Influence of Curing Types on Stren…

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Influence of Curing Types on Strength of Geopolymer Concrete
Prof.K.Vijai, Associate Professor, Dr. R.Kumutha, Professor & Head Department of Civil Engineering Sethu Institute of Technology Pulloor, TamilNadu, and Dr B.G.Vishnuram, Principal Easa College of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore. In order to address environmental effects associated w ith Portland cement, there is need to develop alternative binders to make concrete. An effort in this regard is the development of geopolymer concrete, synthesized from the materials of geological origin or by product materials such as fly ash, which are rich in silicon and aluminum. This paper presents results of an experimental study on the density and compressive strength of geopolymer concrete. The experiments were conducted on fly ash based geopolymer concrete by varying the types of curing namely ambient curing and hot curing. The ratio of alkaline liquid to fly ash is fixed as 0.4. For all the samples the rest period w as kept as 5 days. For hot curing, the temperature was maintained at 60o C for 24 hrs in hot air oven. The compressive strength test w as conducted on each of the sample and the results show that there w as an increase in compressive strength w ith the increase in age for ambient cured specimens. For hot cured samples the increase in compressive strength w ith age w as very less as compared to that of specimens subjected to ambient curing. The density of geopolymer concrete was around 2400kg/m3 w hich is equivalent to that of conventional concrete. Hence, geopolymer concrete has a great potential for utilization in construction industry as it is environmental-friendly and also facilitates the use of fly ash, w hich is a w aste product from coal burning industries. Introduction Demand for concrete as a construction material is on the increase so as the production of cement. The production of cement is increasing about 3% annually. The production of one ton of cement liberates about one ton of CO 2 to atmosphere. Among the green house gases, CO 2 contributes about 65% of global w arming. Furthermore, it has been reported that the durability of ordinary Portland cement concrete is under examination, as many concrete structures especially those built in corrosive environments start to deteriorate after 20 to 30 years, even though they have been designed for more than 50 years of service life. Although the use of Portland cement is unavoidable in the foreseeable future, many efforts are being made to reduce the use of Portland cement in concrete. It is time to deploy new technology materials like geopolymers that offer w aste utilisation and emissions reduction. The term geopolymer describes a family of mineral binders w ith chemical composition same as zeolite. Hardened geopolymer concrete has an amorphous microstructure w hich is quite similar to that of ancient structures such as Egyptian pyramids and Roman amphitheaters. Geopolymer pioneered by Joseph Davidovits is an inorganic alumino-silicate polymer synthesized from predominantly silicon (Si) and aluminium (Al) materials of geological origin or byproduct materials like fly ash, metakaolin, Granulated Blast furnace slag etc. The polymerisation process involves a substantially fast chemical reaction under alkaline condition on Si-Al minerals that result in a three dimensional polymeric chain and ring structure consisting of Si-O-Al-O bonds. The chemical reaction comprises the follow ing steps:


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1. Dissolution of Si and Al atoms from the source material through the action of hydroxide ions. 2. Orientation or condensation of precursor ions into monomers. 3. Setting or polycondensation or polymerization of monomers into polymeric structures.

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Compared with ordinary Portland cement concrete, Geopolymers show many advantages. Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete has excellent compressive strength, suffers very little drying shrinkage and low creep, excellent resistance to sulfate attack, and good acid resistance. It can be used in many infrastructure



e. The chemical composition of sodium silicate is: Na 2 O14. Alkaline liquids are used in geopolymerisation. Fine aggregate w as taken as 30% of the total aggregates. The mass of NaOH solids in a solution will vary depending on the concentration of the solution expressed in terms of molar.75 mm sieve to remove all the pebbles.87 w ere used. The most common alkaline liquid used in geopolymerisation is a combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium silicate or potassium silicate.Know ing the density of concrete.e. bulk density of 1679.4. Fine aggregate having a specific gravity of 2. concentration of NaOH solution is taken as 8M. it is clear that the average density of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is similar to that of OPC concrete (2400kg/m3 ). In this paper. sodium hydroxide flakes w ith 98% purity were used for the preparation of alkaline solution. Experimental Programme Materials Low calcium fly ash (ASTM class F) collected from Mettur thermal pow er station w as used for casting the specimens. Currently Online We have 113 guests and 3 members online A lexa Rank Preparation of Geopolymer Concrete To prepare sodium hydroxide solution of 8 molarity (8M).9% by mass. bulk density of 1701.5. Extra w ater (other than the w ater used for the preparation of alkaline solutions) and dosage of super plasticizer w as added to the mix according to the w orkability desired. therefore. Sodium hydroxide is available commercially in flakes or pellets form.62. 320 grams (8x40 i. the aggregates and Figure 1: Specimens under ambient curing nbmcw. Water conforming to the requirements of w ater for concreting and curing w as used through out. For the present study. Moreover.1/27/2011 Influence of Curing Types on Stren… applications. coarse and fine aggregates w ere taken as 77% of entire mixture by mass. and the bulk cost of chemicals needed to manufacture this concrete is cheaper than the bulk cost of one ton of Portland cement. Coarse aggregates of 20 mm maximum size having a fineness modulus of 6.7%. In terms of reducing global w arming. geopolymer technology could reduce approximately 80% of CO 2 emission to the atmosphere caused by cement and aggregate industry.7 kg/m3 and specific gravity of 2.com/…/19630-influence-of… 2/5 . Mix Design of Geopolymer Concrete In the design of geopolymer concrete mix. an attempt has been made to study the properties of geopolymer concrete such as density and compressive strength for tw o different types of curing. Fine Aggregate (sand) used is clean dry river sand. By assuming the ratios of alkaline liquid to fly ash as 0. Using the above procedure the mix w as designed and the mix proportions are given in Table 1. mass of fly ash and mass of alkaline liquid w as found out.4% and Water -55. The sand is sieved using 4. From the past literature. The solids constituents of the fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. cheaper than the Portland cement concrete. the combined mass of alkaline liquid and fly ash can be arrived.94. M. This value is similar to that used in OPC concrete in w hich it w ill be in the range of 75% to 80% of the entire mixture by mass. The mass of NaOH solids w as measured as 248 grams per kg of NaOH solution of 8M concentration. For the present investigation. SiO 2 -29. The sodium hydroxide solution thus prepared is mixed w ith sodium silicate solution one day before mixing the concrete to get the desired alkaline solution.42 w as used. reduction of one ton of carbon dioxide yields one carbon credit and this carbon credit significantly adds to the economy offered by the geopolymer concrete. One ton of low-calcium fly ash can be utilized to produce about 2.5 cubic meter of high quality geopolymer concrete. i.84 kg/m3 and fineness modulus of 2. a combination of Sodium hydroxide solution and sodium silicate solution was used as alkaline solution. molarity x molecular w eight) of sodium hydroxide flakes w as dissolved in one litre of w ater. the low calcium fly ashbased geopolymer concrete is. the ratio of sodium silicate solution to sodium hydroxide solution was fixed as 2. Sodium silicate is available commercially in solution form and hence it can be used as such. The special properties of geopolymer concrete can further enhance the economic benefits. In the present investigation. Given the fact that fly ash is considered as a waste material. To obtain mass of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions.

six test specimens w ere kept under ambient conditions for curing at room temperature as shown in Figure 1.com/…/19630-influence-of… 3/5 . Figure 3: Variation of density with age of concrete Compressive Strength The compressive strength at 7 and 28 days of curing is presented in Table 3. w ere dry mixed in the pan mixer for about three minutes. Remaining six specimens w ere kept at 60o C in hot oven for 24 hrs and is show n in Figure 2. Density values ranges from 2251 to 2400 kg/m3 . w hen fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is used in precast concrete industry. At the end of the Rest Period. After dry mixing. Results and Discussion Density of Geopolymer Concrete Table 2 presents the density values in kg/m3 at 7 days and 28 days of curing. there is a slight increase in density as show n in Figure 3.Variation of density is not much significant w ith respect to age of concrete and type of curing. This may be important in certain practical applications. there must be sufficient time available betw een casting of products and sending them to the Figure 2: Hot curing of specimens curing chamber. Tw elve cubes of size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm w ere cast and compaction was done by mechanical vibration using a Table vibrator.1/27/2011 Influence of Curing Types on Stren… the fly ash. As the age of concrete increases. Figure 4 nbmcw. The term ‘Rest Period’ w as coined to indicate the time taken from the completion of casting of test specimens to the start of curing at an elevated temperature. alkaline solution w as added to the dry mix and wet mixing w as done for 4 minutes. For instance. The density of geopolymer concrete w as found approximately equivalent to that of conventional concrete. Curing of Geopolymer Concrete After casting the specimens. they w ere kept in rest period for five days and then they were demoulded.

and Djw antoro Hardjito.1/27/2011 Influence of Curing Types on Stren… show s a graphical representation of variation of compressive strength for 7 days and 28 days of curing. The compressive strength of hot cured fly ash based geopolymer concrete has not increased substantially after 7 days. The average density of fly ash based geopolymer concrete is similar to that of OPC concrete. In ambient curing. final year Civil Engineering students of Sona College of Technology. Brungs. 2008 Anurag Mishra. Steenie Wallah. “Durability Of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Against Sulphuric Acid Attack” International Conference on Durability of Building Materials And Components. Geopolymer concrete is more environ-friendly and has the potential to replace ordinary portland cement concrete in many appliances such as precast units. M. Khon Kaen. Vijaya Rangan.Sonam Jamtsho and Mr. 2006 Saraw ut Yodmunee and Wanchai Yodsudjai. Nidhi Sharda and Durga Dutt. Song. In hot curing. In ambient Curing.Upendra Das. 2006 X. 28 days compressive strength of hot cured specimens w as 2 times more than that of ambient cured specimens. the 28 days compressive strength is about 4. Mr. Acknowledgment The authors w ould like to thank Mr. M. Compressive strength of hot cured specimens are more than that of ambient cured specimens both in 7 and 28 days.com/…/19630-influence-of… 4/5 .7 days compressive strength of hot cured specimens w as 7 times more than that of ambient cured specimens.Anand Babu. Salem for their involvement in casting and testing. References B. Vijaya Rangan. K. the 28 days compressive strength is about 1. “Studies On Reinforced Low – Calcium Fly Ash –Based Geopolymer Concrete Beams And Columns” International Conference on Pozzolan. the compressive strength increases as the age of concrete increases from 7 days to 28 days. May 24-25. Figure 4: Variation of compressive strength with age of concrete Conclusion The compressive strength of hot cured concrete is much higher than that of ambient cured concrete. Lyon [France] 17-20 April 2005 B. Concrete and Geopolymer. May 24-25. R.5 times 7 days compressive strength.” Effect of Concentration of Alkaline Liquid And Curing Time on nbmcw. Deepika Choudhary. J. Concrete and Geopolymer. “Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete” Research Report GC 4 Engineering Faculty in Curtin University of Technology Perth. “Study On Corrosion Of Steel Bar In Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete” International Conference on Pozzolan.Gem Tshering. Australia. Dody Sumajouw . Munn.2 times 7 days compressive strength. Thailand. Namrata Jain. Mr. Manish Kumar. Thailand. Khon Kaen. Marosszeky.

February 2008 S. Rangan. NBMC W Nove m be r 2010 < Prev T E RMS & CONDIT IONS PRIVA CY POLICY Next > DIS C LA IME R CA NCE LLA T ION/ RE F U ND POLICY Copyright © 2010 NBM Media Pvt. nbmcw.com/…/19630-influence-of… 5/5 . Australia. E.”Low -Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete: Long-Term Properties.1/27/2011 Influence of Curing Types on Stren… Strength And Water Absorption of Geopolymer Concrete “ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences Vol. No. W allah And B. V. All Rights Reserved. Ltd. 1.” Research Report GC 2 Engineering Faculty in Curtin University of Technology Perth. 2006. 3.