CHAPTER 12

Metal Casting: Design, Materials, and Economics

Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

© 2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 12-1

Note that sharp corners are avoided to reduce stress concentrations.Casting Design Modifications Figure 12.1 Suggested design modifications to avoid defects in castings. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-2 .

Casting Cross-Sections Figure 12.sections in castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities.2 Examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-3 .

Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-4 . 5th ed.Avoiding Shrinkage Cavities Figure 12.3 Examples of design modifications to avoid shrinkage cavities in castings. 1980. Used with permission. Source: Steel Castings Handbook. Steel Founders' Society of America.

Steel Founders' Society of America. 1980.4 The use of metal padding (chills) to increase the rate of cooling in thick regions in a casting to avoid shrinkage cavities. Source: Steel Castings Handbook. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-5 .Chills Figure 12. Used with permission.

3 2.3 1.6 Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-6 .1 Metal Gray cast iron White cast iron Malleable cast iron Aluminum alloys Magnesium alloys Yellow brass Phosphor bronze Aluminum bronze High-manganese steel Percent 0.Normal Shrinkage Allowance for Some Metals Cast in Sand Molds TABLE 12.3 1.6 2.78–1.0 1.1 2.83–1.0–1.3–1.6 1.1 0.

Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-7 . Source: Steel Casting Handbook.Parting Line Figure 12. 1980. Steel Founders' Society of America. 5th ed. Used with permission.5 Redesign of a casting by making the parting line straight to avoid defects.

Steel Founders' Society of America. 5th ed. Used with permission. 1980. Source: Steel Casting Handbook. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-8 .Casting Design Modifications Figure 12.6 Examples of casting design modifications.

Note that section-thickness uniformity is maintained throughout the part. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-9 .7 Examples of undesirable and desirable design practices for die-cast parts. Source: American Die Casting Institute.Desirable and Undesirable Die-Casting Practices Figure 12.

Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.8 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Note that gray iron has very little ductility and toughness. compared with most other cast alloys. the properties of cast alloys vary over a wide range. particularly for cast steels. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-10 .Mechanical Properties for Various Groups of Cast Alloys Figure 12. some of which undergo considerable elongation and reduction of area in tension. Note also that even within the same group.

) Figure 12. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-11 . particularly for cast steels. Note that gray iron has very little ductility and toughness. compared with most other cast alloys.8 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. the properties of cast alloys vary over a wide range. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.Mechanical Properties for Various Groups of Cast Alloys (cont. some of which undergo considerable elongation and reduction of area in tension. Note also that even within the same group.

marine propellers Crankshafts.2 Type of alloy Aluminum Copper Ductile iron Gray iron Magnesium Malleable iron Application Pistons. railroad rolling stock Gas turbine blades. rock crusher jaws Mill liners. pump and valve components.Typical Applications for Casting and Casting Characteristics TABLE 12. Castability* E F–G G E G–E G Weldability* F F D D G D Machinability* G–E F–G G G E G Nickel F F F Steel (carbon and low alloy) Steel (high alloy) F E F F E F White iron G VP VP Zinc E D E *E. valves. clutch housings. Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-12 . heavy-duty gear blanks. fair. transmission housings Farm and construction machinery. VP. crushers and pulverizers Door handles. aircraft undercarriage members. gears. F. railroad brake shoes. very poor. rail-road wheels Gas turbine housings. heavy-duty bearings. brake disks and drums. radiator grills. excellent. gear blanks. intake manifolds Pumps. difficult. D. machine bases Crankcase. G. good. pump and valve components for chemical plants Die blocks. shot blasting nozzles. heavy-duty gears Engine blocks.

machine tools Wearing surfaces Pipe. general service Crankshafts.Properties and Typical Applications of Cast Irons TABLE 12.4 0 18 6 2 18 10 2 0 Cast iron Gray Ductile (Nodular) Malleable Type Ferritic Pearlitic Martensitic Ferritic Pearlitic Tempered martensite Ferritic Pearlitic Tempered martensite Pearlitic Typical applications Pipe. general engineering service Railroad equipment. couplings Railroad equipment.wear-resistant parts Hardware. sanitary ware Engine blocks. connecting rods Wear-resistant parts.3 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 170 275 550 415 550 825 365 450 700 275 Yield strength (MPa) 140 240 550 275 380 620 240 310 550 275 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 0. highly stressed parts High-strength machine parts. gears.4 0. pipe fittings. mill rolls White Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-13 .

Mechanical Properties of Gray Cast Irons TABLE 12.4 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 152 179 214 252 293 362 431 Compressive strength (MPa) 572 669 752 855 965 1130 1293 Elastic modulus (GPa) 66 to 97 79 to 102 90 to 113 100 to 119 110 to 138 130 to 157 141 to 162 ASTM class 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 Hardness (HB) 156 174 210 212 235 262 302 Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-14 .

fittings Marine parts.5 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 220–280 185–250 260 235 275 480 260 275 275 230 275 275 160 210 275 Yield strength (MPa) 110–220 125–180 185 115 95 195 105 105 175 150 95 130 110 105 205 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 8.Properties and Typical Applications of Cast Nonferrous Alloys TABLE 12. blades Gears. valves Die castings Sand and permanent mold castings High strength Elevated temperature Elevated temperature Highest strength Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-15 .5–2 2–1. gears Hardware. bearings. valves Pump parts.5 5 25 25 30 35 30 15 3 12 5 3 8 4 Alloys (UNS) Aluminum alloys 195 (AO1950) 319 (AO3190) 356 (AO3560) Copper alloys Red brass (C83600) Yellow brass (C86400) Manganese bronze (C86100) Leaded tin bronze (C92500) Gun metal (C90500) Nickel silver (C97600) Magnesium alloys AZ91A AZ63A AZ91C EZ33A HK31A QE22A Condition Heat treated Heat treated Heat treated Annealed Annealed Annealed Annealed Annealed Annealed F T4 T6 T5 T6 T6 Typical applications Sand castings Sand castings Permanent mold castings Pipe fittings. ornamental Propeller hubs.

low. M.General Cost Characteristics of Casting Processes TABLE 12.6 Cost* Process Die Sand L Shell-mold L–M Plaster L–M Investment M–H Permanent mold M Die H Centrifugal M * L. high. medium. H. Equipment L M-H M L-M M H H Labor L–M L–M M–H H L–M L–M L–M Production rate (Pc/hr) <20 <50 <10 <1000 <60 <200 <50 Kalpakjian • Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology © 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-16 .