WISH TO EXPRESS THEIR GRAITfU,DE 'to. TM.

~ '1L'RUSTEES O~

1"JUl ~J!TIONA,L GALLlEH.Y~ LONDON, FOR GRACWUSlY HOS,][,,[NG

ROSALIND KRAUSS

THE n Hl..E eTO R S

'~ V,OYAGE ON THE NORT'H SEX'

l'[HS IS THE 'fH[Rl'Y .. FlRSl' OF THE WALTER NE UR_ATH MEMOIl: rAt. LEC1'O.Il.ES WIn CH ARE GIVE N A.iN NUA LL Y EACH S P RING ON S UiBfE C T SIi. II F L~ C 'fl NC ~ H.E I NT.ER E ST SOF THE FOUNDER

A.RT IN TH.EA:CE Of THE POST"MED'IUM C'O'NDITION

THESE L~C1'l:r:R.ES

THAMES 8:: HUDSON

AllY ~~Il!l' of [hi~ book is.:;uoo by tll~ pub!i!ih~n~ a iPiI!pt:rbtLt:fu.1! ~old. wl:>jocuu I~le eondirion that i~. ~halll1ot by W'iJi.y.of ttl!cI~ or il!llet"w.M:e be ~e:i:u:,t\tlSilld, hiwil {j~[ 01' {j[h~[w~5!::c~rcub~~.'!I,.jlbo1Jt th~ p:LllllMlie['s pt~Of ffilt5e:1U: in .ally fOlm of hinding or cover {]thl'l" thrul tlllM .jlll wMdl iI: kpnbllihed and w:i1~lOLlt.a S.imiiL1f ~mw:itoon .i~eItjd:i.jJg !he!e ""'GI'& being irrtpmedl 011.~ ~'lllOOcquC!!lt f"urch~~r-

The'W':alrer N~matn M=t1ll Lccn!l~s. up to I99~, """;fC gNm ~¢ Bud:.bocl:

Co~~~goe. U~ji~er.iliy uf London, W.i.WSle G<:J¥e.L'L1<m~L1d M~.~~~ mC':U gmermwdy 3p()jlJlM~ dl;;m fw: ~~~~ty,{(ll,l~ yC;l[~,

fjjr~t pl!Jjb~i~b(ld! i~ iPiI!P~[bilCk .un th~ Unrbild KUfl£;(iooli .ifllOOO

by Thames & Huclrun Ltd, [81A High Hulboljl, LOiJdqn "'<ClY 7q;>i:

An Righl8 ~rved, No par[ of d\~ rnW:i£ation milly be ~cJ:l~o..;IJ~>l;eJ Q~ tr;tll:lmi~Eod III ~Il~ fumi or b~ ~il~ means, ~(j<lric or mcch~L~~c;ln, .iJl!I;~lIJdil]g pnD~orn!,'!'l ~eco~diill,g 01' ~Jly Q[h~! i1Lfurlll~~)!) 3~(!(I;:l!~a~,_.j r,~lIie,v<l.l ~,y~[=, witho.utprior rc;~rnj~~rfill in wrntunll fram th~ pub~dl~r.

BJiti~h Lib[arr CatikJgtlbJg,h-vP;[jMk~!loll.D:II.t;1.

A catal.oguiC [·~eDn::ll rDI this book js aVi'lj~lihl~ {[= di1l B;[i!i~h LiJbur~ .ISBN O<joo.-z!l.:1;Oi".:I;

PREFACE

At jifsi J thotJght I (o~M stl'Nply dNiwa line Ifmf:er t'f,e .word medium, b~ry ~'t Uk~ so RlU;,1j uitical toxh Wi1S,tli, a'fJd uMlk aUJay fronl it ifllo a tNftd oj lexical fre~dom., '(Medh~rn JJ j'e~~MJ ,foo Conf{m~jJjate,r!, tao .i'aeologi,cally. too Jogml1ticaUy. too J,iswr" :tively IM.Jed~

1 ,tMondmJ if j "Iluld '~ja.ke.rm 4 Sr!1~~rrr Gwdl's aueomarism, l11£ ten~~ he 'ida appropriatedwatwck the d().r~bJe prohlem fJj .add~'mlngfilm ~J 11 (feiah:~tly) new medi~mrmd .of v'ringiflg l~fo jQiC11S w.hat seemed to him U,~!lxplained about nj~atrnis:l' painti'tlg.~ Tlie W;O'fJ "l'iK/omatftm" capwred jO'r him the seuse in which part ~f film - the par.~ th~t ,Jeprnds off the medumics Dia cam em - is au.r.o~~~l'ltic; it aLw pltiJled into' the SnlrrMlis,t r,JSt' oj "autDmat;51~~" as an unwludouf rifi~x ((I J,m_gefDus: ,a.n~~si~lI, br~t a IIsq.JJI Orlfj. ~swe waf see); mt,dit umt(1ima file pO$!tiMe COf'1flotative rifrrmiC!l to "au-,tD.~{I~jY.'"' iifJ: the fense oj tAr rmll/lfnl work 's fre~aofll f'J',(J~,~ Us ~~mke.r.

Lik~ the notiooof mdt'1m Dfg!ll~re ulitMn mort' tf(Jdif.iowl con tex fs for art, 1111 .t:r,nl'tt}matism wofmid i~'WI~l t1f,e relationship ,~euvteW (I t,edmi~(:al (or 1~~d~er;(lI) swppo~,t ami die ('O'l'W,mtil.lflf with .which II part/rolar genreo<pemt!ls Of arti.ulafRf ~f umrks o.~ ~t 's~rpm. What "tlutQwa(ism" t,htu:tu im~ the fortlr~r~1rd oj lM$ tmriitiomd ,aifi'fJitiQ~o! ((medi,~~I,~' fU.lUff!l!er, is .the Cl'l~!Cl'pt of imp.ro"lsatiofl, of lf~f rr.ei?d to wkc dl,(/u{es ill the jare oj tj. ~~:e,di'H'm 1'foW tt,.jf frte f'M~r1 d~t gr~l1f(lmers:

oj 6JrtiS:I:i~C~r4dit;(m, l~ is tJJ~:f st'nj'e oj ,dJe impro:visl1tory th(Jt Wel'Wffl:fS th'f ~l)tmrS associations with 'f'pj'yr.:hk aut~matl:Sffl ",' bill the ,fmt()mar,jc reflrx here is not.Sti mll,ch a"UliCt'nsdl)l~S Me as it if fomrtlling like the IlxpfeSsiv,e Jrudom that improvij'atfon altvays c'Ofltain,ed. as .the nlati,o'it bet~vefn the technical g.rormd 4 a gtlif:e alid its glveli convention! ,opemlup ,a spruefor release - fl~e way lh~fugue makes it poulh.k, jo',r example, to improvise complex marriagfs b,etwftn Its: ,vokes. Th.ec,om'tntillnI iJi question H'eeJ 1I0t hr as stsia as thm of a fugue or a .stmwlt,:' they might be CiCUed,iHgly loose or Sdrtmfftk. B:ut with'llut them thete Uic;,uld ,~e f.W possibiliTy of ji~dliNg the success or failure of s:uch impri.liiisaul)IJ. Expnssiv'efles.s wtll:lld have nO'joal, se to' speak .. ~ TI'f attractioll of Cavell's exampleJor me was its iHsiSUn'(e £In ~he .ii-iletnal plumHtyoJ anf giii:en mrJilm~,. 4 the I'rnpl)sslMity of tmllkiHg.of an aesthetic menium as ~othing more thffll fin IflUwrJ;.'td phY5'/cal support. Thlit s.udi a definition oj the: metjirim (1$ m,m plrl'si!al .object,. fl,lall its re41Htiveness and drive .toWflrd re!ficati{Ju" Arid become Ci.lmm~o\l't currency ,'n the art world, ami that the ~tli'llt' Clement Grttfl,~e~g Iwd befH attached to' dds dejnitfMs,o tlwtJrom tire '605' on, to UUf.r ,tAt! umr:d "ffltdhmi s me(lHt ifwoking "Grernhf'rg. '; I1MS the: pr~lt'm Ij(l(f,ri. ~ lnaeeJ.. So p'uImJiJl'e was this ddw.w "Gm.~bergizt" tn, Ufor:rf .thaf. hls:toritally preiihmf approaches to' i'ts definition ,w.t're now stripp,M of their ,~W\l'J' ('(J'mplexity. Mill/rice D.em~;'sIaf/wlIs 189:0 dietltlll ah~ut ,fhe pl'(totial med;l~m - "I: Is: well t.o' rememher that a pktiirt - before beillg iii battle~n,me, a nude W()!~J(lffi (if Some Il'/'J'f,cdote +ls emfl'tially a' plaHr suiface ~a'v£.rea Wil1i: (.'(J,lortass~tl:Me,d in: iii cf'rtau~ order" - waf I'.WU) heil'lg read, Jor example, ,ar mm~1 pres,aging' 1m ,essentialist mlr;(til)n oj fdilltilfg t.o' "'flatness:. Ii That this is not Denis's point, that he is iHstrad desc.rfhiH;g the layered, I:Olj~plex relationship that Wfcould calla recursive structure -a itrocwrf, th'at is, SOillll:e of the eiemerlt! of which wi'll produce

rAe fules lhatgtfi,ertJfe the stru',ffli't itself - ural (and is) jus:t ... igrMwi. Ftmrle(, thfft this recursive structure' is somethiHg madll, rathe:r thrin somet..hI'n.t gillflt, is whl1t is latent iH the lrailitilJ'ftf11 corme(tionoj "medium ,> f1l matten oj tedmiqf~f. as when the arts tuer« di!,MeJ up u,ithin the Aca,de-my iwto ateliers: ttprese.Hting .tAe different ItleJiums -pliinting, ,m~lptu"t, I1rchitectr.m -in .oNer to' be taught.4

Thuf,. if I nQlJ,f deci.rll!d in the end t~ retain tile word ilmr.dir~,m," it is:itecaIH'e Jo.r ail the mimnJerstaHJillgs and ahuses: attached t.o U, this is tJ't>e ITI'iIlIi' that opens onto the d/£cur51Vf field ,r,ha~ 1 Mll1n.f. to tiddrm. nts is .tr,f:j~ ,af, thr histo'.ricalleii.el.li~ t.ha~ the ja.t£ of ,thi:r (,oncept teems to' belong dmnologica,Uy .t~ the tise of c1 critical post" mod~rnism (iHftitutif)lf,al critique, site specifidf}'J th,at ift fa tstn h'lu produced Us OM".'l pr~blfl~UI#C dftermath (M'e irltemafio'nal phenome.~o.~ .0/ ffts,rtiilatirm est}. It mmr.il, that is, that only "(medium" W(I,uldjc1,ce onto this turn ,of ,events. Ana at a lexicalle!J,el, ii is dfe Wdnl f~mtdit.#n " and ,"wI sometlung like "automatism," tl!tit ~r;ngs me' iss~e oj ff spuifidty" .II~ its .wllke - as in the ,ries:ignah'otl "medium .. spec!ficity!1 Ahhough .this is aftot1ret, ·un!or.f-UHatel:y loatie,J con,cept - ,c1,bmivdy recast as: a jo.rm I'If object!ficauoll ,or reificatioH, sino:« medium is purportedly I'llade specific h,r being redrHeJ to' nothing but its manifest pnf$it:a[ proptttks - it is (iH its 'j(m"(1.~11Sitfriy defi.~ed !'CIrfn) norr.dhel~ss iHtrinsic to any discusskm of how the COJiVentirms laymd into' a mediltlll might !ulluio,u. FI)j' th·e natUl'e of a recursiv'f £'tN/d.lm is that it. ifwst he able, (i/ leas; ill part~ W spf'C.Ily ltself.

S/'fNk, therefo..re:; with the ~v:mJ "'~Iedium," 1 must fnfust it t9Jfallyon my rooder in the rrjlecrJom that follow. I h~pel' howtt!ff, that this: n.otr In thr JOrlii 4 tr preface udillflive g(linetilut;' some diSfilll:cf. he~ween tju~ word itself, wl~th its 100IR history outsirir the rram:~ Mules over ''i(lt'1:ll;fl/iim,'' anJ the' assumpthms ahout rile ,~e.rm'i c,ormptiori c1,;id colt..p,u that MI.IJ,e fwUle5' generated.

7

I. l Mi[t"(-el BroDdllm~n, f[~.lt (",~OI!A!') and. b1l.>[ik (l4t) eovers o-f 1Sihrtl.i~ l'I~~~#4Vral, October 197~,

\Wjjdl thl: ,canny clairvopil~e of tbe'~'1talJeria~js:t, Brcodthaers all.ticip.~tcd, as cmlya~, tllern.id/r 960$, dLle (:OiUr]ere t~a:nswl'lmtio:J:I of~nist~c r['()dU'¢~[)11 Jll:to~. bt~~~th (~f t~\e eulrure inall,stl'lf, a phenomenon wb kh we ot'l~.y now retr.lgtuze•

A cove!', devised by Marcel Broodtbaers for at 19741 issue of Studio Intw ni'J~ollaf. wi]] serve .1!~ the iru~mducrion to what I have to 8ay hel'e. ]'[ is a rebus chat spellJs out .!FINE ARTS, with the picwre of the eagle supp].ying the last letter of "fine" and that ofrrhe ass fU11ICltiOJ1Llng as rhe firsr one of ".ans."o If we adopt the commerrl y held view rhar the eagle ~y"rnbolize$ nob~lhy, height! imperious reach, and so forth., rhenies re]a~lOnS~'l~p ~o the fin.enes:s of dIe fine O[l:[S seems pCMfi::cdy obvious, And. if the ass. is premme-J,thmugll tbe same kim]. of intellectual n:Aex,. to pIe~ent the lowliness of a beaseof burden. then irs connecrion to the arcs is not thar of cheeagle's I.l,11Ilfyil1g ]TWlvement - tbe separ;'I.i1:e atrs raised up or S.1Il hSlL]~ned under the symh~llit. lil.F~et idea of AF [ - but rather; the stnre~ fy]ng pilirtlcllda['[[y of individual techniques, of everytb~ng that embeds practice in rhetedium of irs rn.ak~r!ig:"nl]m.b like a painrer;" th.ey say.

But we Can also readthe rebus as an eclipse of the appwpr.i,att: ]euer of the given \von:ll. and. so arrive, somewhat 8ugges~tvely,. am F[N ARTS, erthe end. of u[;? and dli8 in tum wouM open 01'llW J. specific way thar Broodshaers often used the eagle! and dH1S onto a particulaa narrative abouc the end of arr, or - reading his rebus more C'.1I(,f~ny = tbe end of the am.

There WJ.:5" indeed,a narrarive ;~lbo~~ this end to whicb B[ioodthil.CIS was especially sensitive in the late F 96m and eaIly • 70S. This was the story of a mj]k.a~')!t~y reductive modernismthat, by nauowing painting tn w&!at was announced asthe mediunr:!/5. essence ~ namely RJtne::;;s, - had so contracted it that, ~udde!'!!I¥! refracted by rheprism of th(;lory.

it had. emerg-ccl from (be ot]le:r side ·of fhe leas nor s]mp]y upside down but tmnskm:ned imo irs 0Pflos~te. If,[he $[ory gO(l'i. Frank S~eU.a~s bbck canvases showed wha,t painting would look like once materialized as lHwdievedly flat - their supposedesseuee u:nd.enworl.as[l(l:lhin_g ruore chiao an inC'rdy physical fea,tur.e -~heyaJl]lounoed W Donald Judd that p:atmtog had. newbeeome an object jl,1s.t Ukt any other rhree-dimen$]01'131 dltUg. funher. he reasoned. wirhnothing my longer djffe[\en" tiacing pa]nt]ng from scul pn,w~,. the distinctness ·of errrhet as ~eparate mediums. was oveF·. The nametbar Judd gave to [he hybrids that would form oU~ of this collapse was "'Specific Objects. ,.

ill[ was JOl'leph Kosurh who quichly saw chat rhe cortecr term for [ills p~u;adox]cal outceme of che modcm1st reduerion was not :specific burt ge~e:r41, 3 fur if modernism wasprobing patnting for its essence - fm whaemade it speeiicas a. medium - rhlr logie taken to its extreme had

'-

turned p<'J.~ntingtn$~de out and had emptied ir into the genetie categOiry

.(}f Ar~; artAlt~la(fge. or au,.t~'ygtl1:leRL. And n~U1, Kosurh mainloJ!i.ned. the on~@rogicil labor of the mederniss artist was to deine theessence of

A - .~( ·'S . . . .' ·:IL .. f· 'j. n user . -eJtrlg an artssc now means to question me nature 0< art,

he StOll~OO.." If one is ql!.]eslti,on~[J;gthe nature of p.alndng~ enecannee be qU~!itioning the nature .of aft. That's because the word an is general.and the word painb'~:g is spec...ii!c .. '"

It was Kos:tuh'~ further conteneion thOllt we ddlniti.oml of art, \Wb£ch works would now make •. mighil: merely rake, the f(lun of staremene and thus rarefy the pnyskal .object huo the oo.ncep[ualcond~rr~()!:1. 0:1,1: ]omg:uage. Burr these statements, dlmlgn he SOlfw lhcmru'SOirutllng with tbe logical nmaliy ~f 011.]:1 .lna]yci.cal pmpOiS~liQI'!l, would nonetbeless be art and not, say,. ph~~oropll~ Thdr quist'ic form would l'!I'JJe~dy sjgna] the tramcen" denee of the psrtieular, ~i!)SOOUS contelllt of a. given. an, like painting or photography.. and. the suhsumption of each by th,,[ higher .aesthetic UIlIty - Ar~ it~elf ~ of wh~chany one is ·@olya p.a~cial embodimene,

Cenceptual ain's fiunher clsim was th,alt by pl1rifving art .of .hs mare ... rial dl'O!is. and. by producing: .i.! 01!S. a mode of theory ... about-art, its own

10

~ JooepllK;osmh. Ar~ ~f IJru as .llffrr, [~('7"

4 jQol;eph Ko-su.th, S~titfjrJllJrw~~iWr (An~f Ur~ ~J UM)..! ~~.

practice had escaped the oom.m.odity fo~m io wlbichpainlllngs and sculptures inevitabLy pal'tlcipaloa as rheywere forced Do com pete ina ma~ket rUt an d'gM incFe~ngl¥ looked just like any otber, Intbis deelararion was rolded yet another paraiCI.ox .of recent m.oclerolsr hi$wry.. The spec]fic medunns - palntJng. seulpmes, dFawing- had vested mC]l: claims to pm]ty in bdngaiUWn(lm(lfl!]~. which is to say~hat inthe,h: deelaration of he]ng about nothing: but [h.dF ownefiilJenoe.~hey W'~D:e noces$,u:i]y d isengaged fTOm. everydlhlLg outsid.e their names. The paradox was tb,,[ this autonomy had proved chimerieal, at!dth~t absrract ares veIY modes ofproduction -its pa:indn__gs. being executed in serial mm,for eXOlIlJ1ple - seemed ro cru:r.y the imprint of the industda]]y pmduceclcomm.od:ky object, inremalizing within the field of the worl .. , jl~ own status AS jnteI~ changeable and thus as pure cxdJot.HJge value, .By abandomug this pretense to artistic <U)l~Onomy. O1;,_nd by willingly assuming various f()~:m~ and S~lC~ -the mass-distribnted primed book, fOir eXiilllp]e. or the public billboard - Ccncepeual an saw irself securing a higher pm1ry for Art; 50 [hal[ in Blowing thmugh rhechannels of commodit.y distribution it: would not omy adopt any~rm. rr needed but would, by a kind of hom~op01;thic defense,. esc-<1.pe the dIecrs of the market itself:

5 (tap) Mar~d Bt'<)(I.;hil~~rs, Miln'Jro'Jr oj M<Jdcm Arl'&.IlI~$ Dep.trt1JJll'1'j~ (D~rlid-.lIJtrl!.f- WI.!?J1Z-C~~r~~l), I968,

6, 7 (~/.ou!)\l ~fld righO M:i.[(l~1 BlOOdtllJ.C[~. Mtlfer.!tIJ W MuJero Atl, Eorgl~:s D~P'l~tlP;!elfl, r¢/I,C~jtJmy Sec/kill, .1 ~8"iL

AkhoUcgh by 1972 Brceddiaers had ended his. fouf;ye~:F Cntcl:pljroe caned the, ., MuS/cum of Modern An •. Eag]C8 Departmeue" - ill seq Ue[l'1e of wm:h by wh]d~, in ptodudng the Jc[iv[[~e~ of (he MU!ielilm'.s twelve sections, he operated what he oncercfsrred to as il! ~diriou~ museum - JI[ is clearrhar one of the tJ~ge~$ ofrha,t pwject carries Qve! oneo die Stwdio< 1~tl:ffultiQ1Ml CO'Y'e]t. Having explained, a few yean before, tha~ for him there WJ!S what becalled <1.11 ".ldel1l'iy of t~e eiiigle 3:5 idea and of ,u:t as idea," Broodrhaers's eagle fimctiened more ofrenlhan. not as an emblem for Conceptual art.? And in this coverthen, d1e erium ph of the eagle J1UlOIILmces not the end of Ar ~ burr the terminarion of rheiudividual arts as medium"spocihc.; and it does. so by ,~j]a,dngthe fmm thJH:his less of

~pecjfici(y will now cake, ~

On the one hand. du: eagle ieself wilfbe fo~dod f~w the hybrid er inteFmedia condincn of the rebus, in which not on]ylanguag>c and ima,gebut high and low and any other oppositional pJjI1ng OI~e can think of wi]] fredy mix. But on the other hand, this pan:ku]a,r eombination is not ent]rely random. n is spocil]cw the Sl~e on wh~(;:h it occurs, which here is the cover of that organ of the marker, an an magazine, where the image (If (he eagle does D.O[ escape dJle operations of the marker

12

DEr[

A BSDL UE" DE

o UC HE R ,<,OBJfT

AVIS

lilIt: ,rw~ Il!t.u:~I-I' f.J.I"l:'rf.t;ii'ii'i~1 rgt~~ ("""",,,IU' P!!trJ_j~i"ljI' l""-'.iU Jit p'l.i' drtlr ,f"f~"U~rt"'. k' ,prTIm-It w~/<I filji!-!tf~JfiW:!.i:~.i.it MltH'He.~· 'i"'Jr flU," ff UjItliL' ,w,1.i.3 J~I,j~ JI 1!iiI~ i'iIlL

.(J it'),' IlLil'i!i'.lr d'i:lli'~rt NfXJn: ~I"'f ur a ..... .r ~1:'l"H ~n~f ,~I"!: ••••

ANSICH'T

t'jl'lt' iIlll!_LIIl'hl'f~L"If.,jJ :nJiWr"iti .IIJll-· Ik~ ,ur ~~I)Lii'lll':' fUr dW' HJn.lt!f .. mnll)r. 1'lol.ILi-'l'1 fi,irtkrm.nfil'FJ. ~ dQS Ml!'ntlf'''''Ji:'b.~ ~1rodlJ~I Immv. ....dI~ Ii!JJ: Mltl\fimt.IilI'f~'11r:.i oRr""",,, f.y.,iI;J(~rf, 1i71'1"'-" Lffl!:i U fQt· .",~i

.~ .rHlr kAlliNlrt iiria'itllll-T ~~u." ~ SJtft A~·Jl'fll~. dt,f.errf~ ,1''''' ... _

VIEW

served by the press. AcrordinWY. itbeccmes a f(~rm of adveuising or promotion, now pwmoth:lg Conceptual .• art, Ihoochhaeu made this

- ..

dear inthe .anno:l!.mcemel.t be drew up as his OOveI design for the n'lag::v

zine interjul1kuOcHe.w." at about the same time: "V~ew." it reads, ., attotdtng to which anartisric theory wj]] fi]nct~ol1 f'O~ ehe arrisrie product in [he sam.c way <!J.:j. theanistie pIodlu;t itfidf filna~[)ns asadvertising for the order under 'Whkh if[ is produced, There wllI be no other space than (his view aowrdtngmo which, esc ..... [s~gntld] Hrooddaaen. "ID The redoubling of art as th.eoFY, then. delivers art (and most pank:l!darly the a':l:t for which It is me the:Oiry) to exactl "f those sires wbo$e fUJ)1.ct~()O is promotion, <1,:[ld does so wi~hol!n wbarr might be caned. a crisicalremainder, ...

And [[ does so. withoue a formll] remainder, as well. In the i[JJtier" media loss of speciicity to' which the cagk sl.]br.n~,t£ t~e individual arts, the bird's pdvileg.e is its.df scanered imo a mlJlhtplidty of s~~es +eaeh of

L _ ~ ,. 'c ,"' __ .L·.11 ~ , _ 11- - l

rnem now rermea spectn];C - ttl w[]~C.J!l tne mstauanonst 1J.rt are con-

suucred will comm.ent,. O'f~e.n cridcaUy. on me ope~at~ng cooditioJ)1s ·of the ~itC h!id£. To thj~ CI];d., th,~y win have recourseto every material SOpPO{[ one can imagine, fiOIll..fl.k:tmes co words to video Ito rell.dymlade objeees tefilms, Blli[ every m.:ateF~al SUppO!l1t. ineludiag thcsiw it!l,,]f - whethe:r art magazine, Jealer'sfJill booth. or museum gaUeqr +will now beleveled, reduced to' a sY!5t.ew (if pure eq utvak';fl'£Y by tbe ho]tlogel1:lizj!1:g principle of cummAldtlk.u£OIl; the ope(<1i:r~on of pllre,~'Xcllange vaJl!.]e ff-[)m. wbkhi1l(Jrhtog can escapeand f:or which every~hlt~g is transpllrent to the under~ying market value f"OF whkh it is 01\ 8]gn. This rcduouon was gtvenmankfonn by Hmodt.ham as he.allincl":igun-:" ]abels W random sets of objeces, effecdngthcir eq uivalence [hFO!l!lg~l dle ta.gs [harr assign

t, 'jL ."p. ' . ,. '""I":'" .. <'1'1':'." .. "F" .•• 1Ii ~ I":'·'.r

rnern as eIJL[JU ~g. I, r~g,2,. - rJg. O. or - ]g. rz .. · JlLn the rf.~m

SetUf}n of his. n1I.IJIS'fum. not only did he stick these li!lbeb onto nlundme o.bjeats such as mirtors, pipes, and clocks, bu~ the movie screen ~lsdf was dddlcd. whh '~u!:e nuro bers as well, SiO tha.,t every~htng in th.e film pm .. jeered onto it - from. Chap~in's ilnagemo ehe Palais Royale in Brussels -

.l .1\'" di f ll. _1 h· . '·"F' '"

now enrereu t] us OQm. pen .. nsm .0' Drootit . aers s ~g.~.

IS

Llrt !,1ri\l.r,i'k rn~r1 r,..,.ii ~i" {ioU!':· .rMwJ.a1.J ~r t~~ ifi"~lJri .... jlru~ m ~nrr 1Il!'!t~ '!i="J,I III Jl'iiii- !Urrl~k {JroiI,m J""lfh frt,o!:j"""""ur ... · • .r-~nl.r.!.l.i.f~J fn!!'rn-Jt'"""I.tN !1---i'JJ'o:"I'I itL~pr:L1du.::e.:.I

jOr~......&IT ~ "Go ~rktf.' ~jtL!i:'F f~~ r .... .r. ~ {J~ ~O' r.Mb.f~ ~[' ....

m.l

flJ.2

m.l

m'1

.... 1

m.l

o

DJDJ

~I~. ~

o

m.ID

t"l NV£NflON

IXI

,

1 [ ~!r f\

10 (o-ppolkr.1OJ! lift) MlI[c~ H[oodth~els, Li~~ Ull1Ie{.l,~, 1'.1~~'I'[I"

I r (iJ'ppMi~~. ~p riJu) Maro;:l [lroootJl~,::r~, untitled, IO)(,~ .•

I ~ (~p;lfil~.l4J~tol.II).Mm:cel.lBomDd~ha~u. MIltrmAloJ MiJ'!JmJ Arr, ii~~~ DeptJrt.lmrll1. m'liN SutiA~. 197~ -.iL I h'lmlth.ilt,r~ hl.lld~ll(;; S~dmll'~ L'.i'..~iYt'.rWim 41~ CiOOJI!'l.

13 (t>llp lI!Jt) .M:rocdBro[)dlIh8er~ Mmt'.lfm 'if M,~~tfjl Aft, &;_d~f D'qI~nmml, FiIMI .$I!<:tr.m, 1:97l-~ .P3intcd screen .in mm~r rolhill.

l4 (m(.'llrfi' .Ieft) .Mara:lBr{]oo.tbaer~ M:lf!t'l\\m .of Modtftl Att ~~/ef DepofJ1!\IJtfJt; Film Sroi~l, 1971-:2 ..

It;; {M't'rlfrl))Ma~1 [\rooo;lth~!!r~, UII ~j(iI;:rJ Hlirrrfli", (N~polNI.Ii 1'7~·J 96!)), [96~.

]'0 the Seaio« ib .Figures (ThR Eaglefrf)m the O!igf)cen~ to tIll': Presou], mouneed by his fict~onil.ll mUfleum. lhoodlchaers fatmol)]dy submiaed more rhan three, hundred dmhent eagles to this p'FindpLe, of ]evelin_g, In rhis way,. the eaglei(sdf, no long:er afig~Ult of nob]l]ty. becomes a sign ~lf rhe6gure. the mark - ~hat is - of pure excb angt. Yet in [hlS there is a. finrber p~d:oo:: thar Broodthaers himself cl~.d (lot liveto see, for die. eagle principle, whicb simuhaneeusly implodesthe idea t1f anaesrheric medium and turns everyrhifig equaUy into. ill readymade (barr collapses the difIere.lIloelbetween the, aesthetic and the commodified, ha~ a]]owed. the ea.gkw soar ilLbollTe tile rubble and m achieve heg.cmony once iII.ga]n .. n TwemyAlve yellir~ ~~u::tt~ <1;J~ over the world; in every biennial <lJ:l1Id at ~vc~y art fa]!', the eagle principle functions asthe new Academly.VJhedu:r 11[ cans itsdf instaUa.rtion art Or[ .hmimrrionil. eririque, the international spread of "-he !TI~ xed-media iuseallaticn bas becemeubiquirous, Tri> umphandy declaring dl<i;!W~ now ]nha,!J,it a pose-mediuen o1!:g.c. ~be post-medium condisien of ~hi~ .tOrm traces its lineage • .of course, not so muchso Jo~eph KOlSuth as to Millxcd Brood[b;l!.er.s.

Ii (I.eft) Mat'OO_ Broo-d~l~Cr5', MJt~eftJI! 4 M<J~CfJ! AJ'I, .~!rs Thp'&,rttJliIN(. SWIM <k~ 'Fiprrf:$ (Tfl~ BIllie J~I: tIll OfJgomlt I,il tke JJi't.Sffl~). 197~. Vicm of ~h~ illlit.."!!blioL1<rt tlru~: St[dt~i!;Dhe K~~~d\alk, Diimdalrn:f.

rs (Irkw) M..lli:~ BtootMl;lJels. d~tJ:il of Mum'JIIJ of M..Jrro Atl, B~~f D~Jl'!lr(l~eJlj:, SectWJ! ws FjtH~s (TIit .E.Jt[~fnmt tk 01it~~eJre ~~. ~~r Pmtll.I).,. ]')71..

- - - - - --

~. . ,-,._ .. - . .

-- ._-_.. .. __ . .

~::""7~' .

k: ~ "~.' r .

~-- ---

.I'l....,r:o:: 'UHII'~.I::" L~ILI'=.I.

I 'j, 2Q,.1.]. 2..2, ("l!P"sik~~d ffki~) M.:i~cd Ilmoddlam, dC¢.1ih of M"Ii~fI,l~ oj Mai'knl A.rt, 1~.II.lrs DqJ,rnrlmll; &CIiOfJ Jrs Frg.lf.n:'S (Tk Errsl~fMm Illf Ofjgo.~fle '" I!"rt Pt"(!~1jIO, 197~.

At aboi .. H du: same rime Wh>eTI Broockhaer:s. W'aS pm d~:u;tng this m.cdita..tion on. the eatgLe prindp]e, .anotheI devdopment. wlrh undoubtedly wider reach, had eneered (he world of an to shaner the notion of medium ... spocifictty in irs own \VaY; This was the porta pak - a l~glu, wdghr. cheap video camera and monitcr - and. r.h us thea.d)\'C'Dt of video into art prrac:doe. something that demands yet another narrarive,

It ls ill smory [har could be seld from~he point of view of .Aotbo]ogy fi]m Archives, a .'l!cree:n~ng mom. in. New YO~k'8 Soho; where in rhe ~~t!~, 'om and eOl;.F,~y '708 ill collection of artists, film-makers, and OO[1l.pose[·s gathered night aber' night to vi,~w rhe n:penm:y of modermst film PUt ~ogl;!d1er by JOBJS Mekas and projected in anlmva:rying qde, a corpus rb ar consisted of Soviet and french a~.nt .. g;l(d,e cinema, the Brltish silent documenrarg CilJi]y versions of American Independem film, as wellas Chaplin and Kearen mov~e~. i ~ The artists who sat in the dark, ness of that jhearer, ~he wingd1J1.ir~Nke seats of which were designed to em otT <1;:[lY peripheral vision so that ,every drop (If anenrion wou]d be foclllsed onche screen itsdf;. artists, such as Richard Serra, Roben Smithson, or Carl. A ndre, could be ssidto be unieed illrmmd.rhe.itrckep hostility to Clemem Groel~.befg·s r..~gid. version of modernism wild, 1[$ doctrine of Hatness, Yet jf[hey were gathered in Amhology film Archives in the first place it meanr th<li[ d1ey were oc}mmimxi mcdemists none d.leless. .mr A nrrho~,ogy both fed iHW .1I.ndprommed! [he current work of srrueturalise f:j]m ... makers such a~ Michael Snow or Hollis "ff<lmpton or Paul Shaeirs, its screenings pli(!lv~ding the discursive g~ollmd. wi,chjn whkh this group of young ;u tists c(]!~,dd imaglnetheir way iuso a kind of '1m thOllt,. focu8ed on the nJ[1lI re of the cinematic mcdiu m jJtse~f, would be medemist toics core.

Now, rhc rich sarisfacrions of ~hinklng Ol;bo~t f1]m 's ~pec]ficit:y art that juncture derived ftO]l,r'1 the medium's agg;reg~te ccndirion, one thOlit ]ed a sl]ghdy later generasicn of tbeorists to deine irs support wirh the com-

pound idea of the "apparatus" - rhe medium or support for film betng ndther rhecelluloid strip oftbe imagts:~ nQr tbecamera thai! fi]mecl tJu::m~ nor rheprojector that brings them to life in motion, nor the beam of Hght that rellays them to ibe screen, nor that f>cree:n.1tsdf,. bur an of ehese taken together, ~nduding [he audience's posidon caugh[ between [the SOl.noe of the I.~:gh[ behind it: and the iro.~ projected before it'S eyes.. I ~ Structuralist film set itself ehe project of producingthe Ul-:tiity of this d~ven>[fied SUpPO(t ina single, sussained experience in which the uner ]nteldepc:w dence of Ol;~][he'Sie dlings wouJd its.df be revealed as J. model of how the viewer isitrl[en[~onaJly connected ttl h ~$ or he! world, The pm:u of the appararas would be likie things d:1Ol;rr cannot touch 011: each other wirhout themselves being t:oudJod; and this ln~erclepmdence would figure fnnh d1C mutual emergence of a viewer and a fidd of visionas Jt. trajectory through which the sense ofs.igh~ touches QI1 wha[ roucbca baek. Michael Snow's Wavdengfh,. O'! 4-5 .... minere, single, almost unhuen:npred zoom, ca:ptul:CS the kllel:!i~siy of d11S research into how w f('jrge the union of such a uaje«ory Into something both hnmod.~,a,re and. obvious. ~n 1Ui miv~.!1grro 00: tieulate whar Mer lea~A?Qn[y had termed the preebjeetive, and rhus abssract, nature of this connection, such. a ]ink could be called ill "phenomeno~ogic~l vec[Q.r."'r4

Fo[ R.khard. Serra .• one of Anthology's denizens, J. work like 1~w'''' lew.gth would have perlcrmeda double fIllI1C(lon. On me oifl,e hand, .

....... _ _-- -.~-~~---~~~~......,_------ --------

Snow's :fi~m enacts hS/df as pur,e horizonral thrust, such that :it$ incx ... orablc forward movement is able to create the absrract spanal metaphor for film"s [dation to lime, now essentialized as the dramatic mode of suspeJi1se.r~ Serra's own drive [0 make sculpture a conditicn of something like a. phenomenological vector, JICSelf the experience of horiz,uriiuihy;, would thus have fi)Ui'ld aesrheticeonfirmarion in W~t!t'lengtA.'{'! Bur more than thi~. in srmcturalisrfilsn its,df Serra would have found support fm a newly ccnceived idea of an aesthetic medium. one rh<'i;t, like film's, could. not be understood as reductive but again, like film's, was thor; oughly modernist.

Serra's reformulated idea of whar an aesthetic medium m]ght be participated in his generation's newly won understanding of 1 ackson PoUod and a notion that if Polleck had progressed beyond. the easel picture" as Clement Greenberg had claimed, it was not ro make bigger and. i1,;;I.JtttT pain(in,gs. '7 .R arher, it was '~O rotare his work OU~ of the dimension of the piccorial object altogether and, by placinghis canvases on du: floor, to. tran,sfo:nn. the whole project of an from making objecrs, in we:ir increasingl yr,e:iliea form; roarticulatiog ehe vectors that connect objects to subjects.I8 In understanding this vector as the boriaoncal field of an event, Sen-a's problem was to uy to find in the inner logic of events themselves theexpressive Po.ssib.i.li~~f'& or conventions rhat weald articulate this fidd as a medium, For. in order to sustain artistic pracace, a medium must 'be a. su ppcr ting structure, generative of a set of conven ... dons. some of which. in assn ruing the medium itself as d!e]l: Sl1 bject, will be wbolly ·'~pecjfic·· to. it.~bus; producing an experience oftheir own necessity 19

For the purposes o.f the a[gumen~ here it is not n'''C'e~a.ry to. know ,exacdy how Serra went about. rrhii),20 Suffice jt to say that Sen-a drew these cenvemions from the logic of the event of the work's m..alUng,. when Ehat event is understood as a form of series. ncr In [be sense of $[am.p~ng out ideneical cam as in industria] production, but in th;][[ of the d.i:lferential condition of periedic or \¥avdjke Hux in whichseparare

sets of serial repetitions, converge on ill given point. The importanc thing is that Serra experienced and articulated the m,edium in wbk~ he saw himself lObe working as aggregarive and [11 us distinct from the material properties of a me!ely physical obj ecdike support; and, neaetheless, he viewed himself as modernist, The example of independent. 8W;u> ruralist film - itself a matter of a eomposue support, y.et nonetheless modernist - eonfirmed him in this.

At [his junctn re it is important, however. to make a, little detour into the hiswry of official, reductivist medernism itself, and tocorrect the record as it had been written by judd's logic of specific objects. fur like Serra's, G~~e;nlberg>s view of Pollock had also led him eveneually to jet; (ism]. the materialise, purely reductive notion .of the medium, Once he saw the medernist logic leading lathe point where, as be put i~~

~5 (/:rft) Kenlleth Noli1iid, ill&rillauun of Comfft SlimWw alld SIJTO ill.he Am:!r~ Emmerich Galllt:[}1

"the observance of merely the two. [ constitutive conventions or norms of painting - flOlltnC:ss and the delimitaeion 'Of flOlltness - ] is enough to create :1.11 object wh ich can be experienced as .. picture:' he dissol ved ihar object inrheHuid of what he; first called "op[[caLity" and then named "'OOkl[' fidcl."H\Vhich is to say that no sooner had Greenberg seemed [0 isolate the essence of painting in Hatness dun he swung the axis of the field ninety degrees 00 the actual picture suditcero place all [he import of painting on i_he vecrorthar connects viewer and object, Inthts he seemed to shi6t [tom [be first norm - flatness - to rhe second - the delimnarion of flarness - and to giv,t: lh~5 latter a reading that was not rhat of the bounding edge of r:he physkai object but rather rhe projective resonance of the optical ~d.d itself - what in "Modem.ist Pairrun:g"l1e had called the "optical thiiddimension" created by "the very fim mark nil a canvas [ whicb] destroys ics literal and utter fla\tn~m.'" 2~ Til is W~S the resonance he imputed to tlheefIl.dgence of pure color as he spoke of it, not: only as, disembodied and therefore pilI'dy optical, but also "as a thing that opens and. expands the picture pbne."~·l"Opti,ci!ility.. wOliS rhus an entirely abstract, scbcmarised version o~ the link that tradirional perspective had. formedy established between viewer and obj,e.cr •. but one rhar I]}OW trail, seends the real parameters of measurable, p~lys.~cal space toexpress the pur,e1y projective powers of OJ. preobjecrive level of sighe "vision itself."24

The most senoes iSSH,e fi)! painting now was to understand not its objective feanrres such as die Aa:tness ,of the material sumce. but irs specifie mode of address, and to makethis the source of a set of new con.vemtons - or what Michael. Fried called "'3, mow an:>~5 One such convention emerged as the sense of the oblique generated by fieids[hart seemed always to be roeating away from the plane of the wall and into depth; a perspectival rush of ~uJfa,ces that caused critics like Leo Sreinbergto speak eftheir sense of speed: what he called the visual effide:ncy of the man in. a: hlLlrr}~~(, Another derived from the serialityboth ][1jtemalw [he works and to their prod1;l!crion -[0 wh]ch~hccolor.fidd painters uniformly resorted .e

Thus rrr could be argl1ledrhalt ~!J the ·6o.s!,'~op[icaJ~.ty" was also ~J;'fV]ng as moretban JUSi! a feature of an; it had becom.e J. m!!di~Hi ,of art. As suc'h ir was a]so aggregaciw,,;m affront 00 whar was offi.ciany I] nder ... seood as me reducrivist 1015k of modernism - a logic and doctrine J[[ribm:ed to thi8 day to Greenberg himself N e1the; GFe~Jlb>l;rg nor Fried theorized co]omelcl pa]ndngas a new medium, however; they spoke of JJt only as a new potSsio]l]ty for abs~~a{,:t painting.~? N OF was process an - the term. [I[1der which Serra's early wm::k was .addressed.~dJequ.ucly theo]1]zed. And ocrtalnly the fmer chait in both cases the spocif.iciy of a medium. was being mainteined even though it w01dd now have to be seen as iflwma]]y d.i:iferemj,a"ted - on the o!der of "-he filmic model - was not du:od~d either. For inthe C~C of that ]aner model, rhe impulse was to ~ry w su blate the internal djflet,e;noc~ withm the ihl1lk apparatus into J. single, .~ .• ,d~.visib]e. experiential l]ni,tthat would serve as nnonlologkal metaphor, a f1gli.u:e - likethe .. .:; ~m~nurre zoom - fo[ rheesseaee of rile whoh:. In r972. umcr[lF:a~~stfilm'8 sd£., clescY]p(]O.l1. as ~' bavesaid, was mcdemisr .

. bIW this slJ[uatlot!i there entered rheporeapak, aIH~. is relevisual effoct was to shatter the medernisr d[ciml. In rhebeginn ~ n:g, as arrisn began (]I make video works. they used video as a tecbn~)](JgicaUy t1 pdared COl],... t]n:muion of the mode ofadd[es~ organized by the Flew iIIuention to thephennmenolog1cM, ahbough it was a pelvene version of chis since the ('Olml It wok WOliS decidedly narcissistic: artists endlessly talktng to rhem~ei\'e~"2B To my kn()'wled:g~ only Serm birnself imrdC,ldut:e~y ao knowledged that video was in. fact tekvisio.ll,. which means iii bmaelC:Ji;5[ medium. ontthat ~p]int:eI's spatial c(Jt!iltiriuity into remere sires of transmission and recepdon. His Tt.reuisiQ~ DeUf!er~ People ([ 973) - a message displayed in a consioucus c[illwl- and Pris:omr's DilemffU! ([974) were versions of ihk

][ is tilis spatial separationcceupled with the temporal ~im~ka[ldly of insaanraneous bro .. dcast, that hJS led certain ihcm']sts~o try to locate thet&SiC:no~ of tdev]slon in il~ use 01:5 closed-circuit surveillance, But

)0

Y'OU·. are· the' ·product

of t.v~· .

You are delvered, to the a!dvertlaer who Is the customer.

thefact of rhematrer is (bat television and video seem Hyd~<lvheadt;d> cxhttng ine'ndlesdy diverse forms. spa.ces, and eemporalities for which 11;0 single instance seems to pmvide a fomul unity for the whole .. 29 This , '1 s' 't\i"f L. 11. 'I] ~II . I " . .• .,.. '.. 1L - ., u W sat am. wener nas 'COl!. .eu te ievisrou S Oonmtuu\,c] lewmgeneJty.

addit~g (ba:["whalt is perhaps mOS[ difficuh to keep in mind ate the ways in which whar weeall television also and above all differs from ir$el:f.."w

~'f modernise theory found iw;~f d~feaJt'£cl by such hetemgene]ty - whidl prevented it. from. C(lticeptl1.lOlJi:z:ing vteleo as a m,,'CiiurllJI - modem]st. stmcturalist fi]m W<lS muted by video's immn~ Slllocess as a practk:e.. Fot~ even ]f video had <I, dis(]nct tecl:mical support - its own Jtp'params! S(J~O speak - it oOCU pkil a kind of discursive chaos, a heterogeneity of activides thatcould uot be ~hO()fized asccherem or conceived of as having somethlng like an essence ar unifying core) l Like ~he eagle p{indp~ej.

it prm::lajrned rheead of nl!ediunl/speci:ficity.lin the age of tdevirion, so it broadcast, we inha.bit apost-medium oondjdoo.

Tbe third narrati ... e, which Lwill se~ o~lt w:iih wn;s,idef~bly more di$~ parch, ceneernsthe resonance between the posr-medium pos[~ion and. postsrmcruralism. fnr dnring this same Ltt:e/6asjearlY/70s momen:E. deeoustruction began famously att,adb.ng whar jt deI]siIvdy referred to as rhc "law of genre," or the aessberic autonomy supposedly ensured. by ~he picrorial fume.l-1 From. the theory of gram:mato]ogy m that of the parergon. jacques Deruda built demeasrrarion aftler de:morn;tration to show th.art: the idea of an il1lleriof~1l apan fTOm, or uncoutaminated by. an extedoF was aehimera, a melOltphysical nCllQ.l1.. Whether if be ~he interior of the wor k of art as epposed ro its context, £1.11 the interiority of a lived momeat ef'experienee as opposed W its n::pcddoll in 11I£JJ.\lOil:Y or via written signs, what: deconstrucncn '\Iit.ls, engaged in dism,arnHrlg WA$ the idea ofthe pf(lfler~ borb in the sense of [he sdf~]dendcal- as in ~'Vi5JO:n is w~l a f:sprope·r m thee visual arts" - and in the sense of the clean or pureas in "abstraction purifies paintiug of all those things. like narrative or sculptural ~paoc.~hat are not proper W ir," That nothing could be ccnsrimrcd as pun~ itt~~rjorhy or s<df~idCl'lr~ty,rh.01,Jt:~bis pur~[y was alw"':lYs O1,lre<l!dy invaded by an eueside, indeed. cou ld 1[se1f only be constituted through thevery introjection of that outside, WJ;5 the argurne.ru: mounted to scuule the supposed autonomy of the at: 5 thc-tic' experience, or me pos~ siblc pudty of an artistic medium, er rhe presumed s.eparate<llessof a given iruellectual discipline. The self-idenricnl was revealed as, and thus dissolved inm. the self .. adTerem.

In the ul1iwrsftyth is, along with other poStMTuCtu['a]i8t OUlalyses~ such as those of Michel. Feuca uh.prov'ed a powerful argumelTht [or an end to the separation of academic facuhies within distinct branches of

knowledge. andthus <1;powedid support for i[Jjte~dj~sdpLin,adty. And. outside the academj, ]]1 the Jrt world. - 1"v'here allrronomy and rhe notion that there was sOme'[hlng pmpe:r or spedfi.c to a mednnn were alre<l!.dy under arrack - this ga\"~ a gUuedng d:leOIeocal pedigree ~o practices of r.ampanlt impurity' - like Fruxus or Sltua:tion]~t dltolffJjemtl'f~ (subversive appropdation) - ihar bad long since bern undenv-:AY.

]0 the-late 1900S and eMIr '70s, Maned Broedehaers appearedtobe the I::n.i.gh[ errant of ill this. 1]) bdng a f.an~J;5.uc feat of in5dtlll,.il!)n.a~ .aff~u'fne.nenl,. his "Museum of Modern Art" abo seemed to ccnstimre [he ukimare im :l?lo~~on of mediurn-specificiij; .And even as II did so, it appeared tobe setdng f:onhthe cheeretical basis of its own rroj,oc~. As we have seen. fo:r eX<m1.p]e,. Lhe .affixing of figur-e numbers to a miscellany of .objetts opel'illted as both a parody of euraeorial practice .and <11.11 empty" ing out of the very meaning .of dasi!ilfiCOlIti·oo. Accordingly. the figures funcrr~.oned as a set of meaa-caprions whose operation WaJiithOOttliC"":aL Broedrhaers himself commeneed: ~1\ theoqr ·of ehe fig.ures would serve only to give .110 unage of ilJ. theory. But the fig, a'S a rrllieory of the ilnag~" ~3

Ye'rr ~f Broodehaees can be seen to be moving within the poStsrtf.l1c ... ruralist cieele of theory, we must also remember his d~pambivnlenGe abouttheory itself. We mast recallthe statement from l~fe·rf~flkti~n£n in which rhecries Me reduced to. or perhaps l~vciiJed as, nothing more [han "adv"(;n~s~.!1g .~ [he order under which [[hey are] produced." According m this cOIfid.emna.cionj.a!!y~heory. even if ]l is issued as ;lL critique of the cu](urlO ind:u:sny. win end. up only as a form. of promotion for that very i[lduury. In this way. the ukimare mOliSttr of deltJurnemtn:t rums out to be capitalism [[fldf, whic.bcanappropFiate and. l-eprog~am anything t~ serve Us own ends. Thus, if Broodthaen did [lot liveto :~e the absolute confirmation of his entirely pessauistic "Vie-w. Jj be had. nonetheless pr~x:licted both the eveneualeomplicity between theory and the eukure industry and the ukimare absorption of !·~nst]tutionaic!i ... rique' by exacdy the institudom of global marketing on which such °cddque" depends fo[ ~C~ success and ltS suppou.

This leads us, howe:: ... er, to another ~,1iOry" fur if capitalism is the master or ,Jit,rmnmlient, absorbing every avaru ... garde protics:t in its pjjjth and turning it to irs own account, Broodthaers - hy some uldm.uetum of tile screw - was in a m;mge kind of mimetic relationship to chis. To pu~ 1t simply, t:here is a. way in. which he eonducted a form of d'fr..oumeJ1Wd on. himself.

Acknewledgingjhis in the f'res.:s IC]C01J;5Cissl]!oo dming rhe 1972 Decumeera, where [be f1t1llil secnons of his MUSlmm (]}l)'W renamed the ., MUfiC'um of Old .IY1aMer An [Are Ancien]. 20!1]} .. Cenuny Goillny~ Eagles Department") W~(,c installed, namelythe sections of premotien andpublic relarions, Broodthaers speaks of the "cOintracl.kto;ry irueIi views" he had given on the su'bject of his maseum ficuons.u .lind~d. Bro[)d~hae:!:~'~ best 'cr]t]cs hJ:V1e been alert to the peeuliariuccnsisteneiea ([lJt mine bot~ rhe; artist's explanations of his work and the ll.nfolding of thc work i~sdf. Benjamin Bucbloh has wr.jlm:en~ [or ex.amp]e: "If rul'Y ~ thing, it would be his persistent sense .of conrradicnous chat co~ld be ca]]ed rrbe mos;rr prominent fCillttWe in Broodrhaers's thoughts and statemeuts <1lnd. of course, in. his W()·~k+"l6

At one po~nt BucM(lh sees this asa ~pedes of hwg,rule. a wil1fll]], tongt1e~.in ... chee:k form. of double I .• e:ga!~{)n in which iii pctdfied language acts iI;O mimic the peesenc-dayreilicarion of speech irsdf at the hands of rhecensciousnessiudustry To this e(foc(. he quotes J. Broodthaers ce:xr caUed"My R.he'moric:." in whtdl the attht writes;" I, I ~ay ]; F, [ say I" I. the Mussels Kililg. You say you" I u.um~(~giie, J • can it.' I scciologize I ma!1~fe~dyma[ltfest ". ",'. and so on".~" .

DOll1gl,a~ Crimp has also fastmed onthis feature of coneradicnon, which Bmodthaen sometimes ci~]ed his own "bad faith," J;5 when he c:xp]a,lnoo his decision in rhe early I 960~~() stopbdng a ro~t and start being a:n ;'iIni~t. The reason, he wrote. was that since he hadn't ~b,e mOifley to correct the nn 0 bjeets he loved, he decided to create them instead: m become a creates, then. by defn~lh of 11IOt bdng <1lblc to be ill ooHectm'.l1

zg Martt~ B[oodtb,ters, .MmmJI! -1 .Modrm Art, &Jlli!?~ D.fPd,rI!Jll~t; SlrHotJ HthliriM, I 9'7~.

lID a eertam SICl1i8C, the whole of the museum fictions, in which Broodtbaers is installed as d.i[oc~()~> enact the collecting fun.ct]on. Burt:

Broedthaers also distinguishes this publio f(}rm .of collection ftoro.a per. ... sona] one in a work caned .Ma C ollecti<m, ill work given a special am;! of p~tvacy and. il1lWalUnm by the presence,. within ]ts ~ssembly of images, of the picture of Slcphane Ma]]arme. focusing on. rhisdistiuerion besweerr pu bNc and. private. or ll1sriltuionaJ, and personal, Crimp addresses Brcodthaers's odd privilegmg of d1e personal ·co']]OCtO·f through the lens, of WabF Beejamin's llilulys~s of such a oloetoe:nth" cenu;ril;Y ooUeowr asa positiiv,e oonnt£rtype not oruy w [he bom:g:eo:js consumer but also to thee 0Orl!~empnf:;lry private culk£;il;O( who now opel" .1It~~ on the pattern of commoditycoasumptien, Againstthe consumer 'who i~ ddv'l1W amass objects either ('01 d]SP~illy them as capjJta~ or to use them up, [he true OGllocw~, Benjamin say.'!. ]ibcIatl;8 "things fmm the bondage of ~HiH(y. ,. Wha[ is decisive inthe act. of cfillem.ing,&ic goe~ on, is "sb at the object he dissociated fmm all its OIJrigjnal fnl1c~~ons in order eo enter inrorrhe clcsest possible rdatiombip wish ru. eq uivalents, This is dIe diametric opposite of use! and stands under the curious. ciIlliegm;y of eompleseness ." ~~

Un teO!J~clle Milwd Broodthaers .J. pmpos de' &fa CoJ.l:lro.iiN.I'

'rhj~ ~~: \A'llS \'i:dm~Jiby th~

il:rtb to aITomp.;IJlJ M>iI C~flrc!kJr (fl'l! page li2 J~~ 11'dJ1.d~/ioN)_

M.:I C"]lftticJr ~St une pj~O!l oompIJS6e de d~x volets 4mt dmqiJlI: fi~~ est ~xpioi~~i!'. DaL1iS le pI=~~I volet eom!pCI'l't:mt des .doClllJ1~I1~~ d:~xpo~itiorl~ ~!Jxql:l!cUk~j'~j. P'~ ~fti~ircr csr illsc~fc unc plli~ du <:;l~'l<!OgLl.e de la ooir.e&e c:.o~ogltoe ''II Ief'J'ootlis.~jille~ .ph()fiJ~ de~m~m~s &c~iJ]:ne,L1U;. U ~ecGm:l '10k! d~ &f~ Colhtimr e~tDm~' d'l!Jn pDr~mitdJn poh~ eura:p6:<n St~pl~ilJ1-= .1\!L~lbrm~ en qui j~ voijj, le fut1id~tc~~ de I'~r~ CC»ltCffillOl:aLll. "U n coup de d~ jamais n'ab~ljra.k ~~il:tJ." Md CoUw!Jm est ulreplli~lJu le,spd\lt1~t1IJ1J~o:J0lljqm'~~t utjli5epou:r situ~[ b ii~l!Jx d·~XPDsiti.oLl,. ([m~ nurair O,C1<IIC p~u~ d~ ~~m qu'une collecricn cl~ timbr'C'S'polte~),. be ~~~~lIoW1J~.die I~ pl:e;m~c ~:pooitiOIl seta miili3e coomne d.Guil poo~ OOfll1tLm.er une I:lj~C!l ~:I'~iU: jJml'[~ ~MiIoigl'l<1iil! d~ expos.illoll~ ~i:IooqIl~J]~~ j·.cl.~[t.i.ci~ d~puis ]~I,

~3 (~)Ma~cd Broooh~er~,1k£:! C",attl@,i'I97I"Fromv!ew:. H (~b..Wi'J M3[oe~ .BrDodtl1ltLe[~, MIl C!lUrdfmr,. ~!¥,(I" Ba.:k'ili~w;

Cl/;l!"~ j.~ ·f:l.llJ1-- dan" _te e~ll~etl00 ~~ ~"t =ai ~ c~ .~-.i Lee ~"t.~~ .. ~",~. ~8 ~~B ~ct~~ ~'t~·~, ~~. "" ~"""tf_~~9 1JA ~~6lI1!~ ~l>l,Qn.~ t~~.

[>l~t8. sl, l." 0" !I>e~g,pt~ qUI> l-!l ~.!SIln,,.Uml. d>ll, mQll ~ ~Jio.~'I>Il 'Il.'!l. {;Iloo~m~ ~Q m'n:ll/.~¢-l\!t, e.lleeelt'tl.it alD.l\9 UllrB~~' Q""IJli~ ;t~= l'l~~Ug,. ID1 !!'<!~~<l& b;;ir(]qua.

c'~ ,,",,~ll~ d<lil.1MUl!. ~~:'I'Uill{l.r;jJ;J,t~ooo ll: M o~~,@t ol",~

a" .. t=. C_""'M. ~ lAI ~t>B, ~. ~e:bui....rl ~Ia. ~B8 1l~ q,.u!ll..U~ ~1sU'lM' ~B~tcl:M~ il' S;l!~ire llfll'1;. J~' G"" ' .... l!I."!lii ptIB. lB ~ ~ ~pk:alQf' SlI;i;' "/18 C~~~,.", !I·ll~ .. ~ <]J.t·~o 1'~<e'iIl,t ;!'~'l'l.tg j" ~5!ig ~l' ll!i! lUi""..,; ~ ~W::Iit iI.l,UI; ~9 W ~~~ Dg .~~ 1>lli!Ii'koJ:!!Lt~(m ll.i'ava.t:iJt-~(!!6J~ '!J~ ';;:OD:i~'iIL,*~ "m. bOO1 cmit"r,tIt ,~, 1!i~t'tI!d.~

:ibI 4'SIt:!,.fl;!;r~~ ,1!!tI "ot:d',~>I] :IlOlll.1ntEl.l."h .fIiIil! '1111!_~ ,fI'ta.Wa.

MllIi, ~e d.lJ;a4N .~~c~1:;r w, ;Y:J,r,&t (&t> drDlltBP a·~tJem!''i'} S!.U'. l>1l8 ])':l.n1.c8,U~'" ~,I u. ,~,~" tr .. ~"",,,, qu!. ~~~~1m'Il :tI1;L ~"~~,U1l(tl et .laB ~~ ~ ~Qtk _ ~ ~FI.~

a" l.n f~i;;;" ~~ C!l;Lo~~ 7J,. ~

~ @ l'l. ~1)dt~~~

( O1Atet:m.~. IJJ. (l'J.d'lU" '{L<!bbt~ ~@~i1l; ~ON ~ !l~~~1j.;;1;" 'ab~,...t plVi!<1'l.1il,9 ~~ "~ coiLa""',1",,,~, 1<> pr:1'I: ~ ~~t ..:100l~ ~Q~W!. 00 .Ii' ~ MnB~Lllw::;e (b'J..:!; ii, ,d,,'ro,*,~) •

~

Here, the equ~vare[j;cy pl;,ir!ldple~h01"t ~ever$ objeers tothe measure {]if theit e~change value, and which Ihood:d1.aers seems to attack inthe application .of "Flg." mrm om within the FUm Su.tim't .of his museum, is valorized in the S]tUil:tlon of the peesonal collection .. This Broodehaers also ~"''Cms ttl adnow]ed:ge. in that t_&!e" F~:g. "numbers C<1;pdoning~he :ima:ges in M~ C f)Uettiorx couldbe seen as 'l,V()(rkingro fOrm. the newrelat]onsb~ps forged 'hy the '<true" colleot.o.r)'J< These relaaienships, which Benjamin calls at "ma:gicc]l:de." allow each object to ~xfol~a,tc into se ma,I1Y sites of luemo:ry. "Con~'Cting.·' he silIy:S. "is a fOHn. of praerical n'lem:ory and, among rbe p[Or~r!i.e msnifescarions (If ·pro:ximiry.' the most

~ .'.. .. '~~I

c-OllvJ:llcmg one.' *

This structuie in wbich tW'O Oppmiing [OUll~ ofequjYiler.!!~e COlLn. c"'Onve~gc jn the object - t&!at. of exchOl!.nge <1;nd ~h.u (]f ,. pr(jximi~y" - is at dialecri.calcondidon. in which everyrrMng within CJ.pltruism. - ev1ery object,ev1ery reehnelogieal p'Jtocess, every SOC]M type - is understocd as ]IJiV'csux! with O!. dou b]e vi~ence; oeg;uive and positive, m-ce an object and irs .s.h.ad()wj or a pereeptien and its af[er~]mage. Thisis wha[bn.ks. type to cOllln!ertype:, or,. in dIe case of thocommodity. produces whar Benjamin called "the .JliL1Jbw.alence between its utopian and 1113 CY[l~C'.1i demeJ]jt."~i

That thecynical clement gainsthe l!lppC~ hand everthe eousse of time goes wkhou.t saying. [h;llt Benjamin bdjevod. du.[ <lit tIlt: birth of a given soci<ll.]fDrm or reehnological preeesstlie utopian dimension WiliSp[\esent and. flurd1!ermore, thJ;[ it is PI!OClse]y at the momenc of the obsclesceuee Qf thar tl;;chno]ogythat it once more releases t_his dime!] .... sion, Hke the laM gh:am of <1l d.ying star, mr obsolescence.jbe very law of oQmmodiry pmducrien, botb frees the outmod.ed object from [he grip of utiljty and reveals the hoUow promise of that ]a:w. p

Broedrhaers's deep aUJ.'3:cdon to tbe f'OrWl~ ofthe QunnQded hasbeen remarked upon, by his various critics, Hts sy~s:~em ·Qf references focu~es run:!n]y on the nineteenth cenuJr)~ be they to rhe ]l~gres and Courbets in ~he first manifestation of his museum,. 'Or cothe example of JBaudda~(e and MaUarm;f fo~ hi~ books aDd~xh i.bi,d.ons,. or W the panerama and. the

~6 M2t[Qe~ Bmj)dltlla~[S, U~ j.mlilJ l'hj,IWf, :(974,

wi~1J~e[ g;l{den as his models f'Or social sp<il.ces. In fact. as Benjamin .Buchloh has cQmmemoo, this ." altogether da[oo aura. of nineteenthcel1J:EU ry bourgeois ndnm;;tha:t l'l':l<my of his wl)Ik~ seem lO bring to mind m"~htea~ily seducethe vi,ewer into dismisslng his work as being obv,~[)nsly obsolete and not at mil concerned with the presuppo!Sition8 of eentem pom:ry art," 4,~

But what Crimp is ~uggef;dns tsth<1;~ the powertbar Wllilre:r Ben, j amin :jnve~u~d in the outmoded should be acknowledged ]n Broodt~ baers's use of 11: - as ]n his assumption of the form of the "true" collecror, This was apowe.r that .Benjamin hoped h:isowtl prospecrtug in the histcrical grounds of [l~,!1e:rre.eorh~cen[Ury forms would be able to release, Wti,d,ng of his own Pritts: Arcades: project, he sa]d: "W€ are here constructing an alarm ~:Jock chat awakens the lk:hsch of the past century into 'r.e~c.one-c[~on.·"44 Thac Be,!lljaluin's .nchil£ology was retrospective waS a funcsicn of the fact that he believed its vjew could. open up only from thesue of .ob$ol.i.;s,cen.ce. As heremllirked; "Only in exeinetiou is the [ tf~e] collectereompzebended ." ~.~

The true ccllecsor, however, was not the 011]y outmoded :figure 1)0 whom. lhoodth.aers W3;5 anraceed, Another was tb ~t {]If th,e:film~mlliker from. the ear 11' mOme]ll$ of cinema when, as wiehthe Lu miere Brothers 0[' w]th n W. GFMIith's. an.d Chaplin's stock,'Comp,my operarioas (suchas

Bifjgr.a. ph or S. and. A. y. movie production was entill;~y anisanal, As Broodrhaersbegan to l1.'lilke fihns in earnest in J 967 ~nd ~nc() [he ea.d.y '70S, he CiIJ5t his own PWdu~ld.on in proch.ely rhis moM. Heimitated the gA:::stuTes .of the silenc-movie comic acrers, particulady Buster Kearon, capturiog [he amaztug sense they radiated of dogged. persistence in the face of endless a.dversity. And he replicated the prim]t]v,e ]oo.k of e<l;Ely cinema w]th irs uneven cxro~U(C~ ~plk-ed rrGge~hef and its A.kkerin.g g<l[[.

That the lJcind of SPGD~<li:rU~(1US acrriv.i:ry represenred in this. model would be :rende~ed. obsolete by the indl.lStF]ali:zJ:[~on of cinema at the ~ands ef rhe big ~~UdlOS ~n Hcllywood and .E umpe wasan issue for j ust that structuralisc film bc]ng made inthe late I9(i.QS in rrhe context of Antho]ogy Film. Ardllves and shown annually at rhe Experimenral HIm. festival :l~ Knokk,e.. ]e; Zoute, on the Belgian eoascan event th.u .Bmockham. twice attended.406 The demonsuatien tbat ~t was possible to defy the SY8ttm and to malt '~.m single ... handedlj; on pl:'<lctica]]y no

hliJdgct, and from the foCnlIpS and discards of oM s[Ock, as exempHfied rut K1ru)kke by the Americans and me Comad£ans. undoubtedly reinforced Broedrhaers's eadjeF' experimenrs In film.. Bu,t thQugh many of th~ Am.cdcans SilW this defiance of HoUyw()od.JS aprogressive, avan~,gaFde m(lve,the opponunfty lor ill m.OdCl:]llst concentration of the disparareness of the Hollywood pruducticn inwthe si[1_;gle; strucresal wctlJiI' that would reveal the nature of '~m ~rseJ:f., Breedrhaers readir retrogress] ... dy, al return to thepro~u~esse de Ixmiteu.r enfolded in cinema's beg~ru;l~.rtgs.

In so panlng ,company with srrnctu ra]istt n1:rn!~ modernism, Breedcbaers was !:JJJt d!e:r:!y~ns film. as ill medium .. He was, rather, un.dersundlng ~ht~ medium in rhelighr ~)f the open!:JJe~~ p~omi8ed by coll:]Y fi]m, an openness wOlVen into the very mesh of the image, asrhe flkJ;:er~ng irresolunon of the illusion of movementproduced theexperience of s~gh~ ~rs.elf as dilated: a phenomcnologic.u m]xt1]H! of presence and absence, illllned~:l!cy and distance. ]f [[he medium of primid ... e film resisted srructural closure in dais sense, It allowed Bmodthaers to see wharrhe ml;l<,> ruralists did not: that the filmic app..al'a,tus p'lrfSerr[S us WJth ill mediu In whose spod6d,qr is to be fouod in its condition 1I:S self;differililg. It h aggregative, :J!. matser of interlocking supports and i,ayeI:ed conveusious, The st:!:uctura]ist.s strove to construct the ultimate synecd.ocbe~r film

"irsdf" - m©riO(!l both reduced. wand summarJzed in the ultunare camera. mevemem (Snow's zoom), or filmic j]]1!1sion~yp]fied in the A]cker film's disseerion of the peesisreneecf vj~~on (Paul Sha~~.~!l'S wad::) - one which, like any W<tah:z:j]l~ symbo]ic form, would be uni~ru:y; Bwodrrh<l!.ets honoredthe differential oondirien off.i]m:: irs inexrricable relation be'['lJJ>een ullilldt.aneJty an.d sequence. lts layer]ng of sound 0,[ rext over Im.ag.e.

As Ben]01I.:min. had pn:,.'Ciict,x:i" nothing brings ehe promise encoded a~ the biuh of a technological fo·rm to ]ight as dT:ecdvel.y as [he faU it'l!r() obsolescence of irr~ final stages of developmene, And the televisual pOlr; (J.])1Ik dM.t killed American [nde~ndem Cinema was just thisdeclaraeion of film:~ obsolescence.

If I am. pursuiog the example of Marcel Breodtbaers in rheeoeresr of thepost-medium condition, ]t is- became he stands at, and rhussrands for. what I would like ttl see <Q~the-"coroplexj(, of this condition, Fer BloodthacJi:s.the p!t8mllcd spokesman for ~n~e'trnodj,aand~he end of the arts, nonetheless wove~:rr his WYJ:rk an ineernal lining dmt has to be caned. redemptive.. I am raking this nO(]OIll of redemption f['Om. WMttr .BenjIJmin,. whose ]deJ. of the ooul1ltenype - as. me diil.cotica] affre~ ... hnage of a social rolenow rdfiedand corrupted under capi~.djs.m - seems to operate (lilJ1er pan of BroodrhO)!en's aetiviries as. collector. And fnrthet, ~he mn.alysjs ofphowgr2l.JPhy that Benjamin eonseeucted can beseen to. slide over Eroodthaen's practice o.f film..

At firstthi~ may seem ootnn.e:r"inluidv,e, for like Breedrhaers, Benjarninis f.am.ou$ for a deconstruetive lli[[[mde coward the very idea of iI. medium. To this end he used photogra:phy not m:tl.y as afofn'l that erodes its own spec]ficity - sil1i.OI; it forces the visual image jn~o dependence; 0111. at wduen caprion -bl~l. asa.toel to arrack the idea of speci:fidty fm a]] the

am. This isbecause photography's starus as a multiple, a fI!.]Flc[~()n of mechanical reproductiQn" resrructures the condirieu of the other arts. As an exam. ple .•. lBenja.mine:xpl.aioodth~t ·'00 an ever g).:c1l:ter degree the work of art reprodueed becomes the work of an desjgneclfo[ (erro~ dudbility. ,. And what follows fmm[bi~ is that. becoming prey tn tbe l.aw of cumm.odifkaciGn.the sepa:ralt"e work of art, as we]] as tile separa~e mediums of art, enter ;[he CQt!J:d:kion of general cq uivalencj; thereby

] - I·· ·f ~ i!_. ].. ll'!! . ' .• ~L;J'·'··"

mmg[ re Unlqueness o tne worK - wn<u.oenJ amin calk"iU.m aura'">

as well asthe sped6idty of its medurm,

B~t fa~ from b~]]}g an undiluted celebration of this state of affidr~.

Benjamin'seenremplanon of pho~ognphy was abo cast in the mold of

. ~

his renospecriee auitude, which is to satyh~~ sense "-hat. as afo~s:.H of jt~

birth, the oatmoded fi(OJgf of it given reehnologicalform mighr berray :rhe redemptive obv'ef:~e of that tochno].ogy irself Inthe case of photography rhis other promise was encodedin the Ol!:lttau:u{. nou-peolessicnaliaed character of its earliest, p.l1e ... -eommereialized practice, as arrists and writers such <IS JuHa Margan't Cameron, Victor Hug·OJ, and Octavius Hill wok pkttmes o( their friends.h also had to do with the length of t411e pose exacted by the~F work, during which t.hete was a p0!38]bi]ity of humanizing the gaze, which is eo $ay,. of the subject' s escaping his 0( her own. objeotiicj1Jl~On it t the hands. of the machine. t7

The refuge-that Broeddiaers wok in a practice of prJm]ti!ve cinema betrays rhis samerhought ofthe l'edernpcive p05l$ibilitjes encoded. at the birth of a given technical sup'pnrt. Ana. 11L JS rhisrrbt1ught tbat I wOldd H:k.c one to see as acting on all of Buwddl<lers·s. production 'h\like a nILldng light shining ata ~trangl; angle over- a surface, itbt.l1]ng~ into relief clinentirely neweepegrapbical SU'!']CWre. lif I do [lot have spa.oe to give iill.fthing like a fu]] desnensrraricn .of tilts here! r would nevenhdcs!i suggest that the fihu]c mode] is a subset of J. urge! consemplation about the namre of the mcdh~:m conducted through me guise of what I (hink fu ncrioned J.~ the master medium f()!Broodd'!aers, namelyficrion ]lD3ci~ as when Broodrhaersrefsrred to his museum as '·atfftcti0Il." For fktkll1,

alw.ays seems to halVe eomained a revelatory a:spect for him; as he said of the difference between (Jfficia~. museums and h ~s own; ., a fiction allows us to gr<il.spreaUty and At. the same time what it: hides. "48

W.hat ]s at issue In the context of J mealu m., however, is nor j ust dais poo;sibi]ky of exploiting the fiotional tounmask .l1ea~]ty·s lies. but of pm~ dncingan a~').a~ysis of fict~o[l itself ~[l [dation to a specific structuee of experience, And it was j I!lsrrhts strueture (lfa $P01;!~.;;)J "behind" (lr layer ... ]ng tha t was for him a metaphor for the .c()indit'JoJU of absence du.t is a~ che heaet .of nc~ion,"

Tbaetbe novel ill!i the technical ~upport rhrough which fiction was eonvensionaliaed dur.~l:lJ.g [he ninereenrlrcenmry was of particular in:litev est to Broedthaers e.me'rges 11m just in his st1l:~e.mems,.like the one he pm" neunccd in n,1el)c.noe~o the "Theory of Figures" exhibition - wher-e he seesthe objects bearing ·'Fig." numbers as "takln;g on an ~UustIativ'c eharacser referring 00 at kind o( novd .aIDOU[ ~ocie[¥"4~ Ii!: also takes on phys~cal ~hape in relarien to his own practice of producing work in. the form o(b(loJ::s.

One of these, Charler: &;t,Je/ain Jf h(iis Ie mDuwmelif qr~i diplact Ies .ligfllf.f (197~), is a. spec]fi.ce.llgag~me:l1t W[d1 ~herevei;:li1:ury pmver of the novel. fOil: in irspeculiar ddadorl. of J. Baudelaire poem, rhebook's now c1h.~d. sequential fOl:m ]$ made not only to ,expose as fld£.delu:s.ory the romantic bel~:ef in poet!:"ya~ a form. of ~mil im.mediacy - a collapse of the dJfference between su bjeor: and object ~but also to ope;n th.u iWlmtodiacy to itsreal temporal d.estiny, in which the subj ece can never become idenrica] Wjdl hlmsdf. Based on Baudelaire's ea(tt"]y poem "La Beaute," where su bjleclive ir.nITIJ:diacy' u. giveu voice bya sculptuce vaunt~l1ig the way irs own 5!d£'sllffid~j1cy:and ~iml!.dt.aneOIlS presence is able to symbol" ize the infinjty of a pfIfect whole eJe suis bene, 0 m:ormdsr comme un Ih',~ de pimc·'),. the book sets its sights on emptying mit this. very notion ~lf $imllk.andty.

Printing the poem in. irs emire:rry em [he 'r$[ page. whk-h is marked "fjg. I." Broedrhaers singles out ]111 red the line of 'Ilene through w:[1Jkh

47

43 (rfgM) Ma~l Brooo~h~~L~ U~ (~f~ Je I'Ii.r ftflJlrif Ir~btJiFd It ~Mr.:l, ir!JiW. Hl69, ewer,

M~RCEL JlI!OOI)"JH.!.~ 1

UN COUP DE DP.s JAMAIS N-ABOLlRA Lit HA,SARD

44 (~ppusit;?) Ma:rCl,ll&rood!iJ<l!ets, UrJ (~IP

Jr db j~llJ~inr'~b.t1ird ldJ!l1~rJ.II.!I"gt', 1969, .~ge 32., BroQo(hll~eL':l,'~ ·"W!r~,.I1C CIIJl Mi~i1[m.e'sruem, I~lderijjg dlc' hl)~~ (:If

",~[s~' IlnillltJ]j£iibl~, tfl~teby ~i!~ilsfum~

th~ P~:I!,e;) imto aset of i:r:n"'£'Cs,

the scnlpture defies an.yt~~mp.oraI cli~.at~nn of irs perfect f'O.rm, the one that reads, "I hare tbe movement d1Jt shJf[s the lines." Througheut the 101/ lowing pages of the book, however, Bmodtham proceeds eeward just this dlif~ Of displacement. as the verse irselfbeeomeslayered into the movement of its own vaIlii~hing horizon, withea.c.h of irs words 00111.' !i~:gneil. to the bottom of OJ! ~ing]e page.

lit could be objected ~har~ wkh this revision of .Bauddat(e'~ poem, Broodrbaersis simp]yfuUow~ng the example of Mallilr(m£'s Uucoup de db, in. which the words of tile tid.e C' U n eou p dedes jamais n' abolira ]e hasard"] are similarly exrended "long [be bottom of severJ]~ pages. the text of th~ poem. il~df made rad~Cllilly $pat~l by the irregularisyand di$/ persal of ~.cs H~."JJes on every page, sometimes even running across the gmteF of rrhe book.to [['alllsfmm the verses into somedling like an image, The argument: for this paraUdism might. be funhe:rsupP.o.rted by me sprinkling of "fig," numbers on the llpper pan of me pages of Bmodtham's B(lIlJelaJre" acknowledging the way Un (011'1 de des rrens~I[m;S the sequential condition of writing ~.!:l.1)O the simultaneous realm of seeing in a mow W wb kb E(oGd~~mus frequendy referred ." , Mil.]]a(m~~ is

-

-

at the source .of modem art," he would ,exp]a,ln."He unwit£]ngiy in""~]1jed modern space," j1)

.Em Broo(hbaen"s own understandingof Mn]lume's £ml.l!:egy rtms counter to what the .Baudelaire b~k performs. first. the very condlt]On .of Broedtbaers's ".fjg. .. notation insist's on the incomplere • or fngnlJiem:aqf staeus .of the word, its resistance ro the pot5sibility of the image's ever being fuHy (fldf ... )p(mnt: as hi~ question "But tbe Fig, as ath~"(){(y .of the im<"l.ge~" sugges[s~ the, "Fig," tbeoriaesthe irnageintotbe $elI£'deferri~.'lg and d]spbdng status of ict]on.sT ]n this sense, (be ~'Hg.~'(jJl],es(]ons ra ther than imitates rhecalligrammanc status of Mallarme's ·paglOs. And second, the way ~cq ueIl!dali~ation works in the 13mfilelr.ri'j'e opposes il~ operations in Mallarme, fur in U J'l CI.I.rlIP de dis, [be slow unturling of the [[[~e along [he bctromof the poem's pages serves more like it conrineeus pedal point. or like the harmonic suspensions that serve W tr.a.nsfm'm the diachronic flow of musical ~ou]1d inwthe hearr-stopping j]]~~io:n of the s.ynchFol1i.~C space ~lf a singlecberd that we hear.k1:re!Xam ple, in De busilY: That the dilation we are made to. experience in. the Bm~drlaire is ~olIl!cthlng else again is l!o;:e:ni'urcod by being restaged in. the fihl1 that

Bmodthacn conceived in thc same ¥t.n, A V&y<'igt O~ .the Nouh Se«, ~n wl'lich ance agrun [he ges:mh ~f [he image isnarrasivized (tel' pnga 5rS).

Casting Itscinemaric wya.g~ In the form of a "book," me film's Lutedy static shots (each lasting alb out rensecends] altemare ]ntenitles, begianing with ·'PAGE I" and wnningw "PAGE IS," whh motionless images. ·of boars, These-begin w.idl a pho~ogFa'ph ora distant, so,li1t:,ary yad'lr. seen. four times as one pmgresSies from page one to pmge four, and [hell sh]ft Ito a. nineteenth .. -ceru:u:ry paiuting .of a fish]ng fl.eet un.der sajl, which over S1l]OCeSSlve "page'S" is sholwn il1l.V<I:rious details.

'The :lint of these, in pedo[m~ng the radical leap [t;om. the f;i111 marine scene, WJJt:h irs schooners and longbears, 00 a giant close-up of (be 'I.1JIeaYe of the canvas. cedes by the next "Pil!ge"~o sueh a near view of the double billow of the majn sail mat it rakes on the look of an abstracc :I?ai!1Jting, on~;y io~urn~ <l;.£tef theannoulfloemenrr ofrhe foUowing"page,'" co yield. to anerher view of canvas weave [halt parades as J. kind of radical mono" chmme. This prognmion mig.ht suggestthil!tthc narrative summoned by the "book" ~s anart-bisserieal one~ telescoping ontothree successive

. . ,

pages the story of modernism's exchange of rhe deep space ne:cess.ary to

visual narrative fo.r an inereasingly flattened surface that now refers only to. its own parJlmetfrs,. the "rea]jty" .of the world supplarued by the reality of the picteeial gjveru.~2 .But by the next "paS', "the monochrome dctaiiagatl.1. retrearstea Hdl,..."j:c;.w of~he 5choon,ef.j as in. successive moves Broodrbaen ocmmb]es the aecounr of a modernist progression,

VVhat we are offel1ed in. ]ts place isthe experience of ~ p!J.!j:sage between several s~ufaoes., in a layering mat draw5 an <Ioa].ogy besweeuthe stacked POl4."tS of <li book <lind the Oli.dd~~ive c{)i1I:diti(l.n of even the mO$[ mnrlOdlmme of canvases, which, howeve:r objlocrri:l\ied .~t m~gh~ be.rn.ust nonetheless apply paint over its underlying support. Indeed. as the book's "pages" unfiiel, thi~ \i'1)ya:~ appcaI~ to be one of ill search f'O~th,' '!tVl)·rk>~

• • L·· ., .... 1L ' . ~.iI dl ~! 1\.c . h' . "]-

m;Jgm~j~~crJ an (l,tiIgm UJemg suspense .. eq l1;:Q.uy [JerW"Oen t remarena ~

ity of the work's canvas A"tbed (themodemist "m:igin~') and the image projeeted 011 that opa,que surface a:s the Judex of the v.~ewer·s. originadng

desjre~() (l;pem up any grven m.omel'lr of experience to somedling beyond 1!self (reality as "'ollL]gjn.~'). In. beth encompassing and enact]ng such desiee, fiction is, then. theiidmow]cdgmmt of clJis very incompleteness, illt is the fUil:m that an unappeiilSOllble lack of fielf~soffi.demcy takes as ir sets off in, a: search for its own beg:inning$ or irr~ own desrrtuy as a way of .tm1l.g:~ ining the pessibiliry of achieving who.leness,. ]( is rhe impossibRe .me.mpt to (r.ansfom:1J. succession into stasis, or 011 chain of rart'! into a whole.

The modernist swrythat y1cld,x:t the supposed ·'ujumph" of ~he menocb eomebelieved that h had produced th tS wtaHz.adOin. in an object [ha:~ was l1rr!!erly coextensive wirb irs own origins, smface and su pp0il: [ ]n an indivisible unlty; the medium .of painting 50. reduced to. :zem that nmhjng was kit but an objeee, B~oodthaers's lIeOOI1l'se CO fkdnn reil$()f tbe impossibility of chis scO!ry in. theenacrmern of a kind of ~illyeIing that can [[£!f:]f stand for. or allegerize, the sel£Jiffereruial condit]i)ln of mediums themselves,

When Broodtbaers refers eorbe novel in his delin~r~on efa "',.heoFY of .figu[le,s;," he speaks of the complex[~y he hopes eo have achieved with [he o)mmolJlp]ace objects liibe.,ipes and mil'[Ofsthlliu '"illustrate" thi~ work." I W'Ould never have obtafnod rhis kiod of com p~exilty~" he .s;aYSj "with rechnological objeees, whose ~il1_gleoess eondemns the mind to Inooorna:ni;a; minimal arr, robot, com.pu~er."l3

In such a remark is fold.edrrwo components j)If rhe argument I have been pu!'S&]jng in (his meditation on the medium. firsr, that me ~pcci ... :I1dty of mediums, even m.odeU1j~t ones .. mU~t. be~:n.de~s:w~1d as ditTif:re~l~ t~,a]. sdf ... d:iAie:ring,. andtbus asa byedng of cenventions never silllp1.y co]bp:sed into the physjca]ity of rheir support. "Smgleness," as BIoodth.aers says,. ,. condemns the UI]l1Id to moeomania," j4 Second, that it is prcc.heiy the onset of hig:_hc:!: orders of techno~logy -"rob~~~ cempurer" - which allows U~, by rendertng older reehniq ues o:mmmied. to grasp rhe innerc()imp]ex~ty of t:he medinms those techniques suppm't. In Jl,modJt.hae.s'~ hands. fiction itself became such a m~dium. sucba rutm of diff~:!:cnd<1il spedfichy;

7

Fredric J ameson characterises po~un(l.dern~.rry astbetetal saturation of

- ~

cultural ~pace by ~}u~~mage, W~'lfrher At. rrhe hands of .advertising. com>

rmsnicarions media, oreyberspace, This complete ]mag;e .... permeation of social and daily ]]fe means, he SJ,y~!o that il£sd:Jedc experieace is now everywhere, In. an expansion of ctdt1!m~th<l;! has nor on].y made the norion of an individua] work of an wholly problematic, but bas. also cm.pti'xt out~he ve~y concept (1f aesthetic aueonom y. ]n this state in which "everylthing is now fuUy rraeslared intothe visible and the cukuraUy familial:, [indudinga]] eritiques of this sima~lon],... ae:srhe,~ic anennon," he 5<l;YS~ "Hnds!,!£df rransferred to the Me of perception 0]:5 snch," This is Wblli[ he calls a "new I[Ce of pesuaodem fie:m01lticon." in which "the perceptual system of liIJt/C capitalism" c:;,;periencese'l.lerything: fmln shoppin,g ro all f'OHtt~ of leisure as aesthetic, dlere:by rendering any~' ~hing rhat could. be called a properly aestheuc sphere ... obso]et~Js

Onedesenption of arrwahin this l'c:g]nlJi~ of pO$un.od,cUJ. sensation is that it mimics just thi~ ]ceching of the aeSdle1!jc ~)U[ into dle social id.d in g.eneTal. Within. ehis sju.~adoo~ b(Jwever~[here are a fewcont:enll. poracry artists who ha\'e decidednot oo!fillow rhis practice, who bavedeeided, ;rhar is, not to engage in the ]nt:erlution.al fa.shion of installaricn and ineermedia WOII:lk:. in which art eSfle:ntiaLly ind~ it~clfcomplk1t w~jth ill globalization of the image ill the :servke of eapital, These same artists have also resisted, as imF(]~$ib~e, [be retreat into etiolated. fmnfS of [he ~radirional mediums - such asp;[]nting and! sculpture, Insread, artisrs such as James Coleman or Will]i!lm Kent~ldsC" have embtacedthe ide<l; of ·ddTeumtla] sp~cilldty. wh ich ~ s to say [he med.~.I1m as SUdl, whidl tbey uJ1derst;l(n·drrhey wi]] n.O'W have to reinvent 0111 I'earticl]late .. ~6 The example of .M.arcelBroockham. wh]chli 1-lave been prese:n.rting here. has been fml.damental to thu task.

I Sr:l!I.lky CA;,,~1!. Th MibrIJ Vtl'.IIlIIIl' {Co!~, bridge, Malil.: H]jt"\l~rd Uni~~5!.i[}' ]ire5, l?/I}, llP.' IGl-[ 3~

2, .illJ Il\i5. otp,d. see St3ml~y ~d~, "M~!i!i>[; Di5(DIIl~" I!' M!fJl We MtdIlI wha.! m- S"l~ (New Y{jfk:. s"t,6,,~~'~, i ~@). pp. 199-HIlI_

l This pt"t",lt>km J~ f~r~m ()Jmplic~~~cl by dll!' ~~11Ml!d1 H, brO;~I<~t olT G["(cl.lEJ,:;rg·~ OI;Inl'i! 1,\Ii~1ru ~nc me of ~~o?""J~o~ uru the way i h~~do"~ i~ [his scurencc ~, .~$ to iIJd~~ate ih3[ I~j~ ,~"Ji~ of his own use (If til. "."ol!id ~m~~dimn~ inwJ.......m (~n.a in1lO.hm) a 5!r.I"~~ ""j!.!"Jd.~mandillg, Oij~I]'~! l address Mow (SDt pp. ~i'-W),

t "l1J,["Q~gl\llm. !td~ "~ [ .."..jlll]~ lJJediuJJJ~ n d .. ~~J[iil (If fltdit!1!J ji; ~.d~ OOiIVD.i.d a Il~nfusio:o:n w.irb !!!r.1t.l, wmich I ~In ~~tv;Qg for ~~dlllll:!l~~! .• J '~DmliTmruicHiofl i"diie~t«! by thar ~~j~r,r [¢.r~~_

~ B~j!iJliIlin ]-'IL D. IlILo;hloh. ~rnm-.oou(jm·)' Nlg~ [~O tb~ ~pocll1l.Il!'(l(,dl~""n iimlcj,."· Orlill\,or. m~ .p (f[L]ll98J). ~~_Hl~i1j;!"'i!l Jl~rnl'oh'5cCll' n"il rot.: in {D~· cnrical tC~pjml (!( BJ,oodlm,m'~ .... I;I~"~. tOM Ul.lfoldM jOlltot ~",rI'y '7W i~ a~.r-5 ~. dOl! $!;Iny am~to.m of h~ ""'~iilg ~ht ·qceu~ !~~ol\gbo~t !hJ~ mry. a.~ :i!~ It! ]~it:IiI~e ro hi;: IIU'~~Jrjill1l a(ld~j[kj ~~ ,la, ..dHb~L ~m.dI p~blL>sbcr j,j Cti~, ~~Ol.l wiDh hi~ ,~"~l blt~ififl'l'ktM"...n" Hera, ill appossion re d~i~ ~~b~_ placed a~ au cl'i, ~~h to Wh3I (i1I~lrw!, il· w~nt ~o 5t~.~~ lilly Q\1I"n &".~!' ~~od~ to Thmja:lllIinHlu"hk~!!iJr CDC ~lR'[Q5iL)' ill bj!. .... illlin~5 [1) read cllL~l!Eoot .in rn9l1J~5(~jJP!l: aud It" giil~U~5 it w.i~h Illt, j"cl," 'Jpm =bmos:~ of ~.~fii'" J.,~~ron and JL>s~gl"tflll""t 'L],~( m~ dialagl!le W~~I him oeoruiisbl'J1Icly ill ch~II.~l"gi~g .' nnd ii1ILm~iIJ~lj~8'

~ SlrffIi" .lJltfl'JI~tMiI\i'l, ""!, J 9t (O~tokr 19i~} Th~ b~ok OO1lI:r i5 .allil by ~~m, ]][ ~5. a "';,~t~rc of lite 5ame .kiild. Qr dlildl"(i1'~ "obj~ l<$jO!{' diK~ (Z for z"br.J., H·OCw bom, W fm .... "I-n. widi, !he ~P~'i.I~pL<;'!m~oll ~-'I(h .:lii~) ~hd. ~. b~rur.ing krnllV! ~i,ljl Und~r tbe sridi Qf l~.~ dtires. fuooom~(i':! h"~ p<i!!,,~d; ~~l&tmm du dii~u~ IJ~ J'~~"'CI~[ l~t'lI!i. i'~~ ~I]~ :filmr. d:'iltd".W~plitc ('i;dh~~ ·~m ~1'iJ r"'J-'"!t~·." Tmi~

NOTES

Kt"m ~I:! !WO~!4't<:l!~ of his ·OWIlJ !1"Qrk On th. <)11_;: hand, i[ pc"jht;m~ ~.li«aJ] ~n.e La :r:CI~r:lJ~i~~ ~b~ o:i W, fox ~Mt"~ ~OO"" dl!i1t bad served ]3.j,IJt"jl\h~~r~ for hi5 cxbjb'1:i~t, ~i1.a ~Irn i.e C.M~ rI It '''J!~n:I' (1967)" Oil di~ O~I, it ~lludG~ m the tFP~ ,~ th~ anuounccmenr ,ft.. j,i~ ~~hihiliDn "C:Qm~[,C:i.~~jt" (I96i}' i,l ' ..... bk-l. !h~ ~JP~~C~~[S Ir:Ii:.Ci~[ !b~ "1,~ iu .Ilroodlhli~t$ ~hJ Elite ruI[l<st ~dd.b:ll~e, kII~. ~.l~ ~'IoI]d, "htrcby ~!W~!,ing ~he misrake iouQ ~" .~"~ogrn.phic wmk or "'~.~~.:ilil~ ebjeeror, nl~ .Fffi""h ii1~ng, ':ri<ruJIW'~ ('n~i'.y)_

7 :!tty ~m)!i1lii~, ..... "~ m~· dlmwn eo ,ibi;: ~~oiI!., ~~J it.! pa![li~~laJ! .~b.~· '''' "",,~d:l, by .Ilemjmlin Buehl,,!, ill his il1l1po:mou d!"J ~MillI·~~llhooddlJ:1:m:. Alb .JlO1jc~Df [be A~~m'C"~r<I'-:, ~ Arif""""-"" ~'<lol" xvm (~, 193al,~ ~7·

S Fro she .~~(:!~"'ti~!l!J and dl.eO[ilzadafl(lt !i;j.I .rili!nEmlmdan frOO1.1p"eiit" !o .~m~. IC~ Th~lt}' ok Di!.!i~, K.mt AJMr D,rck.mrp (C:l!lnbrid(;~. Masa:

MIT Pr<:.ss, 1991i). Pl'[~iCllil."tr .~e ~b~ ~Tihc h;lol1o~l1[om.~ and the .Ilb"k c..:,,~,"

~ .Booodtb=~'~ ~~iP:ht:ll~I~'" i1ipp~,m II] MITUJrrt1,

.11, ... !".~L\.imr. uwoglJc· "f dl.~ ~hibu~DI] ~Lk~ Adl.eI VOIn Oliy>Zli". Lis H~u;k!' (Dfi~]dll,{, S~n.dli5oh~ Kl.Ul~I<II~I.·, r9:7~) .: \OJ~, 2. p.. [9, In til" dkRft of a ~~i!~ :;Ipi"',""il), addl"(~oo ~I:! j8~yn J:-I<utm, I!roadd:la,m ~~.~"d w~1lh the amccpUliI, iltl.'~!iJIIn ro ~d:1C(,,1" aucl !I!Ciir ambinen to H~~Ll' art to apedicrlc S[2~f:inG'1$ ~~t wotlM p[Qd.u~" .if! . "o;!!~ni~iD:n~:

Tl.<m:r

M'~~'m a!. DIt.e [pro:!cil1!1 time I=~&'" fu,gk

T~0~ OItt filE E"g1.

Hci5Ib~~Jt

We_~E*Jlk

!'"",'m ~b~ E.tgl~

Tiliq"re <:I",«I.'MiI imoobll illld~i~,! .:,..1 ;"'iI",~i~ ~kc· UOI~, lilk wltl'J: ... ,lik.

r.I~':;,

57

~o .i~tcrfo!-~·rmClj,.IlO, Ii (htl. 1974). o;J,>"CJ" h· j.J.rnuru Buchloh, ~ditmBn-d J"l'b~~h~r of ~~i~~",,,,ot, ~rd.e jcarual, commissioned dilo' wvo:r foo~ IlJOOrni1l\t~[s., as ""~U as ~IJ.r '<'roilk for the i~~,~; ~ filll1ll 5C«lll![rocalI00I ~SC;,IKC', ~ iu whidl a Jk,ritre.,1Iii liIIIovi~ ~CI"('o;LliLlg CQMil'i"iil~ of a "shon,' ~ uews Ot-OOi.'lCoVlt,. and a M[C.lmgtb fl'iml~ i~ ~~. o~,~ [nram~ p.i~t>rd .i11il~s. "SCJlDfj~" W~~ br~df.~~cd ~.~ p~ur (if im3@:s,of palm IK>:~., l.mdC'I whi-:h th~ capiiDll "Ra~isrn~ v(g·(ojlLl~" ~IJJ1IOO(IJ";:~ rhoocl~, I.m~~'s fi:JribcarniIJ~ book of tb~ same iUlJii~, Itwas Iluch!~h wh~ [[~IIl"5U,~ fu~m'~ OO\'~r 1~<1-tl. '~~vb," .i11.1!:1 .Ir:Llgliib illlcollalm:mm w~m, the anlsr, Om~ ~~111" Illy ~~tmI1iOIJ roilhli! li~~klllOW.D 'l,ll"Qr].; was ~]~rto:l b)· ]l~JmlOO, in'l"rood~mC1!~ AUI~gori~!. of the AVTInl,G~r<k:' QL,_~!t.,PP.· Sj-S~ i L By~o[I~[W.ll the mJV1"C'~l~ pr~IJ~ipk" 11;)r ~il.~~ ra[~ of ]lroodth=~'~ ~!~ of !he ~l~ th.~ ~,~jg""" Ciml;q'"m!.l ~[11 ~Illd thus .~ v~n;rint~m or ~""tl wi .. hin th~ ~j~IJi)' of lX'~w~r ~[11, !' ~'1' !'~!IJ~: !(> 4j~j~g.~lim thi, from t1o. r~11",,,W .,{ ""hoi 1J.r,_",_,.~l'l!.~ "i~"l til. , .. gl~ ~Il ~dJi,m, wlliith ob~i~""ly j"tll,OO !~,~ p,ilitit::il djon.iHdilil " !I:l~ !of'" 1",1 ~",IIT"'" "p."jiL<.:~I:Il(. w~t.i"lll'<"loddjil.(:'~'~ QI;rlJpl,:!I.~ 1L.:1J11~I,;:ttl i~Si p(;niflCil!l.:iL1i~ iii.~d, (:~pbi[;)~jui~ byf.''iO,:i.",.

L~ .F!:I[ ~ &i!o!':~'!Il>ioo 'Jr A l1ihgkl§.1 Fil", ArchLv~&' ~ AI1I1.C'I~~ Mj~tlllilroil, "Gno~! .. ~nd r(iDIJDd~5m: A Ca~ S-u<::ly of CiMphilh,:' o.:t~lm-. L1Q, 3) (\Vili~ !9~S). pp. ~-I S.

t3 s.c.: J. ... L, Ih~drj'. ~Th~ Ar:p.i!rn;t"~." GOIIJrr.r OM.;:JlnI~ no. ~ (J !J7c-.)i 61Jd T~~!l !;II,! L!!~I,..r;ti!!i ,md S"k<pb~Ll I-k~th COO!), Y)',~ Cnwlll~rk A_"I!~r!*'~ (lOL1.dl!m: M[wm~~~n, ! OSo).

i~. ~~!rjcc M-etl~~',Po~~y; jDf'i'!T4!!r~JI.IW ".! p,_.nr,plio'i •• r~n~ Col~ll Smith (Lg~,I",o: Jl~~,!I.o;Jl>" ~M K~!l p~~,~, ;9(;~). Til. ~;"" !iI1.cl "'Tb~ !lo~]i' M!~!"C'!!~; ~I:!c' i"t.!:r",~'''~lo-Jll.'i "f lb~ bo~i~ ";Wid:_" ct!ld ~r'lJ!ll:" w'1~.i" ~ ;'r"brn'l "f !b~ '!!!"'!!1Ti1W of d,'!$~ ~~h~;o!1~"ip~. Th"*" gi..."" 1""' 'ob}~i"",li~ b~ !boo ~F'-'. 'Jf"lh. h"d)l. !h,,~ fI'i,flIjuil

~n prj",oro;li.~ od.~ !i1l"~11;11~ ;"!1iM Th~ b,,d~.

.~; tb~ pr.~,)bj.~; gr"JimJ ~f "n~ ~~:P"ri.,'". ,,f lb.~

~d~tdl1"i$ ,,( <'Ihj.i:U i~I1," Ii' •. !! '~""'il"cl~ CJ.:plm"d bypr'[?foi~Ji.I"b.oj ~f'liw.L

I ~ AIf~!l~t~ Mili;:'I:II~'i~.:!I] wdLlE':~ ~s: ehe ;tillm(:~ ,-,ol1ti!.i .• "~ In IfR,-"," ~Mc;ldj~ f(" ..... ,U'd, Im~IJli .. 'S ~ ~ErlSi~['1 d~t ,~~t1~S: jn d:i~, f.i'I~oo. [(JI the uJl.!Ictoo.n 4 !~ ~"I,j ...... ,!io)"!iil~", w~k ~"M WJtf'1.i~, iilc..li: hm~l;,il~~ .;!$ d~l1!lliill.g fhQ' Ol,:ii:'L1irui:i (J( :i~i"J~[;"jAjllC'. flf ~hoIt !'~rr. •• lV\": ~IfR ~"j"';'l.d !':.y .:lfl!lIt;j,d~d lIh"blp'" [iJliI,:f,. 111ltui.ng 1,l.I,:pf)l~ r;;Jf_;iglli:1.h;ill~ ~ll'IN;li..:h, i:~~i1A~(li~_ W~~iDg (or ~~ i'$I;~'"' "'~ ~.., '~L>'if>t'..:!oo' ~'>W~rtJ.g rl,!~U!,llti~fI .. " __ S-tl~.n~1 :i[!~ i:t~i]n'ldw.dmiS ;t:;':;.PI]C[iUMoJI ~.nh~ ~~ of ~I", ffiJr"" .OOdi,""'-l ~J:tl'". ~~ bti,~"!; --_ ~!~Ilt.irui~ '~ ~~!I!ip~t~1 i!lJI!!m,:\ibi,di:~ th. ffin~ cf I~ m~m~hmi.:; proclivity of il'O!'t .. ~ Sn.J·w creared .~ g£~n<:il 11l1J:~rrpho! rOt· lm:r.~l~ for.m_ ~ rT91!"~rd $00"': J?:,. r ~ ], m ArJjl$,II"', m1_~x. (JiJJil" W?r), pp.. ~ I-~.

l~' :5 .. ",. gp.,,1I:_g .-i th. iil1:Pil1!~iUlC d" .Mich~.eI ,S,''' w ·~ "'~& f,'" hj~! i,l Ai1Jllm~ MkhellsCtIJ, ij,jd.O!,d ~'"tt~, and Chr.~. \Tk"l'"t~cmTh~ l'iilm.:l (>'f Il.ith~t,cl S"tlI'.~: Ail k'I~~~" o.-.td~("", IJO,. m (!'o~~ J9'1'~)_

If' ~'l ~ ~,~ 'ilf ~!.:lr,~~ .in Ul" I~[¢ rg4O! Cmr.mb"~ tillml,ci!2[ots Ihj~ edca of [be end afmd p.lIUIiit.i~ ~IJd d~ opming Qf pOO[lI.l[c-mailJi1@. to 1illll1!blhins "beyclIld" ir.. S~ "'Tb~ Crisi5 of [ne E~~ 'p[.cmt~~ (ApL1l i94~) 3Ll.di ~Th~ Rail: of NilIllj\" in MQd~r:Jl .1'.~lIlrilf1lg" (I~~9), .i.m Gkillr~t GmJi~tf',g, Tli. c.llfNJM B!'J\1J'~ ~,rrl' Gt:ilicirm, oroI. 2, d. Jij]m O'~17i":I' (C:flj~:g<" ,,,,d Lo-~t.:lilll: Ulll>rCr~'~J ,.i C:i,i~I!'.' P'.I£, 19iM),PP" ~24 ·*~J~7l-.t; ~~ ~1~1:i 1~~U1~r.i~i~"'1)'.I:-"~ P;)dl:id.n.gn (~:9~ 5). CI""'~J,t Gmll6!f.!1" ~p. cll_" \1(il. ~, ~ 2 j~,

l ~ ~"- ~i';',~~-zi,\S th. I:i,-.~ .-i imcmkill d1llJ[ '"gllOI.Otf ~ ~~t,j""t tIl hi~ ""''''1.:1,. s.~"""'i. ~PC"'~~ ~Q[ <!lI,ly "f dot ,.cip.,.,dt~ (t( p<lilm Qf v.i~w - [b~ limm' ~i.~! ~"i.'~i:CU. Diy ht-idy ~111'"I"y poim of ·~.icw ,"" J'!""g_l "'.i!!;' !b<iA: il!1~ whkb ,n .... h ou[ [bc p""lI: "f "lE .... ,(llh .. ~ [hil:lg5'CIil Iny body - brn[ ~IsQ "l J'!"I':. i~-~W.iMl~~~ dUil~.gb d:l~ \l,I"Qtid whicb ~[c Dly fil,m ,,( ~PJi"'"'Pti~[~llg iI, [hra~g.il pl~ fur "~~~ll'k "Spiln, ~ ~.e \m'.i["s.. ~j5. ,~Jm Inll!Jomla. ~:i~l'l "f tile wil,~dL~ 'Cll1ljrooJ~: imo ItiJ~ §.IJIPPOW i.l'fj; d.mlen[.-i !1.1C·2C[Mo~, Thit! film ~n~lc~ j[ C'.I\C~IIV!: l:ih~~[, 'Fh~· Cll'I.iMllllnM'1: :m.l}' b~ a. f1dJeof mow __ , [(0 s« j[ i!! ~!rc~.d)o ~~ p05=5 it. Ir.1~pt"~~llt\5 p:tJIm ~x[(,f.i.Qrj[l', GJdic~] ~rmcialiqn it> u,~difr",rJ1ithll!ioIJ.

jill i~""'06IonF, ~OO .il~ whiml~5;;l rn~llife.s[ !me ~miihltl~ m1<lii[y d" Wb~ilfiCq ~. Is [be iLl,jmllf Mlio::il is ",~Iy jw~!..eI[, _" WI.l;]J[ I 'M5h i~ rI.la! [bi5 il:l-1rsd{ migb! be ,~ 50r( of C~l~ru!riQn of fI1pdlf wihik mil <M1xi~j~8- ill,j[5dlf" One wams lOCI 'do 1.~on.d)iLlg om of ~lilW' - m, irilpa5~ a form. 00 .i~ ..... hich .~dl;ttc~ 1<), decply L<:> d:lcfllil~~r ~b~L ~bc' "l~~!"r ~W~t':! ee c:>:i~t filt db<: ~k.:: of iil" fi:mlL _, To ~~i fI!l, bqnij.d ~~il~, t';l!pi.di~)'; pia:.; ~ 'olny elf pill' IC!.:lio'f!; !~i~ ~dJ,. I .~~l d.<lil:lg50~mbmg m ~"Ilr mr ~f"li-"';[l' i airl dl~.-I!f;i~~ til" iMDI~ sud rn~a~wlg QI ~ih~ ~111J~~ n {JQll,rP;t:liil. ~n~ BW!J! ... mI Ndt1il=rrtm'_,;~~ 1:T,m~. H~"d E. 11."'.$ [No:w "y~&:\V:i~hj"api'" Sg~"'. 1)'"1£, I~~"';]. I'P-. /,.p-j.). T~\.~ OOill:Cf!l oil th. "ph"ilili!'i:I,iil0f!ii.::~1 C'iCm.,~:i~ pi\ocbdy Cllg~8-'ld \,\I'j[b ~lhig [dca of ~n ;~C~Mry elf org~l1liZ;lJti!1lf1j and CQL11)OO1iolJ [hro!il~ wbid\. a ~~~jCC[ msages willh ~ world. as IIM'lmirigfuL

[9 I haw,e~lPIor~d Ilhis issue iLL~ ~~[~5 of c~~,y~: "' __ , A~J '['hr.~ Tl1mAwa'f' AIJ &5ayonJ~llli~ ~elm~, ~ O~Mr. 00, 81 (5mnmcr~9!l?), PJ1' ~-~ l; ~IlJ::i:tir.o:m!ill,f; the Moolurn," C.~·tM~J .l.rr. Ll0" ZS (Wcirn~r 1_), pp, ~39-y05i ~m.d "1"'b~ Crkis of I~ ~5~I.Pl'Ct~~," fO[q~.ro:m.im~ ill. tb~ ~ooolJd 'IOr~m~e of [h~ Ja~k~oD. .PoIl.ook~Mi!~e. The MnllUlJ1I m Momrn An. M~w YOU9;.

ZG :Su~b m all~lys.i~ ~ mrr.ck[lakm iLl th~~i:iiKm:." ~kill o£ S~Wl ;])[ [bc end cr mr"'Tbc· Crkh of th~ E~;?;Iol PiclLlu. ~ 6~ ~[L

2]" Sec "Lom.i~ ~I.ld Na!~~.d" (r9r>D) alld '~f[('~ Ab5.l~C[ .Exprm.i.aITisrn." (I~6~), [Ill C1L'l¥l'<'JI~ G",,~e".:f • .:>~ck. 'IOl. 4. p~. 97 ~m.dll~ i .•

22 ~ Mad.~lli5~ [l~iL1[~ll!l;." ub[d,., po. ~o.

2~ ~.Louis ,~~J .Nk!I~I.ld,~ ibid" P. ~'7"

24 Thierry de j)~w,'~ aIlmullit Ilf C:mt'!mbcai~ .[Cal1iOll L"O MiL1il1l~lbiil'~ [[an5mm~lion Gf m.OOJ.. (omht ~~~mm;" illto [he L'f1IOllO~~[-i)~ C-a11'lll~ .t:lJi«'Jii ~~ a kind 'I:!f I"(";lJymadr. ~ C:r.r'(n'bm~ ~.b.lJL1&m.. .ing n1.Qdw.1i5m~nd embmd~ OOa-lmm~liiI, tb~ hf)~.cr brjll@: allci1ld~5M' ca~m for [b~ ~~§j~.mc ~ ~ <f.M,rd~ of ;~d~Iif1Ir,llt\5 of m5~C (in "'The MO:IiID--~brOO1~ ~lf1Id rI.lc·llbruk Ci,Ll'o'~5," OF .. c~·., p, U<I). T~k .. of oo~[Or. ~cror;:i5.wi[b Gm:.[ll'~ !df rlm'J.iptioLl. in h.is ~o!~'i%Z "",[itiil§.!' ~l14 ~5 ~Cool{Pla:im of ~Ll Art u-il1i1;~ (Arif,lm"IW

[Ocoob:r 19611). Wlm dli~ ~nnl:l S'C~rn~ howcvet; i5 the way G!\:eIJ~~ umdmtood tlrc ca!~S.Q[F of a~[re~l~y as a ru~jp«t for practice, ,~nd Ih~5. - tbough QC LIC'iI!'[ n~ d.1i5. - a medium. .ALldi what 1h15 liI1.('~DS in rurni:; iIh~[ G[N'Jiib~r¢s own ".~L~isrn." Is IJIIO[~ ('(Jl1.1plc~: mm either he ,~Hiaul.l,[(;! or Jmdcl and =p.:my 'WlJ:nred!,tG 1.lI.1d~, srsnd, ar de DIflI'IO: ,~dkllOWh'~, Thr. q~mitm of opci~U[~ ~~ a ~0l:lI.c-~l_'Qr is m.udt.e;[ d~...dopcd un I'I1Y ~'Th~ Crhi~ of the .Earel Pjc~mK;, " oli~~k

.~s ~OI ~da~jOi:l 00 one 'm'5lcm of 5.lJ.'Cb rOl!Mjoll, Fti.d Wt"~ dl::l[ dli:! would ;:J!OW 5ori~i:[hiljg "pilWoCtf~l ~!>h L6 s,cLm";l[ot new oomo:rnlim5. ~ IJ~W art" (M:icmd fr:icd. ~$hape~. EmIJll," in Arj qlJi O~fr<"JIt.toIf [Cht!;3~O and Londcm; Cbi~ag(i Ul.livmitr Press, r99a]. p, ~~).

.~.(j, Leo Sr~lnb~rg. OlIrcr Crft.riIt (N~w YD[~~ Oxlind U lli_.illr Pf(;S5, 197Z), p, n,

.~7 Ca...dl'~ 1.1~ of [be q~1iIl .mt~IH\fi'i:rtll' ro ~~Jg~.~~ Iihe idea of n lililooi~1iIiI ~~~. i-Up~ott fu:r pmm..:opm! IIp the b~giIJniJ:lg: ·of ~~,.h ~ .ho;.;)ci.."-'!;tjOil_ POt ~~mrl~, i~ ~~~ dJ.o: .~hot:io!l I~"'''"'m ~ ~i,,~!] "~~bo:nI_~ti~m" a;IJ~ ~n~' fm"l l1~ d~~lQPIDI:.!!I: w01.ld .ill ~~ Dc~~~til)" ;c,~i~l ill liilt~~. ~ •. <':h~n* of I~.c M'[i~ b~il~g.~ MW i~~;l;~~~ or th. ~~d!i.]!1' ~~f {TIle ~u Vi~., o~\ c.i~" ~ M-t).

2:8 Se~ lilly ~Vt;:ioo ~IJdNw:;~ii5rn." O\:.l\.l~r. 1l0, I (Spnog (976).

29' S~~nlc1 Cw~I~ =II;:; tl) l'ocit~~ tbi!~niry Ih[.o~~b ~~Ic'!'i<si.oo'~ .Im~[ii!~ ba@s ~. "~ c~rn!mt of ~i:mu~rurnl'!OO~ ev~IJt lOO~~[ron,"md a form of pcr~ IlC~[oo.n ~pocill.c IQ~. wbi,h he CiU~ ~IiIiiOlliroriilg" {~ Smnl~y Ca~dl. ~Th~ &Gt 'Df Tt'iI~~iA.iom, ~ in viJro C~lfflR; A Crilmll 1~~IJ}yo!ro..~·. ~, joimJ Hmbll1·clt (RoJc-ht:.s~~r,. N, Y.: Vi5~Jal :Studli~~ Wo~/ ~bop. 19'B~). O~b~r~.~bmtpl::!ro ~rliiwlatl: I~.c ~p~~ fi.c.iIY of ti:iI~~jciOLl runclfor ~~oo iLld~!dJ!,; J~~ fo:~'~r. ""]'b~ CimI;~~~ of Ij1!~ I'~lrnii!:lm OIJ~olo~~ M ]~J;lI." 1m P:LW".,..!"1f)! r~tr~":<i!l~; CTiIimf 4p"~g~_~eI, edj, f. Ami KaJ.l.~ll (f~[i<;k. Md,; Univm~f [lul:ilj,lIItm of AIn'C"[i'!'~. 1 ~Sl.)i. Milry Amlll ~Il~,. ~I~fu:rIilii~jioIJ, Cn~i!, ~od. C~(a~ ph~," illl ~kJ of :nI~~i.rtiffl:· Er;r<I.)lJIit, CrtI~'11'!l1 CriJ,'dmr, ~, r~~ri.i~ M~H~,,~mp {1j.1""rtrii''Y~i''

59

IIL,Ji~,,,, U,''''mi~y P!'!'l~. '990),. fl1M[l"; J~nli:!lOJl, "·Vi,d",~ ~ .PQfJ'"~~i""III'11!I'; Or t!'r O~tiillJlr i..J'fioo: of!! l""J. C.j,iI,ojifm (D"d,~""" N,C,:; [)~,~.l!Jl1li'i<:[~l~y L),.!~, !9!>1}.

j 0 S~"'b"1 W.b.r, ~'i[~~Miom, S~~,. moil SGr_,." iu M.~f Mi:J ...... s: f;PI'1!f, Trffl/,ll'r~~! (P~ilLcl~DII. ~lif,:: St~l1~l U oim~~l Pr>:~,. i ~%).p. rro,

F F',*~ri·~ J~"'~!OIIl =il'l~Ol.!OIJ tbis ~sii-ll!n~~ ,,,r ~[di>l' ~i;). ""i;)dgo"Qi!~ ~Q~O!~~io:lJ in hL~ "Tr~~ 1t,.m"ti~~~.J t"~ [~~ii1J ~1mlodJ:J:rnt:ll'" in TfM CrJtll",i 11,,,,,, S~I~oof WriI"'W Oil tJJf &JMMrtI, 198j""'Jg¢(LoL1dl:m: ~rsD, 1~~3),

~~ :Sij~ JaJ~gUl!'5 Dernda, ~1[h!: Law of Gell!·~. ~ Glr~~, DO, 7 (fj).30),

H ,:n,~" j!1$~,.j~~d on au ~,ntj~ledI WDJ.k of I9n-4, is :ir~dlf. ",,,,,.]>10.: .t;I!~_, Th~liiri-t h~if ",,,,,l(jCtl !~ "h. 'f!.;lgl.o! ptijjtipik'~ do~M~ d~~~iptioo "f !b.~ =:y ~~ou"'i.$ .,t. ~nt$1l1~~ poro~,~ .IJ' com ... '01<ldjfiic"Aj~jj ""d ~f It,.E f.;~ !h"t !iI.e ~~hti~~~itm or ~"'~f!<t fut til. p1')'~0i:.1 ,,)bj~ ~ not protol>i;t ~iII ft'!:l~l 1I',i$ C!;'",Jili"" ~t1,.r. .. I!lWI. ~n .. ;o~~ . .! $<IlA"~~ i5 far less ~ti'OlC ,~~J ,uptil5, ""~~~" !f',~ roOOm.pl:i .... p:t~ihi~l,ie5. m=r,d which Ill!!: "l'ia;'" il!l ~ ,,~w Ly~ of ilMgot a fL':l.$1IlffiII d:l~ l:'uddl"l'~ wI1l~~ ii' L1.~~!J.eL laJll!!iuag.c MIl iCQn - mif;bt ~mLlu_ 1!'f\j~ il ~lIgg.r,5~cd b)' ~be oc.:k of 1Il1oC"1'~" i" M. cdl'l~flirm ~Lld! dlC boJ.at. clIDj~~ B.tri.kld'~. JU.l"id. mPJj~~'1 qriill.ipl~ I'~ !~~, h,.~b dj!~lil'd ~, [ ~!n ~1<lI'i',:md~ gr .• I.OOiI ~~ Bmj",lI!iin B~~lo~ fm hill ~Llgg.t.![ro.~1Il ~b"~L Ib~ """'1.pl"":i!y' "Jf :El.oodth~m:'~ "Tlw"1 ·(If .!'ig,tJ,,~!," .,ijd. ~~ ... nile!j{",jl;~i ~(iJI~~ or Ih,i~ ,l()Iio.~ W~cll~i' bjl Wr,t& ..

H. l:>:r,m ,.J."~ fut· "MLl!~. ,dO A~!: l>'II~dml~, D~p"~~til1.e·m 00 Ai&b, S(jtLjm.~ .Art MI.>d~~ ~t r'oblid~~~ (K.!&!'J,!'[l12), ""ptiillOO j" M~r~~ lJro..1'i'i'llr~.s', ~IL <:K (J.j~Ii'.i!o: J;a; J~ P>:i.l"' •. , ~~r)" ~2-.27'

l,~ lle~j"i11in ~,L n .!lw.chll-~!" "M~ru.l .Ilm~cll' h::tm: Al!tJl1li'ic~ oj{ ~nlC A~~m,C",;d .. ·; ~p. cil_,. p..p,

l~ l,biJ" P' j4,

l7 for [hi5 ~r8-~:IMiU ili~~[ Il",.:,dlf',~t~·l, rd~[w.:n 10 1i1c Bomjalrlii1iill 1i8)!1>1£ ~f d:'N"I~(jt~"', 5~G DD~~IiL'5 Crimp. ~Thi:s hNt!I a MIISOOin ,,f An.~.ln M~ml :tiJ;;\j&~t:l, ~b. ca[. {Mimlt'i1!p.:ili~

60

'WaIIk.~r .A[![ Cmb:r. 1989), p~. 11"9L IlmQdr,haerss exjJb~ti!J1Il about boocI.mimg. a "~re;])rof" ~ fiom hils e~ "Comme dn Mm daru 1Ji~ ~andwidl1," pmml.lM\!ll.!. no. .SI-6~ (Ltec.ernk~ I!l6S). PjJI Z9~-6. a~dted in Crimlp. or- clt., ~ l~' ~ 3 Walm Br.l1lj~Min,. £Ill!' Pmo1J."'lI' Wi'flt (h;:lllb f1m~1iIiI 1\01310: S!f.lbrbliil.~\i'9~4 ~'<lI" r, P ... 277, ~5 cited in Crimp.. op. c~ •• pc 72.

~~ T'he ~Fi~.~ mnnbces in M~ CdnW~ ,nt for OIK~ ()Jl1filC~ti.~II'. unlike· [bc[a,ooi:'11I'I ~b~~~(1~r ~Qa:t Broommll;m names a~ the l:'nll,;;j~k of nom, ~[~~g in the ~Socdoru .k! l'is".m~" ~~hjbjLi~" ("Th¢ £.til.c· 1iC!1fI !~e ali8Pc~i:'~ m Lh~[t't.~.·;}" or d.1C ak~~o[y q~aliL:I' ill ~n!IC ~pri~klill.f;; oJ' "'.681 I," !MFj,~ .2-.:r.! 'II~F"!®, Aii 1.! etc,

40 [bid" P.730

41 This is lID:m WllJlJer Br.nprnin,. Cl'frlrl~I 1J.m.k~ ~'re; A!.)o1'& hi )j, tfMBnI&j HWr C<!piJ~IX!lH'. trans, furq ZOOn (limdODi N~w l&f~ !!ook~. 19I1); p. l.65. ~~ cited iIDJ CrinlF> opo. ~it ... p, iio..

t; s.c.: S~J~1Il B~(l-Mam, ]J\~ D.iu/u(icr d Sw,,<!, w.~r~r Br'!i;!!!f~ ~Im' lIrr An;mk~ Proicrl (C"iIltIn"~,,,~ M~$!,:MITP~l', f9'~~), W'-~I-S. 4~ B~lj:l!"""l 1'1- D. .B~,(;bl\J.h,. '"fomtiliilll 300 Hj'!o';,;~r - a~;mgiu~ Com~poi~ in Alilmi~lI1ii ~",:I E'i.-.:>J1~~ ATI liMe Ijlc~l ," in E'rrojfr ill lIr.! &~~; Asp«IJ of fuw~ Arl, !.:lIb. (;~l. {Cbicagar Tn~ Art lru;ci.tllt~ Q( CbiC'll@Jo 1~7}' po ~tS,

i~ 'WniIt{:r BelIlj~nliLl.l)'w PmoWJI' MIi-&. ope ~~~, po ~7i ,. II.'! ~bt.ed ilIl C[ilillp, O~I cj[, , po 73.

~.:> WDl~[ B~ruj~liIlilfij."'UilJ'd'CkiIJ!l My U!lr""r( (i9U), io.ifl,II!lIlWdlion1" ~r~m:. ~~[[y ZQlm (New Ymk;SdlO~hD.I3QO~l;, I!i'69},.P. 67.

~Ci A~h .Brood~bat:[~ h~d I1J1Jlil~· •. WG ~aJ[U~r ~nl1!il,. u Ci# dr '1'Norl~fC (1957) ~nd Lt' CfunJ.y til\:! lirri~rro~ (l~j~} - ~h~ mi-l, ~ IhI1)Wbad! ro ~~rly ~'~~p;:rilr1m~~~~ QitCr11R i-I.""b ~~ Ull~l~ .fi~Urt !!!~II'q~"~. tb~ ~C~DDd. a {;DlilIpila~OD. n!1iIl l'lcing ..X!~~'''ll ~01;~''''J:n~~r~ ffillill ~!iI~= - it w~s illL r9~, .... j~h U Corh~IT ~ I~' fflIfll4. tbat BroDdl1~.er~ ~IJ my ".<If], lrn~~i"liIf in fWIilI ~ndI ~l'erm.to h~;~ilmd ~~!,b!> ~Ji$ OWIl I~htiOIIl ~ C;1{p~ri_~!:!IIl in [bis ",,~il'~, 'Jhi! Wi!>! Ih~ ~m1!~ )'eIir 1lh~~ . .MiGbad $ij~",,·' ~!""~;', ..... ml l\T~: pri~~ M th~ KIJ~ h}'E,~~ .. a'1:iI Fihfr' ftSI:l~~~, J~9~C'! l~dom~:,. "..ho

fo~ilA~ ~ F~i1iv:rj. was !lIe head ill Ihc~l EiJ!!1 A"",hi= in ]li1Ji5~lis. wbkh fwmtionro ~5 a .. p'~'1i;)ry d dK' same type ofciucmatie :rocpm.o:!y F'"il.~d by A~~lO.k!g.y IF'.Ul1iIii Arch~vC5 ..

[" hi! ~~1 "Le CimltIrulJ .Eixp.."rj)lIlcrumJ cr b ~bi~~ &e La Foutaiue. La ~~i5011. du F'lrn~ oc,,[;" w;r~~~~ i,l ~t;;tLoon 10 bis ~~hibJliooJ," L~ CotOO~ '~.~ !le Remrd,'" Broodthaen aC5(!LUbc5 sruwl~ li1I,n jn ~"'J: cl~t~i~, He dim puts ~t ill. glati.olIll[G E,wj).o p.~!Il ·'~"'~,~millli.st lillllJ, ~ p~rci.c~lbm1y &,i~1ff{L.ihI~ b~' "111' Gmnm llilllJ=lkr Luc J:\.fuIllM~t1Il! {MII,,~i Bh)oJ/Mrw: Citl~; ~rcdc!ll"! Thp~ FDmlt'!:i~.~l'D.lil. I9SI'7. pp. I>D-l:; mf ibmk-! eo Mat.i~ Gili-"'Sc~ for cDltlins my mention [0 [bi<! ufcu.ott ~"J !IJ· MOlmn9Jtl.)

~1 '>W:..lb~r !l~11!i"-!!11~1l.,'~ Short HL~tor~(lf [lho.!~gi;;llPhr.'" ~, 'Io.l!~ rn,y Slml".mJ· OI_~L'I ~it.ul££. lo:t,,!;. Edr'T!~nd J~~{loll aud Kingrlcy s.:bomr (L~.clo": N~"" l~1ii Ilookl', I ~7'9). fur a fw[[b~r dJi$O;~i$io!1'~ ~. my "'RciL1""!'i1l1im~ the .M~dimli1," tip., cie,

48 P0'Cl5. a1.~~ u". ';'Mi'!~~ g' Ar~ Mocl~rll~, ~t1I)ffijClj[ <fu:! A~.j" S(>l;tiol11~Att~[f1e~ [lU!bl:id~~" (E<dJl~~~, J91.~), r¢pri'J~ in M~ml .ardru!rlr.ttu" 1~9J, ".P- ,t~:., P', ~1c1-

49 Il<bred llt"".J.rI",.t';l" ~rn"" ~!Il ~tcu~~ by ~rlm. L.boof" ";"]:~" Tho~$I<D,;l fr~i1.C! lliw~rd, ~ O<'J'okr, I1Q, ~~ (f~IlI~87), p, 43,

S" Foo'" ~h~ '~rnalog~,c fiN "M'JL.-D'tH. ~ q~~llEd i~ .1:.",," Rmi1!11_c;r,'·n~ ExbibLliolJ at tbe MTL Cl!11.r~ In fl!lllJi!iJ:l:! •. Mm:b i~-.PI.J:l.[il. 1G, [9joC1," C4~~tr, 1110. ~J (frrU C9B7.h p. UQ,

S I 51l" 'iII)'l" H, .~~o~_

p Til. itI":r'''~ ~ root .. ~ ill A ~y.w' o..~ lIrr N.orIJJ .$ru l~ ~ .. k.:o"pmlr {!'!lJi!~ ~h~ rn~!lI~r of a ~Dfi1.(', wlm .~"Ij~r 6~m" A!'Io"!rf~~'<m Prmtu~. b~l[ ~~dited w.ilf\ ~~""r~~p'~lIlI""ll"r J!!A"rti~~ rnd ~b~, ~boro..

grapbic i<1!1()1$ ,j ~"j~b'.l~lS, ~"hQ lor fu~m, In ;:In .irn~~i'icw ct1'lJ~fflld Oglo !II~~ 'oo~,,-~ron m lJ.:r,ooJrilutr:s'~ 197j. ~~kihi!~~, ,,_,r hj!, l..J'Ie~ry Pifim, .!rtp, in w~iffi A"ol,lift' J'~ J¥-./,lr,:."" w~~ ~~J:d, lle~jID1jn .Il~~bn,-,h O:i,d. Mi~"""~ OrF'.iA~ guC'!, rio~cd [be ~tji!! .. ~It,,:,Wl.l:h. ~!rtn,. In his g~~tM ~o .Il ....... dl~\!i~,$, B~dtil,,!.~i$i'O~~~ INt the ~Ulill is am ,aUl~t}' "f ;;".,d.",j"IfIjJ" O!1~ ~hat~M[rl~S mtil ~~~ch ju 5dl'-ootl.:I,ui.,: ';''lO~f ",.~ ,or imollil;~llr ~~~cali~8. ~hc jlQ!i,~~.I~ S"!tJ"'~~ ,t:<f r,~d~,~oD. and ~lj01d~jlo!ilm ii, ffil.m. - do Ll0t ~'h~ ~~m~ ob004~t{: ~D,;I t~~"",'r< pr~J~ipkl. dc.1.~rn[ru~ )'OIJ([own ~Llal)'>is "f.p"j~li,,~ "~ ""dL;?' Broodtlmess's replies to m.i~ iI!'. ~["&Ill:iti~' ",.i$1""t; Y[cs Ih<: bocl m ~ma1~'Si~ ['l:ilHy ~~ffldti;L fut ~""(If.k;"g·~"; he ~!h ~~ QJ;!~ po:int. At allC'rhtr;. he SNrn~ to U4JOCL r" !h.· i~ l~ .. t "i~ 61m &~I;;;. ag Bucl1]ob ullsim, ~,,,il~' til. jnobl"". or PJI~~dl1<S"" "NU1 with p~ii.iLilog "$ ~.pmbl~"",·; ~ ~y5. "but w.ilh p:!imi.\S ns ~ ~~b\.iOCL. If tb~~ ;$ JilJ ~-amfi:'pim.,n "- pml:J~i~' ,r.lf I"'j,~j~g, I d~i[T!tQ !t.L'I'e ~reot~ ~l\e liilrn wM::h "'" ~t~ ~p";(ki"'$; .JI".~L1: iu a ~tylr, .rn,[ t[~ll!Sror.rru dllll fi""''bIC01'_ ~ (Mri ..... t &o~~.t:l,· Cfnifl1~,IlIp.ck,'pp. 2~G-[)_

r.~ .~ 11J1}' vicw dlarl: 'W'hM flroi:'ddl"£~5. ~~ !fL,~ word ~ct IDS he d= ~b= -"p"imill& ~~ ~ ~llt;jm~ - h:: i~ Qf[(;Jl p<JJruillg 001 m ~I.lphilli!i: li~~ "ruiJ.joct-l!TmU\[" ar CQrncm, brn [(0 d:l~ i!il~. (,{ d;. 'rmdii.IJJlrI,

H M,m-.:~ .!lfOOd[l1u,$, ~'[)m 'Jh<)<i$~~J fg:~n'" Reward," or- c.iL, 1'. 4~-

S4(lifid..

S5 Fredric J~I=c!ll, 'T~ c,t[tJjr\j! li,tl', '.'1'- '~~" pp. no-n,

56 In ~re\'iou5 ~5;lr-:; diN! "lxm (ijLlI'" ~?). I ba...e d.i~~5a dlework Qf JiilO1~ C~ID~~"i' ~~dJ J~II ~In in [bll! Hlg.ud..!n " ~umr:.qu~~1 mldi lwiH focus 00 ~~a[ of\Vill!u"I~l Ktlm[J~_

A text by M~lcd Br(,lodrh~I!H Om! Mn Ca.J:WclJ'lWl

Mil G"JI,~(,riaJi is a wMk cmnposed of l'WO panels, both sides of w.hich are used. \Vi[hin ute nU1 panel, cOm:tlnillg doeumems from exhibitions ,'I:[ which I haee been wle 1!J:l exhibit, dme].s illSefred l.page [roa~l [he =a!oguetlf [ile Cologne !liro[ '7I with pl'!(OOSGfthese samedOC!lljll~~m., The '!;1lCOndpallel of Mil G"JlwiIm is adorned! wilh apom:tll[ of ute Europesnpcet SoophaLle Mallamre ... "hom li {;():n~ider m be dlle fOLlil£l~,f of {;omernpor,ary i\1'[."U 11 WLIP de d~jailtai;s il'aboTiu le hasaed," li1.f C~l1t.iio~].s a W'CIfk .ill which the ml][o~ogica~ SYS~illl is used OCI {ll:l:mextuaiize ,[he exhi!bitioil ~11;1. (It W(lU,!d therefore haw fi'tD.TIl meotl'lillg (h~ll a S~t'rlp' {iD.Ul'C~UHi.) -The catalogue of die .p~e~ilt exhfbjjtjO~i win 61, usedas a detail te make up a fum re work of .. mammiLlg to Ihe s.lwws. il:t which I have ~x~].ibit~d Mncc [97].

Ma=~ B~oodthaers M~ G~Jt(((i,,'Ir

SinO!? I ~rp= in dlis COU£C[iOIl,. whicll is also-a seleerion f~om among ~~:Hl aL'[ caralogues of ~~l~ pa:s[ seWlf1l1r~:rs. i[d()~ not roruti[llt~ a [uditnmu~.t\!l~.dymad]~.

But, jf one ~c(;c[lMhat ~h~ representaeiou of mr mt c.1~rjcs with ira clmil~ of sWM:jL1aL1'SlCruc, it would then be a L1C'W form. 'elf rc.'I!drlrl~'l!(k, a baroque [cad~llm(k

This ,dlJllb~rIt!~ [~adfm..,dlc W(l!IJld1 th~roerDr'~ be ~qlJJiw]~nl~ to ~ . .cIub:l{}tJ:~ wm:lk. of art" Mflw 00 maTl«~~doubt ~f.it d~~ nm ha~ a cJ.tllI j;rtl!;1:k quallrtr! M.mro~~rj, 1 do nm ha",,~ the 1l~[1;\~ to ~iJetl!J~at~ on M<l' CD{lt:t1MN, ,,"hh~lIJlSh w.nth th~ mcmY'mecd",e,cl! I COl!J1d r~J:te",e' the mi~~qi' th:lJt tRVllg~-t the Indills, Or even finance ~Il. av,an!'gar,demfivolLlltion. A tont[3ct, ~gpod (;~tlt[a(~ Wtlillld g,et me ut1t of trouble b~ aligl'iillg myin!:e.tests wirth esrablisbed Cl]SWn1S. Fo~ fUftlie[ irlforitilMiD:tl,p~e,a'!;t ruaitaCt • , •

P('f,!.Qn.l1~~; I w(mid like to r=ivc a t:tx (a mya1ty~) Q:J1 the publicnriens, jf thC'J;"(: ~:n; ~l:l'j. tilat [cpmdt!ccd ~y droamti'mandtlJ~ imag~s f[om dli~ pa~ of tlleCat.lWglloJ; of the C(l.7]f~i[,

.However, tl:'lDuld aliyon.e srill wlsh to own tI)cep!iyskalobjetil: of M~ Co1J«tiiJIr. tilfli. tl!ie pr.ice Wtlllki be up' ~D m.y cOl'!lsdence (Pr.ice neJ¥l~iab.lle},

i l M:IJ)[ll'l Broodtbaer~. fjrifrui UJ111. IWI, film frame, Photo 0 Ginim~.

IG iMnI)["llil. f,l~m,. ()~ V<!J!oW .~ M<:itkrW (NfWol4i.l ~ r6fl-!9U9). 1969, Fl~liiIfimtc~ !loom © Gillimm.

17 Marcel Eroornmll,m., .Mil'w!iII '1 Mo~r;\l Arl, EiooleJ DeIUlI1»!CII/, &ctifIIJ ks 'PWms (lJcf Ai/&,r w.w o.rig~ wr H?Ii1'l'). I972., $tIid[ls~~e Klll1!!ldl~I~, Ddl;55C~dQ[f. PibiJllQ © Gilli5!!!!'!!,

I a M~rm IlroQdd.l~rs. .Miff/Mill 4 M.&i'I'I! Af'I, J'liwb Dt~urll!IL'I;!t. Sf!(,mm J.:~ .F/tITW.i972. Stsdd:s, ,~~.e l<JiJJmballc, D~~doJrf., .PbotG ~ GilJ~~J1I,

19' MAiro:i !roodtbae:n:, M'rmI!!J .if Mo.krll Ar~ b.&~J DrI)~!'1'JY('MI. S«lio..~ il'ed'~I!Ti'!£.iln~' Stiidtiz.. che K!i!!ri~tbRlk, Dii5<ddorf. Photo f:) Gilj~,

ao MAiro:i Brcodthaen, M!'ffiII!!J ~f Mo.krtl .AN; b.&~J DrIIllIT;LIJLYi\I,. S«liil~ il'eJ1'ml!w, [!n"~, Stiidtiz.. che KI;I!f!<'tldle, Di_;!;cIdorf. Photo D Giuw:lll,

~I M""tfi B~I)dl:h,,".!. M~~ of ~.I'!I An; &tkt D"Fill!<tJrJ; S~I'i'J1 drl Fw.m, W7~, &m<i!~~ "h~ ~jj~SIil,~II". Dji,*lo;l{;l't. PlKoiio .0 Gili~ll:n.

22 M •• ""I lirl;i<~G1-O!~r~, MusrnYl! d M.tJw! AIr.

• &igl~s .~J!tr~Jlt, S"i~ d:t.- F~Ilr:<, r~7~" S(~pJ.'!i~, o1i!11 K~'md)~U~. D~i~~l&m:C Ph.oilD © GiIL<mO.

~3 MiGbari SruJ!!I'; m~I~~rL,. I~67' film f[311;1~, CD~rte~Df MLdlnd Silow;

~1 Riclmdl S.m~. CoffJi'fl!f. I ~I. Lead """r.~g.Awpool!. -+)( ,00 XlOO ~Ll.cli.cs, Tcrnrowy io~I~.i{;lrn,. W~jtll~Y M~I~m of AlilH'ri~m Art, New Yoqk Cil;j\ i 9(i~, PhcoiD C E:!~~~ of l!'o:i~r MooL~lDACS, U!ndOll/'VACA, New yO[~ WOC>. Co~![~~~.y of RL'I'i1MiI Sm~,

~~ fI.~IJQJ:(~ Noland. installariou of C~me SOO!ow ~ndl S~rrn in dtC' AIJd~ Ernlill':ri~m Gall~rr, e I<J:~.Mlih! NoL~ndlJDACS., l..1ruKmfVACA, N~ ¥i;Ji'k acoo,

wK~rm~~h NoI~nd. AdR,. 1!XY7. A~rrlicOll ,~~IIW'I~, ~4 )0;. 96 il14~, 0 Kmllcdl Ni;)Ii!~}~/DACS,. Lm-i~omfVAGA,. N!~", York ~O,

~? il,Oi:h •.• d $.g,~" Trlm/~ J)~~" Propf~. I~n- Vioo, !Im_ Ci;)w'!"l.Y i;)f """b • ...! S'm~,

LIST Of [LLUS1'RAT]ONS

Maj)""1 Rr.I." . .JiI~.<\i" r'ol1~ <;Q\'~r ,J Srti4i~ {H1!'elJlliliMJ. O[;lgb.. J?'.I4, Co~r~r of Sr,II~9 (H1!t'tilll/oll"i.

2 M"",.·I Il:rwd~~~t~, back 00"'1:[ of S~ jfllt1t".I*. O"bQI~.r r97+ C.o'_'[.~~)' m Slml~ Ji,i,er".tkt.tl.

• }~h Kt~", .A'i ~1 Z~ Iff l~., i 91\7, Panel ,,," '",~~i~IK'" -0 AIlS, NY ~ndI DACS. Lendou ~Q(I;

4 JOll:['h Ko.!~!tb. S=rh !mTr.r~ (Ar~ ~f Ik.sJ lh),. 1~" Ol!.d.'oor MlbooJ[d .iJrut~l~tioo, (:> A R.S, NY ""d DA:C;S"!;.'J"di;)~ .]100(>"

IIhtl:'d .1.l",,,,,cld"l."tl, M~~ .if M~I'!I ArJ; Ewer Dtpoir\!liltJ.it (.Doi",'J-,~I~"'I-~l.r~ CQrt1ki), HI6K .~i,~. Ml ..x~wm..f~,m"d p1>$I:il;"_ B% X H~' iMb.c~ 1'~I"lII) 0 Gilj!~" ..

6 IIohtf:d .I!l"'otidfh"i!j;~ M:II~III -# M~I'!I Arj, B'jg,ret Th,f'di'lliiUit, j .qJiI:,CI.II~IIl'r S~'iJ.,." B:,tl"!l.l$, 1~68-9- ['mO[o © C..ilismL

7' il4md 1ll'Qoddl~~~5, M~ew.u ~f MMet.II A.ft, &gIs DrJMll1J!1N1i, j9111~C<\iJt .. rt SMId~, .1l'~I~h. r96a-9, 1".iJo[o)@CiUI.Sffi,

s Mar,cd IJ.:roOOlhim" M""""M if Md,ftr,." At.t, Erjl~~ Df101flfflkll~, D.tllilftJli.otl .$fo!J'loli. 19®- P~i;)' [~i!r~'~"::t~_ pf'",!" 0 GjUi~'."_

~ M"rud H'm,.jth~".~, frw11! 9Q>'~r or !i1t.!'ryil1fk,

~'ruieri, 1'~UlI9i~- C~~'00l1 ~r lll~!'1'J~Ii.mJI"

1.0 .M~t<ld Il",,,,dl~~'$, f.'JI" J\JW~", f9aHO, P:1:im. ili:1 "'~i!ru~~"~",,,"cl ~"~i~_ n% x 47 ~ illeil!K:! .. P!lilll, D.y.be'L

E I Mitetl. H.t'fo(jdl~lrert. ii,~~~rd., T9(f.;)~ F~PfO' d{lm ill At~jjjjj, M,'t I~&;:l.. CIJ"t~.!y.,j Ar{fimfRl, [:1 MitNi 1lt<':ld!ll"M!. MII~I # M.s!:'ffl A7~ E;Wrl Dt;fo1"llil>\i.it, FiJJii Sff.tIo~, 1in'1-~- e;r<X)d~,· h=5, hil~dnllJ; up s~d[llIrl: Ix,~k_ p~~~, (:) il);J"'"ooc [~ IIoht~ .!l"""d!l~a.t,~ .MII""'''' 4 M~1'1'l Ah BoJg!et Thf"1t\!''''~li~ FlI", Si!t.~ 19i1-~- ~?;d~~ilcl ~C«!ffi in ~m~. "'""on_ ph,,~(, \0 Gili$,.,,_

It Ivbtedl!l",l~dd~"I!f~.!ifj,ft.iilii 4 M~.'" A~ri; .&gIrl D~r"'Nt~:, Filii" .&ell""". r~il'-:L P~I.~~IJ' M!OOIfIil:~ cl-r,IWIillg Ill'OOdI~tg b, cli~ k.ii~r "(.,,,,,_ .Pboro {;J .llcmdj'm5CIL