Page 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...............1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........

1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The root word ³morph´ means form. 1 The etymology of ³syntax´ shows it meanings ³putting together´. 2

GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH

I INTRODUCTION This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read, write, speak, or listen, they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk, they learned the names of things (vocabulary), the different forms of a word (sings, sang, singing, sung, songs), and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted . A. WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology ), their arrangement in phrases and 1 sentences (syntax ), and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). 2 Like many dictionary definitions, this makes grammar sound more difficult than it

really is. Look at this picture, and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. Page 10 2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. 1. The man is throwing the ball. 2. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. You might even have written 3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. Whatever you wrote, it probably include the word ball, the action throw, and a word that meant a man. You certainly didn¶t write Ball throwing man the the is. That wouldn¶t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. Here¶s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. First, you saw the picture, and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. Finally, you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. In fact, you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). You see you really do know lots about grammar!

B. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? Although you do write ³good sentences´ most of the time, you may make a few mistakes. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Usually the first impression someone, including a possible employer, has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use

the language. For example, some people say ³He sure done good!´ or ³He should of went to the dance´ or ³Hunters didn¶t shoot a big amount of deer this year.´ While the meaning is very clear, the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn¶t have much ³schooling´ or else isn¶t very good at expressing him/herself. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. Unless you correct those errors in grammar, you may be unfairly judged, and your true abilities may go unrecognized.

or classifications. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech). Because some words can be used in several different ways.verb) Their fast lasted for three days.. everyone can be Placed into at least one of eight groups. look at these sentences. The eight parts of speech are Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the Grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to Correct them. (names a thing.. The system of classifying word based on their function is known as the parts of speech.. (tells about an action. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? Although English has hundreds of thousands of words.C.. He ran fast so he wouldn¶t be late. For example.adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF.noun) Page 12 4 .. (describes how he ran..

The following table lists a variety of nouns. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE Cashier Carol Boys PLACES: Province New Brunswick Lake THINGS: ANIMALS: Cat Dalmatian Bug OBJECTS: Fork Television car SUBSTANCES: iron air gold ACTIONS: (a) race (the) dance (the) hits MEASURES: kilogram .The word ³fast´ is spelled the same. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH A. but it functions differently in each sentence. NOUNS Words that name people. places and things are called nouns.

Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. Page 13 Write a sentence about this picture. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of The sentence. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. Paul is a noun that names a person.Centimeter Day QUALITIES: Happiness honesty Beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. an. and most sentences contain several Nouns. Can you find 10? Children name people Nouns in this Continent names a thing Picture? Africa names a place lions names a thing. Use pronouns instead of nouns. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. . Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. Sometimes nouns appear without These little words. The naming Word that comes after them is probably a noun. the.

³I want you to read this again. and this are pronouns. and Fredericton is the capital of this province. reader. The candy that we gave them was made last year. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader.´ The words I. In this sample sentence. If you made more than one or two mistakes. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. PRONOUNS Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. Everybody was glad when it was over. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. (e. and things) that have already been mentioned. you. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. places.g. For example. think of a noun it could replace. it isn¶t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. B. She saw it when they bought it. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. and sentence) because the writer¶s/speaker¶s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key. What did you buy from them? . For each pronoun printed in bold type.The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town.

A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. C. Verbs usually tell about an action. Verb phrases may have up to five words. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves. 12. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet.. 9. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. never. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. We will walk to the store tomorrow. but few were chosen. 13. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. For example. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. If you need more practice. one of the main parts of every sentence. . always.Page 14 6 Phrase. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. but the birds ate everything. 10. Verbs may consist of one word. 14. 15. they are verbs. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed.. 11. 3 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. please. therefore. Many signed up. We planted them. The word walked became will walk.a group of words that belong together. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs.

is. The farmer used all the water in his pond. When you find the words am. our father was a millwright. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. and were used in a sentence between two nouns. are. I have finished the laundry. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. Paul can do anything. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York.Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. The runner flew down the race track. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. She is beautiful and talented. Complete Exercises 5. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until . Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. Page 15 7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. I am a teacher. was. My sister is a nurse. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. I have never seen anything like that before. They were always honest. 6. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. The dog was chasing its tail.

rich. ³Give this piece of paper to the woman´. you use nouns like girl. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives. blue. Therefore. D. as only six of the women are tall. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said ³the tall woman´. or alters the meaning of another word. the white. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. blond woman with the red dress´. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. you add ³detail´ words in front of the noun like little. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here¶s another way of thinking of adjectives. ³the tall. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. changes. or tree. changes. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a . Your boss tell you. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. puffy clouds a happy. carefree child some tall. an adjective limits. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. Page 16 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. house.you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. A modifier is a word that limits. ADJECTIVES To talk or write about a person place or thing. old.

new. as in many people. Page 17 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). as in this car. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. that. The group of words ³with the red dress´ is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. I have a blue car. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use . Other adjectives like shiny. The second adds the adjective blue. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. that coat. several candies. those pencils are Ted¶s. these boots. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. that. only that I have one. In other words. This book belongs to Pete. cool. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader ³see´ your car in his/her mind¶s eye. Such adjectives include this. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. and those. The words this.large group. and four children. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. these. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. I have a car. These are demonstrative adjectives. Adjectives also tell how many. these. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind¶s eye. and those houses. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. I have a small dark blue car. The third sentence adds even more details.

as in many days. L an adjective tells how many. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. others called them adjectives. Page 18 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. an) and definite articles (the). L an adjective tells what kind.as adjectives and pronouns. few hours. this modifies the proper noun Ford. and two cities. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. Either is correct. those are Ted¶s. these computers. (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. that building. I have the blue car. This belongs to Pete. . this restaurant. bad taste. I have a blue car. L an adjective tells which one or ones. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. new clothes. and an. and cold day. as in those books. L articles are also adjectives . The nouns they ³stand for´ or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence. the. and Ted bought that Chevy. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. couple of dollars. as in old man.a. In the second sentence.

however. or school. Glass. kitchen. Underline all the adjectives you used.Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. kitchen. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass. and school are usually nouns. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. Page 20 12 . Page 19 11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Used in the following ways. A good ³trick´ to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify.

or alter the words they modify. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. ADVERBS You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. you can add something in front of the adjective. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. What part of speech is the word beautiful. or to what extent it was beautiful. Where is he driving? He is driving away. When is he driving? He is driving now. or when he is driving. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. change. How is he driving? He is driving quickly. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS He is driving. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. you will find out how he is driving. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. . 2. 1. where he is driving. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. Adverbs limit. that word is called an adverb. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. If an adverb is added.dE. the noun sunset is described as beautiful.

as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly. By adding another adverb. The dog ate quickly.Page 21 13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. WORDS ENDING IN ³LY´ Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. change y to i easily soft softly . ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. ADJECTIVE ADD -LY ADVERB bright brightly easy *first. we can find out how quickly the dog ate. extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3.

never as adjectives. you learned that some small words can be . The only way to remember these words is to memorize them. A list of these words follows.can be an adjective to describe a person's health 4 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS Some words can only be used as adverbs.full *first. change ll to l fully careful carefully quick quickly * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word.) usually In the section on verb phrases. and learn to recognize them in sentences. Page 22 14 usually an adverb . well often 4 quite surely very not almost never always so (He was so happy.

I have often wondered about the moon. Three examples of such words are early. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The train arrived early. . Eric will not shop on Sundays. (adverb) Penny is a fast driver. Page 23 15 F. but they are not verbs. PREPOSITIONS Preposition are joining words. (adjective) A student is late. which are used to show a time. He was always asking questions. called prepositional phrases. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. and late. sometimes called connectives. fast. He will never tell another lie. place. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. (adverb) There is a late student. Those words are adverbs. (adverb) It was an early train.found in the middle of verb phrases. (adjective) Penny drives fast.

Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. The girl walked into the building. The girl walked beside the building. The girl walked behind the building. The girl walked to the building.preposition + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase Time: after + the party = (after the party) Place: under + the table = (under the table) Ownership: of + our town = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. The girl walked near the building. In each sentence above. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb ³walked´ by telling where she walked. The girl walked through the building. Adverb phrases can also be . Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building.

in what way. Page 24 16 about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on . telling where she walked. when.used to tell how. therefore. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. are called prepositional adverb phrases. these prepositional phrases.

The books in that bag are yours. The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans. The colour of that paint is just right. they are called prepositional adjective phrases. They rented the house on the corner. In each example above. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. . The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. Here are some common prepositions: Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet.out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. Because these phrases function as adjectives. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun.

Page 25 17 Clauses are ³mini-sentences stuck into µreal¶ sentences´ and which need special joining 5 words (conjunctions) to attach them. H. INTERJECTIONS Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. like prepositions. no! Ouch! Never! Fabulous! Fantastic! Ah! No! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. or clauses . Conjunctions are used to join words. It can be an actual word. G. are also joining words or connectives.. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. phrases. Conjunctions can be 5 . Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh! Oh. CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions. Unlike all the other parts of speech. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma.

the word itself doesn¶t add any new information. And joins two nouns. ùùùùùùùùùùùùù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. those that are left over are probably conjunctions. Look at these examples. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. but joins two complete ideas. but does it tell you at what time? No. Page 26 18 Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? Joe and Mike followed the young cub. I understand parts of speech. it burned quickly ùùùùùùù ùù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. you will need to work through Module 6. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. Part of the Sentence. For the purpose of this module.found in any position in a sentence except the very end. When lightning struck the old barn. µ . but they could not catch it. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. Before you can really understand clauses.

or the only. girl. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. 1. When a word names a particular. place or thing in general is called a common noun.I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. Proper nouns are always capitalized. place. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. Examples: waiter. dog. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? Page 27 19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. µ I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. province. µ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. µ I am a little confused about parts of speech. A. and city. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS A word which names a person. . or thing in a sentence. house. car. µ I am totally lost.

jury. audience. seen. speed. they are categorized as abstract nouns. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). Nouns like table. flock. Here are two . pride. places and things. faith Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). 2. Page 28 20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. 3. herd. CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. sky are concrete nouns. beauty. car. it is called a concrete noun. heard or touched. friendship. On the other hand. cloud. height. swiftness. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). Examples: team. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. house. tasted. crowd. committee. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. Examples: honesty. brain. panel. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people.Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). six committees.

4. and there are many different opinions. The jury are stating their opinions. gold. In the second set of examples. timber. are similar to collective nouns. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. equipment. bracelets. therefore called count nouns. jewellery. Do Exercise 19. In the first sentence. land. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) .examples that illustrate this point. dollars. The team are buying new uniforms. furniture. and are. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples. steaks. Mass nouns. Examples: meat. The jury is announcing its decision. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. each juror is acting as an individual. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. everyone agreed on one decision. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. The team is buying new uniforms. chairs. food. miles. the jury is acting as a single unit. clothing. In the second case. money. however.

Module 4. 2. 1. referring to more than one.some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. so he needed a huge amount of grain. We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture. Most nouns change their form by adding ³s´ when they are plural. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun.and exceptions for the exceptions. Spelling. Page 29 21 Libby¶s front teeth Eva¶s big smile Greg¶s tiny nose His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. The farmer bought a large number of cows. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. POSSESSIVE NOUNS . or plural. SINGULAR AND PLURAL Nouns may be singular referring to one. However. B. there are exceptions to every rule . FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence.

add an .Doris's store singular and ends formed in the .Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. Page 30 22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions Possessive Form Examples If a noun is add an apostrophe (') . They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (¶).my boss's approval in ³s´. belonging.Gloria's career plus s to the noun . A possessive noun shows ownership. be guided by pronunciation of the .the neighbour's car singular and does .Dennis's car the way you say the word possessive.the child's toys not end in ³s´ .New Brunswick's art If a noun is .if a new syllable is . or that something is part of something else.

add only an apostrophe .men's choir in ³s´ .Jesus' parables .students' lounge and already has an apostrophe (') .witness's description apostrophe plus ³s´ . add only an .witnesses' story s at the end .Mary Parsons' garden If a noun is plural.the Jones' party .children's toys Now examine the following phrases: the boy¶s bicycles the boys¶ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.oxen's hooves and does not end .if adding an extra ³s´ . it indicates that one ..the ladies¶ room If a noun is plural add apostrophe (') s .Phillips' farm .John Hastings' store would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce.women's wear .librarians' club .

How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends¶ house. Examine these phrases.person owns the item. Look at the word with the apostrophe. so the house is owned by two or more friends. Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies¶ grandfather the baby¶s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books¶ covers are different colours. it shows that several Page 31 23 people own it. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added. Babies¶ grandfather is correct The books¶ covers is correct Page 32 24 . The book¶s covers are different colours. If it follows the plural form of the noun. Now examine these phrases: the lady¶s room the ladies¶ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below.

However. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time 3. Only one is acceptable.´ 5. The above sentence contains 3 possessives.Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). Examine the following sentence. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1. . Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. Then. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. You should have written something like this: ³When two or more people ³own´ something together." 2. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement. 4. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects. create a rule to explain what you found. Here¶s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. Mary and Susan¶s mother arrived yesterday. A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. For example.

It purrs a lot. Our cat¶s name is Spot. Our cat never scratches. TYPES OF PRONOUNS Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. and less repetitive. and three sisters love our cat. Our cat¶s name is Spot. my father. Spot likes to play. it sounds more natural and interesting. Our cat likes to play. Page 33 25 It is for you! IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. We call our cat Spot.If both nouns are possessive. It is black and white. My mother. Our cat is black and white. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. Everyone in our family loves the cat. Our cat purrs a lot. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. Our cat has four black paws. two brothers. It has a long black tail. PERSONAL PRONOUNS . The following paragraph contains no pronouns. Our cat¶s body is mostly white. Page 34 26 A. and it never scratches. Our cat has a long black tail. Mary¶s and Susan¶s houses are on the same street. using pronouns to replace some nouns. 23. Do Exercises 22. What¶s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. each one owns a separate thing.

actions. and case. the words we. it. hers girl. yours the name of someone else you are addressing he. them. she. their. Pronouns are also grouped by person. man. them. your. person. me. female it.Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. she. it are singular forms. The grammar term number means singular or plural. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. theirs plants. theirs. The pronouns I. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. he. mine your name we. obviously the ³most important person(s)´ in the message. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. us. his boy. our. Person Singular . him. they are plural. objects. her. gender. you. you. their people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. my. woman. These Personal Pronouns CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: I. they. ours. your name and the names of other people you. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" they. substances. male she. its. He.

it is considered plural (Class. and inanimate objects which are singular. my. their. theirs rd she. mine we. actor.) If. they. his. hers it. (I want you to close the door. yours you. him. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. him. our. yours nd 3 person he. aviator. The pronouns he. its Page 35 27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. regardless of gender. animals. her. and she. are used to replace plural nouns. plural pronouns. you. . your.Plural 1 person I. hers show feminine gender. etc. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. aviatrix. your. on the other hand. them. we. us. me. you is used to designate a group of people. I want you to be on time. his show masculine gender. her. ours st 2 person you. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. In English.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. then it is considered singular. actress. his they.

The words it¶s. Mary is standing by the door. yours his. Page 36 28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. The sentence could be rewritten. Mary is standing by the door. its. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership.Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. That is her coat. . OR Mary is standing by the door. they are contractions of it is. hers. Grammar: Part 2. and they are. my. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. theirs whose. his her. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. you are. explains case in greater detail. --our. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. That coat is hers. That coat belongs to Mary. Module 6. ours their. mine your. you¶re. and they¶re are not possessive pronouns.

It should read I rushed into the house. but they must be present. do not match. he/him. You¶re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. You know that does not look right or sound right. Here¶s another common error in pronoun selection. The sentence should be corrected. using only the pronoun. (I/me. PRONOUN SELECTION What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. The people referred to in this sentence are . they/them is to test the pronoun alone. The pronouns. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. Of course. you can test the sentence above by reading it. Me rushed into the house. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. however. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. Their apartment will be for rent when they¶re transferred to Saint John. therefore. not present at the time of speaking. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. we/us. but they should match. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. For instance. Both pronouns replace People. My mother and me rushed into the house. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. she/her. . a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. 1.It¶s always funny when the dog chases its tail.

make. The next two examples show a very common error. The pronoun me is the correct form. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. the pronoun you is the correct choice. 32. Smith gave to letter to only one person. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. Mr. heard often in speech. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. Page 38 30 . Yous is not a word. but be careful when you are speaking. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them. Do Exercises 30.Page 37 29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is ³I´. Just as in the example above. Many people make this mistake. you can hear and see that this is not correct. Look at this sentence. but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. When speaking to one OR more than one person. Smith gave I three letters to mail. Mr. even well-educated ones. 31. Mr. This sentence may look and sound correct. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. and the sentence should be corrected like this. Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print.

An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. The noun ³Margaret´ is the antecedent of the pronoun ³her´. 2. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS Margaret rode her bike to the mall. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. In this sentence, the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. Read this sentence. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their; in other words, who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct, employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural, or make them both singular. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. OR

An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic, person, student, teacher, etc.) is male or female, it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. Page 39 31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. The sentence is not clear.. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent, the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely, the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. The reader doesn¶t know who his refers to because the writer hasn¶t mentioned anyone else. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark¶s apartment yesterday. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al¶s apartment yesterday. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay, the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. They went to Tahiti.

The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. When you proofread your own writing, you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. B. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS In the following sentence, Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing, it is an called an indefinite pronoun. The pronoun everybody is singular. When referring to everybody, use a singular pronoun like he/his, or she/he. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to Page 40 32 replace everybody. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Even though it may sound ³right´ because you have heard it so often, it is NOT correct. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any everything anybody everyone anything each anyone nobody

everyone no one everything none everybody nothing either somebody neither someone another something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several few all some both many Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. Page 41 33 C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. Singular Plural this these

that those such such Use this and these to point out something close to you; use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. (e.g. Such a horse is hard to find.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Give her the book. Give her this. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. Eat that. Pie is the antecedent of that. Give her the books. Give her these. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. Eat those. Pies is the antecedent of those. Take his coat and hat. Take them. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns. If you cannot find the antecedent, the words are not demonstrative pronouns. I know that you are honest. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. (Not a demonstrative pronoun)

6 D. you must be careful not to push yourself too far. If the sentence is directed to one person. Players. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. Although it may sound and look correct. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the ³receiver´ of the action is the same person as the ³doer´. Can you find the word ³themself´? Can you explain why not? E. In other words. herself. Page 42 34 Some grammar texts call this group ³intensive pronouns´. Andy. but if it refers to a group. yourself. there is no such word as ³themself´. use the singular form yourself. use the plural form yourselves. yourselves. watch yourselves out there on the field today. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used 6 . Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. himself. but I gave those to Mary. Check the dictionary. if someone does something to himself or herself.I sold some cakes. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves.

Page 43 35 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. himself. 7 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. themselves Examples: You. For example. you often start with an interrogative pronoun. herself. you might say. wouldn¶t pass judgement on him. one another. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. or I. yourself. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. yourself. Interrogative pronouns: who . are better able to answer that question. I fixed the car myself. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves.to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. G. whom whose. yourselves. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. 8 F. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. which. She taught her children to help one another. myself. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS When you ask a question about someone or something. CDs or tapes? . what 7 8 Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best.

.... The term ³clause´ really means extra bits of Page 44 36 information in a sentence... The driver who didn¶t stop got a ticket........to refer to people which...... whom.. We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale.to refer to things that......What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who. which.. We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock.. If they are not used to ask a question. H... that in many sentences.. and 42 in the Practice Booklet.....to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank... Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet.... Page 45 37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb....... The teacher whom you met trained in France....... I almost forgot that it was your birthday.... RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence.......... Relative pronouns: who.... Module 6.... Do Review Exercises 40............ The driver that stopped didn¶t get a ticket. they are not interrogative pronouns. one of the main .. expressed in a special way..... whom. 41... The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi..... I saw the television program which was banned in the States. Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail.... whomever. whoever........

He caught the ball easily. TYPES OF VERBS A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. Underline the verbs you used. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. She drives very carefully when it¶s snowing. These nonaction . The horse jumped the fence. She thought about what she had done. such as The children ran after the dog. 1. In fact. A. STATE OF BEING VERBS A very small number of verbs express a state of being. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. ACTION VERBS Most verbs are action verbs. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above.parts of every sentence. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. The rose grew very quickly. They realized their mistake. David decided to move to Woodstock. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. Page 46 38 2. That accounted for his absence. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet.

Sherri is an accountant. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer¶s state of being and ³happy´ . We were scared.verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. I ate the apple. They show that something or somebody exists. You are hungry. I am happy. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. John is tired. They were unhappy. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am was being is were be are has been had been have been will be will have been are become (all forms) seem (all forms) Compare these sentences. I am a student. The dog was friendly. You will be successful. He was a good friend.

On the other hand. I and apple do not refer to the same thing. the writer¶s state of being is as a student. Here are the most common ones. they are considered to be action verbs. not a linking verb. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. In the second sentence. Tom grew 3 inches last year. and the sentence means that ³I´ = ³a student´. This is one way to use a ³state of being´ or ³linking verb. Module 6. .describes how the writer is feeling. In other words. As well. Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. The verb ate is an action verb. He felt the water before he jumped in. Page 47 39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. something that can really happen or that is observable. Martha tasted the chili. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. This is the second use of the ³state of being´ or ³linking verb´. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire.

B. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. and 47 in the Practice Booklet. therefore. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. 46. FORMS OF VERBS 1. He walked to school every day. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. Do Exercise 44.) The smoke smelled stronger now. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. Within a verb phrase. The sky grew dark before the storm. The chili tastes good. The evidence looks convincing in this case. they are consider to be linking verbs. Page 48 40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. The sculpture felt smooth. or the fact that something has certain qualities. called a verb phrase. AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS In the previous section. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. The music sounded perfect in the arena. A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. 45.The engineer sounded the locomotive¶s horn at the crossing. . A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and.

however. and did are helping or auxiliary verb. Travel. will can be a main verb. and write are the main verbs. finishing. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. were. I am eating my dinner now. will. Sometimes. Before calling. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were . When will comes before a main verb. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o¶clock. have. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating.I will travel to Halifax on the train. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. as in I willed all my property to my children. We have thought about a vacation this winter. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. it is a helping or auxiliary verb. I was eating my dinner. thought. When you called. I had eaten my dinner.

m. I have never driven in a big city before. are being. The main verb is saved. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. Here tested is the main verb. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. In some sentences. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other ³non-verb´words. but which are never part of the verb phrase. Saved is the main verb. At 5:00 p. is being. were being Page 49 41 As you have just seen. not . was being. had been am being. should and have are the auxiliary verbs.. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. has been. Although rare. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb.has have had shall will do does did have been. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. I will have saved enough money by Christmas.

and future. in the future. before today. called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. In order to talk about the present. in the past. in the third person singular. in the present. VERB TENSES Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. 9 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I II III . as well as what will happen after today. In fact. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. we need to use different forms of verbs. ³brings´. 2. ³carries´. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. Every verb has FOUR main forms. etc. past. Page 50 42 This form becomes ³walks´.never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet.

is was. were been being .IV PRESENT PAST PAST PRESENT PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE walk walked walked walking 9 carry carried carried carrying bring brought brought bringing sing sang sung singing hit hit hit hitting do did done doing am. are.

and future. 1.. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. . simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses Page 51 43 a.the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. Past 2. this module explains four common tenses. The children had heard the story. The children are reading the story. from Column II.has. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past. 2. Present 3. Simple past I walked to the store today. The children will be hearing the story. Simple present He walks to school. To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. Simple Verb Tenses These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. the present or the future. present. How can you tell? 1. have had had having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past. 3. Future.. present and future.

I and we. I shall walk to the store.present I walk. Today. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. She will make the cake. You (plural) will write that test.past I walked Simple present none Column I . ³will´ is almost always used when speaking about the future. from Column I. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL EXAMPLE PART Simple past none Column II . To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. It will be here.To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture. he walks Simple future . but the correct written form uses ³shall´ in the first person. will in the second and third person. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will.

it uses had. had. Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. . .Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine. completed. the past form of to have as its auxiliary. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been. have. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. It is built using Page 52 44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has.I had answered your letter before you called me.I have completed my assignment. He has finished his work. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past.present They will publish b. Because this is the past perfect. Despite its name. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil.will or shall Column I . Present perfect .) Past perfect . The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. or is about to be.Past Perfect .

Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently. The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other.past participle I shall have done shall have c. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see. Future perfect . Column III. Progressive Tenses . Here all the action definitely takes place in the future.past participle We had walked Present perfect has. Page 53 45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past perfect had Column III.He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. have Column III. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have).past participle He has sung Future perfect will have. I shall have showered before you arrive.

at sometime in the future. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). they will be selling only new computers. is. you use one of the progressive tenses. Here. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart. were. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. are. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. was. The future form of to be (will be. In this case. present and future. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. the action of ³watching´ takes place over a period of time. Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). Page 54 46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE . When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. Future progressive: Eventually.The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. too. shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). are. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. shall be.

He has been saving his money to buy a car. is Column IV-present participle You are eating Future Progressive will be... Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then.. Identify the auxiliary.. Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries.. They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive.. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have .had answered 2. Column IV-present participle We will be shall be doing d.... 1... Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions. are.. RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses. Sheila had answered all their questions... Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense. My sisters had been discussing my birthday party. the present participle.AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past Progressive was... were Column IV-present participle He was eating Present Progressive am.. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV. Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase.. Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately.

.. this is truly an example of a past perfect tense... The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses.. Is the auxiliary in the past.. Page 55 47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence... .. present or future. There are other tenses. and choose the correct form when writing.3... Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?. but you learn them later....had is in the past form. The students will be walking to school from now on.. Try this one yourself..... Then...the perfect tenses 4... As a final check... Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes..... look at the main verb........ The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense....

were Column IV He was hearing Present Progressive am. is. are Column IV You are finding Future Progressive shall/will be Column IV She will be fitting Past Perfect Progressive had been Column IV I had been sitting .SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Simple Past none Column II I walked Simple Present none Column I He sings Simple Future shall or will Column I They will sing Past Perfect had Column III We had hit Present Perfect has. have Column III She has carried Future Perfect shall/will have Column III I shall have rung Past Progressive was.

some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. These verbs are called irregular verbs. If there are no words written in bold type.Present Perfect Progressive has/have been Column IV He has been filling Future Perfect Progressive will have been Column IV We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add ³s´.´ing´ or ³ed´ to form its principal parts. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown feel felt felt spring . the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the ³entry word´. If it is an irregular verb. Look up the verb. The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs. just use the dictionary. Page 56 48 IRREGULAR VERB As you may have noticed. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb.

sprang sprung ring rang rung drink drank drunk bring brought brought burst burst burst eat ate eaten rise rose risen raised raised raised swim swam swum cut cut cut lie (to recline) lay lain lay (to place) laid laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet. .

On the other hand. so in this example. ³Good writing´ generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. When you hear or read a sentence. In this case. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. The effect of using a passive voice is to ³downplay´ the ³doer´ of the action. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which ³downplays´ . the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. One of them is to reduce someone¶s or something¶s responsibility for an action. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence.M. For example. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. based on s sentence structure and meaning. on a stormy night. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. In sentences using active voice.Page 57 49 3. the VIA train has the strongest focus. The truck was hit on a stormy night.

. try to insert one of your own. Here¶s an easy way to find passive verbs. Think about how you report bad news. the guests played CDs and discussed local news.. you should always read it through just looking for passives.. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice.. If you can...by the heat.. (by whom? by what?. the verb is probably passive. For example. (by me). CDs were played and local news discussed. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility..) Page 58 50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing. My report card got lost. That house was designed by a famous architect.(by me). A vicious dog bit Mark. you should rewrite it. At the party. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog. At the party. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. When you find them.someone/something´. restructure the sentences to place the ³doer´ of the action at the beginning of the sentence. When you proofread your work.the railway¶s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with ³by. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled. Often it is phrased in the passive. The candles were melted. If you can¶t find a ³by´ phrase. putting the ³doer´ at the beginning.

A child. Complete Review Exercises 55. pale and fearful. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. puffy and white.. tall and leafy.. lined the driveway. Page 59 51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify.Do Exercises 52. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences. The survivors. The trees. 58. Although Lois could barely keep up. she still grabbed Clark¶s arm and .. Make sure your story uses only active verbs. and 54 in the Practice Booklet. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns. The clouds were white and puffy.. huddled in the ambulance.. The clouds. is the best thing a mother can think of. 53. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. 59. However. sailed across the autumn sky. busy and happy. A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately. 57. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas.. The counsellors were very angry. and 60 in the Practice Booklet. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. I am happy about winning the lottery. 56. ..

The words tall. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6. Page 60 52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. Adverbs often end in ³ly´. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. . The tourists are American. The boys will be hungry. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. angry are all adjectives. He wrote a good answer. Max was late again today. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. stately. It seems to be injured. happy. white. The book is heavy. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. adjectives. puffy. and other adverbs.

and 65 in the Practice Booklet. . comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. How are you? I am well. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. 64. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. If the sentence sounds awkward. In the sentence below. Well is usually an adverb. add ³er´ to most modifiers. Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things. bright: This light is brighter than that one. Or I feel well. Using the ³wrong´ modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. When comparing two things. Do Exercises 63. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. To use them properly. either adjective or adverb.In this sentence. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding ³er´. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer. He answered the question well. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered.

Do not add ³est´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. When comparing two things. Often. Instead of adding ³er´. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. the suffix ³er´ is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. sickly: . DO NOT add ³er´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. Usually. soon: They left sooner than we did. fast: He always drives fastest at night. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. finely: Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street. and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable.Page 61 53 fast: He walked faster than I did. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. beautiful: Today¶s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. add ³est´. more than two things are compared.

some More Most Well Better . Page 62 54 SINGLE FORM COMPARING TWO COMPARING THREE OR MORE Little Less Least Many More Most Much. goodest. Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. ³est´. or more good. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding ³er´. or by using more or most. These words actually change their form. strawberry tastes better. but chocolate tastes the best of all. quietly: Of the four. It is not correct to say gooder. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. this car's motor runs most quietly.Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met.

or not correct. because of their meaning. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons. further Farthest. It cannot be more correct. If something is dead. badly Worst Worst Far Farther.Best Bad. These words are called absolute adjectives .words such as. It cannot be less dead or more dead. or correcter. An answer on a test is either correct. it is dead. Page 63 55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square . correct and dead.

an adjective. Compound prepositions. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit.supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER When making comparisons. Page 64 56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. If the word modifies a verb. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. in the middle of is the preposition . The correct adverb is really. how the action in a verb took place. therefore the correct version is He is really happy. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. He is real happy is incorrect. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. an adjective is necessary. or another adverb. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. use an adverb. where. sometimes called complex prepositions. some writers make mistakes because they can¶t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb.

in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. The students at Superior School went to the library with her. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. you. her. us. him. Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet. them after a preposition.in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. at Superior School. . Always use the personal pronouns me. to the library. it. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below.

CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. and so on. A conjunction may join words. but I can¶t find the time. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS A. or you can make a speech. yet he never carries a map. for she had no money. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and but or nor for yet so Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. (2 prepositional phrases.Page 65 57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. an adjective with an adjective. nor* can I drink my coffee. phrases or clauses. (2 ideas) . (2 adjectives. they peeled vegetables and told stories. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. (2 ideas) You can write a report. (2 complete ideas) I want to go. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. (2 ideas) She couldn¶t attend school.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns. (2 ideas) I can¶t finish this dessert. and the boys danced.

Lightning struck the old farmhouse. B. both/and Example: Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. C. but they are always used in pairs. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. either/or Example: Harold was either late. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. nor at the right address. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning.It rained. Page 66 58 neither/nor Example: Harold was neither on time. but also at the wrong address. in this case. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. therefore. it burned to the ground. . or lost. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. so they cancelled the outing. whether/or Example: I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. Although these could be two unconnected events.

Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. they are adverbs. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences. consequently.Lightning struck the old farmhouse. Compare It snowed last night. therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. we didn¶t go. therefore. Page 67 59 D. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it. These are called subordinate conjunctions. . They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. We did. it burned to the ground. call them to explain. however.

As soon as you can. she hasn¶t been able to go to school. If I were you. Although she was confused. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. Since she got that job. I will be able to come sometime. I would start studying now.She was confused. The truck drivers stopped carefully. The road was slippery. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. I am not sure when that time will be. Module 6 explains this in more detail. You won¶t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. she didn¶t ask any questions. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. She didn¶t ask any questions. make sure Mark is alright. I am not sure when I will be able to come. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if .

. which you learned in the pronoun section. she couldn¶t go to the concert. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. Before the game. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. which.if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. Since I won the lottery. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns. Since the election. E. Page 68 60 Before the party started. These words are relative pronouns: who. they bought popcorn and a drink. used to start a question or pronouns. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. Because of her loss. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. whomever. she was unable to afford the plane ticket. that. are also used as conjunctions. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns. we went to the store. Module 6. Because she lost her wallet. whichever. I decided to buy a new car. whom.

Example: That club always has good entertainment. Page 69 61 Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery! X INTERJECTIONS Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook. You can write your own or trade with a class mate. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. As well. They . Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. It is the student¶s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet.

The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. If he had gone home sooner. I done well on that test. Use very cold. If he had went home sooner. Boy. it is real cold today! Boy. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow. it is some cold today! Boy.are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. I did well on that test. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet. Page 70 62 XI SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES Boy. it is really cold today. Use had gone. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III. . did you see The Grateful Dead concert. not the past form from Column II. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. Boy. it is very cold today.

Bob said. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II.The form of the verb tense is incorrect. English does not include the phrase very best. Bob said. I¶ll go with you next week. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. ³Of course. ³Very best. There is no such word as ain¶t anymore. Page 71 63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. I ain¶t finished yet. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. Fran had did her best on that test. Use a phrase like Of course. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. I¶m not finished yet. Use the simple past form did. The pictures should of been ready by now. This sentence . Use did. The pictures should have been ready by now. I¶ll go with you next week´. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. The verb phrase is incorrect. Fran did her best on that test.

If you understand parts of speech . He is sure late with his payment this month. Use certainly late.needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. In this sentence. ³Unlearning´ something you have said all your life is not easy. really late. therefore. Parts of the Sentence. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. The officer is obviously a person. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. so the correct pronoun is either who or that. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. He is the tallest of my two boys. or very late. the correct form of the word is taller. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. only two things are being compared. He is the taller of my two boys. Use really pleased.

. please use the form below: insufficient explanations.: 506-325-4866 Fax. relevancy of the provided examples.Woodstock 100 Broadway Street Woodstock.. please use the enclosed page to make the proposed correction using red ink and send it to us. insufficient examples. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? Page 72 64 FEEDBACK PROCESS For feedback.well. spelling. others. * For feedback regarding the following items.: 506-328-8426 * In case of errors due to typing. ambiguity or wordiness of text. Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution . learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. NB E7M 5C5 Attention: Kay Curtis Tel. please forward your comments to: New Brunswick Community College . punctuation or any proofreading errors.

The dog chased the cat under the porch. . 4. 3.number (include your text if possible) Page 73 65 FEEDBACK PROCESS Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution number (include your text if possible) Comments: Page 74 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 75 1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. My daughter sold her computer to a friend. 1. Check your answers in the answer key. 2.

Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. From the top of a small hill. The Titanic sank in a few hours. 2. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. clams. Then. 6. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. 8. 4. So much snow covered the roads. Penguins live near the South Pole. Exercise 2: Nouns A. and the clouds were beautiful. 7. 7. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. and lobster. Local markets are full of mussels. 9. When their boats are full. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. 8. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. In small villages. we saw the Northumberland Strait. the little boats began to appear. . 5. many husbands and wives were separated. 6. The ocean was calm. but these birds aren¶t bothered by the cold.Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. 5. 3. 1. 10. scallops.

Page 76 2 6. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. What did you bring with you? 4. 2. 1. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. 9. B. 3. 10. Underline all the nouns you used. Storms make life on the water dangerous. she went for a tetanus shot. Many of them came.9. Exercise 4: Pronouns A. All of those are expensive. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. 10. If the weather is good. After she cut herself. . but these are pink. Write 10 sentences of your own. Who likes chocolate? 8. 1. 7. their catch is usually large. He gave her several bottles of this. The stones on the beach were green. None of us was frightened by that. but few stayed long.

We always welcome suggestions.Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2. Underline all the pronouns you used. 4. Phillip called to tell them about that. She often rode the bus home at night. They told about the hardships we survived. 4. 5. 2. This belongs to her. Mine was destroyed by the flood. . 3. but the insurance covered it. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6. 1. The pitcher threw the ball. 6. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. The robin perched on a lower branch. Give me some! 9. Many told about the kindness of strangers. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. He dreamed about his recent accident. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 7. 5. 8. Write 10 sentences of your own. 10. She never gave them any of it. 3. B. 7.

6. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. 2. John ate his lunch slowly. 9. 2. 10. 5. You will never guess the answer. Since his accident. 10. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. he has been driving more carefully. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. 9. Finally. His parents thought about him every day. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. we decided on a movie. 7. Are you reading that magazine. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. or have you finished it? 8. 1. The lions slept in the sun for hours. After work. the dealer agreed to our price. Page 77 3 3. Exercise 7: Verbs A.8. 1. Lucy will send you her new address. 4. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. .

People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. 8. . 3. 4. 5. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. Write a paragraph about an exciting event.Many branches had been broken by the wind. Soon. 5. 7. and they flapped in the light breeze. life was returning to normal. they arrived at the train station. After three days. 4. The old curtains were torn and faded. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. B. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 3. 2. 10. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. nine miles from Minto. After a few hours. Underline all the verbs you used. 6. They are calling it the storm of the century. 9. food became scarce. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. 6.

The long summer months are usually hot and dry. Can you come soon? 3. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. They arrived early for class. You cannot drive there! 5. . She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. B.7. These apples are juicy and red. 6. Rewrite it using enough adjectives Page 78 4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. 4. Kate is a truly courageous woman. 9. Yesterday. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. 8. Underline the adjectives you used. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. 1. 2. 10. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 9. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. 8.

The baby has been very cranky lately. 4. Generally. 2. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. 3. very fast computers are needed. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. 7. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. 6. 1. 2. 4. Finally. Many people have never used a computer. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. 3. The colour of her dress was really flattering.10. 8. 9. Computers are relatively new devices. Many businesses use them daily. they are quite easy to use. Today. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. 1. 5. . 10. he asked for a second helping. she wrote the very last sentence correctly. Politely. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs.

The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. The time of day doesn¶t matter. 9. In his new movie. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. 4. 2. 10. 3. Since the crash. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. 7. 5. Guests with tickets entered first. 6. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. 8. . The chairs on the porch were painted white. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John¶s brother. Underline the prepositions. 1. 7. Page 79 5 6. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie¶s.5.

Page 80 6 4. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. or groups of words (phrases). 1. 1. In 1992. Apples and oranges are good for you. Then indicate whether they are joining words. Oh no! He lost the puck. 3. I hate boiled cabbage. None of the items on that page are available until July. Wow. 10. Underline the conjunctions. or complete ideas (clauses). No! Don¶t touch the brake. Yuck. Ouch! That hurts. most of the money disappeared. 9. It was a life and death situation. 3. . Look under the table and in the closet. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them.8. 4. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. 5. did you see that jet! 2. 2.

1. we won¶t believe it. Until the snow melts. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. 3. 7. 5. We ran home because it was raining.I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. she and Lily still arrived on time. Exercise 16: Review . we can leave so we will be on time. If you are ready. 6. When they had finished. Until we see it. so we went to the concert. 8. we will have to stay home. he should go to the doctor. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. After we saw a deer. 10. 2. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. Before he gets sicker. 8. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. 5. 10. 4. we drove to Doaktown. We bought the tickets. but I couldn¶t get a ride. 7. they gave it to the teacher. 9. 6. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. 9. Although she missed the bus. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow.

8. 2. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. 6. 9. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 14. Eric and they learned very quickly. Page 81 7 15. b. 1. 5. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. 7. 11. 4. 13. 10. The wind was cold. c. Most of the students listened politely. Underline all the nouns. This book cost six dollars. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. 12. but the sun was really warm. 3.Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. . She was giving a short but interesting lecture. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. The tall. Their house was built in 1990. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. No.

The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street.Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Your instructor will correct your work. 3. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. 10. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? 6. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. 8. 4. 7. 9. 1. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. rose justice . The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. 5. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. 2.

1. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. 2. Write the corrected form in your notebook. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays. 3. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. write two sentences. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals.happiness cow school truth computer grace skiing stars bubbles fear Page 82 8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. . A large amount of deer were shot this season.

They bought several rings at the auction. 1. Mary¶s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. 2. Sue¶s friends bought her a sweater in the men¶s department. using apostrophes. 5. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where . Each of the boy¶s bicycles was locked. 4.4. 5. He received three months¶ back pay yesterday. Ann receives too many junk mail. Have you seen the dog¶s leash? 3. B Reword each of the following phrases. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession.

10. (two sons) 5. read the section on apostrophes again. 3. 7. (two uncles) . Marks mother lives at my sisters. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. 1. 1. 6. (one son) 4. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. The childs name is Nora. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. Charles company owed him two days pay. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. Mr. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm.necessary. 8. Page 83 9 2. Mr. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. 9. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. Smith was worried about her sons health. Then try these sentences. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. and the familys name is Boudreau.

you should review the parts of this section that gave you . do not look back at the material in the module. (one client) 9. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. If you had any mistakes.2. 6. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. and do not peek at the answer key. mark your own work. When you have completed the test. or ask your instructor to mark it for you. Page 84 10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 4. 7. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winters last lament´. two twins) 3. As you work through the test. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. 10. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. his wifes income was reduced. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. Because of the accident. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. (one girl.

When you are satisfied that you really understand. D. Centennial Bridge. Bridge. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. accidents. That new car is my neighbour. Chatham. . This is the store belonging to Doris. 3. Ferry Road. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. Centennial Bridge. try this test again. connects. 2. Road. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road. Ferry Road. The new car is my neighbours'.³trouble´ thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. 4. Ferry. A. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. Read the following sentence. B. Read the following sentence. D. accidents. C. That is my neighbours' new car. C. accidents. That is my neighbour's new car. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. 1. B. Centennial Bridge. Chatham. Chatham. B. Chatham.

river D. 5. January . Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. this. magazine 8. town. Our friends lived in Halifax. Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia. 7. What is a noun? Page 85 11 6. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. they. A. C. The nouns in the sentence are A. city C. E. Halifax. Halifax. Nova Scotia. Halifax. this. town. friends. soda pop B. A. Halifax. D. holiday E. Nova Scotia. before they moved to this town. B. friends. Those toys belong to the children. friends. Nova Scotia. town. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. Read the following sentence. D. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below.C.

11. I had a great time last St. singular. Page 86 12 The first one is done for you. B. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. C. D. There are errors in SOME of the following sentences.B. Jupiter E. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. A. Parker 9. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. correcting the errors. Canada C. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. concrete. Church: common. Dr. The flower's petals fell to the floor. Saint John D. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. count church mice mob beauty . Patricks Day.

Cheryl gave her cold to them. but mine is on the desk. My sister. Gender . He may have taken her coat. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . her husband and their children visited your mother. Did you give him his book? 2. 1. 3. 4. I saw them eating their lunch myself.Person.Canada¶s news armies meat equipment boys¶ loyalty jury grammar March fragrance men¶s company surprise trouble English horn sunrise boy¶s Lions¶ Club broccoli Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. 5. Number.

Where are you going with her tapes. our. us. I. We. our. 2. his. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. You. his. Notice that the pronouns my. She. Beside each. yours. write its person and number . your. myself 2. yourselves B.A. The first set is done for you. her. 1. hers. mine. ourselves 4. They didn¶t know it was theirs until they saw its label. 4. ours. You should take yours. Second person plural C. me. her. its. yourself F. yours. your. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. their. herself 5. The pronouns mine. Try not to look at the chart above. . theirs. they took my jacket and your camera. my. You. They. 3. your. their. hers. yours. First person singular E. Third person singular B. First person plural A. whose are always followed by a noun. 1. your. Third person plural D. themselves 3. They say that we should always mind our own business. When I went to the club last night. them. Page 87 13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence.

using the correct pronoun. but (you. 1. they) have to keep trying. yours. check the answers in the answer key. 5. her) to town. Give the pencil to Martha or (I. Jerry took his brother and (she. me) could go to the game? 7. John and (he.ours. After finishing all the sentences. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. They were sure that Lisa and (he. him) went to a meeting 2. theirs are used alone. 3 person singular). 3. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. 8. me)! 6. (You.e. Do you think that (he. him) and (I. rd Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. him) were going to Miramichi. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn¶t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. . Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use. 4. they) will fail. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. Students often think that (you.

(It¶s. your) going to pass. they¶re) ugly colour. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. using the correct pronoun. I). its) nest was destroyed and (it¶s. 12. using the right pronoun - . Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. leave it as it is. (You¶re. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. If a sentence is CORRECT. A student must try to find (his. Page 88 14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph.I do not want (those. Your) hard work means that (you¶re. its) not likely to return. her. Rewrite the sentence. If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence. REWRITE the sentence. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. their) own learning modality. 10. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. 11. 9. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. them) sneakers because of (their.

Could him and me could go to the game? 8.Mary gave her the keys. 1. 7. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. We sent her some flowers. The man standing outside in the rain is him. The boys tried out for the football team. 12. 2. 2. 4. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. 1. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. Al met John and she at the movies. They kept the secret from Jack and I. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. . replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! Page 89 15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. Jane¶s best friend is me. 3. 11. 3. 5. 6. 9. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. 10.

9. 10. 6. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. The instructor will give them those. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. The dog's ears are pointed. B. My family are always ready to support their relatives. 5. 8. 4. 1. The president should take his office seriously. 1. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. 4. Our family is not large. 3. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Some managers write their business letters themselves. It gathers once a year for a reunion. 5. 2. 7. Philip gave her her present. 2.The dog belonging to you has run away again. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. The students asked for new books. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. The jury were presenting their opinions. The merchants gave donations. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. . A student should always be on time for his or her class. We ourselves were happy to participate.

The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. its) leg when it jumped the fence. his. his or her. 5. his or her. their) pen. 5. 7. None of the boys has paid for (his. . their) lunches. 4. their) dues. their) report later than tomorrow. A few forgot (his. 3. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. 6. their) mutual friends' wedding. Page 90 16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. 3. her. Many hens have escaped from (her. her. their) own bus ticket. No one should submit (his or her. 9. Each of those buyers should consult (his. their) supervisors. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. 8. Does anybody know (his or her. Several of the men have paid (his.Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. and he should pay it. his or her. 4. The deer hurt (her. 1. her. his. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. Max and Helen sang at (her. The audience clapped for their performance.

Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. her or his. Emphatic. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. A few of us have received (his. 3. 1. Such cannot be true! 4. .g. 1. 6. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. 5. that. e. Write This is mine. and those as describing words later. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. 5. You will learn about the use of this. Did he really say that? 3. Wash the car yourself this time. their. Then tell which is which. her. our) marks. 2. 4. Whose book is that on the floor? B. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall.10. This is the one I want to buy. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. 2. these. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. Give me all of these and some of those. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences.

The man who won is my friend Steve. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. Whom should we reward? 6. 4. 1. Who stole the money? 2. He hasn¶t decided what he wants to do next. He said many things which I didn¶t understand. 8. 5. What did you bring for lunch? 3. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns . 8.I myself won¶t put up with that. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. 10. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. 9. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. Page 91 17 7. What have you done with the keys? 10. Ian is the one who knows that.

can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. . Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. When you talk about that accident. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. it always gives me the shivers. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her. 5. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. My first attempt was a failure. Page 92 18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. both of them look correct. 3. He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. but the house itself was undamaged. making notes as you go. 7. but later I had learned from it. Which is right? There are two choices. What would anyone do with that? 4. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. 8. 2. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. 10. The furniture was destroyed. 9. The children themselves saw it. 1. 6.A. B.

7. Match the term on the left with the example on the right. demonstrative pronoun . Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. relative pronoun D. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. Something is missing from this recipe. 6. 9. 2. You didn¶t give that to them. We did most of the work ourselves. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. these st 2. did you? 5.1. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. Always ask yourselves. Sherri took your boots. reciprocal pronoun C. but the contractor poured the cement. each other 3. 1. ³What can I do to help those less fortunate?´ 10. its 5. interrogative pronoun B. but he took mine. our 4. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. 1 person plural A. everybody 6. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other.

a word that doesn¶t exist J. (they¶re. you¶re) house is. b. Page 93 19 f. their. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. which 10. a. g. e. she) went to the automatic teller. Sheila and (her. Be sure and tell her where (your. its K. few 2. me). My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. . h. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. which) is barking lives next door. hisself) on that rusty can. c. there) too expensive. reflexive pronoun I. possessive pronoun H. themself 8. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. d. The dog (who. himself 9. they¶re) old car. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. him). there. Don¶t buy (those. j. The cat often chases (it¶s. them) shoes.F. Hutchins bought (their. what 7. its) tail. He cut (himself. i. Mr.

After the holidays. the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. the kids and them returned to Rexton. For each underlined pronoun. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. B. B. Volunteers. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. Do you think there house is big enough? D. A. employees is the antecedent of them D. The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. . C. A. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. Page 94 20 8. 7. C. we and the kids returned to Rexton. A. D. C. Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. us and the kids returned to Rexton. it is the antecedent of bonus. 5. Bill is the antecedent of he C. Which sentence below is correct? A. themself) 4. Underline every pronoun you have used. Which statement below is not correct. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. bonus is the antecedent of it 6. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. he told them to spend it wisely. B. Those are mine. B.She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. Few of them knew the right answer.

My sister¶s name is Paula. D. The students were happy about their marks. it is classed as an action verb. The baseball hit the boy in the face. His car smashed into a bridge. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. 3. . Who knows anything about this? E. Then underline the verbs. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. Use each one in a sentence. Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. Ask your instructor to review your work. 2. 4. B. 1. For each verb that you identify. 7. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. 5. Buy yourself something expensive.The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. 6. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. The dog jumped over the fence. We watched a movie last night.

4. . 8. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand. 11. 13. 15.Mr. The children became excited before the snow storm. 1. Because of the dust. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. 6. 3. 2. We were afraid of the storm. The little mouse squeaked loudly. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. the bookkeeper at Colpitt¶s. Close the door to the garage. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. we coughed all day. 5. 10. 8. 12. We feared the storm. 9. Page 95 21 14. please. You know my aunt. He looks taller than Mario. The pie smells good. There were fourteen people in that class last year. 7. Smyth was my uncle.

Madonna sings and dances well. 4.9. That would have confused anyone! 5. I felt sick after the party. if any. 15. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. feel. We played ball against their team Saturday. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). 14. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. 2. Suddenly. Would you please flip the hamburgers? . Wolves always howl at the moon. 3. 12. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. grow. 13. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. 11. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. the other with a linking or copula verb. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. sound. Page 96 22 SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. This stew tastes good on a cold winter¶s night. 10. taste. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs.

7. Today. 2. won¶t you? 9. 12. Yesterday. Today. 13. 10. Sue may never have been given that letter. 7. 4.6. Today. Carl kicks the ball across the field. Tomorrow. A child can easily learn this song. 6. Have you ever heard such nonsense. 14. There was a good show on TV last night. He might have consulted a doctor. not after the last trip. The washing machine has broken down. I will not be going. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. I shall never agree to his proposal. 9. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. Page 97 23 8. 11. 1. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. 3. He had been learning Chinese at school. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. Tomorrow. . 5. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. 8. 15. The men should have eaten that supper by now. 10. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. Carl will kick the ball across the field. Carl had kicked the ball across the field. Mitchell has lived here all his life.

Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. B. They have lived here for two months. C. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. 3. B. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A.Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. I have completed my income tax return. By the time they arrived. 2. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. D. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. When they arrive. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. B. 4. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. we had already served dinner. I am completing my income tax return early this year. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. we will serve dinner. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. D. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. C. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. . B. C. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa.

B. 10. They lived in Halifax before moving here. 7. D. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. 8. She designed a logo for the company. He has finished painting my house. C. She is designing a logo for the company. D. 5. Page 98 24 6. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. She will design a logo for the company. She has designed a logo for the company. He is finished painting my house. C. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. 9. He will finish painting my house soon. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. . D. B. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk.They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A. C. 11. He will be finished painting my house by tonight.

The disaster relief team has sprung into action. the bell will already have rung. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. By the time you get to school. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. My son did his homework last night. The train will be making three stops before Montreal F. 3 Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. I am feeling better already. D. Barry threw the ball to first base. C. Write your answers in your notebook. Page 99 25 4. G. B. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. 2.12. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice . E. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. SENTENCE TENSE? A. The butcher had already delivered our order. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1.

2. 14. 13. Page 100 26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. 6. 11. After the elections. My heart was broken. Stephen King has written many best sellers. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. 1. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. 7. 4. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. 10. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. 3. 9. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. We have been searching for answers to our questions. 12. Sandra¶s writing is improving daily. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. 8. the votes were recounted several times. I have just been thinking about you. . The child was struck by a stray bullet. I was frightened by the storm. 5. 15.Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them.

Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. This was a ³trick´ exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. Once they have been placed in a sentence. All by themselves. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A. Now look up each word in the dictionary. Look at the words below. Change the passive verbs to active ones. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. It is at this point that a . Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. they start to function by carrying the writer¶s meaning to the reader. words cannot have a part of speech.Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice.

5.word develops into a part of speech. 3. The first one is done for you. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. 1. 2. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person. 7. He has never drunk stout before. C. Lunch will be served at twelve o¶clock sharp. 6. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee. Page 101 27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech. write everything you can about it. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. For each one you identified. . Number: 3 person singular rd Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. Have you eaten here before? 4. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense.

10. but old ones are gold. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. 14. and verbs in each sentence. 4. They might not find each other at the airport. and Verbs List the nouns. Pronouns. Page 102 28 . My sister always rides her bike to the office. The men were unhappy with both of those. The houses had just been repainted. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. 11. I am doing my homework now.8. 3. 8. 13. What were you thinking? 10. The couple usually walks to the office. He is dating a beautiful doctor. I shall be seeing you again next week. 12. 1. 15. New friends are silver. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. 9. The child was severely bitten. Something should be done about each of these problems. The music will have been playing for several hours. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. Everything that Tom says about them is true. When everyone is finished. 9. pronouns. they will announce the results. 5. 7. 6. 2. so the dog was destroyed.

4. 3. Oprah has changed people¶s attitudes towards honesty. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. Where was he going? 5. All of these will sell well. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother¶s now. 8. 1. Your choices seem logical. Why haven¶t you written that letter yet? 6. How much money will you need next week? 7. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. Then give as much information as you can about each. If you have too many mistakes. 2. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. . Tony will have finished his course by next June. Pronouns. and Verbs List the nouns. The jury is discussing its decision. 3. 4. I am happy about your decision. Pronouns.Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. 5. 9. Kevin gave me Marion¶s card. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. He had watched TV for more than an hour. 1. 2.

Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. 9. Pronouns. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. The storm grew worse as night approached. 3. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. and his mouth watered. Those were made in China. Will you complete that survey? Page 103 29 10. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. these come from Sackville. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. 5. 6. What has anyone seen lately. He smelled the fresh bread. 4. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. 7. SENTENCE .10. If you find you are still confused about some points. 1. 2. 8. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. Write your answers in your notebook. Don't forget articles. study it.

This trip takes several days 8. Mexican food? 9. 15. Two cats. depressing day. I have had a boring. A few boys knew that they were lost. sparkling blue eyes. The little girl had big. 5. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. 10. 6. 13. 14. Invite those six people.Adjectives Nouns 1. 7. An old rusty car is parked in my space. Do you like spicy. sweet and lovable. sat on the dining room table. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and . Give them some light summer clothes. Page 104 30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. Karl¶s hockey skates are dull. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. 11. 12. 2. juicy apples. We bought Shelley and Tim¶s house. These parcels are heavy. Our cousins were eating huge. 3. 4. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. The road was rough and uneven.

Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. bright and narrow. Yesterday. Where is the grocery store now? . The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. They set up their canvas tents.autumn leaves that littered the ground. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. Bob read the material carefully. lit a huge crackling fire. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. The weather was warm. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. piercing the inky darkness. With relief. and the hills were gentle. they saw a beam of light. Jensen¶s chicken farm. 3. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. and ate their supper. After two long hours. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. 2.

4. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. 6. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. 7. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. 8. The circus was really exciting. 9. Simon is not a very good driver. 10. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Page 105 31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. For each adverb, tell whether it modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. 1. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. 2. Thoughtfully, the old man chewed his dinner. 3. Make sure that you review daily. 4. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. 5. Tim was very happy about his success. 6. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 7. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun.

8. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. 9. The soldiers were really tired after their training. 10. She strolled leisurely down the mall. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Indicate the type of modifier, i.e: adjective or adverb. Write your answers in your notebook. Write an explanation of your choice. Example: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage.( ) Answer: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage. (adverb) 1. Leah behaves (good, well). ( ) 2. Sheila feels (sad, sadly) about the death of her dog. ( ) 3. I am not (really, real) sure if I will have a party. ( ) 4. The directions were (simple, simply) to follow. ( ) 5. I don't feel (good, well). ( ) 6.

The repairs went (slowly, slow). ( ) 7. The change in speed was (gradually, gradual). ( ) 8. You work too (serious, seriously) sometimes. ( ) 9. We feel (awful, awfully) about what happened. ( ) 10. These chocolates taste (good, well). ( ) 11. Firefighters must respond very (quick, quickly). ( ) 12. Lynn spoke in a (calm, calmly) voice after the accident. ( ) 13. Tiger Woods putted (bad, badly) on that last hole! ( ) 14. The lights shone (brightly, bright) in my eyes. ( ) 15. Paul did (good, well) on his second driver¶s test. ( )

Page 106 32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. 1. Who is the (smaller, smallest, most small), Cathy or Diane? 2. My heart beat (rapidlier, more rapidly, more rapid) with each step. 3. It snowed (most, more) in January than in February. 4. The damage to the other car looked (worse, more badly, worser) than the damage to mine. 5. Tom thinks math is (difficulter, more difficult) than grammar exercises. 6. He is the (elder, eldest) of the candidates. 7. This idea is (more unique, unique, most unique). Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. Answer: Carl drove to, from, around, near, beside, etc. the bank. 1. Dawn fell the horse. 2. Earl worked him.

3. I will meet you the front entrance. 4. The horse galloped the field. 5. Smoking is not allowed the building. B In the next part of this exercise, find and underline the prepositions. 1. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day.. 2. Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. 3. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. 5. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. 7. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 8. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. 9. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. C

m.... Here¶s an example.....Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition.. The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat.. with the red dress.... During the night..... Page 107 33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook...... when..where:. The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p.. 1.when. If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun.m.. After each one..prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ at 5:00 p.......prepositional adjective phrase modifying ³woman´ on the bench...... Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb..... 2....... it is an prepositional adverb phrase..... . If it is telling where.prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise. the rest of the water drained from the basement. tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb... it is a prepositional adjective phrase.... why or how the action of the verb took place...

After his graduation in 1992. 10. 3.3. . the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day. all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill. the designer placed a beautiful statue. Correlative. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. The chili was not only spicy hot. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store. but she went home on the bus. 5. 1. I asked her to wait for me. Exercise 70: Conjunctions .Coordinate. Since his return. 9. 5. 4. he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. or Lynn and Joan will take our place. Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. On Fridays. 6. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet. Either Anna and I will go. 7. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. 6. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms. 2. but also steaming hot. 8. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens. Because of the storm. In the middle of a big spacious lawn.

some local citizens rescued it. 5. however. 1. 2. she has always been very polite. 13. We will go. 8. I made supper. 7. he felt prepared. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. 3. Since I first met Sheila and her. He was the designated driver. . He organized his study time. Mark knows more than I do about that case. but I don¶t have a map.Page 108 34 7. but also I will perform. I wonder why they are leaving so early. 4. so he just drank pop all night. 6. Not only will I attend. 11. the children swam in the pool. After the whale beached itself. I know where they have hidden the treasure. 10. The weather was snowy. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. 14. the team returned home. 9. Tired but happy. I won¶t be able to go even though I have the money. yet he decided to drive anyway. 12. they will be cut down. 8. 15. as a result. meanwhile. we will not pay our own fare. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave.

Thieves broke in while we were away. the wind was cool. 25. put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. 2. For each sentence above. 16. If you are short. the students asked if they could stay. 22. 20. 11. Although it was quite sunny. Although he is stronger. The first one is done for you. they are out of the playoffs. 24. 19. Underline all the relative pronouns. He always talks as if he were an expert. It isn¶t certain whether they will come or not. he turned pro. you missed it. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. Unless the Leafs win this game. Are you sure that you are right? . 10. I don¶t know how I will get there. Copy these sentences into your notebook. 21. 18. he couldn¶t turn it. You just answered my questions before I asked them. 1. 13. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. Because you were late. He reported that he had seen the incident. they couldn¶t fix it themselves. 23. Les is five inches taller than I am. After he won the gold medal. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. Before they read the instructions. 17. Page 109 35 B. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 12. After the lecture.9. you can¶t reach that cupboard. 14. 15.

Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported. 6. 4. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday. Page 110 36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. That book that you bought last month is very interesting. who lives in Utah. 10.000 aren¶t worth the money. Your ancestors lived beside the sea. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. 1.3. 7. Cars that cost more than $20. came for a visit. 9. My sister. 5. (10) 4. Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) 5. mine lived near Moncton. 8. The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. Dogs make good pets for young children. . The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. I know who bought the Fuller¶s house. (10) 3.(7) 2.

Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. I do not think about their problems now because I don¶t have time. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. (9) 11. Identify the parts of speech of each word. (9) 15. Page 111 37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. (6) 10. (11) 9. Count the number of correct answers. Casually. The students in this program are very hard workers. (15) 2. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice.(15) 6. If you have less than a 120. Usually. the chairs were placed near the windows. Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately. (9) 12. . He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. (5) 13. but today they are in a circle. (11) There are a total of 150 words in this review. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. The frail.Those big. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors¶ home.(12) 8. so you can buy several of them. Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not. She believes in his ability. (14) 7. 1. (12) 14.

they finished their work. I had been studying for three hours. The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. (12) 14.(10) 6. did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) 18. (8) 11. (11) 16. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. After they had mowed the lawn. (13) 13. (6) 5. Hey Eric. Ouch. Although the storm was very intense. Miles¶ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can¶t pass those provincial exams. Because they have cashed their cheques. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. They had been writing their essays before they went there . Very quickly. Since the accident. Sue often seeks my advice. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) 12. (10) 8. If you correctly identified 160 of them. his clever tricks have failed. (13) Page 112 38 17. they bought lunch . (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. and I still don¶t know it. The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. (14) 4. Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) 15.(14) 3. they have some money. Because of her problems.(9) 7. the victims have recovered quite well. (10) 9. (6) 19. Finally. the damage was minor. you can . (9) 10.

continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book. Page 113 39 BAU ENGLISH . Ask your instructor for supplementary work.PRETEST 1. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. fruit. Concrete noun i. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech. Collective noun . Proper noun h. Singular noun e. Read this paragraph. Count noun b. Non-count noun c. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Possessive noun d. and meat. Abstract noun j. Common noun g. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. In the paragraph above. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made.

Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. d. Noun used as an adjective 2.(9) a. indefinite pronoun F. Someone 2. 3 person singular rd B. Plural noun f. means ³it is´ E. e. possessive noun. Sisters¶ 8. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. possessive noun. 3. 1 person plural st G. 3 person plural rd H. plural C. Their 4. b. c. g. using apostrophes correctly. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. What 1. f. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. It¶s 6.k.(8) A. Paul¶s 7. The horses hooves needed new shoes. interrogative pronoun D. Its 5. We 3. The six workers complaints were very reasonable. singular . Sallys covered a whole month of work. non-count noun 9. Rewrite these sentences.

During the week. 2. we work for Mr. Linton. 3. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. They were afraid of bears. The crows flew toward the swamp. (2) 7. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. He always uses a cane since his accident. 2.(11) 1. 3. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. 7.Page 114 40 4. . List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. 6. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store.(10) 1. Charles. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. 6. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. The teacher with the beard is Mr. 5.

They ate six lobsters each. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. Next summer. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. 10. 9. 5. 4. . 8. 10. Write a sentence comparing two things. Use the correct form of the adverb early. 9.John is always talking to his boss lately. 7. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. Are you cutting her hair? 6. Page 115 41 11. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Write a sentence comparing two actions. I was the first one there! 8. Use the correct form of the adjective good. Write a sentence comparing two people. we will go to Disneyland. 12. Paula will rent a car in Boston. His Ford has always run well. Write a sentence comparing two actions.

1. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. Proper noun . find one example of each of the following: (11) a. her) were the first to arrive. she and them 2. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. 3. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. 2. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. 14. Count noun b. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. In the paragraph above. Her 1. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. Common noun g. fruit. 4. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Our new neighbours have three young children. 5.(41) 1. and meat.13. Read this paragraph.

Possessive noun d. Noun used as an adjective 2. possessive noun. Concrete noun i. The horses hooves needed new shoes. We 3. Its 5. Someone 2. e. The workers complaints were very reasonable. plural C. 3 person singular rd B. Collective noun k. Abstract noun j. What 1. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Non-count noun c. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Singular noun e. 3. f. not a personal pronoun E.(9) a. d.(8) A. Plural noun f. interrogative pronoun D. Rewrite these sentences. It¶s . Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. Page 116 42 b. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Their 4. indefinite pronoun F. c.h. Sallys covered a whole month of work. using apostrophes correctly. g.

The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. Paul¶s 7. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. Linton. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. we work for Mr. Charles. non-count noun 9.(10) . singular 4. 6.(11) 1. possessive noun. 3. 3 person plural rd H.6. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. (2) 7. He always uses a cane since his accident. 7. During the week. The teacher with the beard is Mr. 2. 5. Sisters¶ 8. 1 person plural st G. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. 6. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences.

I was the first one there! 8. 4. 2. 10. They ate six lobsters each. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. Paula will rent a car in Boston. 9. Use the correct form of the adjective good. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Page 117 43 5. John is always talking to his boss lately. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. 3. Are you cutting her hair? 6. Write a sentence comparing two people. They were afraid of bears. 9. . Next summer. Write a sentence comparing two things. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. 8. we will go to Disneyland. The crows flew toward the swamp.1. His Ford has always run well. 7. 10.

she and they B. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly.(44) 1. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Hey! What are you cooking for supper.Page 118 44 11. A. 14. 5. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. 3. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. 12. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. and (they. her and them 15. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. 4. her) were the first to arrive. 13. How many nouns does this sentence contain? . That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. she and them D. Write a sentence comparing two actions. them) were the first to leave. 2. her and they C. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions.

Five B. 18. join groups of words or sentences. and qualities. The complete verb in this sentence is A. C. . are used to take the place of pronouns. B. describe substances. Five B. D. Eight Page 119 45 16. including ponds. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. Two D. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. marshes. Three C.Wetlands. Six 17. include the names of persons. playing Florenceville B. things. and people. Seven D. places. Six C. and swamps. Nouns are words that A. animals. are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. be playing C.

homeless. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. 22. D. lost against 20. hungry D. very B. have lost B. dirty. The adjectives in this sentence are A. homeless. or the glazed? B. The complete verb in this sentence is A. dirty.has played D. homeless. the chocolate covered. ragged. ragged. C. ragged and dirty. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. The following sentences make comparisons. Which donut is the biggest. ragged. very. Which one? A. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. dirty. They are moving to Moncton. the. ragged. never lost C. was very hungry. This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. was. B. dirty C. lost D. They have never lost a game against that team. . playing 19. hungry Page 120 46 21. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. the. The homeless man.

a. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. Sally¶s 3. Molly and Sally¶s 4. Molly¶s. Answers will vary.(9) A. B. D.Yesterday. . E. 2. lady¶s.PRETEST 1. The dogs blanket wasn¶t in it¶s house when the storm hit. TOTAL: 133 Page 121 47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . weeks¶ 2. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. Them sneakers are really great! C. week¶s 6. D. 23. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. C. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. Duncan¶s 5. Them skates are real good. I bought a pair of sneakers.

Their 3 person plural rd 5. A. Its 3 person singular rd 6. sisters¶ possessive noun. Paul¶s possessive noun. What Interrogative pronoun 2. Someone Indefinite pronoun 3. singular 8. It¶s means ³it is´ 7. plural 4. 3. horse¶s or horses¶ Explain the meaning of your choice. We 1 person plural st 4.workers¶ 7. walk walked walked walking .

.cut cut cut cutting sing sang sung singing think thought thought thinking drive drove driven driving 5. Page 122 48 7. of the cereal in the cupboard during the week for Mr. Linton after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees in the light breeze with the red wheels beside the general store 6. Answers will vary.

..preposition Jeb¶s.noun belonged. 13... Answers will vary......... Answers will vary.....adjective team..preposition Mount Carleton.verb to....adjective children.. is talking.....adverb 4.. Answers will vary...verb to.interjection ...... have sold...noun.adjective neighbours.......conjunction a...adjective disks.... will go. 11. Answers will vary....noun is.. was..noun 3..... are cutting. possessive friend.preposition these...... 1.... 10.noun soon.. Many...... Hey.....verb going...... 12.pronoun of.....adjective dog...noun and....flew. Answers will vary. has run... That... were.....verb three.pronoun/adjective new... 9. Our...noun 2. will rent 8.. ate...........adjective young...noun have.

.verb always.. D 16..... B 18.What...........pronoun are.........adjective weather.. A 20. C 19.noun were.....verb you...... C 21.......verb the..noun Page 123 49 14..adjective bad. A 23... A.. .... A 15.......adjective camp.. Those skates are really good....pronoun of....... A 17.preposition the..noun from. 2.preposition supper.... C 22..preposition the.pronoun cooking....noun 5.........verb for..adjective men.. Several.adverb discussing.

(16) 2. . The dog¶s blanket wasn¶t in its house when the storm hit. Identify the part of speech of each word.PRETEST 1.He and I went to Ashley¶s house. He divided the candy between Sarah and me.(6) B. Page 124 50 IAUENG .(9) C. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband. Oh no. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. D. 3. B. Cheryl¶s ideas are better than mine are. An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows. In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. 5. C. but the answers that you changed are now wrong.(51) A.(11) E. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock. 4. Each of these would have been correct.

Name the tense of each verb. C. (7) A. Myself c. Relative pronoun 2. The Sullivans have a new boat. E. I bought those pants in the childrens department. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. A month from now. I will call you. (8) a. Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years. Personal pronoun . Page 125 51 5. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. What b. B. A. F.3. B. C. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. D. Beth handled the dog very well today. 4. Indefinite pronoun 1. E. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. The bosses letters are always long and dull. D. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. Sheilas mother lives next door.

for. today. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. Each other 6. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. Anne. These h. with. Themself 9. Read the following sentence. B. Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. plural 6. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. singular 5. We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. 8. to. families. Cape Breton. Reflexive pronoun. B. . Which f. and. Someone d. Jim. left. D. Interrogative pronoun 8. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. D. Yourselves e. Us g. Demonstrative pronoun 7. spend.3. We watched the ships come in that night. 7. Reciprocal pronoun 4. C. Emphatic pronoun. C. Christmas.

C. car belonging to my neighbour.Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A. university's women's club. my neighbours car. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. B. university's women club. the camera's strap. my neighbours' car.(6) early quite almost . the cameras strap¶s 11. university womens' club. B. D. my neighbour's car. C. 10. the camera strap. Page 126 52 9. B. the cameras' strap. D. D. C. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. university women's club.

Ron was late he stopped for me. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. C. B. Rewrite the paragraph. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. changing the verb to the future perfect tense. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs).) 12. using pronouns as you think are necessary. A. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? C.fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. Write the tense of the verb. B. 13. The ferret belonging to Shirley was . Rewrite the sentence. Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. Page 127 53 14. D. I shovel snow mow lawns.(3) A.

(4) 5. A. Write the tense of the verb. Write three (3) sentences with interjections. In the following sentences.(3) 3. Rewrite the sentence.(5) 18.(6) 17. Our children don¶t like the icy. As far as I can see. looked abandonned.(5) B. 15. List five (5) linking verbs. D. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs).named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. B. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Monford¶s old barn. Monica¶s sneakers are always dirty and dusty. cold water.(6) 4. 16. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives. I heard a great new song on the radio. is too flashy. large and unpainted. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley.(3) . red and expensive.(5) 2. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. Use each in a sentence. A. changing the verb to the present perfect tense. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. C. 1. Their sporty new car.

badly). The managers had a (private. Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. B. 20. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. B. The entire team did not feel (well. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow. A. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. E. B. changing the verb to the past perfect tense. Rewrite the sentence. really) (well.Page 128 54 19. good) after the meal.(10) A. C. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). C.(5) 21. D. Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb. privately) meeting. He answered those questions (real. 22. A. D. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following).(8) Example: A. slowly). good).NOUN writes . Ted damaged his car (bad. Write the tense of the verb. B. Cindy writes letters. Cindy . Choose the correct modifier. Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs.VERB .

(5) Page 129 55 24. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course.NOUN 23. He sure done good on his last test. Could him and me rent a movie? 7. G. B. While they were away. therefore. 25. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. Total 192 Page 130 .letters . 5. He had went there several times before. C. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. 3. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim.(10) A. we cancelled our trip.(12) 1. E. but it still needs more work. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. yet we never received it. A storm was forecast. 4. 8. D. Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences. They completed the report which we requested. 2. 6. F. they visited Len and Jennifer. Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test. The man who wrote that book is in town today. Your work is good. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time.

.verb not....adverb D.............noun rattled..........adverb happy......... possessive ideas....IAU ENGLISH ..adjective extremely. Oh no........interjection Matt...preposition thunder. A.noun are.........conjunction/pronoun they..56 ANSWER KEY .verb better........... Cheryl¶s...verb. Are....adjective windows...verb . B....pronoun really....adjective than..... An.verb coming...verb here.noun C.noun of.........adverb loud....PRETEST 1......conjunction mine......adjective that..verb you...pronoun are..noun....verb the.noun will.........pronoun are.adjective clap......adverb have..

verb now..preposition these......verb been......adjective 2. Each.....the....pronoun changed.......conjunction/pronoun you.. Simple present .verb are....conjunction the.......adjective but.......noun before..pronoun of...noun E....adjective tour.... Past progressive C....adverb wrong. A....adjective answers..noun that.............noun leaves.. Simple past B.... Simple future D...verb have....... C Page 131 57 3....adjective money.........verb Woodstock....pronoun would.conjunction the..verb correct..........

7. Answers will vary. 6. 2. Jones¶ weeks¶ 5. d. B 11. bosses¶ E. A 8. Present perfect progressive 4. 9: e. C 9. 3. h. b. c. B 7. B 10. Nicole¶s D. 5. A. 1 6. 4 g. Sheila¶s B. . a. f. mother¶s F. children¶s C.E.

.adjective (after a linking verb) private.car 17. 18. Answers will vary... Page 132 58 15... 23..12..... old.adverb 20... sporty..adverb well. expensive. 21........ icy. a... A. badly.. 14. Answers will vary. 19...adverb really.....radio Monica¶s. .....adjective slowly... Answers may vary.. red.. Simple future 3. Answers may vary. unpainted.. new.... dirty. new.song the.. flashy.....children the...adverb well. Answers may vary... will complete 2.. feel simple present had felt.past perfect 22..barn Our.. cold.. great. Answers may vary.sneakers Monford¶s..... lived Simple past have lived.present perfect 16.water their. large. will have completed 13....... dusty.... Answers may vary.. abandonned......

... and.... The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport.. I bought some of those apples from Jim and him...24.. He had gone there several times before...co-ordinate conjunction either/or. Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course. Page 134 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 135 1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns .relative pronoun who...co-ordinate conjunction...co-ordinate conjunction yet.....relative pronoun but.conjunctive adverb that.. The driver could have finished this if he had had the time.......subordinate conjunction and.correlative conjunction while.....co-ordinate conjunction therefore..... Page 133 59 25. The lawyer will do the work himself..

passengers. motels 6. lives. you. lobster 5. cold 9. iceberg 7. us. life. car. boats. boats 4. those 7. hill. you 4. 1. muffins. She. catch 10. 8. mussels. Florida. snow. Who 8. lobster 7. scallops. Answers will vary. area. these 9.1. roads. All. sea 6. water B. few 2. ship. Northumberland Strait 2. they 3. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. Confederation Bridge. None. Shediac. markets. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. blueberries 3. drivers. something. wives 8. daughter. weather. Many. Titantic. weather 10. Everybody. husbands. villages. truck 5. cat. harbours. couples. herself. fishermen. Saint John. storms. What. computer. dog. friend 4. collision. night shipment. Japan 9. canneries seafood. South Pole. she 6. traps. hours. themselves 5. porch 2. that . clams. birds. They. Robert. fishermen. clouds 3. top. penguins. Stones. people. them. ocean.

Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. We 7. Was enjoying . his 6. no one 2. some 9. Many B. Walks 7. Rides 8.10. He. This. any. we 10. Page 136 2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. her. Flew 4. Ate 3. them. Thought 9. Cost 5. Them. you. Answers will vary. 1. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. it 8. Threw 2. She. They. Who. us. Perched 3. were jogging 2. that 5. it 4. Mine. Looked 10. Sat. Dreamed 6. Me. him. her 3. What.

Six. Became 6. have finished 8. dark. long. Brought 8. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. delicious 3. The. Had been broken 3. 5. hot dry Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. brown. Paper. light 7. The. Was returning 9. faded 6. hockey. Hope. quiet. Are calling 10. Early 2. Will send 9. the. red 10. A. that. Soon 3. summer. Carefully . juicy. annual 9. Little. These. the steel 8. old.4. white 4. beautiful. The. train. six flower the. Arrived 7. torn. Will guess 7. dusty 2. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. the. Are reading. Decided 5. Learned 2. A. Could stay 5. the. The. Was bringing 4. few. Has been driving 6. new. Agreed 10.

accurately 5. you are really thinking. Behind the desk. Truly 9. Politely. Yesterday. on trains . under the stairs 4. Relatively 2. Finally. in the guest room 2. 5. correctly 9. Generally. lately 8. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. Today. at the beach. quite 6. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. effectively 7. Here. Not .4. on the table. Never 7. On airplanes. towards home 3. Quickly. at noon. If you identified them as adverbs. Very. there 5. where. Surprisingly. why. Through the park. Page 137 3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. Really. Not. Of her dress. beside those. tomorrow 6. really Note: for class. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. Daily 3. On the bed. Brightly 10. very 4. very. late 8. quickly 10.

in the mall Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared . In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. On the road.6. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John¶s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. With the long scarf. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt. On the porch 7. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie¶s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8. Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2. into a syrup 9. to Stanley 10. From maple trees. With tickets 8. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7.

Before ideas 8. And prepositional phrases 4. And words (2 nouns) 3.Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most Page 138 4 10. And words (2 nouns) 2. Ouch 4. And adverbs But ideas 5. Yuck Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. So ideas 6. Oh no 3. Wow 2. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. And adjectives When . After ideas 7. No 5.

Because yet 3. Until 7.. Carol noun 2. Although and 2. When 9. And 10. Our pronoun/adjective and conjunction friends noun I pronoun in preposition .and 6.ideas 9.. Who but 5. That both. If so 8. Because Exercise 15: Review 1. Because ideas 10. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1. Or which 4.

The adjective (article) 4. Their pronoun/adjective tall adjective house noun majestic .Page 139 5 travelled verb Calgary noun to preposition were verb Alberta noun surprised adjective last adjective when conjunction year noun we pronoun arrived verb 3.

adjective was verb Rocky Mountains noun built verb majestic adjective in preposition are verb 1990 noun a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun 5. We pronoun you pronoun jogged verb should verb quickly . No interjection 6.

She pronoun of preposition was verb the adjective (article) . Most pronoun 8.adverb not adverb through preposition take verb the adjective (article) your pronoun/adjective dark adjective camera noun woods noun on preposition your pronoun/adjective trip noun 7.

We pronoun 10. The adjective (article) bought verb wind noun a adjective (article) was verb very .giving verb students noun a adjective (article) listened verb short adjective politely adverb but conjunction interesting adjective lecture noun Page 140 6 9.

This adjective 12.adverb cold adjective small adjective but conjunction quantity noun the adjective (article) of preposition sun noun food noun was verb yesterday adverb really adverb warm adjective 11. Sheila noun book noun and conjunction cost verb he .

Turn verb American adjective at preposition fishermen noun the adjective (article) caught verb lights noun two adjective and . The adjective 14.pronoun six adjective were verb dollars noun talking verb to preposition her pronoun when conjunction it pronoun happened verb 13.

. Eric noun and conjunction they pronoun learned verb very adverb quickly adverb Page 141 7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1.conjunction salmon noun go verb for preposition two adjective lunch noun blocks noun west adverb 15.

Alberta 5. Regina 3. school. leaves. city Bathurst. newspaper. cow. maple*. grammar English 7. street Beresford 9. computer.moonlight. parcel. France. sale. rules. family. stores. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. Bay of Chaleur 4. settlers Gaspé. weekend Italy 6. arena. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary. people. syrup. sister. areas North America 8. hockey*. language. mill Robin. England 10. Marsha. exceptions. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. bubbles . path Black Lake 2. carnival. stars.

Charles¶ company owed him two days¶ pay. etc. 1. several. dog¶s 3. etc. skiing. months¶ 4. happiness. . (Many. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. Owen has (many.) deer were shot this season. truth. a few. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. Ann receives (too much. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary.Abstract nouns: justice. 3. 2. boy¶s B. several. a large amount of. (one son) 4. men¶s 5. etc. Mary¶s 2.) assignments to do this week. grace. a lot of. the children¶s book Elvis¶s biggest fans the secretaries¶ meeting the bosses¶ memos my oldest son¶s car the men¶s department Page 142 8 the buses¶ schedule the cats¶ paws the coyote¶s barking two weeks¶ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. many pieces of. Sue¶s. a large number of. Bob¶s uncle lives near Sharon¶s farm. 3. 4.) junk mail. Martha¶s sister was worried about her son¶s health.

Mark¶s mother lives at my sister¶s. The girl¶s hair had been cut short for the twins¶ wedding.Mrs. 4. either would be correct. Finish your client¶s reports before you go to Smith¶s tonight. 10. My uncles¶ farmhouse was struck by during last summer¶s storm. but the company¶s salesman went to my cousin¶s (cousins¶)* place. The sun¶s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. The women¶s resumés were sent to the companies¶ head offices by the bosses¶ secretary. City Council¶s regular meetings are held on Mondays. (two sons) 5. his wife¶s income was reduced. 7. The skateboarders¶ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. Smith was worried about their sons¶ health. 7. (two uncles) 2. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. Have you seen Mel Gibson¶s last three movies? 5. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. 6. The students¶ cafeteria will be closed after next week¶s graduation. The child¶s name is Nora. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. Childs¶ car was being serviced at Eaton¶s. 9. Because of the accident. Frank and James¶ mail order business is making them a rich man¶s fortune. (one client) 9. * Depending on the meaning. 6. Mr. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winter¶s last lament´. 10. 8. and the family¶s name is Boudreau. 3. .

This is Doris's store. 4. . prepositions 7. The proper nouns in the sentence are B. Page 143 9 2. Chatham. verbs 4. That is my neighbour's new car. adjectives 5.A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive. B. pronouns 3. interjections 3. C. adverbs 6. conjunctions 8. nouns 2. The eight parts of speech are: 1. Ferry Road. A. Centennial Bridge. Laura is Pam's oldest sister.

A. Entertainment. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. Little River. John River. Fredericton. A noun is a word which names a person. Halifax.Pepsi.Canadian Living. river St. Chatelaine. Saint John. Answers will vary. city Moncton. The nouns in the sentence are C. Edmundston. town. Easter. Boxing Day. New Brunswick Day. Thanksgiving. D. magazine . Bathurst.I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. Labour Day. holiday Christmas. 7-Up. Consumer Reports. Orange Crush. Those are the children's toys. 6. friends. Canada Day E. Sports Page 144 10 Illustrated. or quality. 7. 5. Campbellton. Halifax. place. thing. Sprite B. Miramichi River. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. soda pop . New River D. Salmon River. Coca-Cola. Ottawa C. Nova Scotia. . Inside Sports. Discover. Parents 8. Truro. Check your answer with your instructor. E.

count**. The petals of the flower fell to the floor.common. concrete. abstract*. Parker doctor 9. 10. (Example: New Brunswick . plural mob . concrete.province) A. abstract.common. Canada country C. Dr. Patrick's Day. I had a great time last St. count. possessive . Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? E. There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. Saint John city D. singular mice .Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. concrete.common.proper. C. singular. singular beauty . singular Canada¶s .common. B. count. no corrections D. Jupiter planet E. January month B. count. A. non-count. church . collective.

abstract. collective.common. singular. French/English Canada. count. count. collective. singular March .news . collective. concrete.common.common. count. abstract. singular men¶s . non-count. Upper /Lower Canada. count**. non-count. count. concrete. possessive loyalty . singular jury . concrete. singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one. count. concrete.g.common.proper. plural. count. count. concrete. non-count. concrete. possessive Lions¶ Club . singular armies . but mine is on the desk.common.common. abstract. singular. singular gold .common. I saw them eating their lunch myself 3.common.proper. singular boy¶s . concrete. abstract*. count. count.common.common. He may have taken her coat. count. ³Lions¶ possessive broccoli . concrete.common. plural. singular fragrance . singular English horn . count. . abstract*.common.common. possessive company . abstract.common. singular boys¶ . Did you give him his book? 2. e. Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1. plural food . count. abstract. singular surprise . collective. etc. singular Page 145 11 sunrise . concrete. count. abstract*.common. concrete. count.common. singular/plural grammar . abstract. count. singular trouble .common.

First person singular A. myself B.Person. her. First person plural C. ourselves 2. You. us. yours.2 person singular nd 2. Cheryl gave her cold to them. I .2 person singular/plural her . her husband and their children visited your mother. We. your. Second person singular F. 1. 5.3 person plural it .3 person singular theirs . my. They . hers. I.3 person singular feminine . 1. their. My sister.3 person plural my . themselves 5. me. our. herself 3. yourselves 4. you .3 person plural rd rd rd they .1 person singular st rd st your . Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . She.4. Third person plural B. them. Gender A.3 person singular rd rd 3. They. theirs. Number.3 person plural its . Third person singular D.1 person singular they . ours. mine.

The following is an . it¶s 10. he 2. his.2 person singular/plural nd nd 4. he 3.2 person singular/plural yours . her 4. me 6. they.1 person plural our -1st person plural rd st Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary.nd rd you . Your. Have your instructor check your answer. Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection Page 146 12 1. her 11. I 7. Its. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. their 9. You 5. they 8. They . he. those. me 12.3 person plural we . you¶re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary.

Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre..example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. To find the right choice.. Al met John and her at the movies.. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. We sent her some flowers. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. 7. Her gave. 4. The word yous does not exist. 5. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. 2. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. His car is just like a new one. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. it had not been driven very far when he bought it. Al met she at the movies. 6. Your other choice is her. Read the sentence without John . Now it¶s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. so try Al met her at the movies. 3. . I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. Mary drove I to the mall. That doesn¶t sound right.. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. Her is the right choice. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1. Although his car is not a new one.

two people should be preparing themselves. 10.Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. He is the man outside. They kept the secret from I. Jane's best friend was I.) 8. Page 148 14 9. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one.) 11. Use the same strategy as in sentence 11. The second choice makes more sense. Me was Jane's best friend. The pronoun yourself is singular. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret. The man standing outside is he. Therefore. They kept the secret from Jack and me. (This is tricky and may not sound right. Him is the man outside. Now the other pronoun choice. In this sentence. I was . and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? Page 147 13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better.but try switching the sentence around. the second sentence sounds better. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again.

It.. Decide which sentence sounds the best..family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8..... B.family (used as a single unit) 6. Only one person received a trophy... Their. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1. 1. Mine 5.... Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe... It¶s means ³it is´.we 9....students..president 2. The obvious choice is the pronoun I. Ourselves.... His. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A. those.... Your 4.... Her 3.... Your instructor will check your answer.Jane's best friend.. Their. 12....one (Girls is not the antecedent.... Their...jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5. themselves.....managers 3.... Her.books 4.. Them..... .. Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech.) 7.. They 2.. The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun....

. Norm and Al filled Jim¶s basket with apples from Fredericton.donations 10. ³You deserved this ticket..) Philip gave her Donna¶s present. The audience clapped for the actors¶ performance. His or her. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2... . As well..These. Norm and Al filled Al¶s (or Norm¶s) basket with apples from Fredericton. Philip gave her a present.student (3rd person singular. 2. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear.´ 5.. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. and you should pay it. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. The police officer told the driver. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1.. the gender is not clear) Page 149 15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary.) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn.. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale.. 3.. 4. 3. (Philip bought the present.. (Donna bought the present.

No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow. Emphatic.no one else washed it 4. 8. A few of us have received our marks...an action he did to himself 2. Answers will vary. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence. 6.Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding. That B. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket. That 3. Such 4. Yourself . Several of the men have paid their dues... 5. Many hens have escaped from their pen. 4.. A few forgot their lunches. 1. Each other reciprocal 3. 7.. Yourself emphatic. Exercise 38: Reflexive. One another reciprocal 5.. 10. Himself reflexive. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A.. This 2.. These. 9. those 5.

Who 2. Herself reflexive 9. ---8. Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is. ---Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. What 10. Ourselves reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1. Himself. ----4. (To) whom 6. Themselves emphatic 8. herself reflexive 10. Which 9. What 3. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal .reflexive 6. Which 7. ---5. Myself emphatic Page 150 16 7.

... you. 1 person singular....personal pronoun.. She... neuter (no gender).....personal pronoun. 1.... 3 person plural. replaces the rd noun accident me.. 2 person..demonstrative pronoun 4.. singular that..personal pronoun.interrogative pronoun anyone.... refers to person(s) nd who are present that.personal pronoun.... themselves.R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B. feminine .....indefinite pronoun... What... 3 person singular...personal pronoun. singular it. refers to the noun rd children it.emphatic pronoun.. refers to person who is speaking st 2.. singular.demonstrative pronoun.. 3 person singular rd 3. singular or plural.... 3 person.

.demonstrative pronoun..personal pronoun.... masculine rd Page 151 17 his. That. 3 person.rd herself. singular..... singular.. singular that. feminine rd 5. rd modifies the noun boss that. modifies the noun bill them.indefinite pronoun you.personal pronoun.... He. 3 person.....relative pronoun. used as a conjunction to join two ideas you.personal pronoun......personal pronoun... used as a conjunction to join two ideas those.personal pronoun.. their.. masculine and/or feminine rd . 3 person...relative pronoun.... plural.relative pronoun... rd shows possession.... 3 person.personal pronoun...... 2 person. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which. shows possession.personal pronoun. 3 person.... singular.reflexive pronoun. singular or plural nd 6....... 2 person.. feminine rd any.. masculine...demonstrative pronoun. 3 person.. singular or plural nd 7.... plural.. masculine and/or feminine. singular...indefinite pronoun her....... plural. used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone...

they.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, masculine and/or feminine, refers rd to a plural noun mentioned previously it......personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, no gender, refers to a singular rd noun mentioned previously. 8. My.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession, modifies the st noun attempt, refers to the person speaking I.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, refers to the person speaking st I.....(as above) it.....personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, neuter, refers to a ³whole´ idea rd (the first attempt was a failure) 9. Which.....interrogative pronoun both......indefinite pronoun, plural, refers to the noun choices them.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to pronoun both which rd refers to the noun choices 10. itself......emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1. all.....indefinite pronoun my.....personal pronoun 2. who.....interrogative pronoun 3. they.....personal pronoun themselves......reflexive pronoun

4. You.....personal pronoun Page 152 18 that.....demonstrative pronoun them.....personal pronoun you......personal pronoun 5. who......relative pronoun each other......reciprocal pronoun 6. your......personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he......personal pronoun mine......personal pronoun, possessive 7. We......personal pronoun you.....personal pronoun who.....relative pronoun that......demonstrative pronoun 8. We.....personal pronoun ourselves......emphatic pronoun 9. yourselves......reflexive pronoun what.....interrogative pronoun I.......personal pronoun those.......demonstrative pronoun 10. Something.......indefinite pronoun Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1. 1 person plural C. st

interrogative pronoun F. or I. reciprocal pronoun B relative pronoun F. or I. indefinite pronoun (plural) K. demonstrative pronoun A. indefinite pronoun (singular) E. possessive pronoun J. reflexive pronoun H. a word that doesn¶t exist G 2. Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive. Page 153 19 3. a. she b. himself c. me d. which e. its f. your g. their h. those i. him

j. themselves 4. Answers will vary. 5. A. is incorrect 6. D. is correct 7. B. correctly completes the sentence. 8. A. Few.....indefinite pronoun, plural B. Those.....demonstrative pronoun, plural mine.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession st C. which.....relative pronoun themselves.....reflexive pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to companies rd D. Who.....interrogative pronoun anything......indefinite pronoun, singular this......demonstrative pronoun, singular E. yourself......reflexive pronoun, singular something......indefinite pronoun Exercise 43: Action Verbs A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. jumped.....action 2.

hit.....action 3. smashed.....action 4. watched.....action 5. were.....linking 6. is.....linking 7. was.....linking 8. will be.....linking 9. were.....linking 10. feared.....action Page 154 20 11. squeaked.....action 12. were.....linking 13. drove.....action 14. believed.....action 15. tasted.....action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. smells.....linking 2. looks.....linking 3. looked.....action 4. became......linking 5.

. Close.. played ---------4..action 12..... drive will 2.. He must have taken my jacket by mistake.action 8..action 7. That would have confused anyone! confused would have 5.. broke. slammed... taken must have 3....linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary.. felt..... drove... Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1.action 11.action 9. felt...action 13. fell. We played ball against their team Saturday..... Heather will rarely drive the car in winter.action 15. tastes.action 6.. sings.. publishes.... howl....... Would you please flip the hamburgers? ..action 14.coughed. dances... know.linking 10.....

learn can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses . Sue may never have been given that letter. Mitchell has lived here all his life. not after the last trip. Have you ever heard such nonsense. agree shall 15. lived has 8. broken has 11. heard have 12. He might have consulted a doctor. I shall never agree to his proposal. eaten should have Page 155 21 10. going will be 9. consulted might have 13. The men should have eaten that by now. There was a good show on TV last night. The washing machine has broken down. was ------7. A child can easily learn this song. I will not be going.flip would 6. given may have been 14.

.. 3. 7. kicks..future progressive I. has kicked. has been kicking.. had kicked. A. will kick. B. 6... A. B. 5. will be leaving. Answers may vary..past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1....... Answers may vary..... will have kicked.. 2..... 9. Answers may vary... They will have washed the laundry by then... He has talked to the Lions¶ Club before.... had been learning.future perfect G. C.....A...simple future D.simple present B.past perfect H. 4..past progressive J.... D.present perfect progressive E... Vanessa was signing her lease. ..present progressive C.... 8.. is kicking. was giving...present perfect F.

Present perfect D. It had been snowing for three days. A.10. Passive . Present progressive B. Future progressive F. Answers may vary. Simple past C. Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs Page 156 22 1-3. The couple will be needing even more room soon. 11. Answers may vary. Past perfect G. Active 3. Future perfect E. Answers may vary. Active 4. We have been thinking about you lately. 12. Passive 2. 4. Passive 5. Simple past Page 157 23 Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1.

Passive 11. Passive 15. Passive 10. Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Will show 3. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word¶s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Active 13. Active 14. Have eaten 3 person plural 2 person (singular or plural) rd nd simple future present perfect active voice active voice . Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2.6. Passive 8. Active 7. Active 12. Passive 9.

Has been asking 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd past perfect present perfect progressive passive voice active voice Page 158 24 The committee had asked Page 159 25 6. Will be served 7. Had been asked 5. Shall be seeing .4. Spoke 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd simple future simple past passive voice active voice ³The waiter´ will serve 8.

Walks 3 person plural 3 person singular rd rd simple present simple present active voice active voice 12. Am doing 13. st rd future progressive simple past active voice passive voice The dog bit the boy 9 b) Was destroyed 10 a) Are 3 person singular (neuter) 3 person plural (m or f) rd rd simple past simple present passive voice active voice ³The vet´ destroyed 10 b) Are 11. Was bitten 1 person singular 3 person singular. Will have been playing 1 person singular 3 person singular .9 a).

Pronouns. bike. ice. Gander. planes. Had been repainted 3 person singular 3 person plural. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. is . office my. wings its landed 2. her rides 3.st rd present progressive future perfect progressive active voice active voice 14. Is dating 15. neuter rd rd present progressive past perfect active voice passive voice ³The painter´ had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. Tom everything. them says. sister. that.

sister. Kevin.. 3 person. airport they.. each other might find 9. herself was teaching 7. ---you were thinking 10. parts us buys 6. problems something. company. those were 5.Page 160 26 4.... proper. they is finished. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns.. active voice . men both. each should be done 8. simple past. results everyone. Pronouns. Spanish my. singular.verb.. and Verbs 1. singular gave. concrete.noun..

. possessive rd decision. concrete. singular. singular 4. concrete...noun.. common.. plural will sell. common. present progressive... possessive rd recipes. concrete.verb. active voice rd its.....verb. 3 person... concrete. indefinite. singular 3... personal. singular. 1 person...noun..... common...rd me. 3 person. singular are being asked. personal. 3 person... ..noun. personal. common. plural these.noun. passive voice rd their. and Verbs 1. personal...noun..noun. st mother¶s.. 3 person....pronoun.. plural. all. proper. plural. 1 person singular st Marion¶s. common.noun............. singular card.. simple future. proper. possessive. concrete.. present progressive. singular.pronoun.verb. collective is discussing. 3 person..pronoun. jury. concrete. possessive. concrete. active voice rd Exercise 59:Nouns. Aunt Gladys. singular. 3 person. Pronouns.. simple present......... active voice rd my. singular 2.verb. common... concrete lives..noun.. plural..pronoun.. singular...pronoun........... plural 5.pronoun.... demonstrative... chefs. possessive.

... Your... 1 person singular... action 3 person. 3 person.pronoun.... 1 person singular st am. common. singular 4..verb. past progressive.. personal.. concrete. concrete.. singular 2. personal.. common. singular. proper.I. possessive nd choices.verb..verb....... simple present rd 3.. 3 person singular rd was going.... present progressive. Luke. personal..pronoun.. concrete.. singular/plural nd have written. common.noun.. personal... active voice rd 5. plural.. linking. plural Page 161 27 seem.verb.. concrete.. linking.. singular is talking... active voice rd his. singular. common.noun.verb. singular.noun. possessive rd girlfriend. active voice . masculine.... He.pronoun... singular phone. present perfect..... simple present st decision.noun. 2 person.pronoun... 2 person....pronoun.. You.. action..... 3 person. 2 person.. 3 person.. singular or plural..... singular/plural.. personal...noun.

common. personal.. Oprah...noun. concrete...noun. active voice rd course... concrete. common...pronoun...noun. concrete. simple future. 1 person... plural.... singular you.. concrete.... common. 1 person. singular accident.. masculine rd had watched. concrete.. plural... 2 person. singular 6.noun..noun. singular... Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns .pronoun... proper. active voice nd 7. singular hour. personal... Tony.. present perfect.noun. concrete. abstract..... past progressive.verb... money. concrete...... 2 person..noun.. singular 9......... plural honesty. singular. common. 3 person. concrete.noun...... common.. possessive attitudes... past perfect. common. singular/plural... We.... singular/plural nd will need.verb. singular 8.verb. common.. proper will have finished. singular has changed.. personal...pronoun.. He.... singular.noun.. proper 10.nd letter.verb..noun.... singular... active voice st beach. 3 person.. common.. future perfect.. singular June. concrete.noun..noun. common.. common..verb... concrete... singular. active voice rd TV. plural st were walking.noun.. non-count. active voice people¶s.. 3rd person. 3 person.

.. personal...verb. Many. singular 4.pronoun. plural. He...pronoun.... 3 singular rd afternoon. 3 . count.noun..noun... common.... linking verb..1...... 3 person. count. storm..pronoun... indefinite... concrete... 3 . singular...noun.pronoun. singular grew. masculine rd smelled. count.... simple past.. They. personal..... simple past. 3 . common... linking.. 3 .noun. singular. concrete. rd night. 3 ..verb...verb. singular. singular.. non-count.noun.pronoun. active voice rd 3..... action.noun. common. personal..noun. concrete. concrete. proper 5.verb. action. singular. plural rd were... common.. simple past. common. singular approached.... simple past. singular.. 3 ... common... plural Cuba. personal. masculine.verb...... It..... count. his.. 3 . active voice rd bread. simple past rd reservations. concrete.. singular watered. concrete.... used as an adjective rd Page 162 28 mouth. plural .. active voice rd 2. action.

demonstrative...pronoun. count. present progressive. singular/plural. action. active voice rd ........pronoun. 3 .. count... singular.... action. singular heat. 2 .noun..noun.verb. simple present. active voice rd their. present perfect.. 3 .. singular.... common. common.noun. 3 person... concrete...pronoun.. count..... concrete.. common. concrete....verb. passive rd decorator. 3 person. concrete. What.. 3 . plural.noun... concrete.. concrete.. action.. common.pronoun.. active voice nd survey. interrogative has seen. passive voice rd these. 3 person. non-count..noun... common.. possessive rd relatives. Her. proper. possessive rd lunch... simple past.. 8... singular.. plural are being changed. action.verb. plural. Liz.verb.noun. demonstrative. common.noun. common... 3 .... personal. active voice rd Sackville. plural were eating. plural. plural.. singular porch. plural were made..verb.. Those..verb.. past progressive. action... past perfect...colours. concrete....... feminine drove. 3 ... concrete..verb..noun. concrete. proper. singular 10. singular 7..... simple future. singular/plural. plural come...pronoun. singular 6.. active voice rd 9.. plural.... personal...noun.. Will complete..

proper. concrete Page 163 29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1.. depressing day 6...pronoun.. those. 3 . reflexive. six . old. light* bulb 5. an. rough. feminine rd Central Hospital. uneven road 2. singular.. boring. sweet icing the. rusty car my space 3. the child the. a.. ragged string dusty. big spoon 4.herself.. sugary. The.noun.. a.

juicy apples 13. Tim¶s* house 10. blue eyes 11. light. they can be identified as adjectives. little girl big.people 7. The. lovable cats the. two. some. sparkling. our cousins huge. this trip several days 8. dull skates 15. these parcels 12. Shelley. Mexican food 9. Karl¶s*. Exercise 62: Adjectives . spicy. summer* clothes 14. sweet. hockey*. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun.

The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. they saw a beam of light. With relief. lit a huge crackling fire. and one older Page 164 30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. piercing the inky darkness. After two long hours. They set up their canvas tents. The weather was warm. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. Jensen¶s chicken farm. A few boys knew that they were lost. and ate their supper.The young hikers walked through the dark woods. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. bright and narrow. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. and the hills were gentle. .

.. where.. quite.....negative very... Adjectives...yesterday...how more. and Adverbs 1.. thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3.... never.. Why.when 8.how exciting 9.........how too.how efficiently 6........when carefully.....how good 10... not.... almost..when extremely. .. really.how casually 3.when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs... politely modifies the verb asked 2...when never..interrogative adverb very...where later.......how 2...how quickly 5..... daily modifies the verb review 4.......when 4.how useful efficiently........how important 7..... there.interrogative adverb now.... casually..

leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1. Well. an adverb. simply is an adverb. Sad is an adjective. 2. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8. so well. is the best choice. really modifies the adjective tired 10. Simple. very modifies the adjective happy 6. fast modifies the verb travel. . Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. 4. The sentence describes how she behaves. Sad. Really is an adverb. Really. An adverb is needed to Page 165 31 modify the verb behaves. sadly is an adverb. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7. Good is an adjective. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. An adverb is required to modify the adjective. very modifies the adverb fast 9. 5. Simple is an adjective.tightly modifies the verb packed 5. real is an adjective. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. 3.

9. 15. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. serious is an adjective. Awful is an adjective. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. 8. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. Seriously is an adverb. Comparing two people 2. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. 11. Slowly. Smaller. Quickly. Calm. Use the adjective good to complete it. An adverb modifies a verb.Well. Seriously. gradually is an adverb. Gradual is an adjective. Gradual. bad is an adjective. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. calmly is an adverb. Quickly is an adverb. Good. Taste is a linking verb. 6. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. Badly is an adverb. 7. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. Well. 12. 13. 14. An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. quick is an adjective. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone¶s health. More rapidly . Awful. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver¶s test. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. Badly. awfully is an adverb. Brightly. Although well is usually an adverb. Calm is an adjective. 10.

Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. B. at. Unique. of 3. Among. in. in. of. Page 166 32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. in 4. under 5. down. in. beside. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. Eldest. Worse (comparing two things) 5. for. with 6. near. by (on top of) 9. at 8.3. More. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. of (at the end of) 2. with. on. 1. for . Answers will vary. to. Comparing more than two 7. around 7. For. along.

... With the sore ear..when of the day.. in 1960.. in this store 4.why along the beach.. for the best costume... by my son (on top of the hill) 9. at noon 8.....modifies the noun end 2.. for pictures. to the door. at the end.adverb. under my son¶s bed 5. of her mother and father 3..adjective. of the hill... of the day (at the end of the day) 2. for the conference 10. For shells and pebbles.. with Page 167 33 C. for. among the rubble..adverb.. with the funny hat D. near the trees... to the clown. for shells and pebbles. in the world. in your group. 1..where at the end. around the corner 7.....10. 1. down the hill. along the beach.. on top.. to.adverb. beside the store.. with the hornets¶ nest 6.... ..

......can be considered as one prepositional phrase.... in your group..adverb. with the sore ear.adjective.....modifies the noun theme 10.....adverb... in the world... in 1960........adjective. near the trees.adverb.........how Page 168 34 9...adverb....modifies the noun houses of the hill.adjective.modifies the noun trees 6.... beside the store.........modifies the noun pictures 3.adjective.......where for pictures......where at noon.adjective...... in this store.why of her mother and father..modifies the noun prize to the clown...........adverb......adjective.. for the best costume.adjective......modifies the noun houses on top...adverb.adverb....adverb...where 4......where 5...where....when by my son.... down the hill....modifies the noun socks under my son¶s bed.....where with the hornets¶ nest..among the rubble.....adjective..where around the corner.....adverb.where 7.....adjective.........modifies the noun top on top of the hill......adjective...adverb...........when 8....adverb..........modifies the noun women for the conference....................adverb.... Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition.. how ...modifies the noun cat to the door...........

where 3........adverb........adverb............adverb..........adjective...modifying the noun north 4..modifying the noun men for two hours..........adverb..adjective...... where 2.modifying the noun lady into the line...... with big hat..adverb.....modifying the noun women under the tables..adverb....adjective.. In the middle.adverb......adverb.where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store........adjective...............modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn...adverb....how long in the heat....where 5.with the funny hat.........adjective...where to the north.....when of the water....... on the roof.where 7.....adverb.adverb.where 6.... during the night....modifying the pronoun all at the radio station...adverb.. in the kitchen..adjective....adverb..where of a big spacious lawn.where of the city limits..where in front.adverb.....modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1..when of the staff..where of me.........................modifying the noun front in front of me.........adjective..............adverb...adverb..........adjective.how...modifying the noun rest from the basement.where in the closets.....modifying the noun station at the old mill... near the mall.... On Fridays............adjective...adjective.where 8..... ..

.........adjective.. or 4...... but 13.. After his graduation. and 5.modifying the noun ad in Manitoba. or.... and 12. nor 9. nor 7..modifying the noun graduation for a job.......when Page 169 35 in 1992.... either... neither. yet 14...adverb.modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1.....adjective..adverb.......... but also 3....adjective. not only.modifying the noun children at the church.why from the day care.adjective..where 10. neither. not only.Because of the storm.... and..... meanwhile 11..modifying the noun day care around the block.. so . however 8..adverb. but also 10. and 6...adjective... but 2...... both....

15. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. because 2. since 3. even though 4. after 5. where 6. since 7. why 8. than 9. whether 10. how 11. before 12. if 13. although 14. because 15. while 16. because 17. although 18. how 19. if 20. why 21. as if 22. unless 23. than 24. after 25. before B.

1. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 2. (Since I first met Sheila and her), she has always been very polite. 3. I won¶t be able to go (even though I have the money). 4. After the whale beach itself, local citizens rescued it. 5. I know (where they have hidden the treasure), but I don¶t have a map. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. 6. (After the maple trees were damaged), they were cut down. 7. I wonder (why they are leaving so early). 8. Mark knows more (than I do about that case). 9. It isn¶t certain (whether they will come or not). 10. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). Page 170 36 11. (Before they read the book), they fixed it themselves 12. After the lecture, the students asked (if they could stay). Compare the use of after. In sentence 12, after is a preposition. Why? 13. (Although he is stronger), he couldn¶t turn it. 14. (Because you were late), you missed it 15. Thieves broke in (while we were away). 16. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). Compare this with, The roads were slippery because of the snow. 17. (Although it was quite sunny), the wind was cool.

18. I don¶t know (how I will get there). 19. (If you are short), you can¶t reach that cupboard. 20. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 21. He always talks (as if he were an expert). 22. (Unless the Leafs win this game), they are out of the playoffs. 23. Les is five inches taller (than I am). 24. (After he won the gold medal), he turned pro. 25. You just answered my questions (before I asked them). Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. that 2. that 3. who 4. which 5. who 6. whom 7. who 8. that 9. that 10. that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. Exercise 74: Review A 1. dogs noun 2.

The adjective (article) make verb pioneers noun good adjective settle verb pets noun quickly adverb for preposition on preposition young adjective the adjective (article) children noun small adjective farms noun around preposition Page 171 37 Gloucester noun 3. your adjective (pronoun) 4. Does verb (auxiliary) ancestors noun

he pronoun lived verb often adverb beside preposition go verb (main) the adjective to preposition sea noun the adjective mine preposition beach noun lived verb during preposition near preposition the adjective Moncton noun summer noun 5.

I pronoun big adjective do verb (aux) chunky adjective not adverb pots noun think verb (main) sell verb their adjective/pronoun for preposition problems noun nine adjective now adverb dollars noun because conjunction so conjunction I pronoun .Those adjective/pronoun 6.

Casually adverb 8. Everyone pronoun the adjective recognized verb thieves noun his adjective/pronoun surveyed verb courage .you pronoun do verb (aux) can verb (aux) not adverb buy verb (main) have verb (main) several pronoun time noun of preposition them pronoun 7.

noun the adjective and conjunction neighbourhood noun strength noun until conjunction even if conjunction they pronoun he pronoun Page 172 38 spotted verb did verb (aux) the adjective not adverb right adjective house noun 9. Lilacs noun .

Mark noun always adverb smelled verb smell verb the adjective wonderful adjective skunk noun in preposition and conjunction spring noun left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb 11. She pronoun students noun believes verb in .10. The adjective 12.

He pronoun frail adjective has verb (aux) old adjective always adverb lady noun been verb (main) . The adjective 14.preposition in preposition this adjective/pronoun his adjective/pronoun program noun ability noun are verb very adverb hard adjective workers noun 13.

You pronoun must verb (aux) never adverb .is verb a adjective safe adjective really adverb but conjunction excellent adjective unhappy adjective hockey adjective/noun at preposition coach noun the adjective seniors¶ adjective/noun home noun Page 173 39 15.

Fred noun 2.show verb (main) your adjective/pronoun fear noun of preposition snakes noun to preposition your adjective/pronoun children noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. Usually adverb sat verb the adjective on preposition chairs noun the adjective were verb (aux) .

fence noun placed verb (main) and conjunction near preposition ate verb the adjective his adjective/pronoun windows noun lunch noun but conjunction while conjunction today adverb the adjective they pronoun others noun are verb went verb in .

Very adverb had verb (aux) quickly adverb been verb (aux) they pronoun studying verb (main) finished verb for preposition their adjective/pronoun three adjective work noun hours . I pronoun 4.preposition into preposition a adjective town noun circle noun 3.

After conjunction had verb they pronoun been verb had verb writing verb mowed .noun and conjunction Page 174 40 I pronoun still adverb do verb (aux) not adverb know verb (main) it pronoun 5. They pronoun 6.

verb their adjective/pronoun the adjective essays noun lawn noun before conjunction they pronoun they pronoun bought verb went verb lunch noun there adverb 7. Because conjunction 8. Although conjunction they pronoun the adjective have verb storm .

Because of preposition the adjective her .noun cashed verb was verb their pronoun very adverb cheques noun intense adjective they pronoun the adjective have verb damage adjective some adjective was verb money noun minor adjective 9. Since preposition 10.

Have verb 12.adjective/pronoun accident noun problems noun the adjective Sue noun victims noun often adverb have verb seeks verbs recovered verb my adjective/pronoun Page 175 41 quite adverb advice noun well adverb 11. The adjective you pronoun .

elderly adjective ever adverb waiter noun seen verb who conjunction those adjective served verb boats noun us pronoun in preposition beer noun the adjective is verb harbour noun an adjective before adverb old adjective of .

Who pronoun 14. Where adverb thinks verb did verb that conjunction you pronoun these adjective hide verb train adjective/noun the adjective tickets noun candy noun are verb which conjunction ours pronoun I pronoun .preposition hers pronoun 13.

and conjunction bought verb those pronoun are verb theirs pronoun 15. Ouch interjection 16. Miles¶ noun/adjective that adjective brother noun knife noun is verb is verb extremely adverb so adverb intelligent adjective sharp adjective even if conjunction that conjunction he .

Hey interjection 18.pronoun Page 176 42 I pronoun can verb cut verb not adverb myself pronoun pass verb badly adverb those adjective provincial adjective exams noun 17. Finally adverb Eric noun his adjective/pronoun did verb clever .

adjective you pronoun tricks noun complete verb failed verb that adjective work noun on preposition those adjective cars noun during preposition the adjective weekend noun 19. The adjective Canadian adjective economy noun is verb becoming verb worse .

adjective very adverb quickly adverb .

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