 2011.org aei MARCH 2007 1 . (Zero Emission) Concept is based on reflective paint. sponsor strategy with the development of electric vehicles. To extend the vehicle’s electric range. the company went all-out to minimize energy which will lead to low-volume production from consumption. (peak).

........................... 50.............................. 49 Siemens PLM Software........................................................ 19 University of California–Berkeley........................... 38 In Stainless Steel for Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tanks Contact Elisabeth..................................................0023............ 65 IAV ........ 75 Millbrook Proving Ground............ 50............ 63......................................................................... 17.. 42 IFP........ 17 Stainless Steel Objet Geometries................... 44 Sakor Technologies........... 52 GENIVI Alliance. diesel vehicles made after 1............. 16 aeix............. 29 DiSTI Corp.................................................................... 77 Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium................................................................................... 69 Visa................................ 68 Allen Bradley..................... 57 Cranfield University............. 59.................................................................. 67 Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers............................. 24 Melexis..... 56 Eaton................................................. 68 Citroën......10............ 29 AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation......... 70 iSuppli............................... 56................... 64 Honda................................ Department of Transportation. 61....................................... 51 Dassault Systèmes...............1.................................. 24................................ 38 Scion........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 19 corrosion resistance of stainless steel — and cost-efficiency — Outokumpu’s PSA Peugeot Citroën................................ 64 Audi................... 45 D2T ..................................... 29 Denso................................................................ 16 Acura............ 24......... 55 TRW Automotive................................................ 72 Showa.............................12........................................ 52 JAMA (Japanese Automotive Sensor Products............................................................................. 25 aluminum and zinc..... Renault....................... 55 Thixomat.................... 19 U....................... 67 AEZ .................................. 50 Swiss Federal Ministry of Energy... 44 SRI Consulting Business Intelligence..................................... 17 Kia... 67 University of Michigan.......... 55 Siegel-Robert Automotive............................... 64 Dasi Solutions......................... 20........ 64 Volkswagen...................................... 67... 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For example. tomakers face no limit on how many room-only EPA public hearing. neither Obama nor anyone else has talk. Jackson. we don’t my would be 33. Cackette said. it applies to compliance on a state-by- ture in 2001 requiring a reduction in GHG state level creates some real difficulties. showcased the domestic Cackette. sub. adopting one national On January 21. with Michigan. VA. but only a ers will be able to meet the California same as a ton of carbon emitted in any 20% gain in GHG emissions reduction. metaphorically tipped her hat to Territo explained that California’s stan- Detroit saying the industry “has moved in dard is troublesome because of its poten- the right direction” in terms of technolo. ant helps considerably to reduce GHG scheduled the March 5 hearing. standard without any problem. That approach was endorsed of California’s greenhouse-gas-emissions law. when asked whether CARB might ease its the ratio of cars to trucks there is closer Cackette acknowledged that tech. sions pose an “extraordinary and compel. But higher. to testify at the standing. GHG emissions standard as part of a to 70:30 versus 60:40 nationwide). compromise. If the cur. the fleet-wide average fuel econo. Chief Deputy Executive ling” case for a Clean Air Act waiver. in California because like. regulations & standards Edited by Patrick Ponticel Merits of California greenhouse-gas rule debated The March 5 EPA hearing on California’s Charlie Territo. “A lead to a 35% increase in fuel economy Officer for CARB. 2009.” emissions of 30% by 2016. solved by the U. But addressing both GHG and fuel economy. Stephen standard. Even Fran Pavley. ton of carbon emitted in California is the in some models. which they will impose if and Johnson. a likely to adopt differ only “negligibly” Democratic State Senator in California. in from the California GHG standard in an interview with AEI before the hear.” the California standard. a spokesman for request to be able to set the first green. Stephen Barlas his interview with AEI.S. California heavy vehicles they can sell. Therefore. the EPA Administrator at the when the EPA grants California a waiver. California would have no problem rent nationwide fleet of cars and light President Obama seems to endorse with one national automotive standard trucks emitted GHG at 2016 California the “one national standard” concept. Administrator Lisa Jackson asking her to by Democratic Sen. “If it would satisfy our needs. essentially agreed with dards in the U. CARB standard for GHG emissions and fuel California State Sen. stituting cleaner air-conditioning refriger- aei-online.” Cackette said in proving fuel economy.7 mpg. levels. terms of effect on fuel economy. 35. ings. The California he said. Carl Levin of reconsider Johnson’s denial. other state.S. carmakers would have to take starting in thus.” Cackette said. emissions but does nothing to improve In an interview prior to the hearing. He said the CAFE standards the industry’s engineering advances over the U. “No. “The structure and framework as the law passed by the California legisla. the Alliance of Automobile house-gas (GHG) tailpipe emissions stan. a consumer in a regulated state MY2009. He argued that GHG emissions President Obama’s approval. Department of Transportation is past half decade. fuel economy. more incentive to cross border into an ronmental heavyweights who came to unregulated neighboring state where au- Crystal City. he had a one-word answer: “The automakers can absolutely meet sions do not always help as much in im. Fran Pavley is the author Chairwoman Mary Nichols wrote to EPA economy. Thirteen has to meet certain conditions before the states and the District of Columbia have EPA can grant it a GHG emissions waiver passed laws adopting the California GHG based on the Clean Air Act. nologies aimed at reducing GHG emis. Use of a diesel engine can Tom Cackette.S. end of the Bush administration. Pavley wrote states. Dealers in states that adopt the Air Resources Board (CARB) approved a GHG standard will have to sell fewer regulation in 2004 dictating the steps heavy vehicles and more lighter ones.” Levin said.org aei APRIL 2009 75 .8 mpg (it would be ed about what that standard might look need two standards. agreed and are not unique to California. searching for a heavier vehicle will have Pavley was among the California envi. said auto manufactur. Manufacturers. denied Territo said the problem could be the waiver request in January 2008. tial impact on auto sales in different gies for better fuel economy. the state cannot claim that those emis.

insiders & insights insiders & insights Edited by Lindsay Brooke Ripe for innovation Azure Dynamics’ CEO Scott Harrison explains how his company has captured the medium-duty hybrid vehicle market. roughly $3 million each year. “We can show When AZD entered the commercializa. experience in hundreds of vehicles in daily 1997.S. He said AZD’s powertrain. Nor is he speculating there for 12 years. Currently.” have been bullish on AZD’s growth pros- Delivery vans. AT&T. Hundreds more are slated cialist Solectria—itself an MIT progeny. For the past six years the he’s not dreaming. in Canada collabo. company bile power generator. Ltd. represent about 8% of fleet operators in the U.org . $30. The hy- for 2009 delivery. Fleet service managers have reported fleet service. When his father. While scores of start-up companies are and the Pennsylvania Department of pany’s hybrid propulsion system delivering hoping to break into the hybrid and EV Transportation also operate AZD- a 40% improvement in fuel efficiency.S.000 mi strong work ethic and rest gasoline engines) love of technology to for daily fleet use and (32. maker of hybrid and Harrison’s headquarters and AZD’s pro. extended foundation brake life. His career includes posi- tions at Fisher Scientific and a group Growth by presidency at Hayes Lemmerz before LEEPs and joining AZD. called the rated with AZD on pro. tion stage a few years ago. Along the way it acquired EV spe. the pay- GM machine technician. fuel efficiency and emissions policies cational-use vehicles coming into play in the U. 200 units for 2009 back drops to about three years.” explained Harrison. sions and maintenance costs. Harrison Harrison describes it as noted. specialized vehicles to function as a mo- 30% reductions in greenhouse gas emis. His words are based on real-world Columbia electric utility R&D project in “Force Drive” drivetrain in Manhattan.200 km) annual vehicle use. emissions—most of Harrison is an E/E whose 18 years in which are while idling. the CEO of Detroit suburb of Oak Park. who was a has ordered more than fuel prices rise to $4 per gallon. vehicle uptime averaging 96%. Boston (where it manufactures power cause they launch on battery power.” medium-duty (Class 3 through 6) sector. as the AZD powertrain 25% of the mobile does. adds about totype testing in 2003. purchased 155 hybrid the payback to buyers through fuel-cost vans (19 diesel. When Scott Harrison talks about his com. bounds rather than regulations. Azure Dynamics (AZD) has been powered fleets. And be- costs are going to go higher and the reg. spaces.000 to the cost of a standard gaso- Purolator has since line-V8 chassis. AZD has more than 100 engineers and brids’ regenerative brakes have greatly “Our value proposition is this: Fuel technical staff at facilities in Vancouver. in AZD’s target markets typically remain 76 APRIL 2009 aei aei-online.S. fied system known as LEEP. duction engineering base. the auto industry began at GM’s Delco he noted. and financial analysts’ reports “ripe for innovation. particularly given aggressive new shuttle buses. Chassis Division. Postal Service has operated 40 about something that only exists in CAD company was spun off from a British vans powered by AZD’s pure-electric data. and the tomers are also realizing longer starter- tougher. AZD also has begun selling an electri- electric propulsion systems for medium. cus- ulatory environment is going to get electronics and electric drives). Harrison credits his he said. but deliver a minimum 30% fuel efficiency they’re responsible for improvement. benefit from a the total vehicle miles 10% tax incentive for vehicles proven to driven in cities. given the typical 20. FedEx. and vo. The Vancouver-based U. He believes the market. which is motor life. compared leaders decided to focus solely on the Hybrid sales in 2007 and 2008 were with conventional trucks. Azure Dynamics. airport pects. Vehicles delivery. will ultimately Purolator Courier drive AZD’s book of business. the savings takes approximately 4½ years. which allows duty commercial vehicles. Balanced Hybrid Drive. With gas at $3 a gallon.

they don’t have the resources to low AZD to reduce systems weight. wonder why everything can’t be a hybrid lithium battery chemistry.org aei APRIL 2009 77 . “We have a manufacturing other OEMs. power electronics. along with the regen brakes. system. hybrid engineering tion motor. “People E-Series chassis. but it’s not a engineer on site at Utilimaster and we Like the rest of the mobility industry. which provides up this supply chain. With the new technology. The beauty is. trac. insiders & insights AZD’s parallel hybrid powertrain architecture currently features NiMH battery packs. in service for 10 to 12 years.” have a quality control plan. From Utilimaster. “As industry veterans. Last January the The AZD package includes an auxiliary immediately.” Harrison viewpoint. company announced a strategic partner- cooling system and auxiliary electric pow. its ubiquitous E-Series chassis for hybrid. The CAFE. said Harrison.” he noted. sources. from the end customer’s nologies on the right platforms. Ford has a 50% share in medi. AZD expects great things from upcoming Lindsay Brooke aei-online.” he said. including its proprietary AZD is serving as Ford’s dc/dc converter. The company has a Li-ion development partnership with JCI-Saft and is developing plug-in hybrid solutions as well as pure EV systems. due to their urban duty cycles. they’ve been ordering um-duty trucks in North America. it doesn’t take a lot of When it was ready for production. high hurdle. which assembles the system into Ford’s it.” AZD ships its the suggestion that powertrain set.” Collaborating with Ford Harrison chuckles at As Ford’s hybrid “upfitter. and AZD covers the hybrid “Our breakeven where we start gener- the battery as the vehicle is moving. great way of describing Delivery vans are a key market for AZD. And stand the importance of getting our tech. and im- starts the engine when battery state of opportunity for our company. So it opens up an velop plug-in hybrid systems. Ford has warranty responsibility on the of a three-year payback. the outside the industry chassis goes to a body builder. and efficiently. recharges vehicle chassis. we under.The nonbinding relationship en. We can ramp up rapidly ization. cash from Azure to set AZD partnered with Ford. and Ford’s focusing where the ship with JCI-Saft for supply of Li-ion er steering and brakes for use when the volume is—passenger cars. their vehicles for decades.” prove the payback equation with the aim charge drops to a minimum level and. but it takes enormous re. ating cash is roughly $100 million—that’s “We’re the hybrid systems integrator. and a liquid-cooled Cobasys group for medium nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack.” ables AZD to sell its hybrid powertrains to about 3000 vehicles per year. de- system’s integrated starter-generator focus on trucks too. “But that’s a to medium-truck specialist Utilimaster. trucks. Harrison said lithium will al- internal-combustion engine is off. “We’ve got work to do. this is how explained.

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