Page 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...............1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........
1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The root word ³morph´ means form. 1 The etymology of ³syntax´ shows it meanings ³putting together´. 2
GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH
I INTRODUCTION This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read, write, speak, or listen, they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk, they learned the names of things (vocabulary), the different forms of a word (sings, sang, singing, sung, songs), and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted . A. WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology ), their arrangement in phrases and 1 sentences (syntax ), and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). 2 Like many dictionary definitions, this makes grammar sound more difficult than it
really is. Look at this picture, and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. Page 10 2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. 1. The man is throwing the ball. 2. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. You might even have written 3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. Whatever you wrote, it probably include the word ball, the action throw, and a word that meant a man. You certainly didn¶t write Ball throwing man the the is. That wouldn¶t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. Here¶s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. First, you saw the picture, and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. Finally, you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. In fact, you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). You see you really do know lots about grammar!
B. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? Although you do write ³good sentences´ most of the time, you may make a few mistakes. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Usually the first impression someone, including a possible employer, has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use
the language. For example, some people say ³He sure done good!´ or ³He should of went to the dance´ or ³Hunters didn¶t shoot a big amount of deer this year.´ While the meaning is very clear, the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn¶t have much ³schooling´ or else isn¶t very good at expressing him/herself. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. Unless you correct those errors in grammar, you may be unfairly judged, and your true abilities may go unrecognized.
The system of classifying word based on their function is known as the parts of speech.. The eight parts of speech are Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the Grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to Correct them. everyone can be Placed into at least one of eight groups. (tells about an action. For example.. look at these sentences. or classifications.noun) Page 12 4
. He ran fast so he wouldn¶t be late. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? Although English has hundreds of thousands of words. (describes how he ran.C. Because some words can be used in several different ways.verb) Their fast lasted for three days.. (names a thing.adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF.. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech)...
NOUNS Words that name people. but it functions differently in each sentence. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH
A. places and things are called nouns. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE Cashier Carol Boys PLACES: Province New Brunswick Lake THINGS: ANIMALS: Cat Dalmatian Bug OBJECTS: Fork Television car SUBSTANCES: iron air gold ACTIONS: (a) race (the) dance (the) hits MEASURES: kilogram
.The word ³fast´ is spelled the same. The following table lists a variety of nouns.
One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. Page 13 Write a sentence about this picture. Use pronouns instead of nouns. The naming Word that comes after them is probably a noun. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences.Centimeter Day QUALITIES: Happiness honesty Beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. and most sentences contain several Nouns. Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year.
. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. Paul is a noun that names a person. an. the. Sometimes nouns appear without These little words. Can you find 10? Children name people Nouns in this Continent names a thing Picture? Africa names a place lions names a thing. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of The sentence.
´ The words I. Everybody was glad when it was over.The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town. places. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key.g. For example. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. The candy that we gave them was made last year.
B. ³I want you to read this again. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. and things) that have already been mentioned. think of a noun it could replace. (e. and Fredericton is the capital of this province. you. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. PRONOUNS Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. it isn¶t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. She saw it when they bought it. and sentence) because the writer¶s/speaker¶s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. If you made more than one or two mistakes. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. In this sample sentence. and this are pronouns. What did you buy from them?
. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. For each pronoun printed in bold type. reader. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog.
Verbs usually tell about an action. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. please. VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. one of the main parts of every sentence. 9. 3 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. We planted them.. We will walk to the store tomorrow.. 13. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs. never. always. they are verbs. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed. therefore.
. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. but the birds ate everything. Verbs may consist of one word. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. 10. 12. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. 14. 11. Verb phrases may have up to five words. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. If you need more practice. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves. Many signed up. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself. but few were chosen.Page 14 6 Phrase. For example.
C.a group of words that belong together. The word walked became will walk. 15. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not.
The runner flew down the race track. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. The farmer used all the water in his pond. and were used in a sentence between two nouns. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. 6. is. I am a teacher. Page 15 7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. are. The dog was chasing its tail. She is beautiful and talented. I have never seen anything like that before. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. our father was a millwright. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. I have finished the laundry. Paul can do anything. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. My sister is a nurse. was. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present.Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. They were always honest. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until
. When you find the words am. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. Complete Exercises 5. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet.
Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives.
D. blond woman with the red dress´. changes. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here¶s another way of thinking of adjectives. rich. Page 16 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. A modifier is a word that limits. blue. Therefore. you add ³detail´ words in front of the noun like little. changes. old. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said ³the tall woman´. or alters the meaning of another word. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. the white. house.you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. puffy clouds a happy. or tree. ³the tall. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. ³Give this piece of paper to the woman´. an adjective limits. carefree child some tall. ADJECTIVES To talk or write about a person place or thing. as only six of the women are tall. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a
. you use nouns like girl. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. Your boss tell you.
these boots. these. and those houses. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use
. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. that. In other words. The third sentence adds even more details. that. I have a blue car. Adjectives also tell how many. The second adds the adjective blue.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind¶s eye. and those. new. These are demonstrative adjectives. Other adjectives like shiny. The words this. these. The group of words ³with the red dress´ is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. cool. only that I have one. I have a small dark blue car. Such adjectives include this. This book belongs to Pete. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. several candies. and four children. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. as in this car. that coat. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. as in many people. those pencils are Ted¶s.large group. Page 17 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader ³see´ your car in his/her mind¶s eye. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. I have a car. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is.
(pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. as in many days. Page 18 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. new clothes.as adjectives and pronouns. those are Ted¶s. I have the blue car. as in those books. an) and definite articles (the). this modifies the proper noun Ford. I have a blue car. The nouns they ³stand for´ or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence. this restaurant. few hours. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. L an adjective tells how many. In the second sentence. This belongs to Pete. L an adjective tells what kind. and an. these computers. Compare the meaning of these two sentences.
.a. that building. and cold day. and Ted bought that Chevy. Either is correct. bad taste. others called them adjectives. couple of dollars. and two cities. the. L an adjective tells which one or ones. as in old man. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. L articles are also adjectives .
Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Used in the following ways. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. Glass. if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass. however. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. and school are usually nouns. Underline all the adjectives you used. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. or school. kitchen. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. kitchen.Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. Page 20 12
. A good ³trick´ to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. Page 19 11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture.
Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. or alter the words they modify. Adverbs limit. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. or to what extent it was beautiful. How is he driving? He is driving quickly. the noun sunset is described as beautiful. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. 1.dE. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. you can add something in front of the adjective. If an adverb is added. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. change. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. When is he driving? He is driving now. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. Where is he driving? He is driving away. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS He is driving. that word is called an adverb. What part of speech is the word beautiful. or when he is driving. where he is driving. ADVERBS You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. you will find out how he is driving. 2.
extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3. change y to i easily soft softly
. as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly.Page 21 13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. By adding another adverb. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. WORDS ENDING IN ³LY´ Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. The dog ate quickly. ADJECTIVE ADD -LY ADVERB bright brightly easy *first. ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. we can find out how quickly the dog ate.
and learn to recognize them in sentences.full *first. well often 4 quite surely very not almost never always so (He was so happy. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them. never as adjectives. you learned that some small words can be
. change ll to l fully careful carefully quick quickly * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word. A list of these words follows. Page 22 14 usually an adverb .) usually In the section on verb phrases.can be an adjective to describe a person's health 4 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS Some words can only be used as adverbs.
(adverb) Penny is a fast driver. Those words are adverbs. Eric will not shop on Sundays. which are used to show a time. He was always asking questions. (adverb) It was an early train. The train arrived early. place. called prepositional phrases. He will never tell another lie.found in the middle of verb phrases. and late.
. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. sometimes called connectives. Three examples of such words are early. but they are not verbs. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. fast. I have often wondered about the moon. (adjective) Penny drives fast. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. PREPOSITIONS Preposition are joining words. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. Page 23 15 F. (adjective) A student is late. (adverb) There is a late student.
Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb ³walked´ by telling where she walked.preposition + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase Time: after + the party = (after the party) Place: under + the table = (under the table) Ownership: of + our town = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. Adverb phrases can also be
. The girl walked beside the building. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. The girl walked to the building. The girl walked near the building. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. The girl walked into the building. The girl walked through the building. In each sentence above. The girl walked behind the building.
therefore. in what way. when.used to tell how. these prepositional phrases. are called prepositional adverb phrases. telling where she walked. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. Page 24 16 about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on
The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. In each example above. They rented the house on the corner. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans. The colour of that paint is just right. Here are some common prepositions: Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. they are called prepositional adjective phrases.out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun. The books in that bag are yours. Because these phrases function as adjectives.
Conjunctions are used to join words. Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh! Oh. no! Ouch! Never! Fabulous! Fantastic! Ah! No! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. INTERJECTIONS Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma.Page 25 17 Clauses are ³mini-sentences stuck into µreal¶ sentences´ and which need special joining 5 words (conjunctions) to attach them. phrases. Unlike all the other parts of speech. It can be an actual word. Conjunctions can be 5
. H. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence.. are also joining words or connectives. G. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. or clauses . like prepositions.
. Page 26 18 Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? Joe and Mike followed the young cub. but joins two complete ideas. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. those that are left over are probably conjunctions. I understand parts of speech. you will need to work through Module 6. the word itself doesn¶t add any new information. Look at these examples. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. it burned quickly ùùùùùùù ùù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. ùùùùùùùùùùùùù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. And joins two nouns. Part of the Sentence. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. When lightning struck the old barn. but they could not catch it.found in any position in a sentence except the very end. Before you can really understand clauses. but does it tell you at what time? No. For the purpose of this module.
µ I am a little confused about parts of speech. or thing in a sentence. µ I am totally lost. µ I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS A word which names a person. µ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. Examples: waiter. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. girl.
. 1. When a word names a particular. house. Proper nouns are always capitalized.I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. dog. and city. or the only. province. place. car. A. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section?
Page 27 19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. place or thing in general is called a common noun.
it is called a concrete noun. six committees. crowd. beauty.Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). Page 28 20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people. flock. jury. friendship. panel. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. pride. places and things. car. On the other hand. speed. Nouns like table. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). sky are concrete nouns. Examples: honesty. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). they are categorized as abstract nouns. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. committee. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. herd. height. house. CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). faith Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. Here are two
. seen. audience. 3. Examples: team. heard or touched. swiftness. 2. tasted. cloud. brain.
dollars. land. are similar to collective nouns. Mass nouns. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. everyone agreed on one decision. In the second case. and there are many different opinions. jewellery. In the second set of examples.examples that illustrate this point. bracelets. steaks. 4. and are. the jury is acting as a single unit. clothing. however. equipment. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count)
. timber. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. The jury are stating their opinions. furniture. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. each juror is acting as an individual. therefore called count nouns. gold. money. Examples: meat. The team is buying new uniforms. Do Exercise 19. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. chairs. In the first sentence. food. The team are buying new uniforms. The jury is announcing its decision. miles. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples.
We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture. Module 4. there are exceptions to every rule . Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun. Page 29 21 Libby¶s front teeth Eva¶s big smile Greg¶s tiny nose His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. The farmer bought a large number of cows. SINGULAR AND PLURAL Nouns may be singular referring to one.and exceptions for the exceptions. Most nouns change their form by adding ³s´ when they are plural. POSSESSIVE NOUNS
.some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. 1. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. or plural. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. B. referring to more than one. Spelling. so he needed a huge amount of grain. However. 2. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town.
Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. add an
.the neighbour's car singular and does .the child's toys not end in ³s´ . be guided by pronunciation of the .if a new syllable is .New Brunswick's art If a noun is . Page 30 22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions Possessive Form Examples If a noun is add an apostrophe (') .Gloria's career plus s to the noun . They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (¶).Doris's store singular and ends formed in the . A possessive noun shows ownership. belonging. or that something is part of something else.Dennis's car the way you say the word possessive.my boss's approval in ³s´.
John Hastings' store would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce.Phillips' farm .Mary Parsons' garden If a noun is plural.the Jones' party . add only an .Jesus' parables .librarians' club .men's choir in ³s´ .women's wear .the ladies¶ room If a noun is plural add apostrophe (') s .children's toys Now examine the following phrases: the boy¶s bicycles the boys¶ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.if adding an extra ³s´ .witnesses' story s at the end . add only an apostrophe . it indicates that one
.witness's description apostrophe plus ³s´ .oxen's hooves and does not end .students' lounge and already has an apostrophe (') ..
Babies¶ grandfather is correct The books¶ covers is correct Page 32 24
. How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends¶ house. Now examine these phrases: the lady¶s room the ladies¶ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below. Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies¶ grandfather the baby¶s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books¶ covers are different colours. Examine these phrases. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added. Look at the word with the apostrophe. The book¶s covers are different colours. so the house is owned by two or more friends. If it follows the plural form of the noun. it shows that several Page 31 23 people own it.person owns the item.
A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. Then. For example.Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time 3. Mary and Susan¶s mother arrived yesterday. create a rule to explain what you found. Only one is acceptable. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. Here¶s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects. 4. Examine the following sentence. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence.´ 5. You should have written something like this: ³When two or more people ³own´ something together. However. The above sentence contains 3 possessives. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement.
. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1." 2.
It purrs a lot. My mother. It is black and white. Mary¶s and Susan¶s houses are on the same street. Our cat purrs a lot. Our cat likes to play. Our cat has four black paws. What¶s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. Page 34 26 A. and three sisters love our cat. Everyone in our family loves the cat. Our cat has a long black tail. Our cat¶s name is Spot. and less repetitive. Spot likes to play. The following paragraph contains no pronouns. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. Our cat is black and white. and it never scratches. Our cat¶s body is mostly white. 23. my father. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. it sounds more natural and interesting. PERSONAL PRONOUNS
. Our cat never scratches. using pronouns to replace some nouns. two brothers. Page 33 25 It is for you! IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. each one owns a separate thing. TYPES OF PRONOUNS Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. Our cat¶s name is Spot. It has a long black tail. We call our cat Spot. Do Exercises 22.If both nouns are possessive.
your name and the names of other people you. me. she. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. theirs. person. their people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. her. male she. These Personal Pronouns CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: I. it are singular forms. my. their. you. yours the name of someone else you are addressing he. it. ours. he. his boy. them. the words we. objects. theirs plants. its. substances. us. The pronouns I. He.Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. woman. Person Singular
. our. Pronouns are also grouped by person. man. him. your. female it. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. hers girl. she. you. gender. they. obviously the ³most important person(s)´ in the message. The grammar term number means singular or plural. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" they. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. them. actions. mine your name we. and case. they are plural.
I want you to be on time. his they. they. are used to replace plural nouns.) If. actor. animals. us. (I want you to close the door. his show masculine gender. her. him. and she. your.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. aviatrix. then it is considered singular. you. plural pronouns. regardless of gender. you is used to designate a group of people. their. theirs rd she. and inanimate objects which are singular. on the other hand. actress. In English. etc. my. mine we. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. it is considered plural (Class.Plural 1 person I. yours you. The pronouns he. her. him. your. aviator. its Page 35 27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. hers show feminine gender. them. ours st 2 person you. me. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. his. our. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. hers it. we.
. yours nd 3 person he.
they are contractions of it is. The sentence could be rewritten. its. theirs whose.
. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. Mary is standing by the door. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. hers. That coat is hers. The words it¶s. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. That coat belongs to Mary. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. mine your. Mary is standing by the door. --our. OR Mary is standing by the door. Grammar: Part 2. and they are. explains case in greater detail. ours their. yours his. you¶re. you are. Module 6. and they¶re are not possessive pronouns. Page 36 28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. That is her coat. his her.Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. my. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to.
Here¶s another common error in pronoun selection. you can test the sentence above by reading it. using only the pronoun. Of course. It should read I rushed into the house. My mother and me rushed into the house. You know that does not look right or sound right. For instance. Me rushed into the house. a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. The people referred to in this sentence are . Their apartment will be for rent when they¶re transferred to Saint John. however. but they should match. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. 1. (I/me. You¶re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. do not match. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. but they must be present. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. they/them is to test the pronoun alone.
. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. not present at the time of speaking.It¶s always funny when the dog chases its tail. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. we/us. Both pronouns replace People. he/him. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. PRONOUN SELECTION What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. she/her. The pronouns. therefore. The sentence should be corrected.
Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. When speaking to one OR more than one person. Do Exercises 30. 32. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. the pronoun you is the correct choice. Yous is not a word. but be careful when you are speaking. 31. The pronoun me is the correct form. Page 38 30
. Many people make this mistake. Smith gave I three letters to mail. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. The next two examples show a very common error. Just as in the example above. Mr. make. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. Smith gave to letter to only one person. you can hear and see that this is not correct. heard often in speech. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them.Page 37 29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is ³I´. This sentence may look and sound correct. Look at this sentence. and the sentence should be corrected like this. Mr. Mr. even well-educated ones. but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people.
An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. The noun ³Margaret´ is the antecedent of the pronoun ³her´. 2. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS Margaret rode her bike to the mall. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. In this sentence, the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. Read this sentence. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their; in other words, who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct, employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural, or make them both singular. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. OR
An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic, person, student, teacher, etc.) is male or female, it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. Page 39 31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. The sentence is not clear.. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent, the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely, the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. The reader doesn¶t know who his refers to because the writer hasn¶t mentioned anyone else. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark¶s apartment yesterday. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al¶s apartment yesterday. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay, the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. They went to Tahiti.
The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. When you proofread your own writing, you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. B. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS In the following sentence, Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing, it is an called an indefinite pronoun. The pronoun everybody is singular. When referring to everybody, use a singular pronoun like he/his, or she/he. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to Page 40 32 replace everybody. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Even though it may sound ³right´ because you have heard it so often, it is NOT correct. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any everything anybody everyone anything each anyone nobody
everyone no one everything none everybody nothing either somebody neither someone another something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several few all some both many Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. Page 41 33 C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. Singular Plural this these
that those such such Use this and these to point out something close to you; use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. (e.g. Such a horse is hard to find.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Give her the book. Give her this. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. Eat that. Pie is the antecedent of that. Give her the books. Give her these. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. Eat those. Pies is the antecedent of those. Take his coat and hat. Take them. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns. If you cannot find the antecedent, the words are not demonstrative pronouns. I know that you are honest. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. (Not a demonstrative pronoun)
Can you find the word ³themself´? Can you explain why not? E. 6 D. use the singular form yourself. if someone does something to himself or herself. If the sentence is directed to one person. you must be careful not to push yourself too far. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the ³receiver´ of the action is the same person as the ³doer´. yourselves. but if it refers to a group. Page 42 34 Some grammar texts call this group ³intensive pronouns´. himself. yourself. Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. watch yourselves out there on the field today. Although it may sound and look correct. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used 6
. itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. herself. Check the dictionary. but I gave those to Mary. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. Players. use the plural form yourselves. Andy.I sold some cakes. there is no such word as ³themself´. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. In other words.
yourself. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. I fixed the car myself. you often start with an interrogative pronoun. themselves Examples: You. Page 43 35 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. She taught her children to help one another. one another.to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. herself. myself. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. you might say. G. wouldn¶t pass judgement on him. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS When you ask a question about someone or something. whom whose. what 7 8 Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. 7 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. Interrogative pronouns: who . which. yourselves. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. CDs or tapes?
. are better able to answer that question. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. or I. himself. 8 F. yourself. For example.
............ Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail..... whom..... We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock. Page 45 37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb........ The teacher whom you met trained in France.... H.. whoever...... Do Review Exercises 40.to refer to things that. The driver that stopped didn¶t get a ticket.... The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi.to refer to people which. they are not interrogative pronouns....to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank. If they are not used to ask a question............... one of the main
. whomever..... 41............ Module 6. which.What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who. Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet.. I almost forgot that it was your birthday.... expressed in a special way...... RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence.. The term ³clause´ really means extra bits of Page 44 36 information in a sentence.... We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale.... that in many sentences.. whom.... I saw the television program which was banned in the States.. and 42 in the Practice Booklet....... Relative pronouns: who. The driver who didn¶t stop got a ticket...
Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. TYPES OF VERBS A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. The horse jumped the fence.parts of every sentence. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. They realized their mistake. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. These nonaction
. Page 46 38 2. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. David decided to move to Woodstock. ACTION VERBS Most verbs are action verbs. such as The children ran after the dog. Underline the verbs you used. He caught the ball easily. A. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. She drives very carefully when it¶s snowing. That accounted for his absence. 1. In fact. The rose grew very quickly. STATE OF BEING VERBS A very small number of verbs express a state of being. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. She thought about what she had done.
A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am was being is were be are has been had been have been will be will have been are become (all forms) seem (all forms) Compare these sentences. They show that something or somebody exists. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. We were scared. I am happy. Sherri is an accountant. I am a student. I ate the apple. They were unhappy.verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. You will be successful. The dog was friendly. You are hungry. John is tired. He was a good friend. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer¶s state of being and ³happy´
On the other hand. the writer¶s state of being is as a student. Martha tasted the chili. Here are the most common ones. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action.describes how the writer is feeling. Tom grew 3 inches last year. The verb ate is an action verb. and the sentence means that ³I´ = ³a student´. This is one way to use a ³state of being´ or ³linking verb. This is the second use of the ³state of being´ or ³linking verb´. In other words.
. Module 6. In the second sentence. they are considered to be action verbs. He felt the water before he jumped in. Page 47 39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. something that can really happen or that is observable. Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. As well. not a linking verb. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. I and apple do not refer to the same thing. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action.
The engineer sounded the locomotive¶s horn at the crossing. The sky grew dark before the storm. 45. AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS In the previous section. He walked to school every day. The evidence looks convincing in this case. The sculpture felt smooth. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. The music sounded perfect in the arena. Page 48 40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. Within a verb phrase. The chili tastes good. called a verb phrase.) The smoke smelled stronger now. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. therefore. FORMS OF VERBS 1. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. Do Exercise 44. they are consider to be linking verbs. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. 46. or the fact that something has certain qualities. and 47 in the Practice Booklet.
. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. B.
I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o¶clock. When you called. and did are helping or auxiliary verb. will can be a main verb. I was eating my dinner. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. as in I willed all my property to my children. I had eaten my dinner. thought. Travel. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were
. will. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. finishing. When will comes before a main verb. We have thought about a vacation this winter. have. it is a helping or auxiliary verb.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. Sometimes. were. I am eating my dinner now. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below. however. Before calling. and write are the main verbs.I will travel to Halifax on the train.
Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other ³non-verb´words. In some sentences. Saved is the main verb. but which are never part of the verb phrase. are being. The main verb is saved. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase. had been am being. were being Page 49 41 As you have just seen. I will have saved enough money by Christmas. Here tested is the main verb..m. At 5:00 p. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. should and have are the auxiliary verbs. not
. I have never driven in a big city before. has been. Although rare.has have had shall will do does did have been. was being. is being.
called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. we need to use different forms of verbs. In fact. in the present. you cannot have a sentence without a verb.never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. past. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. in the third person singular. 9 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I II III
. 2. Page 50 42 This form becomes ³walks´. in the past. and future. VERB TENSES Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. before today. Every verb has FOUR main forms. ³carries´. In order to talk about the present. ³brings´. as well as what will happen after today. in the future. etc.
were been being
. are. is was.IV PRESENT PAST PAST PRESENT PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE walk walked walked walking 9 carry carried carried carrying bring brought brought bringing sing sang sung singing hit hit hit hitting do did done doing am.
Simple Verb Tenses These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. The children had heard the story. The children are reading the story. 1..the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. 3. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses Page 51 43 a. and future.. Simple present He walks to school. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past. this module explains four common tenses.has.
. Present 3. present and future. from Column II. have had had having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past. To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. present. Past 2. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. 2. Simple past I walked to the store today. the present or the future. How can you tell? 1. Future. The children will be hearing the story.
She will make the cake. I and we.To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture. from Column I. he walks Simple future
. To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. It will be here. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will. but the correct written form uses ³shall´ in the first person. You (plural) will write that test. will in the second and third person. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL EXAMPLE PART Simple past none Column II . I shall walk to the store. ³will´ is almost always used when speaking about the future. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. Today.past I walked Simple present none Column I .present I walk. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow.
Despite its name. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been. Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. or is about to be.present They will publish b. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past. have. .I had answered your letter before you called me.) Past perfect .Past Perfect
.will or shall Column I . completed. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil. Because this is the past perfect. The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first.Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine. Present perfect .I have completed my assignment. the past form of to have as its auxiliary. it uses had. It is built using Page 52 44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. . Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. had. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling. He has finished his work. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used.
I shall have showered before you arrive.He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. have Column III. Future perfect . Page 53 45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past perfect had Column III. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other. The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have).past participle He has sung Future perfect will have.past participle We had walked Present perfect has. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future. Progressive Tenses
. Column III.Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see.past participle I shall have done shall have c. but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm.
Page 54 46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE
. are. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). The future form of to be (will be. In this case. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. at sometime in the future. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. shall be. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. Here. are. was. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. is. Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. the action of ³watching´ takes place over a period of time. were. they will be selling only new computers. Future progressive: Eventually. shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling).The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. present and future. you use one of the progressive tenses. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. too.
Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions. RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV....had answered 2. Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately.... are.. My sisters had been discussing my birthday party. Sheila had answered all their questions... were Column IV-present participle He was eating Present Progressive am. Column IV-present participle We will be shall be doing d... Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries.. is Column IV-present participle You are eating Future Progressive will be. the present participle.. They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive. Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then. Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense. He has been saving his money to buy a car. Identify the auxiliary..AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past Progressive was... Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase... 1. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have
but you learn them later.
... Then.. and choose the correct form when writing. this is truly an example of a past perfect tense........ Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?... There are other tenses......3....... Try this one yourself... As a final check. The students will be walking to school from now on. The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense. look at the main verb..... Is the auxiliary in the past.. Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes..... Page 55 47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence.the perfect tenses 4.... present or future.. The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses.had is in the past form..
are Column IV You are finding Future Progressive shall/will be Column IV She will be fitting Past Perfect Progressive had been Column IV I had been sitting
. have Column III She has carried Future Perfect shall/will have Column III I shall have rung Past Progressive was. is. were Column IV He was hearing Present Progressive am.SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Simple Past none Column II I walked Simple Present none Column I He sings Simple Future shall or will Column I They will sing Past Perfect had Column III We had hit Present Perfect has.
If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb. These verbs are called irregular verbs. If there are no words written in bold type.Present Perfect Progressive has/have been Column IV He has been filling Future Perfect Progressive will have been Column IV We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add ³s´.´ing´ or ³ed´ to form its principal parts. Page 56 48 IRREGULAR VERB As you may have noticed. Look up the verb. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown feel felt felt spring
. the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the ³entry word´. just use the dictionary. If it is an irregular verb. some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs.
.sprang sprung ring rang rung drink drank drunk bring brought brought burst burst burst eat ate eaten rise rose risen raised raised raised swim swam swum cut cut cut lie (to recline) lay lain lay (to place) laid laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet.
M. The effect of using a passive voice is to ³downplay´ the ³doer´ of the action. the VIA train has the strongest focus. One of them is to reduce someone¶s or something¶s responsibility for an action. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. based on s sentence structure and meaning. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first. For example. The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night.Page 57 49 3. In sentences using active voice. When you hear or read a sentence. so in this example. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. ³Good writing´ generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. In this case. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P. on a stormy night. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which ³downplays´
. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. The truck was hit on a stormy night. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. On the other hand.
(by whom? by what?.. the guests played CDs and discussed local news. CDs were played and local news discussed. When you find them. At the party.someone/something´. you should rewrite it. A vicious dog bit Mark.by the heat.. restructure the sentences to place the ³doer´ of the action at the beginning of the sentence. putting the ³doer´ at the beginning. Think about how you report bad news.
..) Page 58 50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing. (by me). Often it is phrased in the passive. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled... if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog.. If you can¶t find a ³by´ phrase.(by me). The candles were melted. Here¶s an easy way to find passive verbs. If you can. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. the verb is probably passive. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with ³by. At the party.the railway¶s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night. That house was designed by a famous architect. try to insert one of your own.. you should always read it through just looking for passives. When you proofread your work. My report card got lost. For example.
A child.. The trees. Although Lois could barely keep up. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. she still grabbed Clark¶s arm and . Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences. 56. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. Make sure your story uses only active verbs. 57... The clouds. lined the driveway. The clouds were white and puffy. pale and fearful. The counsellors were very angry. I am happy about winning the lottery. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. busy and happy. huddled in the ambulance. is the best thing a mother can think of. A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately. 53. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. The survivors... and 60 in the Practice Booklet.. However. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas. Page 59 51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence.Do Exercises 52. 59. tall and leafy. sailed across the autumn sky. puffy and white. and 54 in the Practice Booklet. Complete Review Exercises 55.
. 58.. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns.
The tourists are American. It seems to be injured. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. Page 60 52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. The book is heavy. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. angry are all adjectives. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6.The words tall. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. and other adverbs. happy. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. white. The boys will be hungry. puffy. Adverbs often end in ³ly´. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. He wrote a good answer. stately. Max was late again today.
When comparing two things. In the sentence below. Do Exercises 63. Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. Well is usually an adverb. If the sentence sounds awkward. Using the ³wrong´ modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing.
. bright: This light is brighter than that one. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. He answered the question well. Or I feel well.In this sentence. To use them properly. either adjective or adverb. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding ³er´. How are you? I am well. add ³er´ to most modifiers. 64. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives.
add ³est´.Page 61 53 fast: He walked faster than I did. beautiful: Today¶s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. When comparing two things. Do not add ³est´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street. Often. Usually. finely: Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. DO NOT add ³er´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. Instead of adding ³er´. more than two things are compared. and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. fast: He always drives fastest at night. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. the suffix ³er´ is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. sickly:
. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things. soon: They left sooner than we did.
It is not correct to say gooder. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding ³er´. this car's motor runs most quietly. Page 62 54 SINGLE FORM COMPARING TWO COMPARING THREE OR MORE Little Less Least Many More Most Much. goodest. but chocolate tastes the best of all. strawberry tastes better. quietly: Of the four. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. or by using more or most.Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met. Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. ³est´. or more good. These words actually change their form. some More Most Well Better
These words are called absolute adjectives . It cannot be less dead or more dead. correct and dead. further Farthest.Best Bad. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons. it is dead. or correcter. If something is dead. An answer on a test is either correct. because of their meaning. or not correct. Page 63 55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square
. badly Worst Worst Far Farther. It cannot be more correct.words such as.
supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER When making comparisons. Page 64 56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit. If the word modifies a verb. in the middle of is the preposition
. Compound prepositions. He is real happy is incorrect. an adjective. or another adverb. The correct adverb is really. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. use an adverb. some writers make mistakes because they can¶t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb. sometimes called complex prepositions. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. where. an adjective is necessary. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. how the action in a verb took place. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. therefore the correct version is He is really happy. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing.
at Superior School. him. to the library. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. Always use the personal pronouns me.in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. it. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. The students at Superior School went to the library with her. Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet.
. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. us. you. her. them after a preposition. There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below.
There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and but or nor for yet so Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. or you can make a speech. yet he never carries a map. (2 ideas) She couldn¶t attend school. and so on.Page 65 57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. (2 ideas)
. but I can¶t find the time. A conjunction may join words. an adjective with an adjective. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. (2 complete ideas) I want to go. phrases or clauses. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns. they peeled vegetables and told stories.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS A. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. and the boys danced. (2 ideas) You can write a report. (2 prepositional phrases. (2 adjectives. (2 ideas) I can¶t finish this dessert. nor* can I drink my coffee. for she had no money.
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. but also at the wrong address. in this case. it burned to the ground. so they cancelled the outing. both/and Example: Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late.It rained. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. C. therefore. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. whether/or Example: I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. Page 66 58 neither/nor Example: Harold was neither on time. nor at the right address. but they are always used in pairs. or lost. B. Although these could be two unconnected events. either/or Example: Harold was either late.
. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning.
therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas.Lightning struck the old farmhouse. consequently. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. however. we didn¶t go. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. Compare It snowed last night. call them to explain. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences.
. therefore. These are called subordinate conjunctions. it burned to the ground. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. We did. Page 67 59 D. they are adverbs. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it.
The road was slippery. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if
. Although she was confused.She was confused. As soon as you can. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. You won¶t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. she hasn¶t been able to go to school. I am not sure when that time will be. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. make sure Mark is alright. She didn¶t ask any questions. she didn¶t ask any questions. I would start studying now. If I were you. The truck drivers stopped carefully. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. Since she got that job. I am not sure when I will be able to come. I will be able to come sometime. Module 6 explains this in more detail.
Because of her loss. the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. Before the game. which. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. used to start a question or pronouns. which you learned in the pronoun section. Since I won the lottery. whomever. she was unable to afford the plane ticket. Since the election. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. These words are relative pronouns: who. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. Page 68 60 Before the party started. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns. whichever.
. E. they bought popcorn and a drink. whom. we went to the store. I decided to buy a new car. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns. that. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. are also used as conjunctions. Module 6.if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. she couldn¶t go to the concert. Because she lost her wallet.
(Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. It is the student¶s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. Page 69 61 Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery! X INTERJECTIONS Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. As well.Example: That club always has good entertainment. They
. any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. You can write your own or trade with a class mate.
The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. Use very cold. it is very cold today. it is some cold today! Boy. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. Page 70 62 XI SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES Boy. Use had gone.are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Boy. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. it is really cold today. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III. If he had went home sooner. If he had gone home sooner. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. not the past form from Column II. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet. did you see The Grateful Dead concert. I did well on that test. it is real cold today! Boy. that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. I done well on that test. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. Boy.
Use did. I¶m not finished yet. ³Very best. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. This sentence
. Bob said. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. Bob said. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective. Page 71 63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. English does not include the phrase very best. Fran did her best on that test. Use a phrase like Of course. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. The verb phrase is incorrect. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. ³Of course. The pictures should of been ready by now. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. I¶ll go with you next week. I¶ll go with you next week´. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. There is no such word as ain¶t anymore. I ain¶t finished yet. Fran had did her best on that test. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. The pictures should have been ready by now.The form of the verb tense is incorrect. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. Use the simple past form did.
so the correct pronoun is either who or that. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. Parts of the Sentence. really late. the correct form of the word is taller. ³Unlearning´ something you have said all your life is not easy. If you understand parts of speech
. or very late. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. Use really pleased. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late.needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. He is the taller of my two boys. Use certainly late. only two things are being compared. therefore. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. In this sentence. He is the tallest of my two boys. The officer is obviously a person. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. He is sure late with his payment this month.
please use the enclosed page to make the proposed correction using red ink and send it to us. spelling. * For feedback regarding the following items. others. NB E7M 5C5 Attention: Kay Curtis Tel. relevancy of the provided examples..Woodstock 100 Broadway Street Woodstock. Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution
.: 506-325-4866 Fax.. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? Page 72 64 FEEDBACK PROCESS For feedback. learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier.well.: 506-328-8426 * In case of errors due to typing. please use the form below: insufficient explanations. ambiguity or wordiness of text. punctuation or any proofreading errors. please forward your comments to: New Brunswick Community College . insufficient examples.
Muffins made with blueberries are delicious.
. My daughter sold her computer to a friend.number (include your text if possible) Page 73 65 FEEDBACK PROCESS Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution number (include your text if possible) Comments: Page 74 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 75 1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. 4. 1. The dog chased the cat under the porch. 3. 2. Check your answers in the answer key.
8. we saw the Northumberland Strait.Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. 6. 2. The ocean was calm. 1. 3. From the top of a small hill. So much snow covered the roads. 7. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. Penguins live near the South Pole. 8. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. 10. 7. Local markets are full of mussels. 9. 5. many husbands and wives were separated. clams. scallops. 5. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. but these birds aren¶t bothered by the cold. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. the little boats began to appear. Then. 6. and lobster. In small villages. 4. The Titanic sank in a few hours. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. When their boats are full. Exercise 2: Nouns A. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. and the clouds were beautiful.
B. He gave her several bottles of this. Underline all the nouns you used. Many of them came. 2. Who likes chocolate? 8. 1. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. 10. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. None of us was frightened by that. 9. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. 1. The stones on the beach were green. Exercise 4: Pronouns A.9. 7. but these are pink. Write 10 sentences of your own. she went for a tetanus shot. their catch is usually large. Storms make life on the water dangerous. but few stayed long. 3.
. All of those are expensive. Page 76 2 6. 10. After she cut herself. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. If the weather is good. What did you bring with you? 4.
1. 3. 7. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze.
. Give me some! 9. 3. 4. We always welcome suggestions. She often rode the bus home at night. 5. The pitcher threw the ball. but the insurance covered it. 8. She never gave them any of it. He dreamed about his recent accident. Many told about the kindness of strangers. 7.Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. 2. Write 10 sentences of your own. Mine was destroyed by the flood. 6. They told about the hardships we survived. This belongs to her. 4. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. The robin perched on a lower branch. 5. Underline all the pronouns you used. B. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. 10. Phillip called to tell them about that.
. Exercise 7: Verbs A. or have you finished it? 8. 9. 9. we decided on a movie. he has been driving more carefully. John ate his lunch slowly. 1. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. You will never guess the answer. 2. After work. Since his accident. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. 4. Lucy will send you her new address. 6. Are you reading that magazine. 5. The lions slept in the sun for hours. His parents thought about him every day. Page 77 3 3. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. Finally. 10.8. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 7. 1. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. 10. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. the dealer agreed to our price.
A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. Underline all the verbs you used. 3. After three days. 6. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. 5. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. life was returning to normal. The old curtains were torn and faded.Many branches had been broken by the wind. 7. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. 10. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. 8. they arrived at the train station. 2. 3. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 4. nine miles from Minto. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. 9. B. and they flapped in the light breeze. After a few hours.
. Write a paragraph about an exciting event. 5. 4. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. Soon. 6. food became scarce. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. They are calling it the storm of the century.
Yesterday. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. 10. 9. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. 8. Kate is a truly courageous woman.7. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. They arrived early for class. Rewrite it using enough adjectives Page 78 4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. Underline the adjectives you used. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. You cannot drive there! 5.
. B. 9. 1. These apples are juicy and red. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. 6. 4. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. 8. Can you come soon? 3. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. 2.
. 9. Politely. Finally. 2. 6. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. 1. 8. The colour of her dress was really flattering. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. The baby has been very cranky lately. Many people have never used a computer. Computers are relatively new devices. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. very fast computers are needed. 10. 3. 1. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. she wrote the very last sentence correctly.10. he asked for a second helping. 4. Generally. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. Today. Many businesses use them daily. 4. they are quite easy to use. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. 2. 5. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. 7. 3.
Page 79 5 6. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles.
. 1. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. The chairs on the porch were painted white. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. In his new movie. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. 7. 9. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. 4.5. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. 7. 10. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John¶s brother. Since the crash. 8. 2. 5. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. 6. Guests with tickets entered first. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie¶s. Underline the prepositions. 3. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. The time of day doesn¶t matter. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work.
Then indicate whether they are joining words. Oh no! He lost the puck.
.8. I hate boiled cabbage. Ouch! That hurts. Apples and oranges are good for you. or complete ideas (clauses). did you see that jet! 2. None of the items on that page are available until July. It was a life and death situation. 4. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. 1. Look under the table and in the closet. 1. Yuck. In 1992. 10. Page 80 6 4. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. 3. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. Wow. Underline the conjunctions. 3. 2. most of the money disappeared. 5. 9. No! Don¶t touch the brake. or groups of words (phrases).
If you are ready. we can leave so we will be on time. 7. 5. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. 4. we won¶t believe it. After we saw a deer. We ran home because it was raining. 9.I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. 6. Until we see it. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. 2. When they had finished. they gave it to the teacher. Although she missed the bus. 10. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. 9. 10. 3. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. Exercise 16: Review
. she and Lily still arrived on time. we drove to Doaktown. 1. 8. but I couldn¶t get a ride. so we went to the concert. we will have to stay home. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. 8. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. We bought the tickets. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. Before he gets sicker. he should go to the doctor. 5. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. Until the snow melts. 7. 6.
2. c. 7. 5. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 8. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened.
. The tall. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. 3. This book cost six dollars. The wind was cold. b. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. 11. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. 14. She was giving a short but interesting lecture. but the sun was really warm.Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. No. 12. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. 13. 4. 9. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. 1. 6. Page 81 7 15. Most of the students listened politely. Underline all the nouns. Eric and they learned very quickly. 10. Their house was built in 1990. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch.
Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? 6. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. 1. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake.Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. 10. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. 7. 8. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. rose justice
. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. 5. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Your instructor will correct your work. 4. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. 2. English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. 3. 9.
. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. 2. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. A large amount of deer were shot this season. write two sentences. 3. Write the corrected form in your notebook. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals.happiness cow school truth computer grace skiing stars bubbles fear Page 82 8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays.
Ann receives too many junk mail. Each of the boy¶s bicycles was locked. 2. 5. 4. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where
. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. Have you seen the dog¶s leash? 3. Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. Sue¶s friends bought her a sweater in the men¶s department. 1.4. Mary¶s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. They bought several rings at the auction. He received three months¶ back pay yesterday. B Reword each of the following phrases. 5. using apostrophes.
The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. (two sons) 5. 7. 6. and the familys name is Boudreau. read the section on apostrophes again. 10. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. Smith was worried about her sons health.necessary. 1. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. (one son) 4. Mr. Then try these sentences. 8. Charles company owed him two days pay. 1. 3. Mr. Page 83 9 2. The childs name is Nora. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. Marks mother lives at my sisters. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. (two uncles)
10. 4. When you have completed the test. (one girl. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. 7. Page 84 10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. mark your own work. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. you should review the parts of this section that gave you
. 6. and do not peek at the answer key. If you had any mistakes. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winters last lament´. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. Because of the accident. do not look back at the material in the module. his wifes income was reduced. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. (one client) 9. As you work through the test.2. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. two twins) 3. or ask your instructor to mark it for you.
This is the store belonging to Doris. A. B. C. B. Chatham.³trouble´ thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. Read the following sentence. Ferry. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. try this test again. accidents. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. 1. Read the following sentence. That is my neighbour's new car. D. 4. Centennial Bridge. accidents. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road. That is my neighbours' new car. connects. Bridge. Chatham. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. Chatham. C. Road. Chatham. Centennial Bridge. 3. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. Ferry Road. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. B. That new car is my neighbour. accidents. D. Ferry Road. Centennial Bridge. The new car is my neighbours'. 2. When you are satisfied that you really understand.
Nova Scotia. Our friends lived in Halifax. Read the following sentence. they. town. Halifax. holiday E. town. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. B. The nouns in the sentence are A. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. this. Nova Scotia.C. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. What is a noun? Page 85 11 6. Halifax. before they moved to this town. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. Nova Scotia. this. 7. January
. Halifax. Nova Scotia. soda pop B. Halifax. 5. Nova Scotia. A. E. friends. Those toys belong to the children. friends. C. city C. magazine 8. D. A. town. friends. D. river D.
A. Canada C. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. correcting the errors. singular. Jupiter E. Parker 9. D. concrete. C. There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. Saint John D. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. 11. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. I had a great time last St. The flower's petals fell to the floor. B. Dr.B. Page 86 12 The first one is done for you. Church: common. count church mice mob beauty
. Patricks Day.
I saw them eating their lunch myself. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . 3. Did you give him his book? 2. 4. Cheryl gave her cold to them. Number. Gender
. My sister. but mine is on the desk.Canada¶s news armies meat equipment boys¶ loyalty jury grammar March fragrance men¶s company surprise trouble English horn sunrise boy¶s Lions¶ Club broccoli Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. 1. He may have taken her coat. 5. her husband and their children visited your mother.Person.
their. You. write its person and number . Try not to look at the chart above. hers. She. myself 2. Page 87 13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. 1. ourselves 4.
. 4.A. They didn¶t know it was theirs until they saw its label. You should take yours. Where are you going with her tapes. First person singular E. They. yours. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. your. his. your. 1. its. They say that we should always mind our own business. us. themselves 3. herself 5. yourselves B. We. First person plural A. his. You. her. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. mine. I. my. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. 2. me. The first set is done for you. yours. hers. yours. ours. whose are always followed by a noun. our. your. our. When I went to the club last night. they took my jacket and your camera. Third person plural D. them. 3. theirs. your. their. Notice that the pronouns my. her. Second person plural C. Third person singular B. yourself F. The pronouns mine. Beside each.
Students often think that (you.ours. using the correct pronoun. theirs are used alone. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. they) will fail. me) could go to the game? 7.
. her) to town. rd Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. check the answers in the answer key. John and (he. 3 person singular). 5. 8. me)! 6. 1. Jerry took his brother and (she. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use. 4. they) have to keep trying. They were sure that Lisa and (he.e. (You. Give the pencil to Martha or (I. yours. him) went to a meeting 2. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. Do you think that (he. After finishing all the sentences. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn¶t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. 3. but (you. him) and (I. him) were going to Miramichi. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook.
their) own learning modality. 10.I do not want (those. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. using the right pronoun -
. Page 88 14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. its) not likely to return. I). her. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. (You¶re. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. Your) hard work means that (you¶re. If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence. 9. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. they¶re) ugly colour. them) sneakers because of (their. leave it as it is. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. Rewrite the sentence. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. your) going to pass. (It¶s. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. 11. its) nest was destroyed and (it¶s. using the correct pronoun. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. A student must try to find (his. Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me. 12. If a sentence is CORRECT. REWRITE the sentence. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car.
2. Al met John and she at the movies. They kept the secret from Jack and I. You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. 5. 9. 12. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! Page 89 15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. 1. 3. The boys tried out for the football team. Jane¶s best friend is me. 4. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. 2. The man standing outside in the rain is him. 7. 6. We sent her some flowers. 11. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. 3. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. Could him and me could go to the game? 8.Mary gave her the keys.
. 1. 10.
2. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. 5. 2.The dog belonging to you has run away again. 5. 4. The dog's ears are pointed. My family are always ready to support their relatives. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. The merchants gave donations. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. 1. A student should always be on time for his or her class. 1. Some managers write their business letters themselves. The students asked for new books. It gathers once a year for a reunion. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. 10. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. The president should take his office seriously. The instructor will give them those. 7. B. Philip gave her her present. 6. The jury were presenting their opinions. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. 8. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. 9. 4. Our family is not large.
. 3. We ourselves were happy to participate.
his. The deer hurt (her. their) supervisors. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. 9. 4. his or her. 3. their) pen. its) leg when it jumped the fence. 8. 3. A few forgot (his. 4. 7. their) mutual friends' wedding. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. their) own bus ticket. Page 90 16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun.
. her. 1. Many hens have escaped from (her. their) lunches. The audience clapped for their performance. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. 5. his or her. his or her. Max and Helen sang at (her. None of the boys has paid for (his. Does anybody know (his or her. his. The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. Several of the men have paid (his.Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. their) report later than tomorrow. Each of those buyers should consult (his. their) dues. her. her. 6. 5. and he should pay it. No one should submit (his or her.
This is the one I want to buy. Emphatic. Whose book is that on the floor? B. A few of us have received (his. e. Give me all of these and some of those. 2. Wash the car yourself this time. these. You will learn about the use of this. 5. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. her or his. 4. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall. 6. her. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. 1. and those as describing words later. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. our) marks. Did he really say that? 3. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. that. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. 5.10. 1. 3. Then tell which is which.
. their. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. Write This is mine.g. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. Such cannot be true! 4. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences. 2. Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns.
4. Page 91 17 7. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns
. Ian is the one who knows that. Whom should we reward? 6. What did you bring for lunch? 3. 1. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves.I myself won¶t put up with that. 8. 8. Who stole the money? 2. The man who won is my friend Steve. He hasn¶t decided what he wants to do next. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. 10. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. He said many things which I didn¶t understand. 9. What have you done with the keys? 10. 5.
How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. it always gives me the shivers. What would anyone do with that? 4. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. 8. 3. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. The children themselves saw it. 7. 6. My first attempt was a failure. 9. When you talk about that accident. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her. 2. Which is right? There are two choices. 5.A. He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. 1. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. making notes as you go.
. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. The furniture was destroyed. both of them look correct. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. B. but later I had learned from it. 10. Page 92 18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. but the house itself was undamaged.
everybody 6. ³What can I do to help those less fortunate?´ 10. did you? 5. Match the term on the left with the example on the right. but he took mine. demonstrative pronoun
. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. reciprocal pronoun C. 1. 7. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. 1 person plural A. 2. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. interrogative pronoun B. our 4. Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. You didn¶t give that to them. these st 2.1. but the contractor poured the cement. its 5. 6. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. 9. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. Sherri took your boots. each other 3. We did most of the work ourselves. relative pronoun D. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. Something is missing from this recipe. Always ask yourselves.
possessive pronoun H. Mr. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. reflexive pronoun I. them) shoes. which) is barking lives next door. hisself) on that rusty can. d. himself 9. its) tail. him). The dog (who. its K. e. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. their. (they¶re. c. themself 8. The cat often chases (it¶s. He cut (himself. Hutchins bought (their.F. Don¶t buy (those. a. few 2. j. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. me).
. i. what 7. Be sure and tell her where (your. there) too expensive. Page 93 19 f. b. there. g. a word that doesn¶t exist J. you¶re) house is. they¶re) old car. which 10. h. Sheila and (her. she) went to the automatic teller.
Page 94 20 8.She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. bonus is the antecedent of it 6. B. Few of them knew the right answer. 7. 5. us and the kids returned to Rexton. employees is the antecedent of them D. Do you think there house is big enough? D. the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. he told them to spend it wisely. B. C. For each underlined pronoun. Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. C. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. A. we and the kids returned to Rexton. Those are mine. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. Underline every pronoun you have used. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. C. After the holidays. Which sentence below is correct? A. B. A. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. it is the antecedent of bonus. Bill is the antecedent of he C. Volunteers. D.
. A. the kids and them returned to Rexton. Which statement below is not correct. themself) 4. The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. B.
7. D. 3. My sister¶s name is Paula.
. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. 6.The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. Use each one in a sentence. We watched a movie last night. Who knows anything about this? E. 1. Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. Ask your instructor to review your work. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. 2. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. The baseball hit the boy in the face. For each verb that you identify. The students were happy about their marks. it is classed as an action verb. The dog jumped over the fence. His car smashed into a bridge. 5. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. B. Then underline the verbs. 4. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. Buy yourself something expensive.
Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. 8. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. The pie smells good. 10. 11. 1. 8.
. we coughed all day. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. There were fourteen people in that class last year. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. We feared the storm. 15. 7. 3. Smyth was my uncle. 5.Mr. The little mouse squeaked loudly. Because of the dust. 9. He looks taller than Mario. 6. Page 95 21 14. the bookkeeper at Colpitt¶s. Close the door to the garage. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. 2. 12. We were afraid of the storm. 13. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand. You know my aunt. The children became excited before the snow storm. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. please. 4.
Wolves always howl at the moon. the other with a linking or copula verb. if any. taste. 2. 13. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. This stew tastes good on a cold winter¶s night. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. Madonna sings and dances well. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. 12. 4. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences.9. grow. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. 15. Page 96 22 SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. We played ball against their team Saturday. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. 3. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. sound. I felt sick after the party. feel. Would you please flip the hamburgers?
. 10. Suddenly. 11. That would have confused anyone! 5. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. 14. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg.
15. won¶t you? 9. Today. 7. He had been learning Chinese at school. 7. 1. Have you ever heard such nonsense. Sue may never have been given that letter. Mitchell has lived here all his life. Carl will kick the ball across the field. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. I will not be going. 10. There was a good show on TV last night. 4. Carl kicks the ball across the field. A child can easily learn this song.6. 12. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. The washing machine has broken down. 8. Today. 6. not after the last trip. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. I shall never agree to his proposal. 5. Today. 14. Yesterday. He might have consulted a doctor. 2. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. Page 97 23 8. 13. 9. Carl had kicked the ball across the field.
. 10. Tomorrow. The men should have eaten that supper by now. 11. Tomorrow. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. 3.
D. C. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. B. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. B. Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. B. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. we will serve dinner. I have completed my income tax return. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. D.
. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. I am completing my income tax return early this year. B. C.Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. When they arrive. 2. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. 3. C. By the time they arrived. 4. They have lived here for two months. we had already served dinner.
She has designed a logo for the company. C. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. C. B. D. She designed a logo for the company. He will be finished painting my house by tonight.
. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. 7. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. D. B. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. D. Page 98 24 6. She is designing a logo for the company. 5. He has finished painting my house. They lived in Halifax before moving here. 10. He is finished painting my house. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A. 9. She will design a logo for the company. 8. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash.They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. He will finish painting my house soon. 11. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. C.
The butcher had already delivered our order. E. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Barry threw the ball to first base.12. C. The train will be making three stops before Montreal F. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. D. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. G. By the time you get to school. Write your answers in your notebook. Page 99 25 4. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. The disaster relief team has sprung into action. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. 3 Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. SENTENCE TENSE? A. My son did his homework last night. I am feeling better already. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. B. Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice
. 2. the bell will already have rung.
My heart was broken. After the elections. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. 14. Stephen King has written many best sellers.Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. 8. 1. 15. 2. 3.
. Page 100 26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. I was frightened by the storm. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. We have been searching for answers to our questions. 11. the votes were recounted several times. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. 12. 6. I have just been thinking about you. Sandra¶s writing is improving daily. 13. The child was struck by a stray bullet. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. 7. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. 10. 9. 4. 5.
It is at this point that a
. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. This was a ³trick´ exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. Now look up each word in the dictionary. Once they have been placed in a sentence. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. Look at the words below. they start to function by carrying the writer¶s meaning to the reader.Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. Change the passive verbs to active ones. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A. words cannot have a part of speech. All by themselves. Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs.
For each one you identified. 2. 7. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. 5. 6. Have you eaten here before? 4. C. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech. Page 101 27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below.word develops into a part of speech.
. 1. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person. Lunch will be served at twelve o¶clock sharp. write everything you can about it. The first one is done for you. 3. He has never drunk stout before. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. Number: 3 person singular rd Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee.
6. 2. I am doing my homework now. My sister always rides her bike to the office. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. they will announce the results. and verbs in each sentence. 9. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. 11. 7. 3. He is dating a beautiful doctor. Something should be done about each of these problems. The houses had just been repainted. 12. 8. but old ones are gold. 10. and Verbs List the nouns. Everything that Tom says about them is true. The music will have been playing for several hours. The men were unhappy with both of those. I shall be seeing you again next week. 15. The child was severely bitten. New friends are silver. They might not find each other at the airport. 5. 14. 13. Page 102 28
. What were you thinking? 10. The couple usually walks to the office. When everyone is finished. Pronouns. 1. 9.8. pronouns. 4. so the dog was destroyed.
2. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. How much money will you need next week? 7. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. 8. 3. 3. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. 2. 5. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother¶s now. and Verbs List the nouns. Pronouns. If you have too many mistakes.Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. Oprah has changed people¶s attitudes towards honesty. 1. I am happy about your decision. Kevin gave me Marion¶s card. 1.
. All of these will sell well. 4. Pronouns. Your choices seem logical. Then give as much information as you can about each. He had watched TV for more than an hour. 4. Why haven¶t you written that letter yet? 6. Where was he going? 5. The jury is discussing its decision. Tony will have finished his course by next June. 9.
9. He smelled the fresh bread. 5. 7. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. Pronouns. Will you complete that survey? Page 103 29 10. 3. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. 1.10. The storm grew worse as night approached. What has anyone seen lately. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. 2. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. 8. 6. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. study it. Don't forget articles. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba. and his mouth watered. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. Those were made in China. these come from Sackville. If you find you are still confused about some points. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. 4. SENTENCE
. Write your answers in your notebook.
12. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and
. 10. 13. sweet and lovable. 6. Do you like spicy. juicy apples. Karl¶s hockey skates are dull. This trip takes several days 8. An old rusty car is parked in my space. 11. Give them some light summer clothes. Invite those six people. sat on the dining room table. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. 15. Our cousins were eating huge. sparkling blue eyes. 5.Adjectives Nouns 1. 14. Page 104 30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. The road was rough and uneven. 4. We bought Shelley and Tim¶s house. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. The little girl had big. 2. 3. Mexican food? 9. I have had a boring. Two cats. These parcels are heavy. 7. depressing day. A few boys knew that they were lost.
autumn leaves that littered the ground. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. The weather was warm. piercing the inky darkness. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. and the hills were gentle. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. Jensen¶s chicken farm. Yesterday. 2. bright and narrow. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. they saw a beam of light. After two long hours. and ate their supper. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. lit a huge crackling fire. Bob read the material carefully. With relief. Where is the grocery store now?
. They set up their canvas tents. 3. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags.
4. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. 6. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. 7. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. 8. The circus was really exciting. 9. Simon is not a very good driver. 10. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Page 105 31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. For each adverb, tell whether it modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. 1. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. 2. Thoughtfully, the old man chewed his dinner. 3. Make sure that you review daily. 4. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. 5. Tim was very happy about his success. 6. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 7. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun.
8. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. 9. The soldiers were really tired after their training. 10. She strolled leisurely down the mall. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Indicate the type of modifier, i.e: adjective or adverb. Write your answers in your notebook. Write an explanation of your choice. Example: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage.( ) Answer: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage. (adverb) 1. Leah behaves (good, well). ( ) 2. Sheila feels (sad, sadly) about the death of her dog. ( ) 3. I am not (really, real) sure if I will have a party. ( ) 4. The directions were (simple, simply) to follow. ( ) 5. I don't feel (good, well). ( ) 6.
The repairs went (slowly, slow). ( ) 7. The change in speed was (gradually, gradual). ( ) 8. You work too (serious, seriously) sometimes. ( ) 9. We feel (awful, awfully) about what happened. ( ) 10. These chocolates taste (good, well). ( ) 11. Firefighters must respond very (quick, quickly). ( ) 12. Lynn spoke in a (calm, calmly) voice after the accident. ( ) 13. Tiger Woods putted (bad, badly) on that last hole! ( ) 14. The lights shone (brightly, bright) in my eyes. ( ) 15. Paul did (good, well) on his second driver¶s test. ( )
Page 106 32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. 1. Who is the (smaller, smallest, most small), Cathy or Diane? 2. My heart beat (rapidlier, more rapidly, more rapid) with each step. 3. It snowed (most, more) in January than in February. 4. The damage to the other car looked (worse, more badly, worser) than the damage to mine. 5. Tom thinks math is (difficulter, more difficult) than grammar exercises. 6. He is the (elder, eldest) of the candidates. 7. This idea is (more unique, unique, most unique). Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. Answer: Carl drove to, from, around, near, beside, etc. the bank. 1. Dawn fell the horse. 2. Earl worked him.
3. I will meet you the front entrance. 4. The horse galloped the field. 5. Smoking is not allowed the building. B In the next part of this exercise, find and underline the prepositions. 1. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day.. 2. Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. 3. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. 5. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. 7. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 8. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. 9. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. C
Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb....... when... If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun.. Page 107 33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence... tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb.
.. 1. it is a prepositional adjective phrase...when..m........where:.....m.prepositional adjective phrase modifying ³woman´ on the bench.... Here¶s an example.. The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p. The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat....... During the night.Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition.. with the red dress... 2... If it is telling where. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook....prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ at 5:00 p. why or how the action of the verb took place...prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise...... it is an prepositional adverb phrase...... the rest of the water drained from the basement. After each one..
1. 6. he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store. but she went home on the bus. but also steaming hot.3. Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. 9. Exercise 70: Conjunctions . Correlative. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill. 10. 7. the designer placed a beautiful statue. the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day. 3. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens. The chili was not only spicy hot.
. 2. After his graduation in 1992. Since his return. or Lynn and Joan will take our place. Either Anna and I will go. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet. 6.Coordinate. 4. On Fridays. Because of the storm. In the middle of a big spacious lawn. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms. 8. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. 5. I asked her to wait for me. 5.
however. 10. the team returned home. 4. I wonder why they are leaving so early. 3. Tired but happy. meanwhile. 7. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. Mark knows more than I do about that case.Page 108 34 7. 1. 2. I made supper. 15. 13. 9. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. We will go. Since I first met Sheila and her. as a result. we will not pay our own fare. so he just drank pop all night. 11. I know where they have hidden the treasure. 6. The weather was snowy. He was the designated driver. she has always been very polite. some local citizens rescued it. they will be cut down. 5. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. but also I will perform. I won¶t be able to go even though I have the money. Not only will I attend. 14. he felt prepared. He organized his study time. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm.
. yet he decided to drive anyway. 8. 8. the children swam in the pool. 12. but I don¶t have a map. After the whale beached itself.
Because you were late. Underline all the relative pronouns. Les is five inches taller than I am. Unless the Leafs win this game. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. they couldn¶t fix it themselves. 17. Copy these sentences into your notebook. you missed it. 23. If you are short. 15. you can¶t reach that cupboard. 12. 1. Before they read the instructions. 10. It isn¶t certain whether they will come or not. the students asked if they could stay. Thieves broke in while we were away. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. 22. 13. The first one is done for you. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. 18. 14. 11. I don¶t know how I will get there. the wind was cool. He always talks as if he were an expert. After he won the gold medal. 24. Although he is stronger. he couldn¶t turn it.9. 20. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. 16. 21. 25. they are out of the playoffs. 2. 19. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. Although it was quite sunny. Are you sure that you are right?
. You just answered my questions before I asked them. After the lecture. He reported that he had seen the incident. For each sentence above. he turned pro. Page 109 35 B.
Your ancestors lived beside the sea. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. 9. That book that you bought last month is very interesting. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. (10) 4. My sister. 1. I know who bought the Fuller¶s house. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday. (10) 3. mine lived near Moncton. Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) 5. 6. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. came for a visit. 5. The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. Page 110 36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported. 7.
.000 aren¶t worth the money.(7) 2. 4. Dogs make good pets for young children. 8. The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. who lives in Utah. Cars that cost more than $20.3. 10.
(12) 8. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. but today they are in a circle. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring.Those big.
. The frail. (9) 11. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors¶ home. (12) 14. 1. Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. The students in this program are very hard workers. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. (15) 2. Casually. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. so you can buy several of them. (5) 13. She believes in his ability. Usually. (11) There are a total of 150 words in this review. Count the number of correct answers. (6) 10. If you have less than a 120. Page 111 37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. I do not think about their problems now because I don¶t have time. the chairs were placed near the windows. (9) 12. He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (14) 7. Identify the parts of speech of each word. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. (9) 15. (11) 9. Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately.(15) 6.
did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) 18.(10) 6. (13) Page 112 38 17. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) 12. (9) 10. you can
. Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) 15. I had been studying for three hours. (8) 11. (12) 14. the victims have recovered quite well. Since the accident. (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. Because of her problems. The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. (11) 16. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. (6) 19. (13) 13. They had been writing their essays before they went there . Sue often seeks my advice.(9) 7. Because they have cashed their cheques. (10) 9. his clever tricks have failed. (6) 5. (10) 8. Very quickly. Finally. the damage was minor. (14) 4. Although the storm was very intense. If you correctly identified 160 of them. Hey Eric. they have some money. they bought lunch . and I still don¶t know it. Ouch. After they had mowed the lawn.(14) 3. The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. they finished their work. Miles¶ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can¶t pass those provincial exams. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs.
Page 113 39 BAU ENGLISH . find one example of each of the following: (11) a. Abstract noun j. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made. Common noun g. Count noun b. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Concrete noun i. Singular noun e. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Ask your instructor for supplementary work. Possessive noun d. Read this paragraph. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Collective noun
. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Proper noun h. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech.continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book. fruit. In the paragraph above. and meat.PRETEST 1. Non-count noun c. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife.
b. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. We 3. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. non-count noun 9. 3 person singular rd B. The six workers complaints were very reasonable. Sallys covered a whole month of work. The horses hooves needed new shoes. Someone 2. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. f. What 1. 3 person plural rd H. 3. e. Rewrite these sentences. Noun used as an adjective 2. possessive noun. It¶s 6. plural C. indefinite pronoun F. Their 4.(8) A. 1 person plural st G. means ³it is´ E. Sisters¶ 8. Its 5. Plural noun f.k. d. c. using apostrophes correctly. Paul¶s 7. possessive noun. singular
. interrogative pronoun D.(9) a. g.
The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. 3.(11) 1. Linton. During the week. 2. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. 7. They were afraid of bears. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze.(10) 1. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. we work for Mr. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. (2) 7. 5.
. 3. The teacher with the beard is Mr. He always uses a cane since his accident. Charles.Page 114 40 4. The crows flew toward the swamp. 6. 2. 6.
9. 7. 10. 8. 9. Paula will rent a car in Boston. His Ford has always run well. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. I was the first one there! 8. Next summer. Use the correct form of the adverb early. 4. Are you cutting her hair? 6. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. Use the correct form of the adjective good. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. 10. Write a sentence comparing two people.John is always talking to his boss lately. Write a sentence comparing two actions. 12. Page 115 41 11. 5. we will go to Disneyland. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. They ate six lobsters each.
. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Write a sentence comparing two things.
Count noun b. her) were the first to arrive. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. Read this paragraph. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. 5. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. Proper noun
. 14. 3. and meat. she and them 2. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work.(41) 1. fruit. 2. Our new neighbours have three young children. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife.13. 1. In the paragraph above. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Common noun g. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. 4. Her 1. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather.
Possessive noun d. d. c. e. We 3. g. Abstract noun j. The workers complaints were very reasonable. not a personal pronoun E. Concrete noun i. It¶s
. 3. Rewrite these sentences. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Their 4. indefinite pronoun F. 3 person singular rd B. Sallys covered a whole month of work. Noun used as an adjective 2. Plural noun f. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. using apostrophes correctly.(8) A. Non-count noun c. Singular noun e. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Collective noun k. Page 116 42 b. possessive noun. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. plural C. Its 5. The horses hooves needed new shoes.h. Someone 2. f.(9) a. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. interrogative pronoun D. What 1.
6. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze.(11) 1. 3 person plural rd H. The teacher with the beard is Mr. non-count noun 9. 3. During the week. Linton. Sisters¶ 8. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. 1 person plural st G. Paul¶s 7. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store.6. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. we work for Mr. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. 7. possessive noun. singular 4. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. Charles. 2.(10)
. 6. (2) 7. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. 5. He always uses a cane since his accident. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4.
Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. 4. Are you cutting her hair? 6. I was the first one there! 8. 10. John is always talking to his boss lately. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. we will go to Disneyland. Next summer. 7. His Ford has always run well. 3. 2.1. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. 9. Page 117 43 5. They were afraid of bears. 10.
. Write a sentence comparing two people. Write a sentence comparing two things. 8. Paula will rent a car in Boston. 9. Use the correct form of the adjective good. The crows flew toward the swamp. They ate six lobsters each. Write a sentence comparing two actions.
Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. and (they. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. her) were the first to arrive. How many nouns does this sentence contain?
. 12. she and them D. her and them 15. her and they C. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. she and they B. Hey! What are you cooking for supper.Page 118 44 11. A. 2. 14. them) were the first to leave. 13. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences.(44) 1. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. 5. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. Use the correct form of the adverb early. 4. 3. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog.
are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. The complete verb in this sentence is A. and swamps. be playing C. Two D. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. Seven D. D. Six C.
. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. Five B. Five B. and people. are used to take the place of pronouns. including ponds. things.Wetlands. marshes. C. describe substances. 18. and qualities. playing Florenceville B. animals. Six 17. join groups of words or sentences. include the names of persons. Three C. places. Eight Page 119 45 16. Nouns are words that A. B.
The homeless man. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. lost against 20. ragged. very B. ragged. playing 19. was very hungry. They have never lost a game against that team. homeless. dirty. lost D. The adjectives in this sentence are A. B. the chocolate covered.
. D. dirty. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. was. Which one? A. homeless. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. Which donut is the biggest. very. The complete verb in this sentence is A. hungry D. 22.has played D. hungry Page 120 46 21. They are moving to Moncton. or the glazed? B. ragged and dirty. ragged. dirty. homeless. have lost B. dirty C. the. ragged. C. the. The following sentences make comparisons. never lost C. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A.
B. D. Molly¶s. Them sneakers are really great! C.Yesterday.
. E. Them skates are real good. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. TOTAL: 133 Page 121 47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . He divided the candy between Sarah and I. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. Answers will vary. The dogs blanket wasn¶t in it¶s house when the storm hit. lady¶s. D.PRETEST 1. I bought a pair of sneakers. week¶s 6. 23. Sally¶s 3. weeks¶ 2. Duncan¶s 5. Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box.(9) A. a. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. Molly and Sally¶s 4. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. C. 2.
Paul¶s possessive noun. Someone Indefinite pronoun 3. walk walked walked walking
. horse¶s or horses¶ Explain the meaning of your choice. We 1 person plural st 4. What Interrogative pronoun 2. 3. Their 3 person plural rd 5. It¶s means ³it is´ 7. singular 8. A. Its 3 person singular rd 6.workers¶ 7. sisters¶ possessive noun. plural 4.
Linton after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees in the light breeze with the red wheels beside the general store 6.cut cut cut cutting sing sang sung singing think thought thought thinking drive drove driven driving 5. Answers will vary. of the cereal in the cupboard during the week for Mr.
. Page 122 48 7.
...noun soon.. 10.. 11.....preposition Jeb¶s. have sold.adjective disks...verb to.preposition Mount Carleton............noun 2..verb to.pronoun of.. possessive friend.....adverb 4... 1....adjective neighbours.verb three....adjective team. is talking.. has run...noun....preposition these........ 13... will go.noun have..noun and... Answers will vary.. 9. Hey... Answers will vary.......verb going..noun 3....flew.....noun belonged... Our.. That. Answers will vary...adjective dog.pronoun/adjective new.conjunction a..... ate.. were.noun is. are cutting..interjection
... will rent 8..adjective young...... 12... Answers will vary.........adjective children..... Answers will vary. was... Many.......
...verb you.verb the.......adjective men............ C 22.. Those skates are really good...adjective bad..noun Page 123 49 14.. Several......adverb discussing..preposition supper.noun were..preposition the.. C 21..verb always. B 18.noun from... D 16.......noun 5... A 15.. 2.pronoun cooking..adjective weather.... A 20.. C 19..adjective camp.pronoun of..pronoun are..... A 23.......What..
.......preposition the...... A 17......verb for... A..
C.(6) B. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband. In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. Oh no. B.(9) C.He and I went to Ashley¶s house.(11) E. An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows.(51) A. Cheryl¶s ideas are better than mine are. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. Identify the part of speech of each word. Each of these would have been correct.PRETEST 1.
. The dog¶s blanket wasn¶t in its house when the storm hit. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock. D. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband. 3.(16) 2. 4. Page 124 50 IAUENG . John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. 5. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D.
Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years.3. E. Relative pronoun 2. 4. F. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. The bosses letters are always long and dull. (8) a. D. (7) A. C. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. A month from now. Indefinite pronoun 1. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. I will call you. Page 125 51 5. A. E. I bought those pants in the childrens department. B. Myself c. The Sullivans have a new boat. C. What b. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. Personal pronoun
. B. Name the tense of each verb. Beth handled the dog very well today. Sheilas mother lives next door. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. D. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work.
Each other 6. Reciprocal pronoun 4. C. B. Yourselves e.3. Interrogative pronoun 8. for. Jim. spend. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. 8. C. Read the following sentence. Reflexive pronoun. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. These h. Christmas.
. We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. D. Anne. plural 6. B. D. Us g. and. to. with. Which f. Themself 9. Someone d. today. left. Emphatic pronoun. 7. Cape Breton. Demonstrative pronoun 7. families. singular 5. We watched the ships come in that night. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families.
D. D. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. the cameras' strap. the camera strap. D. 10. C. C. B. university women's club. Page 126 52 9. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A.Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. university's women club. car belonging to my neighbour. my neighbour's car. C. university's women's club. B. the cameras strap¶s 11. university womens' club. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. my neighbours car. B.(6) early quite almost
. my neighbours' car. the camera's strap.
I shovel snow mow lawns. 13. changing the verb to the future perfect tense. Rewrite the paragraph. Rewrite the sentence.(3) A. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). D. Page 127 53 14. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph. C. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. B. using pronouns as you think are necessary.fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. B. A. Write the tense of the verb. Ron was late he stopped for me.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? C.) 12. Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. The ferret belonging to Shirley was
B. 16. 1.(6) 4.named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret. In the following sentences. D. Monford¶s old barn. C.(3) 3. large and unpainted. changing the verb to the present perfect tense. Rewrite the sentence.(3)
. A. Use each in a sentence.(5) 2. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies.(5) B. is too flashy. Write three (3) sentences with interjections. A. looked abandonned.(4) 5. As far as I can see.(6) 17. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. I heard a great new song on the radio. List five (5) linking verbs. Write the tense of the verb. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. red and expensive. Monica¶s sneakers are always dirty and dusty.(5) 18. Their sporty new car. Our children don¶t like the icy. cold water. 15.
Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. The entire team did not feel (well. Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb.Page 128 54 19.VERB
. 20. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). privately) meeting. Write the tense of the verb. A.NOUN writes . 22. D. Cindy writes letters. A. B. Rewrite the sentence. C. B. B.(5) 21. Ted damaged his car (bad. Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. good) after the meal. D. changing the verb to the past perfect tense. badly). Choose the correct modifier. The managers had a (private. C. slowly). Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following). E.(8) Example: A. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow. B. really) (well.(10) A. Cindy . good). He answered those questions (real.
Your work is good. 8. E.(5) Page 129 55 24. He sure done good on his last test. Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. yet we never received it. The man who wrote that book is in town today.(10) A. 3. 25. F. we cancelled our trip. A storm was forecast.NOUN 23. 5. He had went there several times before.(12) 1. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. They completed the report which we requested. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course. Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test. G. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim. 4. therefore. 2. B. C. 6. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. they visited Len and Jennifer. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone.letters . While they were away. Could him and me rent a movie? 7. D. Total 192 Page 130
. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. but it still needs more work.
...IAU ENGLISH ...verb better....................adverb happy..56 ANSWER KEY ......... Cheryl¶s.interjection Matt..............noun of....pronoun are. Are.adjective windows.adjective extremely...... B....conjunction/pronoun they........adjective than.....adverb D..PRETEST 1....adjective that............noun C..verb here..... possessive ideas.. An..noun rattled......preposition thunder...verb not.........adverb have..adjective clap.verb coming.verb
.verb the.pronoun are..verb...noun are..adverb loud.pronoun really.......conjunction mine...... A...noun. Oh no..verb you.noun will...
.noun E...adjective answers.verb Woodstock.........verb been.....pronoun would.adjective money.....adjective but. Simple future D. Simple past B.... Past progressive C...adverb wrong.......noun leaves.conjunction/pronoun you.adjective tour..verb have........... A........adjective 2.pronoun of... C Page 131 57 3..preposition these.....verb correct...verb now......noun before..noun that. Each.........verb are......conjunction the....pronoun changed.................. Simple present
1 6. 4 g. A 8. bosses¶ E. B 10. 9: e. Sheila¶s B. c. Nicole¶s D. 5. A. a.E. Jones¶ weeks¶ 5. f. Answers will vary. h. Present perfect progressive 4. d. 6. b. B 7. children¶s C.
. 2. B 11. 7. C 9. 3. mother¶s F.
. Answers will vary....adjective slowly. dusty. 18................past perfect 22... new. lived Simple past have lived.adjective (after a linking verb) private... great.. expensive. Answers may vary. Answers may vary..barn Our.... icy. feel simple present had felt..sneakers Monford¶s.. badly. Simple future 3.adverb well. Answers may vary...adverb well..... flashy... 21. new.water their... old...
. will have completed 13.... Answers will vary.adverb 20. dirty..children the... abandonned...12.adverb really. Answers may vary. cold.. will complete 2. a.present perfect 16.......... A. 19. 23.. Page 132 58 15. Answers may vary. sporty..radio Monica¶s..... 14... unpainted.. large...car 17..song the. red..
.relative pronoun who....co-ordinate conjunction.. I bought some of those apples from Jim and him. The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport...relative pronoun but..conjunctive adverb that..co-ordinate conjunction yet.24.co-ordinate conjunction either/or. The driver could have finished this if he had had the time.. He had gone there several times before. The lawyer will do the work himself... Page 133 59 25..... and. Page 134 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 135 1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns
..co-ordinate conjunction therefore... Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course..................correlative conjunction while.subordinate conjunction and.
Confederation Bridge. Northumberland Strait 2. few 2. clouds 3. fishermen. Stones. truck 5. mussels. snow. storms. passengers. Saint John. she 6. roads. Titantic. She. computer. you. those 7. porch 2. husbands. these 9. they 3. top. Florida.1. Japan 9. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. friend 4. Robert. Who 8. boats. themselves 5. hours. catch 10. They. villages. people. couples. traps. birds. What. lobster 5. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. penguins. us. scallops. area. that
. harbours. Answers will vary. water B. herself. collision. dog. you 4. canneries seafood. ocean. motels 6. None. South Pole. 8. muffins. weather 10. lobster 7. weather. boats 4. clams. All. lives. life. Everybody. Shediac. markets. daughter. something. blueberries 3. them. car. wives 8. night shipment. 1. cat. cold 9. sea 6. ship. iceberg 7. Many. drivers. fishermen. hill.
Rides 8. 1. Threw 2. Walks 7. Them.10. them. were jogging 2. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. Me. He. Looked 10. any. some 9. What. Thought 9. Sat. her 3. This. Many B. us. Page 136 2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. They. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. Answers will vary. Ate 3. Perched 3. that 5. We 7. Flew 4. it 4. it 8. Was enjoying
. Cost 5. her. you. She. Dreamed 6. Who. Mine. no one 2. his 6. we 10. him.
the. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. Soon 3. Has been driving 6. the. Learned 2. six flower the. light 7. old. These. Paper. Hope. Will send 9. delicious 3. torn. Little. A. Agreed 10. A. Became 6. beautiful. the steel 8. brown. the. Are reading. long. Early 2. The. faded 6. Carefully
. Was bringing 4. Six. The. Will guess 7.4. new. annual 9. quiet. The. dusty 2. have finished 8. Was returning 9. summer. red 10. train. that. 5. Decided 5. hockey. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. Are calling 10. Arrived 7. white 4. hot dry Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. Brought 8. The. few. Had been broken 3. Could stay 5. dark. juicy.
correctly 9. on trains
. very. in the guest room 2. at the beach. effectively 7. beside those. Surprisingly. Not . If you identified them as adverbs. very 4. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. under the stairs 4. quickly 10. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. towards home 3. Relatively 2. really Note: for class. where. on the table. 5. Very. you are really thinking. On airplanes. lately 8. Quickly. there 5. late 8. Truly 9. quite 6. Really. Yesterday. accurately 5. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. Finally. why. Daily 3. Never 7. Through the park. Generally. tomorrow 6. Today. Not. Politely. Of her dress. Page 137 3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. Brightly 10. Here.4. Behind the desk. On the bed. at noon.
Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie¶s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2. With tickets 8.6. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. With the long scarf. On the porch 7. to Stanley 10. On the road. in the mall Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared
. From maple trees. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John¶s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. into a syrup 9.
After ideas 7. Ouch 4. And words (2 nouns) 3. And words (2 nouns) 2. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. And adjectives When
. No 5. Wow 2. And adverbs But ideas 5.Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most Page 138 4 10. Before ideas 8. And prepositional phrases 4. Yuck Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. Oh no 3. So ideas 6.
. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1. When 9. Because yet 3.ideas 9. If so 8. Carol noun 2. Although and 2. That both. Or which 4. Our pronoun/adjective and conjunction friends noun I pronoun in preposition
. Because Exercise 15: Review 1. And 10. Who but 5.and 6. Because ideas 10. Until 7..
Their pronoun/adjective tall adjective house noun majestic
.Page 139 5 travelled verb Calgary noun to preposition were verb Alberta noun surprised adjective last adjective when conjunction year noun we pronoun arrived verb 3. The adjective (article) 4.
No interjection 6. We pronoun you pronoun jogged verb should verb quickly
.adjective was verb Rocky Mountains noun built verb majestic adjective in preposition are verb 1990 noun a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun 5.
adverb not adverb through preposition take verb the adjective (article) your pronoun/adjective dark adjective camera noun woods noun on preposition your pronoun/adjective trip noun 7. She pronoun of preposition was verb the adjective (article)
. Most pronoun 8.
We pronoun 10.giving verb students noun a adjective (article) listened verb short adjective politely adverb but conjunction interesting adjective lecture noun Page 140 6 9. The adjective (article) bought verb wind noun a adjective (article) was verb very
Sheila noun book noun and conjunction cost verb he
.adverb cold adjective small adjective but conjunction quantity noun the adjective (article) of preposition sun noun food noun was verb yesterday adverb really adverb warm adjective 11. This adjective 12.
Turn verb American adjective at preposition fishermen noun the adjective (article) caught verb lights noun two adjective and
.pronoun six adjective were verb dollars noun talking verb to preposition her pronoun when conjunction it pronoun happened verb 13. The adjective 14.
. Eric noun and conjunction they pronoun learned verb very adverb quickly adverb Page 141 7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1.conjunction salmon noun go verb for preposition two adjective lunch noun blocks noun west adverb 15.
school. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary. carnival. city Bathurst. Regina 3. stars. bubbles
. syrup. areas North America 8. hockey*. computer. England 10. Alberta 5. Marsha. newspaper. grammar English 7. language. settlers Gaspé. Bay of Chaleur 4. leaves. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. path Black Lake 2. exceptions. mill Robin. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. cow. street Beresford 9. sister. France.moonlight. sale. arena. people. weekend Italy 6. rules. family. stores. maple*. parcel. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective.
happiness. 3. a lot of. Ann receives (too much. 3. a few. several.) junk mail. Owen has (many. etc.
. Charles¶ company owed him two days¶ pay. etc. a large number of.Abstract nouns: justice. months¶ 4. etc.) deer were shot this season. dog¶s 3. many pieces of. (one son) 4. truth. Bob¶s uncle lives near Sharon¶s farm. men¶s 5. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. several. the children¶s book Elvis¶s biggest fans the secretaries¶ meeting the bosses¶ memos my oldest son¶s car the men¶s department Page 142 8 the buses¶ schedule the cats¶ paws the coyote¶s barking two weeks¶ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1.) assignments to do this week. Sue¶s. 1. Martha¶s sister was worried about her son¶s health. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. 4. grace. skiing. a large amount of. boy¶s B. 2. (Many. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. Mary¶s 2.
(two uncles) 2. The girl¶s hair had been cut short for the twins¶ wedding. Because of the accident. 9. 4. his wife¶s income was reduced. 6. (one client) 9. The sun¶s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. 6.Mrs. (two sons) 5. but the company¶s salesman went to my cousin¶s (cousins¶)* place. 10. 7. City Council¶s regular meetings are held on Mondays. either would be correct. Finish your client¶s reports before you go to Smith¶s tonight. My uncles¶ farmhouse was struck by during last summer¶s storm. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winter¶s last lament´. and the family¶s name is Boudreau. * Depending on the meaning. Frank and James¶ mail order business is making them a rich man¶s fortune. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. 3. Childs¶ car was being serviced at Eaton¶s. Have you seen Mel Gibson¶s last three movies? 5.
. 7. Mark¶s mother lives at my sister¶s. The child¶s name is Nora. The students¶ cafeteria will be closed after next week¶s graduation. The women¶s resumés were sent to the companies¶ head offices by the bosses¶ secretary. The skateboarders¶ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 10. 8. Smith was worried about their sons¶ health. Mr.
nouns 2. Centennial Bridge. verbs 4. interjections 3. Chatham. Ferry Road. pronouns 3. A. adjectives 5. Laura is Pam's oldest sister. adverbs 6.
. 4. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive. conjunctions 8. prepositions 7. The proper nouns in the sentence are B. B. Page 143 9 2. That is my neighbour's new car. This is Doris's store. The eight parts of speech are: 1.A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. C.
Saint John. Fredericton. Little River. town. friends. The nouns in the sentence are C. place.Canadian Living. Inside Sports. Discover. Easter. city Moncton. Answers will vary. or quality. New Brunswick Day. Coca-Cola. Orange Crush. New River D. Miramichi River. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen.Pepsi. Labour Day. Check your answer with your instructor. Canada Day E. A noun is a word which names a person.I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. magazine . Ottawa C. Boxing Day. river St. 5. 7-Up. Truro.
. holiday Christmas. Entertainment. Bathurst. Salmon River. thing. Halifax. Halifax. Sports Page 144 10 Illustrated. John River. Those are the children's toys. 6. Nova Scotia. Chatelaine. Campbellton. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. E. Sprite B. Consumer Reports. soda pop . 7. Thanksgiving. Parents 8. Edmundston. A. D.
Patrick's Day. plural mob . Saint John city D. Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? E. Dr. C.Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. possessive
. concrete. Jupiter planet E. count. Parker doctor 9. singular Canada¶s . B.common.common. no corrections D. collective.proper. A. (Example: New Brunswick .common. singular mice . abstract. 10. concrete. I had a great time last St. The petals of the flower fell to the floor. There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. singular. non-count. church . abstract*. count**. singular beauty . count. concrete. January month B. count.province) A. Canada country C.common.
count.common. count.common. count. plural. count. concrete. concrete. non-count. abstract. count.common. non-count. count. count. count. abstract*.common.common. collective. abstract. count. singular trouble . possessive Lions¶ Club .g. singular jury . count. possessive loyalty .common. concrete.
. I saw them eating their lunch myself 3. ³Lions¶ possessive broccoli . etc. singular/plural grammar . singular boys¶ . Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1. singular boy¶s . plural.news . count**. abstract*. but mine is on the desk.common. count. French/English Canada. He may have taken her coat. e. plural food . collective.common. singular armies . singular English horn . concrete.common.proper. non-count.proper.common.common. concrete. Upper /Lower Canada. abstract*. singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one.common. concrete. singular men¶s . concrete.common. singular gold . abstract. collective. abstract. collective. count.common. singular March . count. concrete. concrete. abstract. count. abstract. singular fragrance .common. singular surprise . singular. possessive company . concrete. count.common. singular Page 145 11 sunrise . singular. Did you give him his book? 2.common.
Cheryl gave her cold to them. yours. us. Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . yourselves 4. their.2 person singular nd 2. She. Third person plural B.3 person plural rd rd rd they . them. My sister.Person. I .1 person singular st rd st your . your. you . herself 3. her.4. They . ours.3 person singular rd rd 3. hers. First person singular A. themselves 5. 1.3 person plural my .1 person singular they . me. We. Second person singular F. my. You. ourselves 2. Gender A. her husband and their children visited your mother. 5. Third person singular D. Number. theirs.3 person singular theirs . 1. myself B. mine. our. First person plural C.3 person plural its . They.3 person plural it . I.2 person singular/plural her .3 person singular feminine
The following is an
. his. it¶s 10.1 person plural our -1st person plural rd st Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. he. Have your instructor check your answer. he 3. those. their 9. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. they 8. You 5. they.2 person singular/plural nd nd 4. They . Its. Your.nd rd you . I 7. her 11. he 2. me 12. you¶re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary. Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection Page 146 12 1.2 person singular/plural yours .3 person plural we . her 4. me 6.
Now it¶s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. 2. That doesn¶t sound right. Her is the right choice. it had not been driven very far when he bought it. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1. 7. Your other choice is her. 6. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. The word yous does not exist. Her gave.. so try Al met her at the movies.example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. Although his car is not a new one. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday.. 4. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. 3. To find the right choice. Al met John and her at the movies. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car.
.. We sent her some flowers.. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. Read the sentence without John . His car is just like a new one. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. Mary drove I to the mall. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. Al met she at the movies. 5.
Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance.but try switching the sentence around. The pronoun yourself is singular. Now the other pronoun choice.) 11. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one. In this sentence.) 8. and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? Page 147 13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. 10. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. Jane's best friend was I. Me was Jane's best friend. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. Therefore. two people should be preparing themselves. the second sentence sounds better. He is the man outside. Use the same strategy as in sentence 11. (This is tricky and may not sound right. They kept the secret from Jack and me. They kept the secret from I. Page 148 14 9. The man standing outside is he. I was
. The second choice makes more sense. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. Him is the man outside.
.... The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun.family (used as a single unit) 6.students.... Only one person received a trophy... Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech. Their.Jane's best friend.we 9... Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe. 1.. B. themselves........one (Girls is not the antecedent. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1.. His. Mine 5.................
.managers 3.family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8. Decide which sentence sounds the best.. They 2. those.) 7....... Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Her... Her 3.. Ourselves.. Your instructor will check your answer.. Them... The obvious choice is the pronoun I. Their.president 2. 12.jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5... Your 4.books 4... It. It¶s means ³it is´. Their...
(It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear.. (Philip bought the present. 4. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. The audience clapped for the actors¶ performance. The police officer told the driver.. 2. His or her. and you should pay it.. 3.. 3..These.. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2.. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1..) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn.. the gender is not clear) Page 149 15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. Norm and Al filled Al¶s (or Norm¶s) basket with apples from Fredericton.donations 10. ³You deserved this ticket.. As well.
.student (3rd person singular. (Donna bought the present. Philip gave her a present. Norm and Al filled Jim¶s basket with apples from Fredericton.) Philip gave her Donna¶s present.´ 5.. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale.
9. 10.no one else washed it 4. This 2. Each other reciprocal 3. 1. Exercise 38: Reflexive. 8. 7. Yourself
. A few of us have received our marks.an action he did to himself 2. Many hens have escaped from their pen.. Yourself emphatic. That B... those 5.... Emphatic. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence..Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding. That 3. Several of the men have paid their dues. One another reciprocal 5. Himself reflexive. A few forgot their lunches. 4. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow.. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket. 5. Such 4. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. These. Answers will vary. 6..
(PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal
. Which 7. Ourselves reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1. ----4. ---8. Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is. Themselves emphatic 8. What 10. What 3. Herself reflexive 9. Myself emphatic Page 150 16 7. Who 2. (To) whom 6. ---Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. Himself.reflexive 6. herself reflexive 10. ---5. Which 9.
. themselves. 1..... refers to person(s) nd who are present that.indefinite pronoun... 3 person plural. singular that.. singular it.personal pronoun.personal pronoun.. What.interrogative pronoun anyone....... you.. singular. singular or plural. feminine
... 3 person singular....... replaces the rd noun accident me... 2 person..personal pronoun. neuter (no gender)...emphatic pronoun...demonstrative pronoun 4.... 1 person singular. 3 person singular rd 3. She...personal pronoun. refers to the noun rd children it.R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B.personal pronoun.... 3 person.. refers to person who is speaking st 2.demonstrative pronoun...
. rd shows possession. singular. 3 person.... singular........ He......demonstrative pronoun. shows possession..... used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone..relative pronoun. 3 person.. singular or plural nd 7..personal pronoun... refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which. 3 person.reflexive pronoun. 2 person. 3 person..personal pronoun. masculine rd Page 151 17 his. masculine and/or feminine... rd modifies the noun boss that.relative pronoun.rd herself.. 2 person. plural... singular.... modifies the noun bill them.. plural.personal pronoun...demonstrative pronoun.indefinite pronoun you.personal pronoun.relative pronoun.... That. singular that....... singular... used as a conjunction to join two ideas you.. feminine rd any..........indefinite pronoun her.. 3 person.. masculine and/or feminine rd
. feminine rd 5. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those.. masculine. 3 person.personal pronoun. singular or plural nd 6.personal pronoun.... their... plural..personal pronoun...
they.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, masculine and/or feminine, refers rd to a plural noun mentioned previously it......personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, no gender, refers to a singular rd noun mentioned previously. 8. My.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession, modifies the st noun attempt, refers to the person speaking I.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, refers to the person speaking st I.....(as above) it.....personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, neuter, refers to a ³whole´ idea rd (the first attempt was a failure) 9. Which.....interrogative pronoun both......indefinite pronoun, plural, refers to the noun choices them.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to pronoun both which rd refers to the noun choices 10. itself......emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1. all.....indefinite pronoun my.....personal pronoun 2. who.....interrogative pronoun 3. they.....personal pronoun themselves......reflexive pronoun
4. You.....personal pronoun Page 152 18 that.....demonstrative pronoun them.....personal pronoun you......personal pronoun 5. who......relative pronoun each other......reciprocal pronoun 6. your......personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he......personal pronoun mine......personal pronoun, possessive 7. We......personal pronoun you.....personal pronoun who.....relative pronoun that......demonstrative pronoun 8. We.....personal pronoun ourselves......emphatic pronoun 9. yourselves......reflexive pronoun what.....interrogative pronoun I.......personal pronoun those.......demonstrative pronoun 10. Something.......indefinite pronoun Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1. 1 person plural C. st
interrogative pronoun F. or I. reciprocal pronoun B relative pronoun F. or I. indefinite pronoun (plural) K. demonstrative pronoun A. indefinite pronoun (singular) E. possessive pronoun J. reflexive pronoun H. a word that doesn¶t exist G 2. Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive. Page 153 19 3. a. she b. himself c. me d. which e. its f. your g. their h. those i. him
j. themselves 4. Answers will vary. 5. A. is incorrect 6. D. is correct 7. B. correctly completes the sentence. 8. A. Few.....indefinite pronoun, plural B. Those.....demonstrative pronoun, plural mine.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession st C. which.....relative pronoun themselves.....reflexive pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to companies rd D. Who.....interrogative pronoun anything......indefinite pronoun, singular this......demonstrative pronoun, singular E. yourself......reflexive pronoun, singular something......indefinite pronoun Exercise 43: Action Verbs A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. jumped.....action 2.
hit.....action 3. smashed.....action 4. watched.....action 5. were.....linking 6. is.....linking 7. was.....linking 8. will be.....linking 9. were.....linking 10. feared.....action Page 154 20 11. squeaked.....action 12. were.....linking 13. drove.....action 14. believed.....action 15. tasted.....action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. smells.....linking 2. looks.....linking 3. looked.....action 4. became......linking 5.
.action 12.. howl.linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary.. Close. played ---------4...... drive will 2..action 14..action 6... felt.. Would you please flip the hamburgers?
...action 9..... dances. tastes... Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. We played ball against their team Saturday. felt.. know...coughed..... slammed. taken must have 3.action 13. publishes. sings.. fell.action 7... He must have taken my jacket by mistake. That would have confused anyone! confused would have 5.. drove.. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter.action 8...linking 10.action 15............action 11. broke.
consulted might have 13. He might have consulted a doctor. The washing machine has broken down. Sue may never have been given that letter. heard have 12. A child can easily learn this song. learn can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses
. broken has 11. eaten should have Page 155 21 10. was ------7. agree shall 15. There was a good show on TV last night. Mitchell has lived here all his life.flip would 6. not after the last trip. I will not be going. Have you ever heard such nonsense. lived has 8. The men should have eaten that by now. I shall never agree to his proposal. going will be 9. given may have been 14.
3. has kicked. had been learning.. was giving.... D.. He has talked to the Lions¶ Club before. will be leaving. 6. Answers may vary... 8..past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. kicks. is kicking..simple present B.....A..future progressive I. had kicked.. Answers may vary. A.simple future D.... has been kicking. They will have washed the laundry by then.. B..... 2.......past perfect H.past progressive J. 4.
..future perfect G.. 7. C..present perfect progressive E.... Answers may vary. B.... A. will have kicked. 5... Vanessa was signing her lease... 9... will kick..present progressive C....present perfect F.
A. We have been thinking about you lately. Active 3. Answers may vary. Present perfect D. It had been snowing for three days. Future progressive F.10. Simple past Page 157 23 Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. Answers may vary. The couple will be needing even more room soon. Past perfect G. 11. Passive
. Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs Page 156 22 1-3. Simple past C. Passive 2. 4. Present progressive B. Answers may vary. 12. Passive 5. Future perfect E. Active 4.
Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Active 7. Will show 3. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Passive 9.6. Passive 11. Have eaten 3 person plural 2 person (singular or plural) rd nd simple future present perfect active voice active voice
. Passive 15. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word¶s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Passive 8. Active 14. Active 12. Passive 10. Active 13.
Had been asked 5.4. Has been asking 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd past perfect present perfect progressive passive voice active voice Page 158 24 The committee had asked Page 159 25 6. Will be served 7. Spoke 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd simple future simple past passive voice active voice ³The waiter´ will serve 8. Shall be seeing
Was bitten 1 person singular 3 person singular. Walks 3 person plural 3 person singular rd rd simple present simple present active voice active voice 12. Am doing 13. st rd future progressive simple past active voice passive voice The dog bit the boy 9 b) Was destroyed 10 a) Are 3 person singular (neuter) 3 person plural (m or f) rd rd simple past simple present passive voice active voice ³The vet´ destroyed 10 b) Are 11.9 a). Will have been playing 1 person singular 3 person singular
Pronouns. office my. neuter rd rd present progressive past perfect active voice passive voice ³The painter´ had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. is
. Gander. bike. Tom everything. planes. Had been repainted 3 person singular 3 person plural. that.st rd present progressive future perfect progressive active voice active voice 14. wings its landed 2. her rides 3. ice. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. them says. sister. Is dating 15.
and Verbs 1. each other might find 9. Spanish my. each should be done 8.. singular gave. they is finished.. proper. herself was teaching 7. singular...Page 160 26 4.. Kevin. active voice
. Pronouns... parts us buys 6. men both. concrete. simple past. company.. airport they. 3 person. sister. ---you were thinking 10. results everyone. problems something.verb. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns.noun. those were 5.
.noun.. st mother¶s. singular. 3 person.pronoun. common.pronoun. plural these.. simple present.. singular.. plural will sell.verb. common. singular..verb. concrete lives. proper.. concrete........ present progressive. personal.rd me. Pronouns....noun... personal.... and Verbs 1. plural. possessive rd decision. singular are being asked.noun. possessive..noun. singular 4. active voice rd my..pronoun. Aunt Gladys.noun.. singular 2..
. jury. plural.. singular. 1 person singular st Marion¶s..... common. personal.. concrete. concrete. common. singular 3. possessive rd recipes... active voice rd its. 3 person.. all.verb... concrete..... proper.. 3 person.. indefinite.. 3 person. common. personal.... concrete. plural.....noun... concrete. possessive...... simple future...... common.. plural 5. 1 person..noun... collective is discussing.... singular card. chefs.. active voice rd Exercise 59:Nouns. demonstrative.. 3 person.verb.noun... concrete. possessive..pronoun.... passive voice rd their. singular. 3 person. present progressive.pronoun..pronoun...
. proper..... singular is talking.pronoun....noun....noun..... common..pronoun.. singular/plural. singular 4.. singular. Luke. singular phone. concrete..... linking....verb. 2 person. singular.. common..I..noun. past progressive. active voice rd his..verb. 3 person.. active voice rd 5.. linking.. common.. plural Page 161 27 seem...noun.. Your... concrete.verb. singular 2. 3 person.. action 3 person. 3 person singular rd was going. personal.. possessive rd girlfriend... common... simple present rd 3.. concrete.. He..verb.pronoun. active voice
. present progressive. concrete... 1 person singular. personal. 3 person. simple present st decision.. 1 person singular st am. singular/plural nd have written.. masculine. 2 person.. action... singular.noun.pronoun. personal. personal.. personal.. 2 person..verb.. You. plural. singular or plural... possessive nd choices.... present perfect.pronoun.....
.. 3rd person. common...... singular you.... proper. singular/plural nd will need.. singular hour.. 2 person.verb.... abstract....noun.... past progressive.. 2 person. concrete. common....noun... common..verb... simple future. active voice rd course... past perfect.. Oprah.pronoun.... plural st were walking. proper will have finished. future perfect.. 3 person..... common.nd letter. common.. active voice nd 7.....noun. singular 9. singular accident.. plural honesty.noun. plural.noun. singular... concrete.. common.. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns
.. common. singular has changed..... active voice people¶s.. concrete. concrete.noun..verb... masculine rd had watched.. 1 person.. 3 person.. singular June. present perfect... plural.. singular.pronoun.......noun. possessive attitudes...noun. concrete. non-count. common. 3 person. We. proper 10. concrete.. personal.noun.noun.... money. singular/plural.. 1 person.verb.. active voice st beach. concrete. personal..verb. He.... singular.... concrete. concrete. Tony.pronoun. singular. common.noun..noun. singular.noun.... common. personal. singular 8. active voice rd TV. singular 6.. concrete..
3 . singular... proper 5.pronoun.. count...noun..noun. singular. common.. common. his...verb. They.. simple past..... simple past. singular. 3 ...noun. simple past rd reservations.verb... plural rd were. masculine.. action. 3 .. singular grew. concrete. personal. 3 .. concrete.. linking verb. indefinite.noun. count.. count... He.. singular.. singular....pronoun..noun... 3 .. It.. concrete.... common. personal. common... personal. concrete. linking. concrete.pronoun..pronoun.. action.verb.... singular approached... simple past.noun. active voice rd 2.. non-count. personal. 3 singular rd afternoon...... rd night.. active voice rd bread..... masculine rd smelled. active voice rd 3. count. action.....verb...pronoun. storm. common.noun.. plural
. 3 .. concrete.. singular 4. used as an adjective rd Page 162 28 mouth. common... Many. singular watered.. 3 ....verb. plural.1. 3 person. singular. plural Cuba.... simple past.
. 3 . active voice nd survey..... common. concrete. singular. action.noun. common..verb.noun. plural were made. 3 person.... singular/plural.verb.. past progressive. proper.. plural come.. active voice rd Sackville. 8.... 2 .. personal. concrete.. common. present progressive. plural. active voice rd 9... plural are being changed.. simple past.... singular heat. action.... 3 . passive voice rd these. non-count. common.verb. concrete.. singular porch.. action... Her.. concrete. count.. plural....... Those.... Will complete.noun.noun. singular 7..noun.....verb. 3 person..... interrogative has seen. Liz. concrete. past perfect.. personal.. plural.. singular 10..pronoun. action. proper... common. What.colours. present perfect. count.pronoun.... simple future.verb. passive rd decorator.. 3 ... 3 person..noun.... common. concrete. feminine drove... count.. plural... concrete.pronoun. singular. action. possessive rd relatives.. singular.... 3 . singular/plural.pronoun.pronoun. common...noun... simple present. demonstrative.verb.. active voice rd
..noun..verb... plural were eating. singular 6. possessive rd lunch.. plural. concrete.. 3 ..noun. concrete.. demonstrative... active voice rd their.
. light* bulb 5. 3 . sweet icing the. big spoon 4. ragged string dusty. an.herself. proper. boring. reflexive. feminine rd Central Hospital.pronoun. the child the... rusty car my space 3. six
.noun. concrete Page 163 29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1.. uneven road 2. depressing day 6. a. The.. those.. old. a. singular. rough. sugary...
sparkling. The. our cousins huge. summer* clothes 14. Tim¶s* house 10. sweet. Karl¶s*. some. Shelley. dull skates 15. two. Exercise 62: Adjectives
. spicy. lovable cats the. blue eyes 11. juicy apples 13. Mexican food 9. they can be identified as adjectives. these parcels 12. hockey*. light. this trip several days 8.people 7. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun. little girl big.
They set up their canvas tents. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. they saw a beam of light. and ate their supper. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1. After two long hours. Jensen¶s chicken farm. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. lit a huge crackling fire.
. piercing the inky darkness. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. bright and narrow. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler.The young hikers walked through the dark woods. and the hills were gentle. A few boys knew that they were lost. and one older Page 164 30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. The weather was warm. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. With relief.
..... not..when extremely..how 2..... never. daily modifies the verb review 4......how efficiently 6...when carefully..how more.interrogative adverb now.. and Adverbs 1....how important 7.. thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3...... politely modifies the verb asked 2........how casually 3.interrogative adverb very.when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs.when 4........ Adjectives...how too....when never...how quickly 5....how good 10..how useful efficiently.
.....negative very......yesterday.... quite...... where. Why.when 8. almost....where later..... really...how exciting 9. there.. casually....
real is an adjective. Sad is an adjective. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. simply is an adverb. 3. An adverb is required to modify the adjective. Well. Simple. 2. The sentence describes how she behaves. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8. 5. An adverb is needed to Page 165 31 modify the verb behaves. Really is an adverb.
. Sad. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. so well. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1. Good is an adjective. fast modifies the verb travel. sadly is an adverb. 4. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7.tightly modifies the verb packed 5. is the best choice. very modifies the adjective happy 6. an adverb. very modifies the adverb fast 9. Really. really modifies the adjective tired 10. Simple is an adjective.
11. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. Quickly is an adverb. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. Gradual. Smaller. Quickly. More rapidly
. 8. Gradual is an adjective. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver¶s test. 15. Seriously. Badly. quick is an adjective. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. 6. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. 14. Calm is an adjective. Well. serious is an adjective.Well. 10. Good. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone¶s health. gradually is an adverb. An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. 13. 9. 12. Calm. An adverb modifies a verb. Awful is an adjective. awfully is an adverb. Taste is a linking verb. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. Although well is usually an adverb. Comparing two people 2. Awful. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. Seriously is an adverb. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. Badly is an adverb. Use the adjective good to complete it. 7. calmly is an adverb. Slowly. Brightly. bad is an adjective.
at. in 4. under 5. of (at the end of) 2. for
. to. Unique. B. of 3. down. along. For. of. Answers will vary. for. in. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. at 8. 1. with 6. More. Among. beside. Worse (comparing two things) 5.3. Eldest. on. with. Comparing more than two 7. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. near. in. around 7. by (on top of) 9. Page 166 32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. in.
. along the beach. in 1960.. With the sore ear. around the corner 7. for shells and pebbles. of her mother and father 3. on top..
....... by my son (on top of the hill) 9.. for the best costume... of the day (at the end of the day) 2..adverb.10.when of the day. with the funny hat D.. at noon 8... under my son¶s bed 5. 1. for. For shells and pebbles. in your group. in the world.why along the beach. of the hill. to. at the end..... for the conference 10....... to the clown. near the trees. with Page 167 33 C.. down the hill...adverb... beside the store.modifies the noun end 2. among the rubble. with the hornets¶ nest 6...where at the end.adverb.. in this store 4. for pictures. 1.adjective. to the door.
........adjective....modifies the noun top on top of the hill.......adverb...........modifies the noun women for the conference.......can be considered as one prepositional phrase..how Page 168 34 9.among the rubble.......adverb..modifies the noun socks under my son¶s bed....where with the hornets¶ nest...where at noon.adverb..... Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition..where 7.....when by my son....modifies the noun theme 10..adverb..adverb.adverb...adjective.adverb... near the trees.......modifies the noun houses of the hill..adjective.......adjective.modifies the noun trees 6.....modifies the noun prize to the clown...modifies the noun houses on top. how
.where around the corner....adjective..adverb...........why of her mother and father.....adjective.....adjective...adjective.......... with the sore ear....when 8...........adverb.......adverb....modifies the noun cat to the door..modifies the noun pictures 3......... for the best costume............adjective...... in 1960.adverb... in the world...........where 4...where 5...adverb.adjective... beside the store.........where for pictures..... down the hill... in this store..where.. in your group........
..modifying the pronoun all at the radio station.how.adverb.where 7.modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1..where 3.........modifying the noun men for two hours. near the mall..adjective............adverb........where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store.......when of the water.adverb................... In the middle.adverb...... where 2.adverb..... on the roof..........adjective..where 6...adverb...........adverb....modifying the noun rest from the basement..adverb...modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn......where to the north........when of the staff..adverb.......adverb....... On Fridays...adjective..adverb.where 5....
....how long in the heat.adjective.....adverb.adjective.with the funny hat...... during the night........where 8........where in front.adverb.........modifying the noun lady into the line...where in the closets............ in the kitchen... with big hat..where of a big spacious lawn.adjective.......adverb....modifying the noun women under the tables.....adjective..adverb........modifying the noun front in front of me..adjective.modifying the noun station at the old mill.........adjective...adjective.where of me.......modifying the noun north 4..........adverb........where of the city limits......
adjective.... After his graduation. or...... and. but 13....adverb......... nor 7.modifying the noun day care around the block......... or 4.adjective. either...... and 6.why from the day care....modifying the noun children at the church........... but also 10. and 5..when Page 169 35 in 1992. both.adjective.. not only. and 12...where 10. but also 3....adverb..Because of the storm... neither....modifying the noun ad in Manitoba.modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1.... but 2. neither.adverb... not only.modifying the noun graduation for a job..adjective..... yet 14.. nor 9.. meanwhile 11.. so
.. however 8.adjective..
15. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. because 2. since 3. even though 4. after 5. where 6. since 7. why 8. than 9. whether 10. how 11. before 12. if 13. although 14. because 15. while 16. because 17. although 18. how 19. if 20. why 21. as if 22. unless 23. than 24. after 25. before B.
1. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 2. (Since I first met Sheila and her), she has always been very polite. 3. I won¶t be able to go (even though I have the money). 4. After the whale beach itself, local citizens rescued it. 5. I know (where they have hidden the treasure), but I don¶t have a map. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. 6. (After the maple trees were damaged), they were cut down. 7. I wonder (why they are leaving so early). 8. Mark knows more (than I do about that case). 9. It isn¶t certain (whether they will come or not). 10. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). Page 170 36 11. (Before they read the book), they fixed it themselves 12. After the lecture, the students asked (if they could stay). Compare the use of after. In sentence 12, after is a preposition. Why? 13. (Although he is stronger), he couldn¶t turn it. 14. (Because you were late), you missed it 15. Thieves broke in (while we were away). 16. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). Compare this with, The roads were slippery because of the snow. 17. (Although it was quite sunny), the wind was cool.
18. I don¶t know (how I will get there). 19. (If you are short), you can¶t reach that cupboard. 20. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 21. He always talks (as if he were an expert). 22. (Unless the Leafs win this game), they are out of the playoffs. 23. Les is five inches taller (than I am). 24. (After he won the gold medal), he turned pro. 25. You just answered my questions (before I asked them). Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. that 2. that 3. who 4. which 5. who 6. whom 7. who 8. that 9. that 10. that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. Exercise 74: Review A 1. dogs noun 2.
The adjective (article) make verb pioneers noun good adjective settle verb pets noun quickly adverb for preposition on preposition young adjective the adjective (article) children noun small adjective farms noun around preposition Page 171 37 Gloucester noun 3. your adjective (pronoun) 4. Does verb (auxiliary) ancestors noun
he pronoun lived verb often adverb beside preposition go verb (main) the adjective to preposition sea noun the adjective mine preposition beach noun lived verb during preposition near preposition the adjective Moncton noun summer noun 5.
I pronoun big adjective do verb (aux) chunky adjective not adverb pots noun think verb (main) sell verb their adjective/pronoun for preposition problems noun nine adjective now adverb dollars noun because conjunction so conjunction I pronoun
.Those adjective/pronoun 6.
Everyone pronoun the adjective recognized verb thieves noun his adjective/pronoun surveyed verb courage
.you pronoun do verb (aux) can verb (aux) not adverb buy verb (main) have verb (main) several pronoun time noun of preposition them pronoun 7. Casually adverb 8.
.noun the adjective and conjunction neighbourhood noun strength noun until conjunction even if conjunction they pronoun he pronoun Page 172 38 spotted verb did verb (aux) the adjective not adverb right adjective house noun 9.
She pronoun students noun believes verb in
. Mark noun always adverb smelled verb smell verb the adjective wonderful adjective skunk noun in preposition and conjunction spring noun left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb 11. The adjective 12.10.
preposition in preposition this adjective/pronoun his adjective/pronoun program noun ability noun are verb very adverb hard adjective workers noun 13. He pronoun frail adjective has verb (aux) old adjective always adverb lady noun been verb (main)
. The adjective 14.
is verb a adjective safe adjective really adverb but conjunction excellent adjective unhappy adjective hockey adjective/noun at preposition coach noun the adjective seniors¶ adjective/noun home noun Page 173 39 15. You pronoun must verb (aux) never adverb
show verb (main) your adjective/pronoun fear noun of preposition snakes noun to preposition your adjective/pronoun children noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. Fred noun 2. Usually adverb sat verb the adjective on preposition chairs noun the adjective were verb (aux)
fence noun placed verb (main) and conjunction near preposition ate verb the adjective his adjective/pronoun windows noun lunch noun but conjunction while conjunction today adverb the adjective they pronoun others noun are verb went verb in
I pronoun 4. Very adverb had verb (aux) quickly adverb been verb (aux) they pronoun studying verb (main) finished verb for preposition their adjective/pronoun three adjective work noun hours
.preposition into preposition a adjective town noun circle noun 3.
After conjunction had verb they pronoun been verb had verb writing verb mowed
. They pronoun 6.noun and conjunction Page 174 40 I pronoun still adverb do verb (aux) not adverb know verb (main) it pronoun 5.
verb their adjective/pronoun the adjective essays noun lawn noun before conjunction they pronoun they pronoun bought verb went verb lunch noun there adverb 7. Although conjunction they pronoun the adjective have verb storm
. Because conjunction 8.
Since preposition 10.noun cashed verb was verb their pronoun very adverb cheques noun intense adjective they pronoun the adjective have verb damage adjective some adjective was verb money noun minor adjective 9. Because of preposition the adjective her
The adjective you pronoun
. Have verb 12.adjective/pronoun accident noun problems noun the adjective Sue noun victims noun often adverb have verb seeks verbs recovered verb my adjective/pronoun Page 175 41 quite adverb advice noun well adverb 11.
elderly adjective ever adverb waiter noun seen verb who conjunction those adjective served verb boats noun us pronoun in preposition beer noun the adjective is verb harbour noun an adjective before adverb old adjective of
Where adverb thinks verb did verb that conjunction you pronoun these adjective hide verb train adjective/noun the adjective tickets noun candy noun are verb which conjunction ours pronoun I pronoun
.preposition hers pronoun 13. Who pronoun 14.
Miles¶ noun/adjective that adjective brother noun knife noun is verb is verb extremely adverb so adverb intelligent adjective sharp adjective even if conjunction that conjunction he
.and conjunction bought verb those pronoun are verb theirs pronoun 15. Ouch interjection 16.
Finally adverb Eric noun his adjective/pronoun did verb clever
. Hey interjection 18.pronoun Page 176 42 I pronoun can verb cut verb not adverb myself pronoun pass verb badly adverb those adjective provincial adjective exams noun 17.
adjective you pronoun tricks noun complete verb failed verb that adjective work noun on preposition those adjective cars noun during preposition the adjective weekend noun 19. The adjective Canadian adjective economy noun is verb becoming verb worse
adjective very adverb quickly adverb