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Marketing objectives Market segmentation and positioning Market research Characteristics of product line Export pricing Distribution channels Promotional strategies

Marketing objectives: Mission: To become a world class exporting company of mangos considering a Total Quality concept. Vision: To become a leader on the export industry of mangos considering a Total Quality concept in every area that the company is involved, taking into account the overall well being and satisfaction of our employees, suppliers, partners, and customers.

Market Research
MANGO
1. Background Information: Pakistan is blessed with vast agricultural resources on account of its fertile land, well irrigated plains, extremes of weather, and centuries old tradition of farming. It is because of its central importance in the economy that the Government has identified agriculture as one of the four major drivers of growth. Pakistan annually produces about 12.0 million tons of fruits and vegetables. Potato and onion are leading among vegetables and condiments. Pakistan has unique but unsophisticated network of up to six or seven intermediaries between the primary source (producer and growers) and the end user. Because of the presence of so many layers and the lack of adequate marketing infrastructure facilities, 30 to 40% of the perishable produce gets spoiled before reaching the ultimate consumer. Mango is one of the tropical fruits, which has experienced tremendous development in recent years. One of the main reasons is shift from air to sea freight with bulk deliveries

Agriculture & Livestock.0% share in mango production in the country followed by Singh with 32.6% and NWFP 0.415 32. Table 2 shows that Punjab leads with 67. Pakistani mangoes therefore enjoy a prominent position in the international market. is native to Southern Asia. Pakistan is the 5th largest producer and the 3rd largest exporter of mango in the world. size.at competitive prices. Vegetables and Condiments Statistics of Pakistan. Islamabad.6 2003/04 1056. Mango Production in Pakistan Mango (Mangifera indica). Agriculture & Livestock.1 Balochistan 6. Harvest Season Pakistan produces quite a few mango varieties.1%. Mango is considered as the fruit of excellence and thus has a prominent position among the commercial fruits grown in Pakistan. Only a few varieties offer volumes and are thus important from export point of view. acidity etc.1 2002/03 1034. 2003/4 Province Production (Tons) Percent Punjab 707. * Based on key informants (farmers & traders) opinion survey Punjab and Sindh are main mango producing provinces.625 0.0 Sindh 338.0 Source: Fruit.0 2005/06 (Provisional)* 1200. 3. sugar level. colour. 2003/04 Ministry of Food. especially Burma and Eastern India.7 2000/01 989.3%. 2003/04 Ministry of Food.148 0. Islamabad. commonly called as µking of fruits¶. Balochistan 0. Production of mangoes in Pakistan has exhibited an overall increasing trend over the years as is evident from the data presented in Table 1: Table 1: Production of Mangoes in Pakistan Year Production (000 tons) 1999/00 937.3 Source: Fruit. 2.799 67. Province-wise production is presented in Table 2: Table 2: Province-wise Production of Mangoes in Pakistan.6 NWFP 3.8 2001/02 1037. Its soil and climatic conditions enable production and market supplies of good quality fresh mango over a period of about 5 to 6 months. The indicative harvest periods for selected varieties are given in Table 3: Mango Marketing Strategy Page 11 of 40 Table 3: Mango Maturity Days/Indicative Harvest Periods Variety Day of full Bloom Earliest date for harvest . Vegetables and Condiments Statistics of Pakistan. They differ in harvesting time and also in their physiological characteristics especially shape.

from early June to late June. and leaves and stem end root. 4. Pakistan mango harvest season overlaps with many other countries. There are thousands of varieties of mango grown in the world. Similarly Chaunsa has a problem of soft nose. with a mango glut in Pakistan from June-July. Pakistan could have a better marketing position on the international market if adequate volumes could be supplied over extended periods. stems. to stabilize prices means exporting more volume. a fungal disease that produces dark sunken spots on fruit. UNCTAD Pakistan can extend its mango season as some new varieties of mangoes can ripen as early as mid-April and late by October. market intelligence and market promotion. The harvest calendar of mangoes for main producing countries around the World is portrayed in Table 4: Source: Courtesy Trade & Transport Facilitation Project. Table 5: Leading Mango Varieties in the World Countries Varieties Pakistan Sindhri & Chaunsa India Alphonso Mexico Tommy Atkins Mali Amelie Kenya Carabao Philippines Pico West Indies Julie South Africa Kent Source: Courtesy Trade & Transport Facilitation Project. The leading varieties grown in various countries are listed in Table 5. Accordingly it matures in 3 stages. early February and late February. Marketing System Marketing of mangoes is in private hands. Moreover. Both spoil its cosmetic appeal. The role of public sector is confined to creating an enabling environment which may include provision of physical infrastructure. UNCTAD Sindhri like many mango varieties suffers from anthracnose. The flow of mangoes for export and domestic marketing is illustrated thru diagram 1: .Days to harvest Sindhri Mid-February Early June 110 Langra Mid-February Early June 110 Doshehri Mid-January Late May 118 Bombay Green Mid-January Mid May 113 Chaunsa Early February Late June 150 Kali Seroli Early February Mid June 135 Bagan pali Mid February Early July 130 Swarnarika Mid March Mid July 122 Neelum Mid February Early September 201 Sindhri flowers in three stages mid-January. regulatory measures. The challenge is to offer quality fruit at competitive prices before making inroad and for customers to accept them.

While this facilitates the trade. Minor Flow Diagram 1: Mango Flow Chart (Export/Domestic Marketing) Picking Sorting Transport Processing Plant Washing Waxing Grading Packing Cooling/ Storage Transport Shipment by Sea/Air Importer/ Wholesaler Retailer Orchard Picking Grading Packing Transport Wholesaler Exporter Regrading Repacking Cooling/ Storage Transport Shipment by Sea/Air Importer/ Wholesaler Retailer Consumer Picking Grading Packing Transport Wholesaler Retailer The pre-harvest contractor and commission agent play a pivotal role in mango trade in Pakistan. 5. it is counterproductive for linking farmers directly with the exporters and promoting grow for export especially compliance to emerging international trade requirements on sanitary & phyto-sanitary measures. He is therefore considered as µking pin¶ in the trade.FLOW CHART ± MANGO Export Marketing Export Marketing Domestic Marketing Major Flow «««.. Mango Export . The latter advances money direct as well as thru the contractors to farmers. By doing so he obliges them to sell produce thru him.

Denmark.036 2002/03 58. Germany. United Kingdom.426 The regional distribution of mango exports is appended below: Middle East/Gulf Far East Europe Others 60. Switzerland.626 2003/04 77. the prominent mango importing countries include UAE.4%) (0. USA. Farmers. South Africa & Thailand. vapour heat treatment. cultural practices and infrastructure (CA storage. expositions. PTAs. Export Market Trend The trend in marketing agricultural produce is toward fewer and larger processors and handlers. The projected export targets for the next 5 years are presented in Table 7: Table 7: Projected Mango Exports from Pakistan The export projections are based on the following assumptions: yCompliance to sanitary & phyto-sanitary measures thru GAP yProvision of physical infrastructure to address quarantine issues. MOUs etc. are becoming fewer and larger. Gulf and Saudi Arabia are traditional import markets and thus consume the major volume. Government of Pakistan. but their size and power in the market place remain small in comparison with processor/handlers. The world trade in mangoes including re-exports grew almost three times during the past decade. Saudi Arabia. Peoples Republic of China and Iran are likely to emerge as future prominent markets. Netherlands.440 tons 4. Malaysia. India.005 2001/02 47. Similarly. The country produces over one million tons of mangoes of which about 60 to 70 thousand tons are being exported.541 14. too. Philippines. for instance. Export statistics for the past 5 years are contained in Table 6: Table 6: Export of Mango during the past 5 Years (1999/00-2003/04) Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics.444 17.844 17. Exports during the past 5 years vary from 5% to 7% of the total production of mangoes in Pakistan. Ecuador. The prominent mango exporting counties include Mexico.576 2000/01 53. single strength citrus juice and cassava tapioca. Year Export Volume (000 tons) Export value (000 US$) 1999/00 47.000 tons per annum. Singapore. Germany and Japan. Brazil. England is the main market in Europe. Packing house .7%) (14.761 tons 532 tons 11. CA storage. Mango is the leading exportable fruit from Pakistan after citrus. Islamabad. Irradiation) yImproved logistics (air & sea) yImproved market access thru FTAs. France.735 tons (78. Pakistan. Current mango trade is estimated around 650. UK. Malaysia and Hong Kong are other important markets. Peru. France.Mango is the 4th most rapidly growing trade after taro. yMarket promotion (delegations. Top mango importing countries of the world and import volumes are contained in Annex 2. Norway.468 23. media) 6.1%) Information on country-wise mango exports is contained in Annex 1.8%) (6.602 11. hot eater dip and irradiation facilities yImproved shelf life thru better varieties.

Due to poor post-harvest handling and inadequate research to study behavior in controlled reefer atmosphere. so far exports to distant markets including Europe & Far East are preferred by air. There is generally a large price differential between good. They were exporting almost nothing in 1991. export to import markets in close proximity like Gulf and Saudi Arabia has almost shifted from air to sea. The growth factor for many of these countries has been to build efficient packinghouses and a reliable cold chain and to shift from exporting by air to exporting by reefer containers. Efforts are underway to extend this facility to distant markets as well. Pakistan mangoes have limited shelf life. The estimated export distribution by mode of shipment is as follows: Sectors Air Sea Reefer Non-Reefer Middle East 40% 30% 30% Far East 100% .facilities are operating in many fruit and vegetable markets around the world. The best chance to make a profit for the growers is to meet the market requirements. Growers associations or cooperatives negotiate terms of trade with commercial companies. The leading exporting countries have consolidated their position on the world market during the last 10 years in spite of the fact that their export volume has increased 3 folds. Customers are now looking to products safe to eat and less chemical prone during pre and post-harvest operations. As most of the companies in the food-processing sector are in the small-sized category and economies of scale are difficult to attain in storage and transportation.- . Therefore. and poor quality mangoes on the domestic as well as the export markets. Brazil now exports 12 times more volume than in 1991 and Peru 14 times more while Pakistan has only increased its export volume 4 times. New players like Ecuador and Ivory Coast appeared on the above list. Both growers and exporters have to keep pace with the changing Year Volume (000 tons) Value (000 US$) 2005/06 100 40 2006/07 110 46 2007/08 125 55 2008/09 150 70 2009/10 200 100 market requirements. However. most of the time growers are operating in buyers market because supply of produce is abundant. This result in mangoes being air lifted but air cargo is expensive and has a limited capacity. The world market is continually making higher demands for presentation. greater shelf life and uniform grading of fruit but also is requesting for more competitive commercial conditions including prices to develop consumption. average. This situation favors a service provider to whom these companies can outsource their storage and transport functions. Improvement in sea cargo handling has encouraged export by sea. However. Pakistan has been late to follow those trends and to invest in uptodate modern packing facilities in order to improve quality and extend mango shelf life which is absolutely necessary for sea-shipments. Customers are becoming increasingly selective for high quality fruit.

Pakistan lacks suitable varieties. Puerto Rico. Jamaica. They have a limited knowledge of mangoes with yellow color even though they may be excellent quality. yNon-performance of commitments to accommodate non-regular/other shippers. By Air yOff-loading cargo at port of loading or other ports ySpace blocked for cargo to be loaded from other ports (for instance. In many varieties. Consumer Acceptance of Mango in International Markets a) Size The world trend today is towards export of mangoes weighing 400/600 grams. Today good quality mangoes within the acceptable sizes are available from new selections and. But South East Asia has its own mango industry that is undergoing gradual change under influenced consultancy by Australia. Chaunsa is the best 300g. the seed is less than 10% of the pulp as skin with seed does not exceed 20-25%. Our two best varieties are going to have tough competition from Florida red blush mangoes from western hemisphere and African the United Kingdom and Europe. unreasonably extended transit time etc. South Africa. plug-in charges.Others 100% . space blocked at Karachi for cargo to be loaded from Multan or Faisalabad). yMisuse/misinterpretation of indemnity bond leading to rejection of genuine claims. Mangoes of 300 g are also exported but fetch a lower price. China) 7. handling charges at port of discharge etc). Peru. container washing charges. .The problems encountered by the exporters on account of shipment by air and see are reportedly as follows: By Sea yNon-availability of reefers especially 20 feet containers yNon-adherence to notified transit time yUnilateral increase in freight amidst export season yOff-loading cargo during transit yHidden charges (fuel adjustment. European prefer mango with red blush. Ivory Coast. Consumers in South-East Asia and South Asia prefer sweeter mangoes but consumers in Europe like mangoes with less sweetness but still tasty. Thailand and Australia.Europe 100% . In the export market 350-600g mangoes are marketed but gradually the weight can be increased to 450/600 gm. b) Marketing Aspects The Europeans get mangoes from many parts of the world like: Pakistan. United Kingdom imports the greatest number than any other European nation. The Asian and Indian population living in the UK consumes good quality of the fruit there. India. Kenya. Venezuela. Mangoes of more than 650 grams to 2000 grams are also available but their demand is very small. with Sindhri weighing 300 g and 60% in that size. with excellent taste and high pulp to seed ratio. Mexico. yNon-entertainment of claims on account of cargo loss/damage caused by operational inefficiencies of the carriers like malfunctioning of reefer containers. yNo/limited service for emerging markets (Al Mate.

BY Retailers yIn developed countries the retailers are grouped in 3 categories. yThere is little promotional material with retailers and only occasionally leaflets are available through the wholesales. Some varieties from other origin can stay at low temperature. although variety like Julie at 225 g with excellent taste is also consumed. Carrefour.Most developed countries importing mangoes get a regular supply the year round according to the mango season in the growing area. regular and consistent quality produce and to pay attention to its shelf life. Ahold. the task is not easy. Since most mango seasons are rather shot. yAll prefer mangoes packed in open top fibred board cartons rather than polystyrene boxes. The 5000 g size is preferred over the 350 g. ySuppliers are regular but quality mangoes are not always available throughout the year. mostly around 3 months. Supermarket chains (like Tesco. They pick up mangoes that are slightly fermented and . Walmart etc). yTemperature below 120C will cause chilling injury to many mango varieties raised in Pakistan. yOperators complain regarding over packing. As their customers require a consistent and regular quality. yMango is considered as a specialty item by wholesalers. Chain stores avoid mangoes for sale. yMangoes are refrigerated by retailers (supermarkets and food shops) over night too often without consideration for degree of ripening and temperature requirement. A lot of them are eager to market tropical fruits and particularly mangoes but their knowledge of these fruits is still too limited. By Consumers yBuyers for the street vendors are mostly from developing nations. ySize preference is for medium to large sized mangoes yStorage temperatures used by operators for unripe fruit are inconsistent. fruiters and street vendors. unless they are sure of the quality based on a long tem reliable experience with source of supply. The suppliers are required to deliver good. ySupermarkets prefer to store ripe fruit at 130C. For Pakistan to be able to export to the international markets the following issues need to be addressed: By Wholesalers yBlemishes on mango are main quality problems experienced by the wholesale trade (importers or agents) and or a major factor in reducing sales. yRipe fruit un-properly refrigerated can be damaged in short run. familiar with mangoes and their quality. ySupermarkets prefer medium to large sized mangoes. importers selling mangoes have to organize supply over the year from several exporting countries. Sainsbury. lack of pre cooling and fungal disease control. ySupermarkets in developed countries have a market share of more than 65%. They don¶t like to run into quality problems.

higher income groups are the buyers. yPrice wise mangoes are costly as they arrive by air.DOA) yIntroduction of early and late maturing varieties (DOA) yAwareness on GAP/EUREPGAP (PHDEB. Proposed Interventions Pre-harvest yOrganization of Farmer Groups (PHDEB. Good looking fruits are available at these supermarkets & buyers prefer yellow skin with a red blush.not color full developed.DOA) yFacilitate adoption of GAP (DOA. yAt supermarkets. waxing & grading yHot water dip yVapour heat treatment (2 facilities proposed one each at Multan & Mirpur Khas) yIrradiation (One facility at Lahore approved. at Karachi in the offing) yQuality insurance laboratories Logistics yInland refrigerated transport (Road/Rail) yOverseas shipment (air/sea) Market Expansion yNew markets (Preferably thru bilateral trade agreements) yBusiness contacts thru export delegations .PHDEB) yImproved extension services (DOA) Harvesting & Field Handling yHarvest at correct maturity keeping in view target market yCorrect harvesting techniques yDe-sap fruit yField heat removal ySorting. This deters buyers from buying them when quality is not excellent.PHDEB) yEUREPGAP certification (PHDEB) yFacilitate contract growing (DOA. yMango consumption is increasing regularly in developed markets because it is a tasty fruit. yMango sales at supermarkets is lower as compared to the food stores and fruiters yConsumers have a problem in distinguishing between different varieties of mangoes or their taste. Tropical fruit consumption is increasing because they now are available at affordable prices. yFamiliar brand attract more buyers. but sold at low rates. yAt the food shops the income groups segment exhibits a shift to a better income group. grading and on-farm packing yOn-farm storage Post-harvest Processing Infrastructure yCold storages (CA) ± Facilities proposed under APZs & Collection Points yWashing. These are a low income groups. They avoid fruit with blemishes. 8.CABI.

etc. SPS. yInternational competitors & their strengths yInternational prices Regulatory yCompliance to emerging international requirements (SPS measures) yNational grades & quality standards yPre-shipment inspection Research and Development yShelf life of different exportable varieties at different temperature regimes yPhysiological disorders like chilling injury to different varieties at different temperature regimes yShelf life of irradiated mangoes yExport trials of irradiated mangoes . packaging & labeling yImport market legislation on tariffs.yProduct promotion thru expositions yBranding yPublicity Market Information Collection & Dissemination yMapping of potential markets yImport market requirements of product quality.

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