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1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The root word ³morph´ means form. 1 The etymology of ³syntax´ shows it meanings ³putting together´. 2
GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH
I INTRODUCTION This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read, write, speak, or listen, they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk, they learned the names of things (vocabulary), the different forms of a word (sings, sang, singing, sung, songs), and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted . A. WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology ), their arrangement in phrases and 1 sentences (syntax ), and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). 2 Like many dictionary definitions, this makes grammar sound more difficult than it
really is. Look at this picture, and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. Page 10 2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. 1. The man is throwing the ball. 2. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. You might even have written 3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. Whatever you wrote, it probably include the word ball, the action throw, and a word that meant a man. You certainly didn¶t write Ball throwing man the the is. That wouldn¶t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. Here¶s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. First, you saw the picture, and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. Finally, you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. In fact, you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). You see you really do know lots about grammar!
B. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? Although you do write ³good sentences´ most of the time, you may make a few mistakes. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Usually the first impression someone, including a possible employer, has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use
the language. For example, some people say ³He sure done good!´ or ³He should of went to the dance´ or ³Hunters didn¶t shoot a big amount of deer this year.´ While the meaning is very clear, the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn¶t have much ³schooling´ or else isn¶t very good at expressing him/herself. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. Unless you correct those errors in grammar, you may be unfairly judged, and your true abilities may go unrecognized.
The system of classifying word based on their function is known as the parts of speech. everyone can be Placed into at least one of eight groups. look at these sentences. He ran fast so he wouldn¶t be late.adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF.verb) Their fast lasted for three days. For example. Because some words can be used in several different ways.. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? Although English has hundreds of thousands of words. (tells about an action. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech). (names a thing.C..noun) Page 12 4 ... or classifications... The eight parts of speech are Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the Grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to Correct them. (describes how he ran.
places and things are called nouns. The following table lists a variety of nouns.The word ³fast´ is spelled the same. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE Cashier Carol Boys PLACES: Province New Brunswick Lake THINGS: ANIMALS: Cat Dalmatian Bug OBJECTS: Fork Television car SUBSTANCES: iron air gold ACTIONS: (a) race (the) dance (the) hits MEASURES: kilogram . but it functions differently in each sentence. NOUNS Words that name people. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH A.
and most sentences contain several Nouns. . Sometimes nouns appear without These little words. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. Can you find 10? Children name people Nouns in this Continent names a thing Picture? Africa names a place lions names a thing. Use pronouns instead of nouns. Page 13 Write a sentence about this picture. Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of The sentence. an. Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. Paul is a noun that names a person. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. the. The naming Word that comes after them is probably a noun.Centimeter Day QUALITIES: Happiness honesty Beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence.
and Fredericton is the capital of this province. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. In this sample sentence. it isn¶t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. and sentence) because the writer¶s/speaker¶s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. If you made more than one or two mistakes. reader. For example. and this are pronouns. you. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. For each pronoun printed in bold type. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. (e. PRONOUNS Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. and things) that have already been mentioned. places. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader.´ The words I. She saw it when they bought it. ³I want you to read this again. Everybody was glad when it was over. What did you buy from them? .g. B. The candy that we gave them was made last year. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. think of a noun it could replace.The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town.
Verb phrases may have up to five words. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. . 10. 13. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself.Page 14 6 Phrase. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves. For example.. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. The word walked became will walk. VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. If you need more practice. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. therefore. never.a group of words that belong together. always. 9. Many signed up.. one of the main parts of every sentence. please. C. but the birds ate everything. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. they are verbs. but few were chosen. We will walk to the store tomorrow. Verbs usually tell about an action. Verbs may consist of one word. 3 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. 14. 12. 11. 15. We planted them.
My sister is a nurse. 6.Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until . I have never seen anything like that before. The farmer used all the water in his pond. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. our father was a millwright. I have finished the laundry. is. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. are. Page 15 7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. I am a teacher. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present. Complete Exercises 5. The dog was chasing its tail. and were used in a sentence between two nouns. The runner flew down the race track. was. Paul can do anything. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. They were always honest. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. She is beautiful and talented. When you find the words am. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more.
or tree. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives. blue. blond woman with the red dress´. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. you use nouns like girl. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a . an adjective limits. Your boss tell you. puffy clouds a happy. Therefore. ADJECTIVES To talk or write about a person place or thing. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here¶s another way of thinking of adjectives. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. the white. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. ³Give this piece of paper to the woman´. ³the tall. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said ³the tall woman´. changes. changes. rich. as only six of the women are tall. house. A modifier is a word that limits.you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. carefree child some tall. you add ³detail´ words in front of the noun like little. old. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. D. Page 16 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. or alters the meaning of another word.
The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. as in this car.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind¶s eye. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. and those.large group. The second adds the adjective blue. cool. The group of words ³with the red dress´ is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. The third sentence adds even more details. Other adjectives like shiny. Such adjectives include this. several candies. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. The words this. these. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use . Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. Page 17 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). these boots. These are demonstrative adjectives. new. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. as in many people. I have a blue car. those pencils are Ted¶s. In other words. Adjectives also tell how many. This book belongs to Pete. these. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. I have a small dark blue car. and four children. I have a car. that. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. only that I have one. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader ³see´ your car in his/her mind¶s eye. that. that coat. and those houses.
an) and definite articles (the). Page 18 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. L an adjective tells which one or ones. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. these computers. as in those books. few hours. this modifies the proper noun Ford. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car.a.as adjectives and pronouns. this restaurant. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. others called them adjectives. the. In the second sentence. I have a blue car. bad taste. and cold day. and an. Either is correct. that building. . I have the blue car. L articles are also adjectives . as in old man. The nouns they ³stand for´ or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence. and Ted bought that Chevy. L an adjective tells what kind. and two cities. L an adjective tells how many. new clothes. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. couple of dollars. those are Ted¶s. This belongs to Pete. as in many days.
there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. kitchen. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. Page 19 11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. kitchen. or school. Underline all the adjectives you used. and school are usually nouns. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. A good ³trick´ to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Glass.Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. however. Used in the following ways. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. Page 20 12 . if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass.
you can add something in front of the adjective. 1. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. or to what extent it was beautiful. Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. When is he driving? He is driving now. you will find out how he is driving. If an adverb is added. or when he is driving. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. What part of speech is the word beautiful. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. Adverbs limit. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. where he is driving. the noun sunset is described as beautiful. How is he driving? He is driving quickly. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. . ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS He is driving. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. 2. or alter the words they modify. ADVERBS You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. that word is called an adverb. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. change. Where is he driving? He is driving away.dE.
ADJECTIVE ADD -LY ADVERB bright brightly easy *first. extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. By adding another adverb. change y to i easily soft softly . as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly. WORDS ENDING IN ³LY´ Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. we can find out how quickly the dog ate. ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs.Page 21 13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. The dog ate quickly.
full *first.) usually In the section on verb phrases. change ll to l fully careful carefully quick quickly * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word. well often 4 quite surely very not almost never always so (He was so happy. Page 22 14 usually an adverb . never as adjectives.can be an adjective to describe a person's health 4 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS Some words can only be used as adverbs. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them. you learned that some small words can be . A list of these words follows. and learn to recognize them in sentences.
called prepositional phrases. sometimes called connectives. (adverb) Penny is a fast driver. (adjective) A student is late. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. He will never tell another lie. Those words are adverbs. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. (adjective) Penny drives fast. Eric will not shop on Sundays. . (adverb) It was an early train. but they are not verbs. (adverb) There is a late student. I have often wondered about the moon. The train arrived early. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. Three examples of such words are early. He was always asking questions. and late. Page 23 15 F. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. PREPOSITIONS Preposition are joining words.found in the middle of verb phrases. fast. which are used to show a time. place.
The girl walked near the building. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. The girl walked beside the building. Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. The girl walked behind the building. The girl walked to the building. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb ³walked´ by telling where she walked. In each sentence above. Adverb phrases can also be . The girl walked through the building. The girl walked into the building. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building.preposition + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase Time: after + the party = (after the party) Place: under + the table = (under the table) Ownership: of + our town = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase.
are called prepositional adverb phrases. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. when. Page 24 16 about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on .used to tell how. therefore. telling where she walked. these prepositional phrases. in what way.
The colour of that paint is just right. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans.out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. they are called prepositional adjective phrases. The books in that bag are yours. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. In each example above. Because these phrases function as adjectives. Here are some common prepositions: Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. They rented the house on the corner. . Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun.
the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh! Oh. no! Ouch! Never! Fabulous! Fantastic! Ah! No! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. INTERJECTIONS Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. or clauses . CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions. It can be an actual word. Conjunctions are used to join words.. like prepositions. G. H. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. Conjunctions can be 5 .Page 25 17 Clauses are ³mini-sentences stuck into µreal¶ sentences´ and which need special joining 5 words (conjunctions) to attach them. Unlike all the other parts of speech. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma. are also joining words or connectives. phrases.
the word itself doesn¶t add any new information. µ . but joins two complete ideas. but they could not catch it. I understand parts of speech. it burned quickly ùùùùùùù ùù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. And joins two nouns.found in any position in a sentence except the very end. Look at these examples. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. you will need to work through Module 6. ùùùùùùùùùùùùù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. Before you can really understand clauses. those that are left over are probably conjunctions. but does it tell you at what time? No. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. Page 26 18 Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? Joe and Mike followed the young cub. For the purpose of this module. When lightning struck the old barn. Part of the Sentence.
µ I am totally lost. Examples: waiter. . µ I am a little confused about parts of speech. µ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. or thing in a sentence. province. and city. µ I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. girl. house. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. dog. Proper nouns are always capitalized. 1. A. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? Page 27 19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. car. place or thing in general is called a common noun. or the only. When a word names a particular. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS A word which names a person.I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. place.
and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). sky are concrete nouns. swiftness. audience. house. crowd. pride. places and things. brain. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. heard or touched. committee. CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. On the other hand. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). panel. herd. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. 2. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). Here are two . speed. Nouns like table. Page 28 20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). six committees. it is called a concrete noun. COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people. car. 3. jury. Examples: honesty. flock. height. they are categorized as abstract nouns. Examples: team. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. friendship. faith Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet.Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). cloud. beauty. seen. tasted.
Mass nouns. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. furniture. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. jewellery. and are. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples. Do Exercise 19. Examples: meat. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) . Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. The jury is announcing its decision. The jury are stating their opinions. dollars. steaks. and there are many different opinions.examples that illustrate this point. 4. In the second set of examples. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. are similar to collective nouns. In the second case. gold. everyone agreed on one decision. money. the jury is acting as a single unit. however. The team is buying new uniforms. chairs. bracelets. miles. The team are buying new uniforms. each juror is acting as an individual. In the first sentence. therefore called count nouns. clothing. land. equipment. food. timber.
SINGULAR AND PLURAL Nouns may be singular referring to one. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. referring to more than one. Spelling. Most nouns change their form by adding ³s´ when they are plural. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture. B. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. Page 29 21 Libby¶s front teeth Eva¶s big smile Greg¶s tiny nose His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. 1. Module 4. However. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun.and exceptions for the exceptions. or plural. 2. there are exceptions to every rule . so he needed a huge amount of grain. The farmer bought a large number of cows.some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. POSSESSIVE NOUNS .
add an .Doris's store singular and ends formed in the . or that something is part of something else. belonging.Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns.Gloria's career plus s to the noun . Page 30 22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions Possessive Form Examples If a noun is add an apostrophe (') . be guided by pronunciation of the .the neighbour's car singular and does .my boss's approval in ³s´.the child's toys not end in ³s´ .Dennis's car the way you say the word possessive.New Brunswick's art If a noun is .if a new syllable is . They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (¶). A possessive noun shows ownership.
it indicates that one . add only an apostrophe .women's wear .children's toys Now examine the following phrases: the boy¶s bicycles the boys¶ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.if adding an extra ³s´ .men's choir in ³s´ .witness's description apostrophe plus ³s´ .oxen's hooves and does not end .Jesus' parables .the ladies¶ room If a noun is plural add apostrophe (') s ..witnesses' story s at the end .John Hastings' store would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce.the Jones' party .librarians' club . add only an .students' lounge and already has an apostrophe (') .Mary Parsons' garden If a noun is plural.Phillips' farm .
The book¶s covers are different colours. so the house is owned by two or more friends. Babies¶ grandfather is correct The books¶ covers is correct Page 32 24 . Now examine these phrases: the lady¶s room the ladies¶ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below. Look at the word with the apostrophe. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added. How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends¶ house. Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies¶ grandfather the baby¶s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books¶ covers are different colours. it shows that several Page 31 23 people own it.person owns the item. Examine these phrases. If it follows the plural form of the noun.
Then.´ 5. Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. The above sentence contains 3 possessives. Mary and Susan¶s mother arrived yesterday. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1. A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. 4. Only one is acceptable. Examine the following sentence. create a rule to explain what you found. For example. However." 2. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects.Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). . you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time 3. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement. You should have written something like this: ³When two or more people ³own´ something together. Here¶s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale.
Our cat is black and white. Our cat purrs a lot. Do Exercises 22. Spot likes to play. It is black and white. The following paragraph contains no pronouns. What¶s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. two brothers. and less repetitive. each one owns a separate thing. and three sisters love our cat. 23. Mary¶s and Susan¶s houses are on the same street. Everyone in our family loves the cat. My mother. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. and it never scratches. Our cat¶s body is mostly white. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. my father. TYPES OF PRONOUNS Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. Our cat likes to play. it sounds more natural and interesting.If both nouns are possessive. It has a long black tail. Our cat has a long black tail. It purrs a lot. Our cat never scratches. using pronouns to replace some nouns. Page 33 25 It is for you! IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. Our cat¶s name is Spot. Our cat¶s name is Spot. Page 34 26 A. Our cat has four black paws. We call our cat Spot. PERSONAL PRONOUNS .
and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" they. me. These Personal Pronouns CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: I. gender. He. us. The pronouns I. theirs plants. it are singular forms. they are plural. ours. him. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. he. your name and the names of other people you. your. The grammar term number means singular or plural. she. person. male she. mine your name we. obviously the ³most important person(s)´ in the message. them. Pronouns are also grouped by person. hers girl. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. Person Singular . they. you. woman. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. it. our.Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. you. his boy. the words we. them. female it. objects. and case. man. their people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. theirs. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. she. substances. their. its. my. yours the name of someone else you are addressing he. actions. her.
yours you. my. The pronouns he. mine we. it is considered plural (Class. hers it. are used to replace plural nouns. plural pronouns. In English. our. his. aviatrix. its Page 35 27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. we. actress. actor. yours nd 3 person he. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. theirs rd she. his show masculine gender. and inanimate objects which are singular. him. us. them. his they. aviator. me. regardless of gender. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. your.) If.Plural 1 person I. animals. then it is considered singular. and she. I want you to be on time. their. her. you. etc. your. you is used to designate a group of people. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. (I want you to close the door. . him. on the other hand. ours st 2 person you.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. they. hers show feminine gender. her.
and they are. his her. That is her coat. --our. That coat belongs to Mary. they are contractions of it is. mine your. you¶re. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. That coat is hers. Page 36 28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. explains case in greater detail. Mary is standing by the door. theirs whose. . The sentence could be rewritten. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. Mary is standing by the door. my. hers. OR Mary is standing by the door. you are. yours his. Module 6. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. its. ours their. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. The words it¶s. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to.Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. Grammar: Part 2. and they¶re are not possessive pronouns.
do not match. a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. . Me rushed into the house. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. however. therefore. PRONOUN SELECTION What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. she/her. My mother and me rushed into the house. Their apartment will be for rent when they¶re transferred to Saint John. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. you can test the sentence above by reading it. You¶re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. but they should match. The people referred to in this sentence are . we/us.It¶s always funny when the dog chases its tail. not present at the time of speaking. Here¶s another common error in pronoun selection. but they must be present. The pronouns. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. The sentence should be corrected. For instance. Of course. You know that does not look right or sound right. they/them is to test the pronoun alone. It should read I rushed into the house. using only the pronoun. (I/me. Both pronouns replace People. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. 1. he/him. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you.
You can find the error by imagining that Mr. 31. Just as in the example above. Many people make this mistake. Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. and the sentence should be corrected like this. Smith gave to letter to only one person. the pronoun you is the correct choice. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. The next two examples show a very common error. Mr. make. This sentence may look and sound correct. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. but be careful when you are speaking. Look at this sentence. you can hear and see that this is not correct. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. Do Exercises 30. When speaking to one OR more than one person. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. Smith gave I three letters to mail. Yous is not a word. 32. Mr. even well-educated ones. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. heard often in speech. Mr.Page 37 29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is ³I´. Page 38 30 . but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. The pronoun me is the correct form.
An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. The noun ³Margaret´ is the antecedent of the pronoun ³her´. 2. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS Margaret rode her bike to the mall. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. In this sentence, the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. Read this sentence. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their; in other words, who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct, employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural, or make them both singular. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. OR
An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic, person, student, teacher, etc.) is male or female, it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. Page 39 31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. The sentence is not clear.. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent, the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely, the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. The reader doesn¶t know who his refers to because the writer hasn¶t mentioned anyone else. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark¶s apartment yesterday. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al¶s apartment yesterday. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay, the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. They went to Tahiti.
The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. When you proofread your own writing, you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. B. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS In the following sentence, Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing, it is an called an indefinite pronoun. The pronoun everybody is singular. When referring to everybody, use a singular pronoun like he/his, or she/he. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to Page 40 32 replace everybody. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Even though it may sound ³right´ because you have heard it so often, it is NOT correct. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any everything anybody everyone anything each anyone nobody
everyone no one everything none everybody nothing either somebody neither someone another something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several few all some both many Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. Page 41 33 C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. Singular Plural this these
that those such such Use this and these to point out something close to you; use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. (e.g. Such a horse is hard to find.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Give her the book. Give her this. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. Eat that. Pie is the antecedent of that. Give her the books. Give her these. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. Eat those. Pies is the antecedent of those. Take his coat and hat. Take them. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns. If you cannot find the antecedent, the words are not demonstrative pronouns. I know that you are honest. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. (Not a demonstrative pronoun)
itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. Andy. use the plural form yourselves. you must be careful not to push yourself too far. Check the dictionary. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. In other words. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used 6 . 6 D. Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. if someone does something to himself or herself. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. Page 42 34 Some grammar texts call this group ³intensive pronouns´. use the singular form yourself. there is no such word as ³themself´. watch yourselves out there on the field today. but I gave those to Mary. yourselves. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. If the sentence is directed to one person. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. Players. herself. Although it may sound and look correct. himself. yourself. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the ³receiver´ of the action is the same person as the ³doer´.I sold some cakes. Can you find the word ³themself´? Can you explain why not? E. but if it refers to a group.
you might say. G. Interrogative pronouns: who . one another. 8 F. I fixed the car myself. himself. are better able to answer that question. you often start with an interrogative pronoun.to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. herself. CDs or tapes? . 7 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. what 7 8 Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. yourself. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. wouldn¶t pass judgement on him. For example. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS When you ask a question about someone or something. yourselves. yourself. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. which. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. She taught her children to help one another. myself. or I. whom whose. themselves Examples: You. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. Page 43 35 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly.
.... Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail....... We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock.. The driver who didn¶t stop got a ticket... We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale....to refer to things that..... Do Review Exercises 40......... one of the main ..... I saw the television program which was banned in the States...... that in many sentences...to refer to people which...... The teacher whom you met trained in France. expressed in a special way.. I almost forgot that it was your birthday. The driver that stopped didn¶t get a ticket. whom.What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who. whoever..... If they are not used to ask a question.. Page 45 37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb... whom...... The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi. which........ RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence. H......... Relative pronouns: who..... The term ³clause´ really means extra bits of Page 44 36 information in a sentence.... and 42 in the Practice Booklet....... 41..... Module 6...to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank......... Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet.. they are not interrogative pronouns. whomever.
Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. He caught the ball easily. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. David decided to move to Woodstock. STATE OF BEING VERBS A very small number of verbs express a state of being. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. Underline the verbs you used. A. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. The rose grew very quickly. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. These nonaction . a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. In fact. TYPES OF VERBS A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. The horse jumped the fence. Page 46 38 2.parts of every sentence. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. such as The children ran after the dog. 1. She drives very carefully when it¶s snowing. She thought about what she had done. ACTION VERBS Most verbs are action verbs. That accounted for his absence. They realized their mistake.
They show that something or somebody exists. They were unhappy.verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. John is tired. The dog was friendly. I am happy. You will be successful. Sherri is an accountant. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am was being is were be are has been had been have been will be will have been are become (all forms) seem (all forms) Compare these sentences. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer¶s state of being and ³happy´ . I ate the apple. You are hungry. I am a student. We were scared. He was a good friend.
Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. On the other hand. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. Here are the most common ones. This is one way to use a ³state of being´ or ³linking verb. This is the second use of the ³state of being´ or ³linking verb´.describes how the writer is feeling. . Tom grew 3 inches last year. not a linking verb. I and apple do not refer to the same thing. In other words. The verb ate is an action verb. something that can really happen or that is observable. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. Martha tasted the chili. He felt the water before he jumped in. the writer¶s state of being is as a student. In the second sentence. Module 6. they are considered to be action verbs. Page 47 39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. As well. and the sentence means that ³I´ = ³a student´. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action. Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs.
the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. 45. A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. they are consider to be linking verbs. called a verb phrase. He walked to school every day. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. Within a verb phrase. . B. or the fact that something has certain qualities. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. Page 48 40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. therefore. The sculpture felt smooth. Do Exercise 44. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. and 47 in the Practice Booklet.The engineer sounded the locomotive¶s horn at the crossing. The sky grew dark before the storm. The evidence looks convincing in this case. cannot perform the physical action of tasting.) The smoke smelled stronger now. AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS In the previous section. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. FORMS OF VERBS 1. The chili tastes good. 46. The music sounded perfect in the arena. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs.
and did are helping or auxiliary verb.I will travel to Halifax on the train. When will comes before a main verb. will can be a main verb. We have thought about a vacation this winter. have. Before calling. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. When you called. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were . I had eaten my dinner. Sometimes. and write are the main verbs. it is a helping or auxiliary verb. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. thought. I was eating my dinner. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o¶clock. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating. were. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below. will.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. I am eating my dinner now. as in I willed all my property to my children. finishing. however. Travel.
but which are never part of the verb phrase. was being. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. were being Page 49 41 As you have just seen.. Here tested is the main verb. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. In some sentences. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. I have never driven in a big city before.has have had shall will do does did have been. The main verb is saved. Although rare. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase. At 5:00 p. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. should and have are the auxiliary verbs. not . are being. had been am being. is being. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other ³non-verb´words. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb.m. Saved is the main verb. I will have saved enough money by Christmas. has been. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs.
etc.never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. past. before today. ³carries´. In order to talk about the present. in the future. called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. ³brings´. in the third person singular. and future. Every verb has FOUR main forms. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. 9 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I II III . Page 50 42 This form becomes ³walks´. in the past. we need to use different forms of verbs. In fact. VERB TENSES Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. 2. as well as what will happen after today. in the present.
IV PRESENT PAST PAST PRESENT PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE walk walked walked walking 9 carry carried carried carrying bring brought brought bringing sing sang sung singing hit hit hit hitting do did done doing am. is was. are. were been being .
Past 2. . Simple Verb Tenses These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. present. 2. To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb.. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past. Present 3. from Column II. this module explains four common tenses. the present or the future. Simple past I walked to the store today. 1.. Simple present He walks to school. The children will be hearing the story. and future.has. How can you tell? 1. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses Page 51 43 a.the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. The children are reading the story. The children had heard the story. 3. have had had having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past. present and future. Future.
will in the second and third person. from Column I.past I walked Simple present none Column I . It will be here. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL EXAMPLE PART Simple past none Column II . I and we.present I walk. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. he walks Simple future . ³will´ is almost always used when speaking about the future. To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture.To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. You (plural) will write that test. Today. I shall walk to the store. but the correct written form uses ³shall´ in the first person. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. She will make the cake.
Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. He has finished his work. Despite its name. . It is easy to see that the action happened in the past. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb.I had answered your letter before you called me. have. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. . It is built using Page 52 44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has.will or shall Column I . but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used. completed. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling.Past Perfect . it uses had. Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past.present They will publish b.I have completed my assignment. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil.Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine.) Past perfect . or is about to be. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been. Present perfect . The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. Because this is the past perfect. had. the past form of to have as its auxiliary.
Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently. have Column III.He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future. Column III.past participle We had walked Present perfect has. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have). I shall have showered before you arrive. Page 53 45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past perfect had Column III. The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect. but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. Progressive Tenses .past participle He has sung Future perfect will have.past participle I shall have done shall have c. Future perfect . but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other.
In this case. Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. was. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. at sometime in the future. is. Page 54 46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE . they will be selling only new computers. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). you use one of the progressive tenses. the action of ³watching´ takes place over a period of time. Here. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart.The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. Future progressive: Eventually. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). too. are. are. present and future. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. shall be. The future form of to be (will be. were. the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time.
..AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past Progressive was. the present participle... Identify the auxiliary. Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately. are.had answered 2. He has been saving his money to buy a car. Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries.. is Column IV-present participle You are eating Future Progressive will be.. Column IV-present participle We will be shall be doing d. They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV.. Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have ... Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense.. Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then.. were Column IV-present participle He was eating Present Progressive am. Sheila had answered all their questions... My sisters had been discussing my birthday party. RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses.... 1. Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions...
Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes. Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?. . but you learn them later.. present or future..... As a final check... Try this one yourself. The students will be walking to school from now on...had is in the past form..... Is the auxiliary in the past....... look at the main verb..... this is truly an example of a past perfect tense...3....... There are other tenses. The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses... Page 55 47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence..... The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense.. and choose the correct form when writing.the perfect tenses 4.. Then.
SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Simple Past none Column II I walked Simple Present none Column I He sings Simple Future shall or will Column I They will sing Past Perfect had Column III We had hit Present Perfect has. have Column III She has carried Future Perfect shall/will have Column III I shall have rung Past Progressive was. is. are Column IV You are finding Future Progressive shall/will be Column IV She will be fitting Past Perfect Progressive had been Column IV I had been sitting . were Column IV He was hearing Present Progressive am.
Look up the verb. These verbs are called irregular verbs. The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add ³s´. just use the dictionary. some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. Page 56 48 IRREGULAR VERB As you may have noticed. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb. If it is an irregular verb. If there are no words written in bold type.´ing´ or ³ed´ to form its principal parts. the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the ³entry word´.Present Perfect Progressive has/have been Column IV He has been filling Future Perfect Progressive will have been Column IV We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown feel felt felt spring .
.sprang sprung ring rang rung drink drank drunk bring brought brought burst burst burst eat ate eaten rise rose risen raised raised raised swim swam swum cut cut cut lie (to recline) lay lain lay (to place) laid laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet.
which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which ³downplays´ . The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night. One of them is to reduce someone¶s or something¶s responsibility for an action. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. based on s sentence structure and meaning. In sentences using active voice. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first. When you hear or read a sentence. ³Good writing´ generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. In this case. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. On the other hand. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this.Page 57 49 3. so in this example. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence. on a stormy night. For example.M. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. The effect of using a passive voice is to ³downplay´ the ³doer´ of the action. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. the VIA train has the strongest focus. The truck was hit on a stormy night. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing.
A vicious dog bit Mark. Think about how you report bad news.) Page 58 50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing. My report card got lost. putting the ³doer´ at the beginning. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective.. the guests played CDs and discussed local news. CDs were played and local news discussed.. The candles were melted. restructure the sentences to place the ³doer´ of the action at the beginning of the sentence. If you can¶t find a ³by´ phrase. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled.(by me). For example. At the party.. (by whom? by what?. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with ³by.by the heat. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice. That house was designed by a famous architect. the verb is probably passive. Here¶s an easy way to find passive verbs. (by me).someone/something´. . you should rewrite it. At the party.the railway¶s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night. Often it is phrased in the passive... If you can. When you proofread your work... you should always read it through just looking for passives. When you find them. try to insert one of your own.
she still grabbed Clark¶s arm and . A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately.. 59. pale and fearful. The counsellors were very angry. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences.. 53. and 60 in the Practice Booklet. Page 59 51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. The survivors. The trees. huddled in the ambulance. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas... sailed across the autumn sky.. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns.Do Exercises 52. Although Lois could barely keep up. . The clouds. 56.. and 54 in the Practice Booklet. lined the driveway. busy and happy. 57. Complete Review Exercises 55. I am happy about winning the lottery. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. However. The clouds were white and puffy. A child. Make sure your story uses only active verbs. puffy and white.. is the best thing a mother can think of. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. tall and leafy. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. 58.
stately. The tourists are American. Adverbs often end in ³ly´. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6.The words tall. angry are all adjectives. The boys will be hungry. and other adverbs. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. Max was late again today. . adjectives. happy. It seems to be injured. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. He wrote a good answer. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. The book is heavy. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. puffy. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. Page 60 52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. white. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour.
Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. either adjective or adverb. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. How are you? I am well. Or I feel well. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. bright: This light is brighter than that one. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding ³er´. Using the ³wrong´ modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing. If the sentence sounds awkward. add ³er´ to most modifiers. He answered the question well. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things.In this sentence. Do Exercises 63. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. To use them properly. Well is usually an adverb. . In the sentence below. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. When comparing two things. 64. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater.
soon: They left sooner than we did. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. Instead of adding ³er´. finely: Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. Often. and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things. more than two things are compared. Do not add ³est´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. beautiful: Today¶s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. the suffix ³er´ is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. DO NOT add ³er´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. When comparing two things. fast: He always drives fastest at night. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. sickly: . Usually. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. add ³est´.Page 61 53 fast: He walked faster than I did. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street.
Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. strawberry tastes better. Page 62 54 SINGLE FORM COMPARING TWO COMPARING THREE OR MORE Little Less Least Many More Most Much.Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met. some More Most Well Better . quietly: Of the four. or by using more or most. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding ³er´. It is not correct to say gooder. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. but chocolate tastes the best of all. These words actually change their form. this car's motor runs most quietly. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. or more good. goodest. ³est´.
badly Worst Worst Far Farther. or correcter. correct and dead. because of their meaning. further Farthest. An answer on a test is either correct. It cannot be less dead or more dead. or not correct.Best Bad. It cannot be more correct. Page 63 55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square . If something is dead. it is dead. These words are called absolute adjectives . furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons.words such as.
how the action in a verb took place. Compound prepositions. sometimes called complex prepositions. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. or another adverb. If the word modifies a verb.supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER When making comparisons. in the middle of is the preposition . therefore the correct version is He is really happy. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. use an adverb. He is real happy is incorrect. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. The correct adverb is really. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. an adjective. where. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. an adjective is necessary. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. Page 64 56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. some writers make mistakes because they can¶t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb.
. us. Always use the personal pronouns me. The students at Superior School went to the library with her.in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. you. Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. her. him. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below. at Superior School. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. to the library. them after a preposition. it.
2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. (2 complete ideas) I want to go.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. (2 ideas) I can¶t finish this dessert. an adjective with an adjective. A conjunction may join words. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS A. (2 adjectives. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns. (2 prepositional phrases. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. (2 ideas) . and so on. yet he never carries a map. but I can¶t find the time. and the boys danced. phrases or clauses. or you can make a speech. (2 ideas) You can write a report.Page 65 57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. for she had no money. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. nor* can I drink my coffee. (2 ideas) She couldn¶t attend school. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and but or nor for yet so Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. they peeled vegetables and told stories.
nor at the right address. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. B. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. .It rained. so they cancelled the outing. either/or Example: Harold was either late. but they are always used in pairs. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. in this case. Although these could be two unconnected events. but also at the wrong address. Page 66 58 neither/nor Example: Harold was neither on time. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. it burned to the ground. whether/or Example: I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. C. both/and Example: Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. or lost. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. therefore.
they are adverbs. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences. Compare It snowed last night. consequently. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. call them to explain. therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas.Lightning struck the old farmhouse. These are called subordinate conjunctions. We did. we didn¶t go. it burned to the ground. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. therefore. . Page 67 59 D. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. however.
I would start studying now. You won¶t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. As soon as you can. The road was slippery. she didn¶t ask any questions. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. I am not sure when that time will be. Module 6 explains this in more detail.She was confused. If I were you. Since she got that job. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. Although she was confused. I am not sure when I will be able to come. The truck drivers stopped carefully. I will be able to come sometime. She didn¶t ask any questions. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if . make sure Mark is alright. she hasn¶t been able to go to school.
whomever. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. Because of her loss. Since the election. You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. Page 68 60 Before the party started. These words are relative pronouns: who. . Because she lost her wallet. whom. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. Module 6. we went to the store. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. which. Since I won the lottery. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns. used to start a question or pronouns.if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. are also used as conjunctions. the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. she couldn¶t go to the concert. E. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns. they bought popcorn and a drink. Before the game. which you learned in the pronoun section. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. that. whichever. I decided to buy a new car. she was unable to afford the plane ticket.
They . (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. Page 69 61 Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery! X INTERJECTIONS Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. You can write your own or trade with a class mate. any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. It is the student¶s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. As well. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook.Example: That club always has good entertainment. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working.
The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III. Boy. If he had went home sooner. Boy. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. I did well on that test. did you see The Grateful Dead concert. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet. Use very cold. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow.are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. not the past form from Column II. Page 70 62 XI SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES Boy. I done well on that test. it is real cold today! Boy. If he had gone home sooner. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. it is really cold today. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. Use had gone. it is very cold today. . it is some cold today! Boy. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed.
There is no such word as ain¶t anymore. Page 71 63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. ³Very best. I¶ll go with you next week. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. Use a phrase like Of course. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. The pictures should of been ready by now. Fran had did her best on that test. ³Of course. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective.The form of the verb tense is incorrect. Use did. Bob said. Use the simple past form did. I¶m not finished yet. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. I¶ll go with you next week´. The pictures should have been ready by now. Bob said. This sentence . This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase is incorrect. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. English does not include the phrase very best. Fran did her best on that test. I ain¶t finished yet. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have.
³Unlearning´ something you have said all your life is not easy. or very late. The officer is obviously a person. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. so the correct pronoun is either who or that.needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. therefore. He is sure late with his payment this month. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. Parts of the Sentence. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. He is the tallest of my two boys. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. He is the taller of my two boys. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. Use certainly late. The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. the correct form of the word is taller. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. Use really pleased. really late. only two things are being compared. If you understand parts of speech . In this sentence.
learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? Page 72 64 FEEDBACK PROCESS For feedback.well. relevancy of the provided examples.. spelling. please use the enclosed page to make the proposed correction using red ink and send it to us. * For feedback regarding the following items. punctuation or any proofreading errors.: 506-328-8426 * In case of errors due to typing. others. Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution . insufficient examples. NB E7M 5C5 Attention: Kay Curtis Tel.Woodstock 100 Broadway Street Woodstock. please forward your comments to: New Brunswick Community College .. please use the form below: insufficient explanations.: 506-325-4866 Fax. ambiguity or wordiness of text.
. My daughter sold her computer to a friend. Check your answers in the answer key. 2. The dog chased the cat under the porch.number (include your text if possible) Page 73 65 FEEDBACK PROCESS Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution number (include your text if possible) Comments: Page 74 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 75 1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. 4. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. 3. 1.
Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. and the clouds were beautiful. 6. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. From the top of a small hill. 10. The ocean was calm.Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. and lobster. 8. Local markets are full of mussels. 3. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. scallops. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. Penguins live near the South Pole. The Titanic sank in a few hours. . that even truck drivers pulled into motels. 6. 5. clams. 2. 9. we saw the Northumberland Strait. In small villages. So much snow covered the roads. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. 7. the little boats began to appear. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. Exercise 2: Nouns A. Then. 8. 1. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. When their boats are full. 7. 4. many husbands and wives were separated. 5. but these birds aren¶t bothered by the cold. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster.
Many of them came. He gave her several bottles of this. but few stayed long. Underline all the nouns you used. After she cut herself. What did you bring with you? 4. 1. 1. 7. B. but these are pink. If the weather is good. Exercise 4: Pronouns A. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. Storms make life on the water dangerous. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. their catch is usually large. Page 76 2 6. Who likes chocolate? 8. 9. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. she went for a tetanus shot. Write 10 sentences of your own. . 3.9. 10. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. None of us was frightened by that. The stones on the beach were green. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. 10. All of those are expensive. 2.
The pitcher threw the ball. He dreamed about his recent accident. 4. 5. Write 10 sentences of your own. 7. The robin perched on a lower branch. 10. Mine was destroyed by the flood. 4. She often rode the bus home at night. This belongs to her. . She never gave them any of it. We always welcome suggestions. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. 1. 2. but the insurance covered it. 6. Many told about the kindness of strangers. They told about the hardships we survived. Phillip called to tell them about that. Give me some! 9. 8. B. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. 5. Underline all the pronouns you used. 3. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 7. 3. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6.Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2.
1. Since his accident. 2. the dealer agreed to our price. Page 77 3 3. or have you finished it? 8. 6. Exercise 7: Verbs A. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. Finally. His parents thought about him every day. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. Are you reading that magazine. 9. John ate his lunch slowly. 9. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. 10. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. 5. After work. The lions slept in the sun for hours. 10. You will never guess the answer. we decided on a movie. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. 1. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. 7. 2. 4. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. he has been driving more carefully.8. . Lucy will send you her new address.
A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. life was returning to normal. 4. 3. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. and they flapped in the light breeze. They are calling it the storm of the century. After a few hours. Underline all the verbs you used. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. 6.Many branches had been broken by the wind. 6. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. they arrived at the train station. 3. 8. food became scarce. 5. Write a paragraph about an exciting event. B. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. 5. 7. Soon. nine miles from Minto. . 10. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. The old curtains were torn and faded. 9. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 2. 4. After three days.
8. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. 8. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. These apples are juicy and red. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. They arrived early for class. Rewrite it using enough adjectives Page 78 4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. Can you come soon? 3. 9. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. Underline the adjectives you used. 9. 6. Kate is a truly courageous woman. She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. 2. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. Yesterday. 10. You cannot drive there! 5. 4. . 1.7. B.
she wrote the very last sentence correctly. 9. Computers are relatively new devices. 3. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 4. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. Many businesses use them daily. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. 10. 2. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. 7. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. very fast computers are needed. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. 1. he asked for a second helping. Many people have never used a computer. 4. 6. 1. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. The colour of her dress was really flattering. Today. Generally. The baby has been very cranky lately. 2. they are quite easy to use. Finally. Politely. 3. 5. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry.10. 8. .
2. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. Guests with tickets entered first. Page 79 5 6. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. 6. 4. . In his new movie. 5. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. The time of day doesn¶t matter. Underline the prepositions. 1. 8. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. 7. 7.5. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John¶s brother. 3. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. Since the crash. 10. The chairs on the porch were painted white. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie¶s. 9.
Page 80 6 4. 5.8. I hate boiled cabbage. None of the items on that page are available until July. Look under the table and in the closet. 3. or complete ideas (clauses). 1. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. most of the money disappeared. 4. or groups of words (phrases). Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. In 1992. 10. . Wow. No! Don¶t touch the brake. Apples and oranges are good for you. Ouch! That hurts. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. Underline the conjunctions. Yuck. 2. 1. 3. It was a life and death situation. Then indicate whether they are joining words. 9. did you see that jet! 2. Oh no! He lost the puck.
we drove to Doaktown. 9. 1.I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. so we went to the concert. We ran home because it was raining. 8. Exercise 16: Review . 4. Before he gets sicker. Until we see it. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. After we saw a deer. We bought the tickets. 10. we will have to stay home. we won¶t believe it. she and Lily still arrived on time. When they had finished. 9. but I couldn¶t get a ride. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. 5. If you are ready. he should go to the doctor. we can leave so we will be on time. Although she missed the bus. 8. 5. 3. 7. 10. they gave it to the teacher. 6. 6. Until the snow melts. 2. 7.
No. 4. b. 7. but the sun was really warm. The wind was cold. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. 3. 9. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 8. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. The tall. 14. Page 81 7 15. . 5. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. 10. 1. Most of the students listened politely. 11. 12. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. Their house was built in 1990. She was giving a short but interesting lecture. 2. 13. Eric and they learned very quickly.Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. c. Underline all the nouns. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. This book cost six dollars. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. 6.
Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. 8. 9. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. 3. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. 7. 2. 5. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. Your instructor will correct your work. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. 10. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? 6. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. rose justice . 4.Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. 1.
2. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. 3. 1. Write the corrected form in your notebook. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week.happiness cow school truth computer grace skiing stars bubbles fear Page 82 8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. A large amount of deer were shot this season. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays. write two sentences. .
4. 1. Mary¶s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. 5. Each of the boy¶s bicycles was locked. Sue¶s friends bought her a sweater in the men¶s department. 5. 2. using apostrophes. Ann receives too many junk mail. They bought several rings at the auction. He received three months¶ back pay yesterday. Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where . Have you seen the dog¶s leash? 3. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. 4. B Reword each of the following phrases.
read the section on apostrophes again. (one son) 4. Mr. Page 83 9 2. (two uncles) . Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. 1. (two sons) 5. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. 6. 1. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. The childs name is Nora. and the familys name is Boudreau. 3. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. 10.necessary. 9. Then try these sentences. Mr. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. 7. Charles company owed him two days pay. Smith was worried about her sons health. Marks mother lives at my sisters. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. 8. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation.
Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. or ask your instructor to mark it for you. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. If you had any mistakes. (one client) 9. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8.2. mark your own work. and do not peek at the answer key. Page 84 10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. you should review the parts of this section that gave you . 6. do not look back at the material in the module. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. As you work through the test. two twins) 3. (one girl. 7. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. Because of the accident. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winters last lament´. When you have completed the test. his wifes income was reduced. 10. 4. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes.
4. That is my neighbour's new car. B. When you are satisfied that you really understand. C. C. Centennial Bridge. Chatham. That is my neighbours' new car. 1. connects. accidents. D. accidents. Ferry. Ferry Road. 2. Centennial Bridge. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. B. That new car is my neighbour. B. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road. 3. Read the following sentence. A. accidents. Read the following sentence. This is the store belonging to Doris. Chatham. Centennial Bridge. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. D.³trouble´ thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. The new car is my neighbours'. Bridge. Chatham. Ferry Road. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. Chatham. Road. try this test again. . The proper nouns in the sentence are A.
friends. B. they. Nova Scotia. The nouns in the sentence are A. town. A. E. D. Nova Scotia. 7. Those toys belong to the children. city C. town. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. Halifax. Halifax. holiday E. D. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. friends. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. A. C. Halifax. January . Our friends lived in Halifax. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. magazine 8. 5. Halifax. this. Nova Scotia. Read the following sentence. What is a noun? Page 85 11 6.C. before they moved to this town. Nova Scotia. river D. Nova Scotia. soda pop B. this. town. friends.
Page 86 12 The first one is done for you. Church: common. Canada C. Jupiter E. concrete. I had a great time last St. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. The flower's petals fell to the floor. B.B. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. Saint John D. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. Parker 9. count church mice mob beauty . The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. D. Dr. 11. correcting the errors. Patricks Day. singular. A. C.
Cheryl gave her cold to them. 3. My sister. her husband and their children visited your mother.Canada¶s news armies meat equipment boys¶ loyalty jury grammar March fragrance men¶s company surprise trouble English horn sunrise boy¶s Lions¶ Club broccoli Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. but mine is on the desk. 4. I saw them eating their lunch myself. 1.Person. Number. Did you give him his book? 2. 5. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . Gender . He may have taken her coat.
I. your. 3. his. 2. us. You. ours. write its person and number . They didn¶t know it was theirs until they saw its label. herself 5.A. First person plural A. whose are always followed by a noun. your. ourselves 4. yours. First person singular E. their. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. She. hers. its. hers. her. they took my jacket and your camera. our. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. my. When I went to the club last night. Third person plural D. Try not to look at the chart above. The first set is done for you. mine. 1. yourselves B. You should take yours. The pronouns mine. Second person plural C. Third person singular B. You. They. Notice that the pronouns my. me. 1. myself 2. 4. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. We. your. theirs. our. yours. . Beside each. your. Page 87 13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. Where are you going with her tapes. yourself F. her. They say that we should always mind our own business. themselves 3. yours. their. them. his.
him) went to a meeting 2. him) were going to Miramichi. they) have to keep trying. they) will fail. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. theirs are used alone. her) to town. . Students often think that (you. Do you think that (he. Give the pencil to Martha or (I. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. (You. but (you. check the answers in the answer key. rd Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. 5. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. 1.e. yours. They were sure that Lisa and (he.ours. Jerry took his brother and (she. John and (he. 4. 3. him) and (I. 8. 3 person singular). me)! 6. After finishing all the sentences. me) could go to the game? 7. using the correct pronoun. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn¶t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use.
REWRITE the sentence. (It¶s. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. 9. your) going to pass. they¶re) ugly colour. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. If a sentence is CORRECT. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. Your) hard work means that (you¶re. Page 88 14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. them) sneakers because of (their.I do not want (those. leave it as it is. (You¶re. their) own learning modality. 10. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. 11. I). Rewrite the sentence. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. using the right pronoun - . The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. her. Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. 12. A student must try to find (his. its) nest was destroyed and (it¶s. its) not likely to return. using the correct pronoun.
3. 6.Mary gave her the keys. 9. 2. 10. 3. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. 2. 7. 5. 1. You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. They kept the secret from Jack and I. . I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. The boys tried out for the football team. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. Jane¶s best friend is me. Could him and me could go to the game? 8. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. The man standing outside in the rain is him. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! Page 89 15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. 1. 4. We sent her some flowers. Al met John and she at the movies. 11. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. 12.
4.The dog belonging to you has run away again. Some managers write their business letters themselves. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. B. The students asked for new books. 7. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. A student should always be on time for his or her class. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. The president should take his office seriously. Our family is not large. Philip gave her her present. 10. It gathers once a year for a reunion. 4. . Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. 1. 9. 8. 5. 3. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. 5. The jury were presenting their opinions. The dog's ears are pointed. 1. The merchants gave donations. We ourselves were happy to participate. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. The instructor will give them those. 6. 2. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. My family are always ready to support their relatives. 2.
their) report later than tomorrow. 3. No one should submit (his or her. its) leg when it jumped the fence. 9. their) dues. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. Each of those buyers should consult (his. their) lunches. Several of the men have paid (his. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. The deer hurt (her. Does anybody know (his or her. his or her. Many hens have escaped from (her. 4. his. 5. their) own bus ticket. 8. her. 4. A few forgot (his.Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. Page 90 16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. 3. their) mutual friends' wedding. Max and Helen sang at (her. 7. their) pen. his or her. her. The audience clapped for their performance. 1. 5. 6. . and he should pay it. None of the boys has paid for (his. his. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. his or her. The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. their) supervisors. her.
Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. Then tell which is which. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. You will learn about the use of this. Did he really say that? 3. e. 5. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital.g. 1. Such cannot be true! 4. Give me all of these and some of those. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. 6. Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. A few of us have received (his. Wash the car yourself this time. This is the one I want to buy. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. . our) marks. their. Write This is mine. that. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. 3. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive.10. and those as describing words later. her. 1. Emphatic. 4. 5. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. Whose book is that on the floor? B. these. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall. her or his. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences. 2. 2.
Ian is the one who knows that. Page 91 17 7. What have you done with the keys? 10. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. 8.I myself won¶t put up with that. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns . Whom should we reward? 6. What did you bring for lunch? 3. 10. 9. 5. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. Who stole the money? 2. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. 8. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. He said many things which I didn¶t understand. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. 4. He hasn¶t decided what he wants to do next. 1. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. The man who won is my friend Steve.
List all the pronouns in the following sentences. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her.A. Page 92 18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. 1. 2. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. it always gives me the shivers. 7. What would anyone do with that? 4. He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. 9. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. The furniture was destroyed. 8. Which is right? There are two choices. making notes as you go. My first attempt was a failure. 3. The children themselves saw it. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. B. 5. 6. . but later I had learned from it. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. When you talk about that accident. 10. both of them look correct. but the house itself was undamaged.
The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. reciprocal pronoun C. interrogative pronoun B. but he took mine. demonstrative pronoun . Match the term on the left with the example on the right. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. each other 3. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. our 4. Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. relative pronoun D. 9. everybody 6. but the contractor poured the cement. these st 2. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. You didn¶t give that to them. We did most of the work ourselves. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. Sherri took your boots. 1 person plural A. 6. did you? 5. 1.1. ³What can I do to help those less fortunate?´ 10. Always ask yourselves. 7. Something is missing from this recipe. 2. its 5.
its) tail. c. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. h.F. there) too expensive. what 7. Page 93 19 f. himself 9. d. e. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. Sheila and (her. which 10. which) is barking lives next door. Don¶t buy (those. she) went to the automatic teller. there. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. them) shoes. He cut (himself. reflexive pronoun I. its K. j. (they¶re. Mr. The cat often chases (it¶s. possessive pronoun H. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. i. Be sure and tell her where (your. The dog (who. they¶re) old car. a word that doesn¶t exist J. b. Hutchins bought (their. g. me). themself 8. their. few 2. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. . him). hisself) on that rusty can. you¶re) house is. a.
D. After the holidays. Which sentence below is correct? A. C. The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. 7. 5. Underline every pronoun you have used. bonus is the antecedent of it 6. A. the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. B. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. . Which statement below is not correct. Do you think there house is big enough? D. it is the antecedent of bonus. A. the kids and them returned to Rexton. Few of them knew the right answer. For each underlined pronoun. Page 94 20 8. B. Those are mine. we and the kids returned to Rexton. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. employees is the antecedent of them D.She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. he told them to spend it wisely. B. us and the kids returned to Rexton. Bill is the antecedent of he C. B. Volunteers. Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. C. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. C. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. themself) 4. A.
Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. 6. it is classed as an action verb. Buy yourself something expensive. Then underline the verbs. 2. For each verb that you identify. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. Use each one in a sentence. We watched a movie last night. 4. Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. B. D. 5.The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. The baseball hit the boy in the face. 3. The dog jumped over the fence. Who knows anything about this? E. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. Ask your instructor to review your work. 1. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. 7. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. The students were happy about their marks. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. His car smashed into a bridge. My sister¶s name is Paula. . Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed.
8. The children became excited before the snow storm. You know my aunt. Because of the dust. Smyth was my uncle. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. . 11. We were afraid of the storm. 12. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. Close the door to the garage. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. There were fourteen people in that class last year. The little mouse squeaked loudly. 2. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. 3. 8. We feared the storm. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. 15. please. He looks taller than Mario. the bookkeeper at Colpitt¶s. 7. Page 95 21 14. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. 1. 5. we coughed all day. 10. The pie smells good. 6. 9. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. 4. 13.Mr.
4. 11. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. 14. Madonna sings and dances well. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. 15. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. This stew tastes good on a cold winter¶s night. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. grow. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). 10. Would you please flip the hamburgers? . 12. 13. Suddenly. taste. I felt sick after the party. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. 3. the other with a linking or copula verb. if any.9. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. Wolves always howl at the moon. That would have confused anyone! 5. sound. Page 96 22 SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. We played ball against their team Saturday. 2. feel. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page.
Tomorrow. 12. 14. . Carl will kick the ball across the field. Yesterday. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. 7. I shall never agree to his proposal. Today. Page 97 23 8. not after the last trip. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. I will not be going. 8. The washing machine has broken down. 1. Today. 15. A child can easily learn this song. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow.6. 9. 13. He might have consulted a doctor. Sue may never have been given that letter. Carl kicks the ball across the field. 6. 7. My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. Have you ever heard such nonsense. 4. He had been learning Chinese at school. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. 10. 10. Tomorrow. 2. won¶t you? 9. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. There was a good show on TV last night. 3. 5. Mitchell has lived here all his life. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. Carl had kicked the ball across the field. Today. 11. The men should have eaten that supper by now.
B. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. we had already served dinner. When they arrive. I am completing my income tax return early this year. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. C. I have completed my income tax return. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. D. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. . B. Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. 4. By the time they arrived. 2. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. B. D. B. we will serve dinner. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. 3. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. C.Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. C. They have lived here for two months.
Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. D. C. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. He has finished painting my house.They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. C. 7. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. B. 10. She is designing a logo for the company. She will design a logo for the company. B. 9. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. They lived in Halifax before moving here. Page 98 24 6. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A. She designed a logo for the company. . D. He will be finished painting my house by tonight. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. He will finish painting my house soon. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. 8. She has designed a logo for the company. C. He is finished painting my house. 11. D. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. 5.
12. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. B. E. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice . 2. D. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. The disaster relief team has sprung into action. C. 3 Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. The train will be making three stops before Montreal F. By the time you get to school. My son did his homework last night. SENTENCE TENSE? A. Page 99 25 4. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. The butcher had already delivered our order. the bell will already have rung. Barry threw the ball to first base. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. Write your answers in your notebook. I am feeling better already. G.
The strike vote is being called for next Monday. I was frightened by the storm. 1. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. 9. 3. 11. 14. 4. I have just been thinking about you. 5. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. 8. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. 13. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. 7. . 15. After the elections. 6. Sandra¶s writing is improving daily. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. My heart was broken. 2. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. The child was struck by a stray bullet. the votes were recounted several times. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. We have been searching for answers to our questions. Page 100 26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise.Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them. 12. 10. Stephen King has written many best sellers.
Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. Once they have been placed in a sentence. Change the passive verbs to active ones. It is at this point that a . Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. Now look up each word in the dictionary. Look at the words below. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B.Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. All by themselves. they start to function by carrying the writer¶s meaning to the reader. This was a ³trick´ exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. words cannot have a part of speech. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A.
reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense.word develops into a part of speech. The first one is done for you. 5. For each one you identified. Number: 3 person singular rd Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. 7. 6. Page 101 27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. 3. write everything you can about it. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. Have you eaten here before? 4. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee. 1. He has never drunk stout before. 2. C. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person. Lunch will be served at twelve o¶clock sharp. .
9. they will announce the results. What were you thinking? 10. Something should be done about each of these problems. 3. 6. and verbs in each sentence. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. Pronouns. pronouns. They might not find each other at the airport. 8. The music will have been playing for several hours. The houses had just been repainted. 4. 14. and Verbs List the nouns. The men were unhappy with both of those. 9. The couple usually walks to the office. 2. 5. 11. Everything that Tom says about them is true. 15. so the dog was destroyed. The child was severely bitten. 12. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. but old ones are gold. He is dating a beautiful doctor. 10. My sister always rides her bike to the office. 1. I am doing my homework now. 7. New friends are silver.8. I shall be seeing you again next week. 13. When everyone is finished. Page 102 28 . That company buys only the best automotive parts from us.
Oprah has changed people¶s attitudes towards honesty. 8. Why haven¶t you written that letter yet? 6. If you have too many mistakes. How much money will you need next week? 7. I am happy about your decision. 4. 9. The jury is discussing its decision. Kevin gave me Marion¶s card. 4. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. Pronouns. Where was he going? 5. Your choices seem logical. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. 3. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. 2. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. 1. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. All of these will sell well. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother¶s now. 1. 2.Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. Pronouns. and Verbs List the nouns. 5. Then give as much information as you can about each. He had watched TV for more than an hour. Tony will have finished his course by next June. 3. .
and then return to these review exercises and try them again. 7. The storm grew worse as night approached. 4. 3. 8. 9.10. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. Pronouns. SENTENCE . Don't forget articles. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. 1. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. these come from Sackville. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. If you find you are still confused about some points. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. 5. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. Will you complete that survey? Page 103 29 10. and his mouth watered. Write your answers in your notebook. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. What has anyone seen lately. study it. 6. Those were made in China. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. He smelled the fresh bread. 2. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba.
3. 12. 15. 13. 14. juicy apples. sat on the dining room table. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and . We bought Shelley and Tim¶s house. 6. Do you like spicy. Mexican food? 9.Adjectives Nouns 1. depressing day. An old rusty car is parked in my space. A few boys knew that they were lost. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. Page 104 30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. sweet and lovable. This trip takes several days 8. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. Two cats. 11. 2. 5. Invite those six people. The little girl had big. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. 10. The road was rough and uneven. Our cousins were eating huge. I have had a boring. These parcels are heavy. 7. Give them some light summer clothes. Karl¶s hockey skates are dull. 4. sparkling blue eyes.
They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. piercing the inky darkness. The weather was warm. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. Jensen¶s chicken farm. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. lit a huge crackling fire. Where is the grocery store now? . bright and narrow.autumn leaves that littered the ground. Yesterday. and ate their supper. Bob read the material carefully. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. 3. After two long hours. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. they saw a beam of light. 2. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. They set up their canvas tents. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. and the hills were gentle. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. With relief.
4. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. 6. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. 7. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. 8. The circus was really exciting. 9. Simon is not a very good driver. 10. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Page 105 31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. For each adverb, tell whether it modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. 1. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. 2. Thoughtfully, the old man chewed his dinner. 3. Make sure that you review daily. 4. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. 5. Tim was very happy about his success. 6. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 7. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun.
8. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. 9. The soldiers were really tired after their training. 10. She strolled leisurely down the mall. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Indicate the type of modifier, i.e: adjective or adverb. Write your answers in your notebook. Write an explanation of your choice. Example: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage.( ) Answer: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage. (adverb) 1. Leah behaves (good, well). ( ) 2. Sheila feels (sad, sadly) about the death of her dog. ( ) 3. I am not (really, real) sure if I will have a party. ( ) 4. The directions were (simple, simply) to follow. ( ) 5. I don't feel (good, well). ( ) 6.
The repairs went (slowly, slow). ( ) 7. The change in speed was (gradually, gradual). ( ) 8. You work too (serious, seriously) sometimes. ( ) 9. We feel (awful, awfully) about what happened. ( ) 10. These chocolates taste (good, well). ( ) 11. Firefighters must respond very (quick, quickly). ( ) 12. Lynn spoke in a (calm, calmly) voice after the accident. ( ) 13. Tiger Woods putted (bad, badly) on that last hole! ( ) 14. The lights shone (brightly, bright) in my eyes. ( ) 15. Paul did (good, well) on his second driver¶s test. ( )
Page 106 32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. 1. Who is the (smaller, smallest, most small), Cathy or Diane? 2. My heart beat (rapidlier, more rapidly, more rapid) with each step. 3. It snowed (most, more) in January than in February. 4. The damage to the other car looked (worse, more badly, worser) than the damage to mine. 5. Tom thinks math is (difficulter, more difficult) than grammar exercises. 6. He is the (elder, eldest) of the candidates. 7. This idea is (more unique, unique, most unique). Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. Answer: Carl drove to, from, around, near, beside, etc. the bank. 1. Dawn fell the horse. 2. Earl worked him.
3. I will meet you the front entrance. 4. The horse galloped the field. 5. Smoking is not allowed the building. B In the next part of this exercise, find and underline the prepositions. 1. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day.. 2. Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. 3. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. 5. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. 7. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 8. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. 9. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. C
... Here¶s an example.. The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat..m......prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ at 5:00 p.. Page 107 33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence.... why or how the action of the verb took place..... when..... tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb.. If it is telling where.prepositional adjective phrase modifying ³woman´ on the bench.......... the rest of the water drained from the basement.....where:. it is a prepositional adjective phrase.. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook...when.Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition.. Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb..m... During the night. it is an prepositional adverb phrase.. 2. ....... 1. After each one.prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise.. with the red dress.... The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p. If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun....
The chili was not only spicy hot. 2. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. but she went home on the bus. 7. After his graduation in 1992. Correlative. but also steaming hot. Exercise 70: Conjunctions . . Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. 6. 4. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet. Since his return. all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill.3. 8. 5. 10. In the middle of a big spacious lawn. or Lynn and Joan will take our place. On Fridays. 6. Either Anna and I will go. the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day. 3. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. the designer placed a beautiful statue. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms. I asked her to wait for me. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens. 1. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store.Coordinate. 5. 9. Because of the storm.
Tired but happy. as a result. 8. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. 2. 6. however. yet he decided to drive anyway. but also I will perform. so he just drank pop all night. 12. Mark knows more than I do about that case. we will not pay our own fare. Not only will I attend. . He organized his study time. I know where they have hidden the treasure. 3. the team returned home. 8. some local citizens rescued it. meanwhile. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. 4. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. 5. After the whale beached itself. 1. the children swam in the pool. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. 13.Page 108 34 7. Since I first met Sheila and her. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. 15. 9. 11. he felt prepared. 7. I wonder why they are leaving so early. they will be cut down. The weather was snowy. I made supper. but I don¶t have a map. 10. she has always been very polite. I won¶t be able to go even though I have the money. We will go. 14. He was the designated driver.
17. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). He reported that he had seen the incident. 10. they couldn¶t fix it themselves. 14. Although it was quite sunny. 25. Page 109 35 B. 18. The first one is done for you. Les is five inches taller than I am. He always talks as if he were an expert. he couldn¶t turn it. 22. 2. 11. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. he turned pro. After the lecture. Are you sure that you are right? . put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. Thieves broke in while we were away. After he won the gold medal. 13. you can¶t reach that cupboard. For each sentence above. 23. Before they read the instructions. you missed it. 1. Unless the Leafs win this game. 20. 24. 19. It isn¶t certain whether they will come or not. they are out of the playoffs. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A.9. 12. the students asked if they could stay. the wind was cool. You just answered my questions before I asked them. Although he is stronger. Copy these sentences into your notebook. 15. Because you were late. If you are short. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. Underline all the relative pronouns. 21. I don¶t know how I will get there. 16.
My sister. 9. 1. . The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester.(7) 2. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. Your ancestors lived beside the sea.3. Dogs make good pets for young children. Page 110 36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. (10) 4.000 aren¶t worth the money. mine lived near Moncton. 5. 7. 8. That book that you bought last month is very interesting. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. Cars that cost more than $20. (10) 3. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday. Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) 5. who lives in Utah. I know who bought the Fuller¶s house. came for a visit. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. 4. 6. Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported. 10.
The students in this program are very hard workers. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. (11) There are a total of 150 words in this review. the chairs were placed near the windows. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. so you can buy several of them. (15) 2. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. (11) 9. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. 1. Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately.Those big. Page 111 37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors¶ home. (9) 12. (5) 13. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. (12) 14. If you have less than a 120. She believes in his ability. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. . Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. Identify the parts of speech of each word. Casually. Usually. (9) 15. Count the number of correct answers. (6) 10. The frail.(12) 8. I do not think about their problems now because I don¶t have time. but today they are in a circle.(15) 6. (9) 11. He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (14) 7.
Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) 12. and I still don¶t know it. they have some money. (10) 9. did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) 18. Very quickly. (12) 14.(10) 6. Because of her problems. Although the storm was very intense. (9) 10. (11) 16. Finally. After they had mowed the lawn. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. I had been studying for three hours. Sue often seeks my advice. Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) 15. The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. Miles¶ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can¶t pass those provincial exams. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. They had been writing their essays before they went there . Because they have cashed their cheques. the victims have recovered quite well. (13) Page 112 38 17. The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. Since the accident. (10) 8. they bought lunch . (13) 13. you can .(9) 7. (14) 4. the damage was minor. Ouch.(14) 3. (6) 5. Hey Eric. (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. (8) 11. his clever tricks have failed. (6) 19. they finished their work. If you correctly identified 160 of them.
Common noun g. and meat. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Concrete noun i.PRETEST 1. Non-count noun c. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Proper noun h. Possessive noun d.continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book. Ask your instructor for supplementary work. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Page 113 39 BAU ENGLISH . Singular noun e. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Collective noun . fruit. Read this paragraph. Count noun b. In the paragraph above. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Abstract noun j.
k. 3 person plural rd H. 3 person singular rd B. c. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. The horses hooves needed new shoes. Someone 2. g. Noun used as an adjective 2. non-count noun 9. Paul¶s 7. We 3.(9) a. 3. The six workers complaints were very reasonable. Sallys covered a whole month of work.(8) A. Its 5. It¶s 6. d. using apostrophes correctly. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Rewrite these sentences. interrogative pronoun D. plural C. e. Sisters¶ 8. 1 person plural st G. b. Plural noun f. means ³it is´ E. possessive noun. possessive noun. f. Their 4. indefinite pronoun F. What 1. singular . Those repairs will take more than a weeks work.
7. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. .Page 114 40 4. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences.(10) 1. They were afraid of bears. 2.(11) 1. we work for Mr. Charles. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. (2) 7. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. 5. 3. The crows flew toward the swamp. 3. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. 2. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. During the week. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. 6. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. The teacher with the beard is Mr. Linton. 6. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. He always uses a cane since his accident.
10. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. 9. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Write a sentence comparing two people. Use the correct form of the adjective good. Next summer. Write a sentence comparing two things. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. I was the first one there! 8. Use the correct form of the adverb early. 7. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. we will go to Disneyland. Page 115 41 11. . His Ford has always run well. 5. Paula will rent a car in Boston. 10.John is always talking to his boss lately. 9. 12. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 8. 4. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. They ate six lobsters each.
He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. 4. Count noun b. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. 5. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. Her 1. Common noun g. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. and meat. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. fruit.(41) 1. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. she and them 2. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. 2. her) were the first to arrive. 3. 14. 1. Read this paragraph. Our new neighbours have three young children. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Proper noun . In the paragraph above. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather.13.
What 1. f. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. The horses hooves needed new shoes. 3. c. indefinite pronoun F. Their 4. g. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store.(8) A.(9) a. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. d. not a personal pronoun E. It¶s . Abstract noun j. e. Page 116 42 b. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared.h. Singular noun e. Sallys covered a whole month of work. Its 5. possessive noun. Possessive noun d. 3 person singular rd B. interrogative pronoun D. We 3. plural C. The workers complaints were very reasonable. Someone 2. Concrete noun i. Collective noun k. using apostrophes correctly. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. Plural noun f. Noun used as an adjective 2. Non-count noun c. Rewrite these sentences.
(10) . He always uses a cane since his accident. Paul¶s 7. non-count noun 9. (2) 7. Charles. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. we work for Mr. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. Sisters¶ 8. 6. 6. 7. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. 5. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. 2. Linton. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. possessive noun. During the week.6. 3 person plural rd H. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. The teacher with the beard is Mr. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. 1 person plural st G.(11) 1. singular 4. 3.
9. Write a sentence comparing two things. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. John is always talking to his boss lately. Page 117 43 5. 2. 10.1. Next summer. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. 10. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. 9. 3. Paula will rent a car in Boston. His Ford has always run well. Are you cutting her hair? 6. . They ate six lobsters each. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Use the correct form of the adjective good. 4. I was the first one there! 8. The crows flew toward the swamp. Write a sentence comparing two people. 8. we will go to Disneyland. 7. They were afraid of bears.
Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. and (they. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. 2. her) were the first to arrive.(44) 1. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. 4. she and they B. 12. A. she and them D. 3. them) were the first to leave. 14. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. her and them 15. her and they C. 5. How many nouns does this sentence contain? . Write a sentence comparing two actions. 13. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon.Page 118 44 11. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather.
join groups of words or sentences. Five B. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. Three C. . places. are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. and qualities. Nouns are words that A. Seven D. including ponds. The complete verb in this sentence is A. Six C.Wetlands. playing Florenceville B. Two D. Five B. 18. include the names of persons. things. are used to take the place of pronouns. and people. D. Six 17. B. marshes. animals. describe substances. C. be playing C. and swamps. Eight Page 119 45 16.
lost D. the chocolate covered. ragged. was. hungry D. 22. dirty. This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. dirty C. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A. The adjectives in this sentence are A. homeless. lost against 20. the. dirty. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. They have never lost a game against that team. ragged. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa.has played D. was very hungry. Which donut is the biggest. homeless. C. The homeless man. very B. the. . never lost C. The complete verb in this sentence is A. hungry Page 120 46 21. or the glazed? B. D. playing 19. The following sentences make comparisons. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. ragged. ragged and dirty. They are moving to Moncton. homeless. ragged. very. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. B. Which one? A. have lost B. dirty.
Correct the grammar errors in these sentences.(9) A. weeks¶ 2. Molly and Sally¶s 4. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. 23. C. . D.PRETEST 1. Them skates are real good. Answers will vary. Molly¶s. TOTAL: 133 Page 121 47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. week¶s 6. The dogs blanket wasn¶t in it¶s house when the storm hit. B. Duncan¶s 5. E.Yesterday. Them sneakers are really great! C. Sally¶s 3. D. 2. Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. I bought a pair of sneakers. a. lady¶s. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. Him and me went to the Ashleys house.
sisters¶ possessive noun. A. horse¶s or horses¶ Explain the meaning of your choice. We 1 person plural st 4. singular 8. walk walked walked walking . It¶s means ³it is´ 7. 3. Someone Indefinite pronoun 3. Their 3 person plural rd 5. Paul¶s possessive noun. plural 4. Its 3 person singular rd 6. What Interrogative pronoun 2.workers¶ 7.
of the cereal in the cupboard during the week for Mr. Answers will vary.cut cut cut cutting sing sang sung singing think thought thought thinking drive drove driven driving 5. Page 122 48 7. . Linton after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees in the light breeze with the red wheels beside the general store 6.
..pronoun of. Many. will go..... ate.noun belonged.noun... 9....noun 2....adverb 4..flew.... That........ Answers will vary. 10..noun is.. Answers will vary.... Answers will vary. was....... Our........adjective neighbours..preposition Jeb¶s..... Answers will vary.pronoun/adjective new. 13. Hey.verb three.. has run.....noun 3. is talking.noun soon. 12....verb to.... are cutting. Answers will vary..... possessive friend.... will rent 8.preposition Mount Carleton.....interjection .....adjective disks..adjective young...conjunction a......preposition these.....noun and.adjective children............... 11.. were.. have sold... 1..verb to...noun have..adjective dog...adjective team...verb going.
.... Those skates are really good.preposition the... B 18.noun were..........adjective men...pronoun are......... A 20...adjective camp........ A 23..verb the.. .pronoun of.....adjective weather...noun from.....adjective bad. A..verb always.noun 5...verb for.verb you... D 16.. C 22.What......preposition the........ A 15.............. A 17.preposition supper. C 19.adverb discussing..... Several.noun Page 123 49 14. 2.pronoun cooking.. C 21.
He and I went to Ashley¶s house.(16) 2. 3.(6) B. The dog¶s blanket wasn¶t in its house when the storm hit. John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. Cheryl¶s ideas are better than mine are. 4. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D.(51) A. D. C. Page 124 50 IAUENG .(11) E. . In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. Each of these would have been correct.(9) C. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. B. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. Identify the part of speech of each word. An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows.PRETEST 1. 5. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. Oh no.
The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. A month from now. Beth handled the dog very well today. Name the tense of each verb. F. What b. Sheilas mother lives next door. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. Personal pronoun . Myself c. C. A. I bought those pants in the childrens department. 4. I will call you. Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years. E. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. B. D. C.3. D. The Sullivans have a new boat. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. Indefinite pronoun 1. (8) a. Relative pronoun 2. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. Page 125 51 5. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. E. B. (7) A. The bosses letters are always long and dull.
C. Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. Anne. Themself 9. Emphatic pronoun. with. We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. 8. plural 6. Us g. Reflexive pronoun. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. left. Cape Breton. Interrogative pronoun 8. Read the following sentence. to. Someone d. today. C. for. Each other 6. . spend. families. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. Which f. Reciprocal pronoun 4. B. D.3. Demonstrative pronoun 7. D. 7. and. Christmas. Jim. We watched the ships come in that night. B. singular 5. These h. Yourselves e. The proper nouns in the sentence are A.
C. my neighbour's car. my neighbours' car. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. C.Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A.(6) early quite almost . university's women club. D. B. B. the camera strap. Page 126 52 9. D. the camera's strap. my neighbours car. the cameras' strap. 10. university women's club. the cameras strap¶s 11. car belonging to my neighbour. D. university womens' club. C. university's women's club. B. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A.
C.) 12. B. B. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph. Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Do you like chocolate cake white cake? C. A. 13. I shovel snow mow lawns. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Write the tense of the verb. Page 127 53 14. changing the verb to the future perfect tense. Rewrite the paragraph.fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. Rewrite the sentence.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. Ron was late he stopped for me. D. using pronouns as you think are necessary. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. The ferret belonging to Shirley was .(3) A.
Their sporty new car. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Our children don¶t like the icy. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives. As far as I can see. Use each in a sentence. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. changing the verb to the present perfect tense. B. Monford¶s old barn. red and expensive.(3) . Monica¶s sneakers are always dirty and dusty. C. Write three (3) sentences with interjections. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. cold water. In the following sentences. List five (5) linking verbs. Write the tense of the verb. I heard a great new song on the radio. 16. large and unpainted. is too flashy. A. A.(5) 2.(5) 18.named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret.(6) 4.(3) 3. Rewrite the sentence. D. 1. 15.(4) 5.(6) 17. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. looked abandonned.(5) B.
Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb. A. Ted damaged his car (bad. D. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. The entire team did not feel (well. badly). Cindy writes letters. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). B. The managers had a (private.(5) 21. B. Write the tense of the verb. 20. B. D. E.(10) A. Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs. really) (well. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow. Cindy . He answered those questions (real. privately) meeting. C.NOUN writes . B.(8) Example: A. 22. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Rewrite the sentence. changing the verb to the past perfect tense. slowly). Choose the correct modifier. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following). good). good) after the meal.Page 128 54 19. A.VERB . C.
8. C.(5) Page 129 55 24. 4. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course. He had went there several times before. B.NOUN 23. G. 2. F. 5.letters . Your work is good. While they were away. therefore. The man who wrote that book is in town today. but it still needs more work. we cancelled our trip. Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. E. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. 25. A storm was forecast. Could him and me rent a movie? 7. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. He sure done good on his last test. 6. D. Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test. yet we never received it. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown.(12) 1. They completed the report which we requested. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. 3.(10) A. Total 192 Page 130 . they visited Len and Jennifer.
...........verb..adjective that..... An.pronoun really.IAU ENGLISH .adverb D........adjective windows...verb you............verb coming...... Are.adjective clap....adjective extremely....noun are.noun of...verb better...PRETEST 1...adverb have..preposition thunder.. Cheryl¶s..........pronoun are..............verb the...verb not..........noun..........noun will...... possessive ideas.verb .. B... Oh no..adverb happy.56 ANSWER KEY ..conjunction/pronoun they...adjective than....pronoun are.noun C.....interjection Matt.......verb here.noun rattled. A.conjunction mine.....adverb loud.
..............pronoun changed.......... Simple future D.adjective money. Simple past B....verb Woodstock.verb have..conjunction/pronoun you... Past progressive C....pronoun of..........verb are. Each..noun leaves.......conjunction the........adjective but.....adverb wrong...noun that.noun before...pronoun would...... C Page 131 57 3...... A...the. Simple present ............verb correct..noun E...preposition these.conjunction the.verb been.verb now.....adjective tour..........adjective answers.adjective 2...
children¶s C. 7. Answers will vary. a. 1 6. B 11. Sheila¶s B. 4 g. . 9: e. f. c. Nicole¶s D. Present perfect progressive 4. 2. Jones¶ weeks¶ 5. 3. 6.E. h. B 10. mother¶s F. bosses¶ E. A 8. B 7. C 9. A. b. d. 5.
dusty...radio Monica¶s..song the.... A. red.. expensive.adverb 20..... new. will have completed 13. Answers may vary.. a. new.... badly..barn Our..... Simple future 3. large.. 18.. 14..past perfect 22. icy.. Answers may vary. Answers may vary. 19...... feel simple present had felt... Answers will vary..adverb well..sneakers Monford¶s...adjective slowly.... unpainted. dirty.children the. 23. sporty. great...adverb really.. old.12.. 21...........water their.adjective (after a linking verb) private.adverb well... will complete 2. Answers may vary..present perfect 16. Page 132 58 15. Answers may vary....car 17. Answers will vary. abandonned.. .. flashy..... cold....... lived Simple past have lived....
.. He had gone there several times before. and.......co-ordinate conjunction therefore...subordinate conjunction and....relative pronoun who. Page 133 59 25.conjunctive adverb that.co-ordinate conjunction yet.. The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport..relative pronoun but.......24.co-ordinate conjunction.. Page 134 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 135 1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns ... The driver could have finished this if he had had the time..correlative conjunction while....co-ordinate conjunction either/or... Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course.... I bought some of those apples from Jim and him... The lawyer will do the work himself..
mussels. What. South Pole. she 6. Who 8. friend 4. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. Confederation Bridge. blueberries 3. Shediac. catch 10. water B. Answers will vary. top. collision. iceberg 7. something. wives 8. sea 6. themselves 5. hill. them. snow. Robert. weather. people. Everybody. She. car. muffins. husbands. roads. porch 2. Many. birds. boats. harbours. ocean. lives. Northumberland Strait 2. canneries seafood. traps. 8. markets. boats 4. couples. Florida. passengers. None. they 3. daughter. dog. you 4. cold 9. us. clouds 3. that . area. fishermen. motels 6. penguins. Japan 9. Saint John. herself. those 7.1. hours. cat. 1. few 2. night shipment. fishermen. Stones. these 9. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. scallops. villages. you. lobster 7. All. lobster 5. Titantic. ship. clams. They. truck 5. weather 10. storms. life. drivers. computer.
Rides 8. Walks 7. Thought 9. Sat. Was enjoying . Answers will vary.10. Flew 4. Page 136 2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. Me. that 5. Looked 10. Perched 3. any. She. us. you. Many B. They. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. Cost 5. Threw 2. 1. her. We 7. Mine. it 8. were jogging 2. He. it 4. This. Them. What. his 6. them. Ate 3. some 9. her 3. no one 2. Who. Dreamed 6. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. him. we 10.
Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. Decided 5. few.4. Arrived 7. The. new. Learned 2. the steel 8. Could stay 5. Hope. faded 6. the. Soon 3. Carefully . that. annual 9. quiet. The. brown. Are calling 10. Six. Little. six flower the. A. Was bringing 4. These. Early 2. hot dry Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. long. Paper. hockey. summer. juicy. dusty 2. beautiful. old. the. 5. Became 6. Are reading. Had been broken 3. Has been driving 6. Was returning 9. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. The. A. Brought 8. train. white 4. Will send 9. Will guess 7. light 7. have finished 8. torn. Agreed 10. The. red 10. the. delicious 3. dark.
really Note: for class. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. Really. under the stairs 4. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. Brightly 10. Politely. at noon. On the bed. quite 6. Surprisingly. Finally. Page 137 3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. Generally. On airplanes. Not. Yesterday. Here. Today. towards home 3. correctly 9. Daily 3. late 8. Never 7. very. Behind the desk. 5. on the table. Truly 9. where. in the guest room 2. on trains . quickly 10. Relatively 2. If you identified them as adverbs. Quickly. very 4. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. there 5.4. accurately 5. beside those. Very. why. lately 8. Through the park. effectively 7. Of her dress. you are really thinking. Not . tomorrow 6. at the beach.
In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared . Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. On the porch 7. On the road. in the mall Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. From maple trees. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2. With tickets 8. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John¶s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. to Stanley 10. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie¶s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8.6. into a syrup 9. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. With the long scarf. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt.
And words (2 nouns) 3. And prepositional phrases 4. Oh no 3. And words (2 nouns) 2. Ouch 4. Wow 2. And adjectives When . No 5. And adverbs But ideas 5. After ideas 7. Yuck Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. Before ideas 8. So ideas 6.Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most Page 138 4 10.
Because yet 3. Who but 5. Carol noun 2.. That both. Our pronoun/adjective and conjunction friends noun I pronoun in preposition .ideas 9.and 6. And 10. Because Exercise 15: Review 1. Until 7. If so 8.. Or which 4. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1. Because ideas 10. Although and 2. When 9.
The adjective (article) 4.Page 139 5 travelled verb Calgary noun to preposition were verb Alberta noun surprised adjective last adjective when conjunction year noun we pronoun arrived verb 3. Their pronoun/adjective tall adjective house noun majestic .
We pronoun you pronoun jogged verb should verb quickly .adjective was verb Rocky Mountains noun built verb majestic adjective in preposition are verb 1990 noun a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun 5. No interjection 6.
adverb not adverb through preposition take verb the adjective (article) your pronoun/adjective dark adjective camera noun woods noun on preposition your pronoun/adjective trip noun 7. Most pronoun 8. She pronoun of preposition was verb the adjective (article) .
We pronoun 10. The adjective (article) bought verb wind noun a adjective (article) was verb very .giving verb students noun a adjective (article) listened verb short adjective politely adverb but conjunction interesting adjective lecture noun Page 140 6 9.
Sheila noun book noun and conjunction cost verb he . This adjective 12.adverb cold adjective small adjective but conjunction quantity noun the adjective (article) of preposition sun noun food noun was verb yesterday adverb really adverb warm adjective 11.
Turn verb American adjective at preposition fishermen noun the adjective (article) caught verb lights noun two adjective and . The adjective 14.pronoun six adjective were verb dollars noun talking verb to preposition her pronoun when conjunction it pronoun happened verb 13.
.conjunction salmon noun go verb for preposition two adjective lunch noun blocks noun west adverb 15. Eric noun and conjunction they pronoun learned verb very adverb quickly adverb Page 141 7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1.
parcel. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. grammar English 7. syrup. Bay of Chaleur 4. sale. stores. path Black Lake 2. computer. weekend Italy 6. bubbles . cow. mill Robin. leaves. hockey*. arena. areas North America 8. Regina 3. newspaper. family. people. stars. exceptions.moonlight. settlers Gaspé. street Beresford 9. language. sister. school. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary. maple*. carnival. Alberta 5. France. Marsha. rules. England 10. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. city Bathurst.
. grace. a large amount of. skiing. etc. etc. a large number of.Abstract nouns: justice. truth. dog¶s 3. Mary¶s 2. a lot of. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. 4. several. etc. Charles¶ company owed him two days¶ pay.) junk mail.) deer were shot this season. (one son) 4. 2. 3. Sue¶s. Martha¶s sister was worried about her son¶s health. several. boy¶s B. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. the children¶s book Elvis¶s biggest fans the secretaries¶ meeting the bosses¶ memos my oldest son¶s car the men¶s department Page 142 8 the buses¶ schedule the cats¶ paws the coyote¶s barking two weeks¶ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. Bob¶s uncle lives near Sharon¶s farm. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. (Many. happiness. many pieces of. Ann receives (too much. months¶ 4. a few. Owen has (many. men¶s 5. 3.) assignments to do this week. 1.
9. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. Have you seen Mel Gibson¶s last three movies? 5. The girl¶s hair had been cut short for the twins¶ wedding. The skateboarders¶ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes.Mrs. Finish your client¶s reports before you go to Smith¶s tonight. Mark¶s mother lives at my sister¶s. The women¶s resumés were sent to the companies¶ head offices by the bosses¶ secretary. 3. Smith was worried about their sons¶ health. My uncles¶ farmhouse was struck by during last summer¶s storm. but the company¶s salesman went to my cousin¶s (cousins¶)* place. 8. The sun¶s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. 4. 10. * Depending on the meaning. and the family¶s name is Boudreau. either would be correct. Childs¶ car was being serviced at Eaton¶s. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. 6. Frank and James¶ mail order business is making them a rich man¶s fortune. (two sons) 5. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. . The students¶ cafeteria will be closed after next week¶s graduation. 6. (two uncles) 2. Because of the accident. 7. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winter¶s last lament´. Mr. 7. City Council¶s regular meetings are held on Mondays. The child¶s name is Nora. (one client) 9. his wife¶s income was reduced. 10.
That is my neighbour's new car. conjunctions 8. Ferry Road. Chatham. C. Laura is Pam's oldest sister. nouns 2. This is Doris's store. verbs 4. adjectives 5. prepositions 7. . A.A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. interjections 3. adverbs 6. Centennial Bridge. pronouns 3. 4. B. The proper nouns in the sentence are B. The eight parts of speech are: 1. Page 143 9 2. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive.
Miramichi River. Nova Scotia.Pepsi. Edmundston. magazine . Inside Sports. place. 7. Orange Crush. 6. Halifax. soda pop . Discover. Boxing Day. Consumer Reports. Those are the children's toys. Entertainment. Parents 8. city Moncton. E. Thanksgiving. Sports Page 144 10 Illustrated. The nouns in the sentence are C. Bathurst.Canadian Living. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. New Brunswick Day. Sprite B. thing. Answers will vary.I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. New River D. Coca-Cola. Ottawa C. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. A. Truro. 7-Up. Check your answer with your instructor. holiday Christmas. Canada Day E. D. Little River. Labour Day. . Salmon River. town. Halifax. Campbellton. Easter. friends. A noun is a word which names a person. Chatelaine. river St. John River. 5. Fredericton. Saint John. or quality.
count. singular Canada¶s . count. singular mice .common. Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? E. January month B. Canada country C. non-count. collective. no corrections D.common. concrete. Parker doctor 9. concrete. abstract*. I had a great time last St. Saint John city D. A. count**. Patrick's Day. The petals of the flower fell to the floor. (Example: New Brunswick .Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. Dr. Jupiter planet E. church . B. concrete.province) A. 10. count.proper. plural mob . possessive . abstract. singular beauty . C. There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair.common.common. singular.
abstract.common.news .common. singular. singular English horn . singular gold . ³Lions¶ possessive broccoli . abstract*. . singular jury . possessive Lions¶ Club . count. abstract*.common. collective. count.g. He may have taken her coat. singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one. count.common. concrete.common. singular men¶s . concrete.common. collective. etc.proper. concrete. concrete. possessive company . count**. e. abstract. count. abstract. count. singular/plural grammar . abstract*. collective. singular fragrance . I saw them eating their lunch myself 3. concrete.common. count. abstract. collective.common. singular Page 145 11 sunrise . count. concrete. singular boys¶ . count. plural. but mine is on the desk. concrete. concrete. singular boy¶s .common. singular armies . plural. Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1. singular surprise . concrete.common.common.common. count. abstract. French/English Canada. count. Upper /Lower Canada. non-count. count. abstract. count. non-count. singular.common. count.common. singular trouble . Did you give him his book? 2. plural food . possessive loyalty .common.proper.common. count. singular March . concrete. non-count.common. count.
theirs.3 person plural it .2 person singular/plural her .3 person singular theirs . our. you . yours. I . We. ourselves 2. mine. My sister.1 person singular st rd st your .1 person singular they .2 person singular nd 2. They. ours.3 person singular rd rd 3. You. She. First person singular A. First person plural C. her. yourselves 4. Third person plural B. 1. my. Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . Number. me. hers. They . Third person singular D. them. Cheryl gave her cold to them. Second person singular F. your.3 person plural rd rd rd they . 1. 5. their. themselves 5. Gender A.Person.3 person plural my . myself B.3 person plural its . her husband and their children visited your mother.3 person singular feminine . us. I.4. herself 3.
They . me 12.2 person singular/plural yours . I 7. those. her 4. her 11. You 5. they. Your.2 person singular/plural nd nd 4. Its. his. The following is an . he. it¶s 10.nd rd you . they 8. you¶re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary. Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection Page 146 12 1. he 3. Have your instructor check your answer.1 person plural our -1st person plural rd st Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary.3 person plural we . me 6. he 2. their 9. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary.
That doesn¶t sound right. We sent her some flowers.. 4.example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. Now it¶s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. so try Al met her at the movies. Mary drove I to the mall. 2. Al met she at the movies. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. 7. it had not been driven very far when he bought it. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. Read the sentence without John . 5.. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. His car is just like a new one. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. 6. Her is the right choice. Although his car is not a new one. Al met John and her at the movies. The word yous does not exist. Your other choice is her. Her gave.. 3. To find the right choice. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1.. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. .
They kept the secret from Jack and me.Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. The pronoun yourself is singular. Him is the man outside. Me was Jane's best friend. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. Now the other pronoun choice. The second choice makes more sense. and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? Page 147 13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. Use the same strategy as in sentence 11. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one. (This is tricky and may not sound right. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. He is the man outside.) 8. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret. In this sentence. I was .but try switching the sentence around. Therefore. They kept the secret from I. The man standing outside is he. Jane's best friend was I.) 11. Page 148 14 9. the second sentence sounds better. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. 10. two people should be preparing themselves.
.. His. Their.. 12..family (used as a single unit) 6........ Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe........ Your instructor will check your answer.... Mine 5. They 2.. . Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1..... Their. Only one person received a trophy.books 4. 1.president 2.one (Girls is not the antecedent.. B.... Decide which sentence sounds the best... Their.family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8.students...) 7... It¶s means ³it is´.. It. Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech... Them.. those. Her 3... themselves..we 9....... The obvious choice is the pronoun I... The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun....managers 3. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Your 4.. Her..Jane's best friend.jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5. Ourselves.
Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale. ³You deserved this ticket. 3... The audience clapped for the actors¶ performance.. Norm and Al filled Jim¶s basket with apples from Fredericton. Philip gave her a present. the gender is not clear) Page 149 15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary..´ 5.) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2.donations 10. and you should pay it. As well. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear. His or her..) Philip gave her Donna¶s present.. 2. 4.student (3rd person singular..These. 3. (Donna bought the present. ... a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. The police officer told the driver. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. (Philip bought the present... Norm and Al filled Al¶s (or Norm¶s) basket with apples from Fredericton.
Emphatic. This 2. These. 6. 7. That B. 8. 5. 4.Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding.. One another reciprocal 5. 1.. Yourself . Yourself emphatic. Himself reflexive.. A few of us have received our marks. 10. 9. those 5. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. Many hens have escaped from their pen. Each other reciprocal 3. Several of the men have paid their dues... That 3.... Reciprocal Pronouns 1. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence. Exercise 38: Reflexive.an action he did to himself 2. Answers will vary.no one else washed it 4. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket. A few forgot their lunches.. Such 4. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow.
Which 9.reflexive 6. (To) whom 6. Ourselves reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1. herself reflexive 10. ---Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. What 10. Themselves emphatic 8. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal . ---8. Who 2. ----4. ---5. What 3. Himself. Herself reflexive 9. Which 7. Myself emphatic Page 150 16 7. Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is.
.R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B. themselves. 3 person plural.... singular it...personal pronoun.emphatic pronoun.. singular. refers to person who is speaking st 2. 2 person... neuter (no gender)... What.demonstrative pronoun 4..personal pronoun.personal pronoun.... you.... refers to the noun rd children it... 1 person singular.demonstrative pronoun. feminine . 3 person.indefinite pronoun.... singular that. 3 person singular... 3 person singular rd 3.interrogative pronoun anyone......personal pronoun.personal pronoun. replaces the rd noun accident me. 1....... refers to person(s) nd who are present that.. singular or plural.... She...
..personal pronoun.indefinite pronoun her.... 2 person... masculine. plural. singular that.. feminine rd 5..... 3 person... 2 person.. shows possession... 3 person.personal pronoun. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which.. rd shows possession... modifies the noun bill them...relative pronoun. That... 3 person.. their......personal pronoun.. used as a conjunction to join two ideas you... singular or plural nd 6.reflexive pronoun. masculine and/or feminine.. 3 person... singular.. plural.. masculine and/or feminine rd .... masculine rd Page 151 17 his. feminine rd any.demonstrative pronoun...personal pronoun.... 3 person...personal pronoun.relative pronoun.personal pronoun...demonstrative pronoun...relative pronoun... used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone.... singular. singular or plural nd 7.... rd modifies the noun boss that...indefinite pronoun you. He... singular..rd herself.personal pronoun.. 3 person. singular... plural.. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those.
they.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, masculine and/or feminine, refers rd to a plural noun mentioned previously it......personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, no gender, refers to a singular rd noun mentioned previously. 8. My.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession, modifies the st noun attempt, refers to the person speaking I.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, refers to the person speaking st I.....(as above) it.....personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, neuter, refers to a ³whole´ idea rd (the first attempt was a failure) 9. Which.....interrogative pronoun both......indefinite pronoun, plural, refers to the noun choices them.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to pronoun both which rd refers to the noun choices 10. itself......emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1. all.....indefinite pronoun my.....personal pronoun 2. who.....interrogative pronoun 3. they.....personal pronoun themselves......reflexive pronoun
4. You.....personal pronoun Page 152 18 that.....demonstrative pronoun them.....personal pronoun you......personal pronoun 5. who......relative pronoun each other......reciprocal pronoun 6. your......personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he......personal pronoun mine......personal pronoun, possessive 7. We......personal pronoun you.....personal pronoun who.....relative pronoun that......demonstrative pronoun 8. We.....personal pronoun ourselves......emphatic pronoun 9. yourselves......reflexive pronoun what.....interrogative pronoun I.......personal pronoun those.......demonstrative pronoun 10. Something.......indefinite pronoun Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1. 1 person plural C. st
interrogative pronoun F. or I. reciprocal pronoun B relative pronoun F. or I. indefinite pronoun (plural) K. demonstrative pronoun A. indefinite pronoun (singular) E. possessive pronoun J. reflexive pronoun H. a word that doesn¶t exist G 2. Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive. Page 153 19 3. a. she b. himself c. me d. which e. its f. your g. their h. those i. him
j. themselves 4. Answers will vary. 5. A. is incorrect 6. D. is correct 7. B. correctly completes the sentence. 8. A. Few.....indefinite pronoun, plural B. Those.....demonstrative pronoun, plural mine.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession st C. which.....relative pronoun themselves.....reflexive pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to companies rd D. Who.....interrogative pronoun anything......indefinite pronoun, singular this......demonstrative pronoun, singular E. yourself......reflexive pronoun, singular something......indefinite pronoun Exercise 43: Action Verbs A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. jumped.....action 2.
hit.....action 3. smashed.....action 4. watched.....action 5. were.....linking 6. is.....linking 7. was.....linking 8. will be.....linking 9. were.....linking 10. feared.....action Page 154 20 11. squeaked.....action 12. were.....linking 13. drove.....action 14. believed.....action 15. tasted.....action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. smells.....linking 2. looks.....linking 3. looked.....action 4. became......linking 5.
action 14. felt.action 7.. Would you please flip the hamburgers? ...... Heather will rarely drive the car in winter......linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary. know. We played ball against their team Saturday. broke..action 8.. felt.action 13..action 11.action 15..linking 10. dances..coughed.action 6.. sings.. taken must have 3. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. fell... slammed... howl... drove. Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1.action 9...action 12...... publishes......... That would have confused anyone! confused would have 5. played ---------4... drive will 2.. tastes..... Close.
He might have consulted a doctor. not after the last trip. eaten should have Page 155 21 10. Mitchell has lived here all his life. The washing machine has broken down. Sue may never have been given that letter. The men should have eaten that by now. consulted might have 13. given may have been 14. was ------7. going will be 9. There was a good show on TV last night. lived has 8. heard have 12. Have you ever heard such nonsense. agree shall 15. A child can easily learn this song.flip would 6. learn can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses . I will not be going. I shall never agree to his proposal. broken has 11.
. Vanessa was signing her lease. 5... 6..present perfect F......simple future D. 7. D... They will have washed the laundry by then..A... will kick.. had kicked... A....present perfect progressive E. B.past progressive J. is kicking.. 2.. has been kicking....... 3... Answers may vary.. has kicked..future progressive I.past perfect H... was giving..future perfect G. He has talked to the Lions¶ Club before.. A. B.. C....present progressive C.past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. will have kicked.simple present B. . will be leaving. 9. Answers may vary... 4. kicks... Answers may vary.... had been learning. 8..
4. Future progressive F. Present progressive B. Answers may vary. Future perfect E. Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs Page 156 22 1-3. Active 4. The couple will be needing even more room soon. Passive 5. 11. A.10. Simple past Page 157 23 Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. Present perfect D. We have been thinking about you lately. Passive . It had been snowing for three days. Simple past C. Active 3. Answers may vary. Past perfect G. 12. Passive 2. Answers may vary.
Active 12. Passive 15. Passive 11.6. Passive 8. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Active 14. Have eaten 3 person plural 2 person (singular or plural) rd nd simple future present perfect active voice active voice . Will show 3. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Passive 10. Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Passive 9. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word¶s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Active 7. Active 13.
Spoke 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd simple future simple past passive voice active voice ³The waiter´ will serve 8. Shall be seeing .4. Has been asking 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd past perfect present perfect progressive passive voice active voice Page 158 24 The committee had asked Page 159 25 6. Will be served 7. Had been asked 5.
9 a). Am doing 13. Will have been playing 1 person singular 3 person singular . Was bitten 1 person singular 3 person singular. Walks 3 person plural 3 person singular rd rd simple present simple present active voice active voice 12. st rd future progressive simple past active voice passive voice The dog bit the boy 9 b) Was destroyed 10 a) Are 3 person singular (neuter) 3 person plural (m or f) rd rd simple past simple present passive voice active voice ³The vet´ destroyed 10 b) Are 11.
office my. neuter rd rd present progressive past perfect active voice passive voice ³The painter´ had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. her rides 3. Had been repainted 3 person singular 3 person plural. Gander. Is dating 15. is . Pronouns. Tom everything. ice. bike. them says. planes. wings its landed 2. that. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. sister.st rd present progressive future perfect progressive active voice active voice 14.
. simple past. ---you were thinking 10. Pronouns.. each should be done 8. sister. airport they. problems something.noun. company. herself was teaching 7.verb.. and Verbs 1.. men both. singular gave.. proper.Page 160 26 4. Kevin... those were 5. singular. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. each other might find 9.. parts us buys 6. they is finished. concrete. Spanish my. results everyone. 3 person. active voice .
.. 3 person.pronoun..rd me. common... plural... common.. proper. concrete..... present progressive.... singular. personal. common..pronoun.. simple future. collective is discussing. common.. singular 2. concrete.noun. 3 person.. singular.noun. singular are being asked.pronoun. possessive.. 3 person..pronoun. 3 person. concrete lives.. 3 person.. plural these. plural......noun.. personal. 1 person singular st Marion¶s.pronoun... singular. passive voice rd their.noun.pronoun. concrete. personal... and Verbs 1... singular card... plural.verb.verb. concrete..verb.... simple present.. possessive rd recipes.. Aunt Gladys...... 3 person..noun. plural will sell. demonstrative... present progressive. all... jury.. personal. possessive. singular.. 1 person. st mother¶s. possessive. common..noun.noun. singular. possessive rd decision.. singular 3....... singular 4. indefinite.. active voice rd Exercise 59:Nouns. .. active voice rd my.. active voice rd its. concrete.. common. Pronouns... concrete.. chefs...noun... concrete.. plural 5.verb....... proper.
... active voice rd his... active voice rd 5..... possessive nd choices..... concrete...... common..noun.noun.pronoun.I............verb.....verb... concrete.pronoun. singular 2..... singular/plural nd have written... present perfect. concrete. singular. 3 person. 3 person. 1 person singular st am.pronoun. action. concrete. personal.. plural Page 161 27 seem. past progressive.. singular. singular/plural... He... singular phone. Your. action 3 person... singular.. singular is talking. 3 person...verb. linking.. linking. 2 person. personal. proper.. 2 person. masculine. 2 person.verb.noun..verb.. possessive rd girlfriend.. 1 person singular. common. singular or plural. You. simple present rd 3. Luke. plural..pronoun.. 3 person singular rd was going. common.. common.pronoun.noun.noun. present progressive. personal.. personal. simple present st decision. personal.... active voice . singular 4...
non-count..noun. concrete. active voice rd TV... future perfect.. personal.. personal.. proper will have finished. present perfect.. concrete.noun. singular...verb.. singular 8. We..... 3 person.... 1 person. Tony. plural honesty... common..... proper.....noun. common. singular hour. 1 person.. singular 9... 2 person... common. concrete.noun.... concrete. He.. common.. common. concrete. singular 6.. active voice nd 7........ concrete.. singular.verb... active voice st beach. singular/plural. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns .. singular. common. common. Oprah.. past progressive. concrete. concrete. possessive attitudes. money.noun. concrete...... personal...nd letter.. singular you.. active voice people¶s.. past perfect. singular...verb. singular accident. plural st were walking.... concrete.noun. plural. common.....noun...verb. common... abstract.noun.noun. masculine rd had watched.pronoun. singular/plural nd will need. active voice rd course. 3 person..noun..... common. singular has changed.pronoun..verb.... simple future.noun... proper 10. 3rd person.... singular.noun.. singular June.pronoun...noun... 2 person. 3 person. plural..
. personal.verb. active voice rd bread. simple past.. masculine rd smelled.verb.. singular. He... singular approached..verb.pronoun.... 3 singular rd afternoon. simple past. count. singular... masculine...... indefinite. 3 person.. linking verb. action.noun.. his..verb. proper 5. concrete..... common.noun. common.. storm. concrete. personal.. personal. 3 . count. 3 ...... singular.pronoun. Many.noun.noun... singular watered. simple past rd reservations..1. simple past. They.. singular.noun. rd night... plural...pronoun. singular. plural rd were... singular grew... plural Cuba...noun. common. 3 . active voice rd 3.. concrete.. concrete. count... singular. common. linking.... singular 4. common.. action.. concrete.noun. used as an adjective rd Page 162 28 mouth....pronoun.. non-count....... 3 .. action.. 3 ... 3 ..verb... plural .pronoun. count.. 3 ..... It. personal. common. simple past.. concrete. active voice rd 2.
plural.... 3 person.. 3 person.... present perfect... Liz.. plural are being changed... past perfect.. count..noun.. concrete..noun. common... active voice nd survey.. common....... 3 . singular.noun. passive voice rd these. 3 . feminine drove.pronoun.verb. personal. common.... plural.. singular... count. concrete. 3 . action... Will complete. interrogative has seen....noun. Her. possessive rd lunch.. action. count. plural come.pronoun.verb. singular 10....pronoun.noun. 3 .....verb.noun.. 2 . action.. singular/plural.. possessive rd relatives.. plural were eating. singular porch. active voice rd .. common..... singular 6.. common.noun.noun.. concrete. active voice rd their... proper. concrete... concrete. demonstrative.. What.pronoun. plural.. active voice rd Sackville.colours. singular.. demonstrative.. simple present. past progressive.noun. concrete. common..verb. 3 .... plural. plural.. 3 person.. action..verb. plural were made. singular 7.pronoun.. concrete. proper. Those.. concrete. non-count. concrete. passive rd decorator. singular heat........ common.verb. singular/plural...verb.... present progressive.. simple past.. personal. action.. simple future.. 8.. active voice rd 9..
. rough. ragged string dusty. an. proper. light* bulb 5.. a. the child the. six . a. 3 . singular. old. concrete Page 163 29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1. uneven road 2. those. depressing day 6.. big spoon 4.pronoun. The.. feminine rd Central Hospital. sugary.noun.. rusty car my space 3... reflexive. boring.herself. sweet icing the..
Shelley. summer* clothes 14. two. Tim¶s* house 10. some. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun. Exercise 62: Adjectives . they can be identified as adjectives. blue eyes 11. lovable cats the.people 7. our cousins huge. hockey*. this trip several days 8. Mexican food 9. The. sweet. Karl¶s*. juicy apples 13. sparkling. spicy. little girl big. light. dull skates 15. these parcels 12.
The weather was warm. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler.The young hikers walked through the dark woods. they saw a beam of light. and ate their supper. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. and the hills were gentle. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. and one older Page 164 30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1. After two long hours. Jensen¶s chicken farm. lit a huge crackling fire. They set up their canvas tents. With relief. . A few boys knew that they were lost. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. bright and narrow. piercing the inky darkness. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags.
..how exciting 9..interrogative adverb now..how quickly 5.when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs..when never. almost..how good 10.. thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3.... Why.. daily modifies the verb review 4.. and Adverbs 1......how efficiently 6....... never.. not.. Adjectives.......where later..how too...how important 7......negative very.when 4.. . there.... quite... really..when carefully..when 8....how 2.... casually... where....when extremely...how casually 3.how more..........yesterday.....interrogative adverb very.how useful efficiently............ politely modifies the verb asked 2.
An adverb is required to modify the adjective. simply is an adverb. very modifies the adverb fast 9. . Sad. 4. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. an adverb. Well. Simple. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. 3. really modifies the adjective tired 10. An adverb is needed to Page 165 31 modify the verb behaves. sadly is an adverb. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8. Really is an adverb. very modifies the adjective happy 6. fast modifies the verb travel. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1. so well. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7. is the best choice. The sentence describes how she behaves. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. Really. Good is an adjective. real is an adjective.tightly modifies the verb packed 5. 2. Sad is an adjective. 5. Simple is an adjective.
6. Comparing two people 2. quick is an adjective. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. serious is an adjective. Quickly. Calm is an adjective. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. 10. Calm. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver¶s test. bad is an adjective. Gradual. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. More rapidly . Taste is a linking verb. Well. Slowly. 13. Seriously is an adverb. 12. gradually is an adverb. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. Smaller. Although well is usually an adverb. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. 14. Awful is an adjective. awfully is an adverb. Seriously. Use the adjective good to complete it. Gradual is an adjective. Badly. Brightly. 7. Awful. 9. calmly is an adverb. Badly is an adverb. 15. Good. 11. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. Quickly is an adverb. An adverb modifies a verb. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone¶s health.Well. 8. An adverb is required to describe how he putted.
to. with. for. of. Answers will vary. with 6. under 5. Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. down. along. Unique. Among. For. beside. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. B. in.3. More. near. at. by (on top of) 9. in. Worse (comparing two things) 5. of 3. in. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. Page 166 32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. around 7. Eldest. of (at the end of) 2. at 8. on. in 4. 1. Comparing more than two 7. for .
. . 1.... for.. for shells and pebbles. down the hill. with the hornets¶ nest 6.. in your group..... on top. under my son¶s bed 5... with the funny hat D.. in this store 4.... by my son (on top of the hill) 9.. at the end..... in the world. around the corner 7.... near the trees.modifies the noun end 2. to the door.adverb. in 1960. along the beach. beside the store. to the clown.... to.why along the beach.. With the sore ear. with Page 167 33 C.. among the rubble..where at the end. for the conference 10... of the day (at the end of the day) 2.adjective.when of the day. of her mother and father 3. 1.adverb. For shells and pebbles..10. for the best costume. at noon 8. for pictures..adverb. of the hill.
.modifies the noun prize to the clown. near the trees.......adjective.adjective...when by my son..can be considered as one prepositional phrase..... in this store.modifies the noun cat to the door....where for pictures........adverb.............adjective.........adverb...modifies the noun trees 6...when 8...............adverb......among the rubble...where 7..adverb...adverb.......where at noon...where 4........adjective.......where....... in 1960.....how Page 168 34 9...modifies the noun theme 10.adverb....... with the sore ear.......adverb. Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition....adverb......adjective..where 5........modifies the noun houses of the hill..........adjective.......adverb.....why of her mother and father..... how .modifies the noun socks under my son¶s bed...... beside the store..adjective... in the world.......adjective.modifies the noun houses on top.adverb.adjective......adjective.modifies the noun women for the conference... for the best costume...adverb...where with the hornets¶ nest.where around the corner..adverb.........modifies the noun top on top of the hill.. down the hill.......modifies the noun pictures 3.... in your group.....
adjective......modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn....adjective...where of the city limits......adjective...where 7.... where 2.........where in front.....modifying the noun women under the tables.... during the night.......how long in the heat.....adverb.adjective...adjective.....adjective..how..modifying the pronoun all at the radio station.where in the closets.....modifying the noun lady into the line......adverb....when of the staff...modifying the noun north 4..adverb...modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1...where 3....adverb.where 6..............adverb.....adverb...modifying the noun station at the old mill.....with the funny hat...... ... on the roof.....modifying the noun rest from the basement..adjective...........adverb.....adjective..... with big hat...........modifying the noun men for two hours....where to the north......... near the mall...where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store..where 5..adverb.adjective. in the kitchen.where of a big spacious lawn...........adverb.adjective...............when of the water..modifying the noun front in front of me.....adverb............adverb..............adverb..where of me.....adverb........... In the middle..where 8.... On Fridays...adverb....adverb.adverb..
..where 10. neither.... but 13.modifying the noun children at the church. and..modifying the noun day care around the block.. not only.... nor 9.... not only. but 2... and 12.adverb......adjective.. and 5.. however 8..adverb..adjective. or..... After his graduation.... nor 7. neither..... yet 14. both.. but also 3... so .. either.... but also 10....modifying the noun graduation for a job.when Page 169 35 in 1992.modifying the noun ad in Manitoba..adverb...why from the day care.adjective.... or 4..... meanwhile 11..adjective.adjective.....modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1........Because of the storm.... and 6....
15. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. because 2. since 3. even though 4. after 5. where 6. since 7. why 8. than 9. whether 10. how 11. before 12. if 13. although 14. because 15. while 16. because 17. although 18. how 19. if 20. why 21. as if 22. unless 23. than 24. after 25. before B.
1. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 2. (Since I first met Sheila and her), she has always been very polite. 3. I won¶t be able to go (even though I have the money). 4. After the whale beach itself, local citizens rescued it. 5. I know (where they have hidden the treasure), but I don¶t have a map. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. 6. (After the maple trees were damaged), they were cut down. 7. I wonder (why they are leaving so early). 8. Mark knows more (than I do about that case). 9. It isn¶t certain (whether they will come or not). 10. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). Page 170 36 11. (Before they read the book), they fixed it themselves 12. After the lecture, the students asked (if they could stay). Compare the use of after. In sentence 12, after is a preposition. Why? 13. (Although he is stronger), he couldn¶t turn it. 14. (Because you were late), you missed it 15. Thieves broke in (while we were away). 16. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). Compare this with, The roads were slippery because of the snow. 17. (Although it was quite sunny), the wind was cool.
18. I don¶t know (how I will get there). 19. (If you are short), you can¶t reach that cupboard. 20. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 21. He always talks (as if he were an expert). 22. (Unless the Leafs win this game), they are out of the playoffs. 23. Les is five inches taller (than I am). 24. (After he won the gold medal), he turned pro. 25. You just answered my questions (before I asked them). Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. that 2. that 3. who 4. which 5. who 6. whom 7. who 8. that 9. that 10. that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. Exercise 74: Review A 1. dogs noun 2.
The adjective (article) make verb pioneers noun good adjective settle verb pets noun quickly adverb for preposition on preposition young adjective the adjective (article) children noun small adjective farms noun around preposition Page 171 37 Gloucester noun 3. your adjective (pronoun) 4. Does verb (auxiliary) ancestors noun
he pronoun lived verb often adverb beside preposition go verb (main) the adjective to preposition sea noun the adjective mine preposition beach noun lived verb during preposition near preposition the adjective Moncton noun summer noun 5.
Those adjective/pronoun 6. I pronoun big adjective do verb (aux) chunky adjective not adverb pots noun think verb (main) sell verb their adjective/pronoun for preposition problems noun nine adjective now adverb dollars noun because conjunction so conjunction I pronoun .
Everyone pronoun the adjective recognized verb thieves noun his adjective/pronoun surveyed verb courage .you pronoun do verb (aux) can verb (aux) not adverb buy verb (main) have verb (main) several pronoun time noun of preposition them pronoun 7. Casually adverb 8.
noun the adjective and conjunction neighbourhood noun strength noun until conjunction even if conjunction they pronoun he pronoun Page 172 38 spotted verb did verb (aux) the adjective not adverb right adjective house noun 9. Lilacs noun .
The adjective 12. Mark noun always adverb smelled verb smell verb the adjective wonderful adjective skunk noun in preposition and conjunction spring noun left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb 11. She pronoun students noun believes verb in .10.
The adjective 14.preposition in preposition this adjective/pronoun his adjective/pronoun program noun ability noun are verb very adverb hard adjective workers noun 13. He pronoun frail adjective has verb (aux) old adjective always adverb lady noun been verb (main) .
is verb a adjective safe adjective really adverb but conjunction excellent adjective unhappy adjective hockey adjective/noun at preposition coach noun the adjective seniors¶ adjective/noun home noun Page 173 39 15. You pronoun must verb (aux) never adverb .
Fred noun 2.show verb (main) your adjective/pronoun fear noun of preposition snakes noun to preposition your adjective/pronoun children noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. Usually adverb sat verb the adjective on preposition chairs noun the adjective were verb (aux) .
fence noun placed verb (main) and conjunction near preposition ate verb the adjective his adjective/pronoun windows noun lunch noun but conjunction while conjunction today adverb the adjective they pronoun others noun are verb went verb in .
I pronoun 4.preposition into preposition a adjective town noun circle noun 3. Very adverb had verb (aux) quickly adverb been verb (aux) they pronoun studying verb (main) finished verb for preposition their adjective/pronoun three adjective work noun hours .
noun and conjunction Page 174 40 I pronoun still adverb do verb (aux) not adverb know verb (main) it pronoun 5. They pronoun 6. After conjunction had verb they pronoun been verb had verb writing verb mowed .
Because conjunction 8. Although conjunction they pronoun the adjective have verb storm .verb their adjective/pronoun the adjective essays noun lawn noun before conjunction they pronoun they pronoun bought verb went verb lunch noun there adverb 7.
noun cashed verb was verb their pronoun very adverb cheques noun intense adjective they pronoun the adjective have verb damage adjective some adjective was verb money noun minor adjective 9. Because of preposition the adjective her . Since preposition 10.
The adjective you pronoun .adjective/pronoun accident noun problems noun the adjective Sue noun victims noun often adverb have verb seeks verbs recovered verb my adjective/pronoun Page 175 41 quite adverb advice noun well adverb 11. Have verb 12.
elderly adjective ever adverb waiter noun seen verb who conjunction those adjective served verb boats noun us pronoun in preposition beer noun the adjective is verb harbour noun an adjective before adverb old adjective of .
preposition hers pronoun 13. Who pronoun 14. Where adverb thinks verb did verb that conjunction you pronoun these adjective hide verb train adjective/noun the adjective tickets noun candy noun are verb which conjunction ours pronoun I pronoun .
Ouch interjection 16. Miles¶ noun/adjective that adjective brother noun knife noun is verb is verb extremely adverb so adverb intelligent adjective sharp adjective even if conjunction that conjunction he .and conjunction bought verb those pronoun are verb theirs pronoun 15.
pronoun Page 176 42 I pronoun can verb cut verb not adverb myself pronoun pass verb badly adverb those adjective provincial adjective exams noun 17. Hey interjection 18. Finally adverb Eric noun his adjective/pronoun did verb clever .
adjective you pronoun tricks noun complete verb failed verb that adjective work noun on preposition those adjective cars noun during preposition the adjective weekend noun 19. The adjective Canadian adjective economy noun is verb becoming verb worse .
adjective very adverb quickly adverb .
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