Page 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...............1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........

1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........3 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 The root word ³morph´ means form. 1 The etymology of ³syntax´ shows it meanings ³putting together´. 2

GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH

I INTRODUCTION This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. Whenever people read, write, speak, or listen, they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk, they learned the names of things (vocabulary), the different forms of a word (sings, sang, singing, sung, songs), and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted . A. WHAT IS GRAMMAR? Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology ), their arrangement in phrases and 1 sentences (syntax ), and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). 2 Like many dictionary definitions, this makes grammar sound more difficult than it

really is. Look at this picture, and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. Page 10 2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. 1. The man is throwing the ball. 2. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. You might even have written 3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. Whatever you wrote, it probably include the word ball, the action throw, and a word that meant a man. You certainly didn¶t write Ball throwing man the the is. That wouldn¶t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. Here¶s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. First, you saw the picture, and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. Finally, you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. In fact, you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). You see you really do know lots about grammar!

B. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? Although you do write ³good sentences´ most of the time, you may make a few mistakes. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. Usually the first impression someone, including a possible employer, has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use

the language. For example, some people say ³He sure done good!´ or ³He should of went to the dance´ or ³Hunters didn¶t shoot a big amount of deer this year.´ While the meaning is very clear, the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn¶t have much ³schooling´ or else isn¶t very good at expressing him/herself. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. Unless you correct those errors in grammar, you may be unfairly judged, and your true abilities may go unrecognized.

look at these sentences. (describes how he ran. (tells about an action. Because some words can be used in several different ways. everyone can be Placed into at least one of eight groups. For example..... The eight parts of speech are Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the Grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to Correct them.noun) Page 12 4 .C.adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF. (names a thing. The system of classifying word based on their function is known as the parts of speech. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? Although English has hundreds of thousands of words.. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech).verb) Their fast lasted for three days. He ran fast so he wouldn¶t be late.. or classifications.

places and things are called nouns. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH A. but it functions differently in each sentence. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE Cashier Carol Boys PLACES: Province New Brunswick Lake THINGS: ANIMALS: Cat Dalmatian Bug OBJECTS: Fork Television car SUBSTANCES: iron air gold ACTIONS: (a) race (the) dance (the) hits MEASURES: kilogram . NOUNS Words that name people. The following table lists a variety of nouns.The word ³fast´ is spelled the same.

Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. Page 13 Write a sentence about this picture.Centimeter Day QUALITIES: Happiness honesty Beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. Sometimes nouns appear without These little words. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. the. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of The sentence. Can you find 10? Children name people Nouns in this Continent names a thing Picture? Africa names a place lions names a thing. . The naming Word that comes after them is probably a noun. Paul is a noun that names a person. and most sentences contain several Nouns. Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. Use pronouns instead of nouns. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. an.

Ottawa is the capital of Canada. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. For each pronoun printed in bold type. think of a noun it could replace. The candy that we gave them was made last year.The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. What did you buy from them? . PRONOUNS Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. it isn¶t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. For example.´ The words I. and things) that have already been mentioned. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns. you. B. In this sample sentence. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. and this are pronouns. ³I want you to read this again. places. Everybody was glad when it was over. She saw it when they bought it. and Fredericton is the capital of this province. reader. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. (e. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. and sentence) because the writer¶s/speaker¶s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key.g. If you made more than one or two mistakes.

11. Many signed up. but the birds ate everything. C. they are verbs. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. Verbs usually tell about an action. one of the main parts of every sentence. therefore. never. 14. The word walked became will walk. For example. please. 12.Page 14 6 Phrase. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. We planted them. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed.. If you need more practice. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs. 15. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. always.. . 9. 10. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves.a group of words that belong together. Verb phrases may have up to five words. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. 3 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. but few were chosen. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself. Verbs may consist of one word. We will walk to the store tomorrow. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. Who bought those from you? Fill it up. 13.

I have finished the laundry. I have never seen anything like that before. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until . and were used in a sentence between two nouns. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. Paul can do anything. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. was. The dog was chasing its tail. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present.Here are some sentences that show verbs at work. My sister is a nurse. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. are. Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. When you find the words am. She is beautiful and talented. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. The farmer used all the water in his pond. Complete Exercises 5. Page 15 7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. I am a teacher. They were always honest. 6. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The runner flew down the race track. our father was a millwright. is.

you add ³detail´ words in front of the noun like little. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives. you use nouns like girl. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a . as only six of the women are tall. changes. Therefore. ³Give this piece of paper to the woman´. old. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. D. ³the tall. carefree child some tall. puffy clouds a happy. or alters the meaning of another word. Page 16 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. Your boss tell you. house. an adjective limits. or tree. the white. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said ³the tall woman´. blond woman with the red dress´. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here¶s another way of thinking of adjectives. changes. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. blue. ADJECTIVES To talk or write about a person place or thing.you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. A modifier is a word that limits. rich. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people.

The third sentence adds even more details. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind¶s eye. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. The group of words ³with the red dress´ is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. cool. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. as in many people. I have a small dark blue car. and four children. In other words. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use . that coat.large group. that. several candies. and those. and those houses. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. I have a car. The words this. only that I have one. Such adjectives include this. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader ³see´ your car in his/her mind¶s eye. Other adjectives like shiny. these boots. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. The second adds the adjective blue. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. I have a blue car. Adjectives also tell how many. Page 17 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). these. these. This book belongs to Pete. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns. those pencils are Ted¶s. that. new. as in this car. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. These are demonstrative adjectives.

Page 18 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. those are Ted¶s. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. and an. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. as in many days. others called them adjectives. (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. few hours. these computers. This belongs to Pete. couple of dollars. as in old man. In the second sentence. L an adjective tells which one or ones. the. and cold day. that building. Either is correct. L an adjective tells how many. this restaurant. new clothes. and two cities. as in those books. and Ted bought that Chevy. L an adjective tells what kind.a. The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. bad taste. L articles are also adjectives . this modifies the proper noun Ford. . I have the blue car. I have a blue car. The nouns they ³stand for´ or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence.as adjectives and pronouns. that modifies the proper noun Chevy. an) and definite articles (the).

Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. kitchen. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. Page 19 11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences. and school are usually nouns. Page 20 12 . if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass. however. Used in the following ways. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. or school. Glass. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees. kitchen. A good ³trick´ to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. Underline all the adjectives you used.

Where is he driving? He is driving away. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. ADVERBS You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. What part of speech is the word beautiful. that word is called an adverb. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. or when he is driving. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS He is driving. or alter the words they modify. change. . you can add something in front of the adjective. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset.dE. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. When is he driving? He is driving now. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. If an adverb is added. or to what extent it was beautiful. Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. 2. the noun sunset is described as beautiful. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. where he is driving. Adverbs limit. How is he driving? He is driving quickly. you will find out how he is driving. 1.

extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3. ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. change y to i easily soft softly . we can find out how quickly the dog ate. WORDS ENDING IN ³LY´ Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly.Page 21 13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives. By adding another adverb. ADJECTIVE ADD -LY ADVERB bright brightly easy *first. The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. The dog ate quickly.

can be an adjective to describe a person's health 4 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS Some words can only be used as adverbs. never as adjectives.) usually In the section on verb phrases. and learn to recognize them in sentences.full *first. A list of these words follows. Page 22 14 usually an adverb . change ll to l fully careful carefully quick quickly * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them. well often 4 quite surely very not almost never always so (He was so happy. you learned that some small words can be .

sometimes called connectives. Those words are adverbs. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. fast. but they are not verbs. PREPOSITIONS Preposition are joining words. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. place. (adjective) A student is late.found in the middle of verb phrases. He was always asking questions. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. Page 23 15 F. I have often wondered about the moon. and late. He will never tell another lie. (adverb) Penny is a fast driver. . (adjective) Penny drives fast. (adverb) There is a late student. (adverb) It was an early train. Three examples of such words are early. called prepositional phrases. Eric will not shop on Sundays. The train arrived early. which are used to show a time.

The girl walked to the building. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. The girl walked through the building. The girl walked near the building. Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence. In each sentence above. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. The girl walked into the building. The girl walked behind the building. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb ³walked´ by telling where she walked. The girl walked beside the building.preposition + noun or pronoun = prepositional phrase Time: after + the party = (after the party) Place: under + the table = (under the table) Ownership: of + our town = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building. Adverb phrases can also be . The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked.

Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. in what way.used to tell how. telling where she walked. therefore. when. are called prepositional adverb phrases. these prepositional phrases. Page 24 16 about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on .

Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. The colour of that paint is just right. The books in that bag are yours. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun. Because these phrases function as adjectives.out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible. Here are some common prepositions: Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. . they are called prepositional adjective phrases. Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. In each example above. They rented the house on the corner.

. no! Ouch! Never! Fabulous! Fantastic! Ah! No! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh! Oh. Conjunctions are used to join words. or clauses . or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma. An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. H. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. phrases. like prepositions. It can be an actual word. G. CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions. Conjunctions can be 5 . are also joining words or connectives. Unlike all the other parts of speech.Page 25 17 Clauses are ³mini-sentences stuck into µreal¶ sentences´ and which need special joining 5 words (conjunctions) to attach them. INTERJECTIONS Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection.

Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. And joins two nouns. µ . Page 26 18 Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? Joe and Mike followed the young cub. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet. but does it tell you at what time? No. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. you will need to work through Module 6. but joins two complete ideas. Look at these examples. When lightning struck the old barn.found in any position in a sentence except the very end. Part of the Sentence. the word itself doesn¶t add any new information. I understand parts of speech. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. it burned quickly ùùùùùùù ùù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. For the purpose of this module. but they could not catch it. ùùùùùùùùùùùùù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. Before you can really understand clauses. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. those that are left over are probably conjunctions.

girl. house. µ I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. place or thing in general is called a common noun. When a word names a particular. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS A word which names a person. 1. or thing in a sentence. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? Page 27 19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. µ I am totally lost. A. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. or the only. car. µ I am a little confused about parts of speech. µ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. province.I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. place. and city. dog. Proper nouns are always capitalized. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. . Examples: waiter.

faith Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). swiftness. Examples: team. six committees. 2. they are categorized as abstract nouns. committee. crowd. sky are concrete nouns. friendship. audience. beauty. heard or touched. flock. pride. seen. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. Examples: honesty. speed. Nouns like table. cloud.Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). places and things. car. brain. herd. Page 28 20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). Here are two . panel. tasted. 3. it is called a concrete noun. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). On the other hand. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). height. jury. COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people. house. CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt.

clothing. timber. jewellery. In the second set of examples. Do Exercise 19. The jury are stating their opinions. land. gold. however. Examples: meat. each juror is acting as an individual. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples. In the first sentence. money. In the second case. and are. food. furniture. The team is buying new uniforms. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. therefore called count nouns. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. dollars. chairs. miles. equipment. bracelets. everyone agreed on one decision.examples that illustrate this point. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. The team are buying new uniforms. 4. an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) . steaks. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. The jury is announcing its decision. Mass nouns. and there are many different opinions. are similar to collective nouns. the jury is acting as a single unit.

referring to more than one. Most nouns change their form by adding ³s´ when they are plural. The farmer bought a large number of cows.some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. Spelling. SINGULAR AND PLURAL Nouns may be singular referring to one. or plural. there are exceptions to every rule . so he needed a huge amount of grain. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. POSSESSIVE NOUNS . Module 4. 1. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals. However. B. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun. 2.and exceptions for the exceptions. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. Page 29 21 Libby¶s front teeth Eva¶s big smile Greg¶s tiny nose His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture.

They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (¶). be guided by pronunciation of the .New Brunswick's art If a noun is .the child's toys not end in ³s´ . add an . A possessive noun shows ownership. Page 30 22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions Possessive Form Examples If a noun is add an apostrophe (') .Gloria's career plus s to the noun .Dennis's car the way you say the word possessive.my boss's approval in ³s´.if a new syllable is . belonging.the neighbour's car singular and does .Doris's store singular and ends formed in the .Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. or that something is part of something else.

John Hastings' store would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce.women's wear .children's toys Now examine the following phrases: the boy¶s bicycles the boys¶ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun. add only an apostrophe .oxen's hooves and does not end .if adding an extra ³s´ .librarians' club .Jesus' parables .men's choir in ³s´ .witnesses' story s at the end . add only an .witness's description apostrophe plus ³s´ .the Jones' party ..students' lounge and already has an apostrophe (') . it indicates that one .Phillips' farm .the ladies¶ room If a noun is plural add apostrophe (') s .Mary Parsons' garden If a noun is plural.

The book¶s covers are different colours. It was already plural before the apostrophe was added. How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends¶ house. Examine these phrases. Now examine these phrases: the lady¶s room the ladies¶ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below. it shows that several Page 31 23 people own it. Look at the word with the apostrophe. Babies¶ grandfather is correct The books¶ covers is correct Page 32 24 . If it follows the plural form of the noun. so the house is owned by two or more friends.person owns the item. Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies¶ grandfather the baby¶s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books¶ covers are different colours.

´ 5.Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1. Mary and Susan¶s mother arrived yesterday. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement. Then. 4. create a rule to explain what you found. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time 3. However. The above sentence contains 3 possessives. The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. You should have written something like this: ³When two or more people ³own´ something together. . Here¶s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. For example. Examine the following sentence. Only one is acceptable." 2.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS . Our cat is black and white. It purrs a lot. Our cat purrs a lot. TYPES OF PRONOUNS Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. Our cat¶s name is Spot. It is black and white. Page 34 26 A. and less repetitive. Do Exercises 22. Our cat never scratches. We call our cat Spot. The following paragraph contains no pronouns. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. it sounds more natural and interesting. each one owns a separate thing. and it never scratches. 23. Our cat¶s body is mostly white. What¶s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. It has a long black tail. using pronouns to replace some nouns. Mary¶s and Susan¶s houses are on the same street. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. Page 33 25 It is for you! IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. Our cat¶s name is Spot. Our cat likes to play. my father.If both nouns are possessive. and three sisters love our cat. Spot likes to play. two brothers. My mother. Our cat has a long black tail. Our cat has four black paws. Everyone in our family loves the cat.

our. gender. your name and the names of other people you. you. Person Singular . you. him. yours the name of someone else you are addressing he. it. the words we. her. He. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" they. obviously the ³most important person(s)´ in the message. your. their. them. The pronouns I. he. me. my. substances. male she. The grammar term number means singular or plural. actions.Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. they. theirs. mine your name we. Pronouns are also grouped by person. female it. she. his boy. she. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. woman. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. objects. hers girl. man. ours. them. its. us. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. theirs plants. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. These Personal Pronouns CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: I. their people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. they are plural. person. and case. it are singular forms.

their. ours st 2 person you. regardless of gender. it is considered plural (Class. its Page 35 27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. and inanimate objects which are singular. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. theirs rd she. them. him. me. aviatrix. him. (I want you to close the door. my. then it is considered singular. hers it. are used to replace plural nouns. yours you. his they. . on the other hand. our. actress. your. his show masculine gender. her. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants.) If. The pronouns he. mine we. hers show feminine gender. plural pronouns. his. etc. we. aviator.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. they. you. actor. animals. us. yours nd 3 person he. your. you is used to designate a group of people. and she. I want you to be on time. In English. her. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter.Plural 1 person I.

you are. The sentence could be rewritten. The words it¶s. explains case in greater detail. That coat is hers. theirs whose. Mary is standing by the door. its. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. they are contractions of it is. Grammar: Part 2.Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. my. his her. Module 6. mine your. That is her coat. That coat belongs to Mary. . yours his. Page 36 28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. hers. and they are. and they¶re are not possessive pronouns. you¶re. Mary is standing by the door. OR Mary is standing by the door. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. --our. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. ours their. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to.

the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. The sentence should be corrected. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you. Both pronouns replace People. The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. (I/me. however. therefore. not present at the time of speaking.It¶s always funny when the dog chases its tail. PRONOUN SELECTION What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. Here¶s another common error in pronoun selection. using only the pronoun. he/him. For instance. . we/us. Me rushed into the house. 1. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. do not match. The people referred to in this sentence are . The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. You¶re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. My mother and me rushed into the house. you can test the sentence above by reading it. It should read I rushed into the house. Their apartment will be for rent when they¶re transferred to Saint John. but they must be present. Of course. but they should match. she/her. You know that does not look right or sound right. The pronouns. they/them is to test the pronoun alone.

the pronoun you is the correct choice. When speaking to one OR more than one person.Page 37 29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is ³I´. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. Smith gave to letter to only one person. Mr. heard often in speech. Look at this sentence. even well-educated ones. The next two examples show a very common error. 31. Do Exercises 30. but be careful when you are speaking. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them. This sentence may look and sound correct. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. Yous is not a word. Just as in the example above. and the sentence should be corrected like this. Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. The pronoun me is the correct form. you can hear and see that this is not correct. Mr. 32. Smith gave I three letters to mail. but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. Many people make this mistake. Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. Mr. Page 38 30 . make.

An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. The noun ³Margaret´ is the antecedent of the pronoun ³her´. 2. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS Margaret rode her bike to the mall. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence. In this sentence, the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. Read this sentence. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their; in other words, who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct, employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. Make both words plural, or make them both singular. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. OR

An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic, person, student, teacher, etc.) is male or female, it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. Page 39 31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. The sentence is not clear.. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent, the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely, the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. The reader doesn¶t know who his refers to because the writer hasn¶t mentioned anyone else. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark¶s apartment yesterday. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al¶s apartment yesterday. Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay, the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. They went to Tahiti.

The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. When you proofread your own writing, you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. B. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS In the following sentence, Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. everybody is a pronoun. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing, it is an called an indefinite pronoun. The pronoun everybody is singular. When referring to everybody, use a singular pronoun like he/his, or she/he. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to Page 40 32 replace everybody. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Even though it may sound ³right´ because you have heard it so often, it is NOT correct. The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any everything anybody everyone anything each anyone nobody

everyone no one everything none everybody nothing either somebody neither someone another something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several few all some both many Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. Page 41 33 C. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. Singular Plural this these

that those such such Use this and these to point out something close to you; use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. (e.g. Such a horse is hard to find.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Give her the book. Give her this. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. Eat that. Pie is the antecedent of that. Give her the books. Give her these. Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. Eat those. Pies is the antecedent of those. Take his coat and hat. Take them. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns. If you cannot find the antecedent, the words are not demonstrative pronouns. I know that you are honest. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. (Not a demonstrative pronoun)

watch yourselves out there on the field today. herself. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. Andy. use the plural form yourselves. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. If the sentence is directed to one person. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. Players. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used 6 . itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. you must be careful not to push yourself too far.I sold some cakes. use the singular form yourself. Although it may sound and look correct. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the ³receiver´ of the action is the same person as the ³doer´. Page 42 34 Some grammar texts call this group ³intensive pronouns´. In other words. 6 D. but I gave those to Mary. there is no such word as ³themself´. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. but if it refers to a group. Check the dictionary. if someone does something to himself or herself. Can you find the word ³themself´? Can you explain why not? E. yourselves. himself. yourself.

Interrogative pronouns: who . themselves Examples: You. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS When you ask a question about someone or something. I fixed the car myself. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. which.to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. Page 43 35 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. whom whose. 8 F. what 7 8 Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. yourself. myself. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. herself. one another. himself. wouldn¶t pass judgement on him. CDs or tapes? . Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. G. 7 Module 6 explains how to use ³who´ and ³whom´ correctly. or I. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves. yourselves. are better able to answer that question. you might say. Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. yourself. She taught her children to help one another. For example. you often start with an interrogative pronoun.

. whomever. 41.. I saw the television program which was banned in the States........ whom. whoever.... The teacher whom you met trained in France. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence. Do Review Exercises 40... We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock...... The driver who didn¶t stop got a ticket.... Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet.to refer to people which....... The driver that stopped didn¶t get a ticket... and 42 in the Practice Booklet... whom.. they are not interrogative pronouns...... one of the main ......... If they are not used to ask a question..... expressed in a special way...... Relative pronouns: who.. H. that in many sentences..to refer to things that.......... Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail.... which.. I almost forgot that it was your birthday.. Page 45 37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb.to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank.. The term ³clause´ really means extra bits of Page 44 36 information in a sentence...... The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi........................ Module 6. We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale.What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who.

Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. TYPES OF VERBS A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. The horse jumped the fence. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. STATE OF BEING VERBS A very small number of verbs express a state of being. He caught the ball easily.parts of every sentence. In fact. The rose grew very quickly. She thought about what she had done. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. They realized their mistake. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. Page 46 38 2. ACTION VERBS Most verbs are action verbs. Underline the verbs you used. such as The children ran after the dog. David decided to move to Woodstock. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. These nonaction . 1. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. She drives very carefully when it¶s snowing. A. That accounted for his absence.

You will be successful. They were unhappy. They show that something or somebody exists. The dog was friendly. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am was being is were be are has been had been have been will be will have been are become (all forms) seem (all forms) Compare these sentences. He was a good friend. We were scared. Sherri is an accountant. John is tired. I am a student. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer¶s state of being and ³happy´ . You are hungry. I ate the apple. I am happy. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here.verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs.

describes how the writer is feeling. Here are the most common ones. As well. and the sentence means that ³I´ = ³a student´. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. they are considered to be action verbs. On the other hand. The verb ate is an action verb. In other words. In the second sentence. He felt the water before he jumped in. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. . I and apple do not refer to the same thing. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. This is one way to use a ³state of being´ or ³linking verb. Martha tasted the chili. something that can really happen or that is observable. Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. not a linking verb. Module 6. Page 47 39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. the writer¶s state of being is as a student. This is the second use of the ³state of being´ or ³linking verb´. Tom grew 3 inches last year. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action.

Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. FORMS OF VERBS 1. The sky grew dark before the storm. 46. B. therefore.) The smoke smelled stronger now. Page 48 40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. and 47 in the Practice Booklet. they are consider to be linking verbs. AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS In the previous section. The sculpture felt smooth.The engineer sounded the locomotive¶s horn at the crossing. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. 45. The music sounded perfect in the arena. . He walked to school every day. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word. called a verb phrase. or the fact that something has certain qualities. A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. Do Exercise 44. Within a verb phrase. The chili tastes good. The evidence looks convincing in this case. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become.

Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. When will comes before a main verb. will. and write are the main verbs. We have thought about a vacation this winter. however. Sometimes. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating. finishing. and did are helping or auxiliary verb. will can be a main verb. Travel. I am eating my dinner now. Before calling. thought. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o¶clock. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below.I will travel to Halifax on the train. When you called. have. I was eating my dinner.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were . it is a helping or auxiliary verb. I had eaten my dinner. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. as in I willed all my property to my children. were.

has been. At 5:00 p.. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs. In some sentences.m. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other ³non-verb´words. Although rare.has have had shall will do does did have been. was being. is being. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. should and have are the auxiliary verbs. had been am being. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. I have never driven in a big city before. not . The main verb is saved. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase. but which are never part of the verb phrase. are being. I will have saved enough money by Christmas. I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. Here tested is the main verb. Saved is the main verb. were being Page 49 41 As you have just seen.

In order to talk about the present. we need to use different forms of verbs. in the present. in the past. in the third person singular. In fact. 2. 9 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I II III . etc. Page 50 42 This form becomes ³walks´. before today.never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. past. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. VERB TENSES Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. as well as what will happen after today. ³brings´. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. ³carries´. in the future. Every verb has FOUR main forms. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. and future. called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB.

IV PRESENT PAST PAST PRESENT PARTICIPLE PARTICIPLE walk walked walked walking 9 carry carried carried carrying bring brought brought bringing sing sang sung singing hit hit hit hitting do did done doing am. are. were been being . is was.

To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. the present or the future.the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. 1. Present 3.. have had had having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past. How can you tell? 1. 2. present and future. The children are reading the story. The children will be hearing the story. from Column II. Simple Verb Tenses These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. this module explains four common tenses. present. Future. Simple past I walked to the store today. . Past 2. and future. The children had heard the story. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses Page 51 43 a. Simple present He walks to school.has.. 3. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past.

but the correct written form uses ³shall´ in the first person. ³will´ is almost always used when speaking about the future. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. from Column I.present I walk. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will. Today. I shall walk to the store. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL EXAMPLE PART Simple past none Column II . He will talk to them They will attend the lecture.To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. She will make the cake. To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. I and we. he walks Simple future . It will be here. You (plural) will write that test.past I walked Simple present none Column I . will in the second and third person.

the past form of to have as its auxiliary. Because this is the past perfect. .present They will publish b. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past.) Past perfect .I have completed my assignment. Present perfect . had. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb.Past Perfect . or is about to be. Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used.Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine. He has finished his work. It is built using Page 52 44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. Despite its name. Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses.will or shall Column I . The truck has delivered the load of topsoil.I had answered your letter before you called me. have. . but also notice that the answering took place before the calling. completed. it uses had.

past participle I shall have done shall have c.past participle We had walked Present perfect has. Future perfect . Progressive Tenses . I shall have showered before you arrive.He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. Column III. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have). but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future. Page 53 45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past perfect had Column III. have Column III.past participle He has sung Future perfect will have. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other. The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect.Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see.

will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart. too. the action of ³watching´ takes place over a period of time. is. Future progressive: Eventually. shall be. The future form of to be (will be. the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. were. was. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). Here. In this case.The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. you use one of the progressive tenses. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. are. at sometime in the future. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived. Page 54 46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE . they will be selling only new computers. are. present and future.

Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries. Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions.. My sisters had been discussing my birthday party.. Identify the auxiliary. RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses..AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART EXAMPLE Past Progressive was.had answered 2. were Column IV-present participle He was eating Present Progressive am.. Column IV-present participle We will be shall be doing d. are. He has been saving his money to buy a car. is Column IV-present participle You are eating Future Progressive will be. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have . Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then.... Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense. the present participle.. Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase... The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV.... Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately...... 1. They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive. Sheila had answered all their questions.

... There are other tenses. Then........ present or future.had is in the past form. As a final check...... Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?. The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense.the perfect tenses 4. The students will be walking to school from now on. and choose the correct form when writing... this is truly an example of a past perfect tense.. Page 55 47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence. Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes... Try this one yourself. look at the main verb.. ..3..... Is the auxiliary in the past...... but you learn them later. The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses.........

were Column IV He was hearing Present Progressive am. are Column IV You are finding Future Progressive shall/will be Column IV She will be fitting Past Perfect Progressive had been Column IV I had been sitting . have Column III She has carried Future Perfect shall/will have Column III I shall have rung Past Progressive was. is.SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE AUXILIARY PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Simple Past none Column II I walked Simple Present none Column I He sings Simple Future shall or will Column I They will sing Past Perfect had Column III We had hit Present Perfect has.

The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs. the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the ³entry word´. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE throw threw thrown feel felt felt spring . some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling.´ing´ or ³ed´ to form its principal parts.Present Perfect Progressive has/have been Column IV He has been filling Future Perfect Progressive will have been Column IV We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. Page 56 48 IRREGULAR VERB As you may have noticed. If it is an irregular verb. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add ³s´. just use the dictionary. If there are no words written in bold type. These verbs are called irregular verbs. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb. Look up the verb.

sprang sprung ring rang rung drink drank drunk bring brought brought burst burst burst eat ate eaten rise rose risen raised raised raised swim swam swum cut cut cut lie (to recline) lay lain lay (to place) laid laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet. .

the VIA train has the strongest focus.M. so in this example. When you hear or read a sentence. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which ³downplays´ . The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P. For example. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. On the other hand. One of them is to reduce someone¶s or something¶s responsibility for an action. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. In this case. The truck was hit on a stormy night. The effect of using a passive voice is to ³downplay´ the ³doer´ of the action. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first. based on s sentence structure and meaning. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. In sentences using active voice. ³Good writing´ generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence.Page 57 49 3. on a stormy night. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence.

you should rewrite it. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled. For example. At the party. restructure the sentences to place the ³doer´ of the action at the beginning of the sentence. Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility. Think about how you report bad news. If you can¶t find a ³by´ phrase. . (by whom? by what?. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with ³by. Often it is phrased in the passive.(by me). (by me).. CDs were played and local news discussed. putting the ³doer´ at the beginning.someone/something´. Here¶s an easy way to find passive verbs.) Page 58 50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing.by the heat. If you can. A vicious dog bit Mark. the guests played CDs and discussed local news. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog. When you proofread your work.... try to insert one of your own. That house was designed by a famous architect. you should always read it through just looking for passives. The candles were melted. At the party. My report card got lost.. When you find them.the railway¶s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice.. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. the verb is probably passive..

56. I am happy about winning the lottery. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. A child. huddled in the ambulance.. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect. and 54 in the Practice Booklet. pale and fearful. Although Lois could barely keep up. and 60 in the Practice Booklet. . Page 59 51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence.. 53. tall and leafy. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences.. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. The trees. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas. she still grabbed Clark¶s arm and . 58.. 59. The clouds were white and puffy. The clouds.. is the best thing a mother can think of. Make sure your story uses only active verbs. sailed across the autumn sky.Do Exercises 52. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. The counsellors were very angry. Complete Review Exercises 55.. The survivors. busy and happy. However. lined the driveway. puffy and white. 57. A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately..

The boys will be hungry. Page 60 52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. and other adverbs. Adverbs often end in ³ly´. happy. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6. The book is heavy. adjectives. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. . Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. The tourists are American. puffy. Max was late again today. angry are all adjectives. It seems to be injured.The words tall. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. stately. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. white. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. He wrote a good answer.

Or I feel well. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. When comparing two things. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. Using the ³wrong´ modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing. either adjective or adverb. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. If the sentence sounds awkward. How are you? I am well. To use them properly. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. Do Exercises 63. He answered the question well. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding ³er´. add ³er´ to most modifiers.In this sentence. In the sentence below. 64. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. bright: This light is brighter than that one. . Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things. Well is usually an adverb.

Often. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street.Page 61 53 fast: He walked faster than I did. Instead of adding ³er´. the suffix ³er´ is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. fast: He always drives fastest at night. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. soon: They left sooner than we did. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. Usually. When comparing two things. sickly: . and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. Do not add ³est´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. finely: Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. DO NOT add ³er´ to adverbs ending in ³ly´. beautiful: Today¶s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. more than two things are compared. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. add ³est´. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things.

It is not correct to say gooder. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. this car's motor runs most quietly. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. or by using more or most. but chocolate tastes the best of all. ³est´. Page 62 54 SINGLE FORM COMPARING TWO COMPARING THREE OR MORE Little Less Least Many More Most Much.Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met. Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. These words actually change their form. quietly: Of the four. or more good. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding ³er´. some More Most Well Better . strawberry tastes better. goodest.

Page 63 55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square .words such as. An answer on a test is either correct. it is dead. If something is dead.Best Bad. or correcter. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons. because of their meaning. correct and dead. further Farthest. badly Worst Worst Far Farther. It cannot be less dead or more dead. These words are called absolute adjectives . It cannot be more correct. or not correct.

It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. some writers make mistakes because they can¶t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb. If the word modifies a verb. how the action in a verb took place. an adjective. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. use an adverb. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. The correct adverb is really. Page 64 56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when.supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER When making comparisons. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun. an adjective is necessary. Compound prepositions. where. in the middle of is the preposition . consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit. sometimes called complex prepositions. He is real happy is incorrect. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. therefore the correct version is He is really happy. or another adverb.

you. it. at Superior School. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. them after a preposition. The students at Superior School went to the library with her. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. him.in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. Always use the personal pronouns me. to the library. her. us. . Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet.

for she had no money. (2 ideas) You can write a report. (2 adjectives. yet he never carries a map. (2 ideas) I can¶t finish this dessert. an adjective with an adjective. (2 prepositional phrases.Page 65 57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. A conjunction may join words. CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. and so on. (2 complete ideas) I want to go. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and but or nor for yet so Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. (2 ideas) . TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS A. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. nor* can I drink my coffee. but I can¶t find the time. (2 ideas) She couldn¶t attend school. they peeled vegetables and told stories. and the boys danced. (2 ideas) He always gets lost. or you can make a speech. phrases or clauses. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns.

(2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. C. therefore.It rained. B. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. it burned to the ground. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. Page 66 58 neither/nor Example: Harold was neither on time. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. but also at the wrong address. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. whether/or Example: I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. or lost. Although these could be two unconnected events. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. so they cancelled the outing. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. in this case. . nor at the right address. both/and Example: Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. either/or Example: Harold was either late. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. but they are always used in pairs.

therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas. We did. Page 67 59 D. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs. consequently. Compare It snowed last night. therefore. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences.Lightning struck the old farmhouse. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. call them to explain. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. These are called subordinate conjunctions. we didn¶t go. it burned to the ground. . however. they are adverbs. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it.

We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. she didn¶t ask any questions. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. Module 6 explains this in more detail. She didn¶t ask any questions. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. I am not sure when that time will be.She was confused. make sure Mark is alright. I will be able to come sometime. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. As soon as you can. Although she was confused. The truck drivers stopped carefully. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. Since she got that job. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. I would start studying now. You won¶t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. If I were you. I am not sure when I will be able to come. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if . The road was slippery. she hasn¶t been able to go to school.

Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns. she couldn¶t go to the concert. Since the election. we went to the store. Page 68 60 Before the party started. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns. Before the game. These words are relative pronouns: who. . Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. are also used as conjunctions. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. E. Because of her loss. the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. whichever. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. I decided to buy a new car. whomever. which. used to start a question or pronouns. they bought popcorn and a drink. she was unable to afford the plane ticket.if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. Since I won the lottery. Because she lost her wallet. whom. that. which you learned in the pronoun section. You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. Module 6.

(Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. Page 69 61 Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery! X INTERJECTIONS Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. It is the student¶s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. They . (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. As well. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. You can write your own or trade with a class mate. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook.Example: That club always has good entertainment.

Page 70 62 XI SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES Boy. If he had went home sooner. it is some cold today! Boy. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet. I did well on that test. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. not the past form from Column II. Boy. Boy. . did you see The Grateful Dead concert. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III.are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow. it is really cold today. it is very cold today. he wouldn¶t have missed dinner. I done well on that test. If he had gone home sooner. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. Use very cold. Use had gone. it is real cold today! Boy. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is.

³Of course. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence.The form of the verb tense is incorrect. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. Page 71 63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. This sentence . English does not include the phrase very best. Use did. Bob said. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. I ain¶t finished yet. The pictures should of been ready by now. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. The verb phrase is incorrect. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. ³Very best. I¶ll go with you next week. There is no such word as ain¶t anymore. Fran did her best on that test. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. I¶m not finished yet. I¶ll go with you next week´. Bob said. Fran had did her best on that test. Use the simple past form did. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. Use a phrase like Of course. The pictures should have been ready by now. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective.

Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. He is the tallest of my two boys. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. He is sure late with his payment this month. really late. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. Parts of the Sentence. If you understand parts of speech . only two things are being compared. therefore. Use really pleased. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning.needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. Use certainly late. ³Unlearning´ something you have said all your life is not easy. the correct form of the word is taller. In this sentence. The officer is obviously a person. He is the taller of my two boys. so the correct pronoun is either who or that. or very late.

spelling. Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution .: 506-325-4866 Fax.. please use the form below: insufficient explanations. learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. punctuation or any proofreading errors. others. ambiguity or wordiness of text. * For feedback regarding the following items. NB E7M 5C5 Attention: Kay Curtis Tel.. relevancy of the provided examples. please forward your comments to: New Brunswick Community College .: 506-328-8426 * In case of errors due to typing.well.Woodstock 100 Broadway Street Woodstock. please use the enclosed page to make the proposed correction using red ink and send it to us. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? Page 72 64 FEEDBACK PROCESS For feedback. insufficient examples.

4. Check your answers in the answer key. My daughter sold her computer to a friend. 1. 2. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. 3. The dog chased the cat under the porch. .number (include your text if possible) Page 73 65 FEEDBACK PROCESS Page Nature of the problem Proposed solution number (include your text if possible) Comments: Page 74 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 75 1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find.

5. 10. 4. and the clouds were beautiful. Local markets are full of mussels. The ocean was calm. 8. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. 3. we saw the Northumberland Strait. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. Penguins live near the South Pole. 9. 7. So much snow covered the roads. 1. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. When their boats are full. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. 6. 6. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. but these birds aren¶t bothered by the cold. many husbands and wives were separated. 7. 8. From the top of a small hill. the little boats began to appear. 5. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. Exercise 2: Nouns A. . 2. In small villages. The Titanic sank in a few hours. clams. scallops. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. Then.Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. and lobster.

Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. What did you bring with you? 4. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. but these are pink. Write 10 sentences of your own. Underline all the nouns you used. He gave her several bottles of this. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. All of those are expensive.9. 3. 1. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. Who likes chocolate? 8. Page 76 2 6. she went for a tetanus shot. None of us was frightened by that. Exercise 4: Pronouns A. 1. Storms make life on the water dangerous. After she cut herself. If the weather is good. Many of them came. . B. 7. their catch is usually large. 10. The stones on the beach were green. 10. 2. 9. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. but few stayed long.

6. Mine was destroyed by the flood. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6. 7. He dreamed about his recent accident. B. 8. 3.Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2. 4. 5. Give me some! 9. 7. Phillip called to tell them about that. . She never gave them any of it. 2. but the insurance covered it. They told about the hardships we survived. The pitcher threw the ball. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. This belongs to her. 3. Underline all the pronouns you used. Many told about the kindness of strangers. The robin perched on a lower branch. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. Write 10 sentences of your own. 10. 1. She often rode the bus home at night. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. 5. 4. We always welcome suggestions.

Page 77 3 3. After work. the dealer agreed to our price. he has been driving more carefully. The Christmas tree looked beautiful. 7. 9. His parents thought about him every day. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. 5. Lucy will send you her new address. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich.8. 10. The lions slept in the sun for hours. 2. 4. Since his accident. 10. 2. John ate his lunch slowly. 1. Exercise 7: Verbs A. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. or have you finished it? 8. 6. we decided on a movie. Are you reading that magazine. 9. Finally. You will never guess the answer. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 1. . Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs.

B. life was returning to normal. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. Exercise 8: Adjectives A. 10. 5. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. and they flapped in the light breeze. Write a paragraph about an exciting event. Soon. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. 4. 6. food became scarce. After three days. They are calling it the storm of the century. The old curtains were torn and faded. nine miles from Minto. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. The little girl ran along the dusty road. 5. After a few hours. 2. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. 9. 3. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. 7. they arrived at the train station. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. 3. 4. 6. . Underline all the verbs you used.Many branches had been broken by the wind. 8.

9. Underline the adjectives you used. Rewrite it using enough adjectives Page 78 4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. 2. She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. 4. 6. 8. Yesterday. 8. 1. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. These apples are juicy and red. Kate is a truly courageous woman. They arrived early for class. B. You cannot drive there! 5. Can you come soon? 3. They used paper plates for the annual picnic. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. . Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 9. 10.7.

2. 1. Today. 2. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs.10. 9. 5. they are quite easy to use. 4. 6. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. Computers are relatively new devices. 8. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. 7. Many people have never used a computer. very fast computers are needed. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. 3. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. 3. . 4. Finally. he asked for a second helping. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. The colour of her dress was really flattering. Generally. she wrote the very last sentence correctly. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. 1. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. Many businesses use them daily. Politely. 10. The baby has been very cranky lately.

2. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie¶s. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. The time of day doesn¶t matter. In his new movie. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. 4. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. Underline the prepositions. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. Since the crash. 6. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. 7. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John¶s brother. The chairs on the porch were painted white. 3. 9. Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. Page 79 5 6. 1. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. 8. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. 10.5. Guests with tickets entered first. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. 5. 7. .

most of the money disappeared. . 4. In 1992. 9. Then indicate whether they are joining words. Look under the table and in the closet. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. 1. 3. Wow. Ouch! That hurts. It was a life and death situation. Apples and oranges are good for you. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. No! Don¶t touch the brake. 5. Page 80 6 4. Yuck.8. 2. did you see that jet! 2. 1. 10. Oh no! He lost the puck. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. None of the items on that page are available until July. or groups of words (phrases). I hate boiled cabbage. Underline the conjunctions. 3. or complete ideas (clauses).

When they had finished. 8. but I couldn¶t get a ride. we won¶t believe it. Exercise 16: Review . 10. Although she missed the bus. 9. 4. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. we will have to stay home. Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. 6. 7. 9. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. If you are ready. Until the snow melts. We bought the tickets. We ran home because it was raining. he should go to the doctor. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. Before he gets sicker. After we saw a deer. we can leave so we will be on time. we drove to Doaktown. 3.I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. 6. they gave it to the teacher. 7. 10. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. she and Lily still arrived on time. so we went to the concert. 5. 8. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. Until we see it. 5. 2. 1.

Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a. 11. 1. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. No. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. 6. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. you should not take your new camera on your trip. Their house was built in 1990. The wind was cold. c. . b. Eric and they learned very quickly. 13. This book cost six dollars. 10. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. Copy the following sentences into your notebook.Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. but the sun was really warm. 12. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. 8. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. The tall. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. Underline all the nouns. 2. Page 81 7 15. She was giving a short but interesting lecture. 4. 5. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. 3. 14. 7. Most of the students listened politely. 9.

Your instructor will correct your work. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. 3. rose justice . 1. 2. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? 6. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. 5. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. 9. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. 7. Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. 4. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. 8. 10.Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns.

A large amount of deer were shot this season. write two sentences. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. 2. Write the corrected form in your notebook. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays. . the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals.happiness cow school truth computer grace skiing stars bubbles fear Page 82 8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. 3. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit. 1.

Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. 5. 1. Have you seen the dog¶s leash? 3.4. 5. 2. 4. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where . They bought several rings at the auction. Ann receives too many junk mail. B Reword each of the following phrases. using apostrophes. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. Each of the boy¶s bicycles was locked. He received three months¶ back pay yesterday. Mary¶s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. Sue¶s friends bought her a sweater in the men¶s department.

Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. (two uncles) . Smith was worried about her sons health. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. read the section on apostrophes again. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. and the familys name is Boudreau. The childs name is Nora. 3. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. Charles company owed him two days pay. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. 1. Mr. Page 83 9 2. 8. 7. 10.necessary. 1. (one son) 4. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. Mr. 6. Then try these sentences. (two sons) 5. Marks mother lives at my sisters. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. 9.

6. do not look back at the material in the module. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. two twins) 3. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune.2. If you had any mistakes. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winters last lament´. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. you should review the parts of this section that gave you . As you work through the test. mark your own work. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. Page 84 10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. Because of the accident. When you have completed the test. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. and do not peek at the answer key. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. or ask your instructor to mark it for you. his wifes income was reduced. (one girl. 4. 10. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. 7. (one client) 9. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding.

Chatham. That new car is my neighbour. 2. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. accidents. This is the store belonging to Doris. B. accidents. Chatham. Ferry. When you are satisfied that you really understand. B. . 3. 1. Bridge. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road.³trouble´ thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. Centennial Bridge. Chatham. A. 4. Road. Centennial Bridge. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. Ferry Road. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. Read the following sentence. D. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. That is my neighbours' new car. Chatham. C. Centennial Bridge. C. The new car is my neighbours'. accidents. D. connects. Ferry Road. B. Read the following sentence. That is my neighbour's new car. try this test again.

C. Halifax. The nouns in the sentence are A. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. town. Halifax. E. soda pop B. Nova Scotia. Read the following sentence. river D. January . friends. friends. they. B. Nova Scotia. this. Those toys belong to the children. Nova Scotia. this. D. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. holiday E. Halifax. D. Nova Scotia. 7. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. magazine 8. city C. Nova Scotia. What is a noun? Page 85 11 6. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. C. Our friends lived in Halifax. A. town. Halifax. 5. friends. A. town. before they moved to this town.

A. 11. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. Canada C. Patricks Day. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. Jupiter E. D. The flower's petals fell to the floor. There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. Saint John D. singular. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. B. I had a great time last St. Parker 9. C. concrete. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. Dr. Church: common. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm.B. Page 86 12 The first one is done for you. count church mice mob beauty . correcting the errors.

4.Person. Number. Cheryl gave her cold to them. I saw them eating their lunch myself. 3. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . He may have taken her coat.Canada¶s news armies meat equipment boys¶ loyalty jury grammar March fragrance men¶s company surprise trouble English horn sunrise boy¶s Lions¶ Club broccoli Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. Gender . but mine is on the desk. Did you give him his book? 2. My sister. 1. her husband and their children visited your mother. 5.

ourselves 4. themselves 3. 4. I. your. its. Third person plural D. yours. You. yours. The pronouns mine. You should take yours. your. . She. First person plural A. yourselves B. her. his. write its person and number . hers. They. us. Third person singular B. my. them. our. me. their. They didn¶t know it was theirs until they saw its label. Beside each. our. ours. hers. You. their. When I went to the club last night. Second person plural C. 3. myself 2. whose are always followed by a noun. 2. Notice that the pronouns my. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. mine. 1. Page 87 13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. they took my jacket and your camera. his. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column. your. your. We. herself 5. Try not to look at the chart above. her. 1. They say that we should always mind our own business. theirs. The first set is done for you. First person singular E. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. yourself F. yours. Where are you going with her tapes.A.

Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. 3. him) went to a meeting 2. 5. me) could go to the game? 7. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. 1. Students often think that (you. check the answers in the answer key. me)! 6. After finishing all the sentences. 8. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. . they) will fail.e. using the correct pronoun. 4. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn¶t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. They were sure that Lisa and (he. Do you think that (he. theirs are used alone. 3 person singular).ours. Give the pencil to Martha or (I. rd Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. him) and (I. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. but (you. they) have to keep trying. him) were going to Miramichi. Jerry took his brother and (she. (You. John and (he. yours. her) to town. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use.

REWRITE the sentence. your) going to pass. (It¶s. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. 10. A student must try to find (his. using the correct pronoun. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. her. If a sentence is CORRECT. they¶re) ugly colour. 9. leave it as it is. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. their) own learning modality. 11. its) nest was destroyed and (it¶s. its) not likely to return. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. I). 12. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. Rewrite the sentence. (You¶re. Page 88 14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence. them) sneakers because of (their. using the right pronoun - .I do not want (those. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. Your) hard work means that (you¶re.

They kept the secret from Jack and I. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. The man standing outside in the rain is him. 5. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. 10. 6. 3. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! Page 89 15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. 1. 2. The boys tried out for the football team. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. . Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. Al met John and she at the movies. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. 1. Could him and me could go to the game? 8. 3. 12. Jane¶s best friend is me. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. 4. 11. 7. 9. We sent her some flowers. 2.Mary gave her the keys.

9. Some managers write their business letters themselves. The president should take his office seriously. The merchants gave donations. The dog's ears are pointed. 3. 1. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet. The jury were presenting their opinions. A student should always be on time for his or her class. Philip gave her her present. We ourselves were happy to participate. 8. 5. 10. 7. Our family is not large. It gathers once a year for a reunion. The instructor will give them those. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook.The dog belonging to you has run away again. The students asked for new books. 1. My family are always ready to support their relatives. 5. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. 4. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. 2. 6. . 4. 2. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. B.

their) pen. The deer hurt (her. 5. their) lunches. 3. Each of those buyers should consult (his. his or her. her. 8. his or her. their) supervisors. 7. her. his or her. . The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. their) dues. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. Max and Helen sang at (her. 1. her. The audience clapped for their performance. No one should submit (his or her. 4.Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. 4. their) mutual friends' wedding. Does anybody know (his or her. Page 90 16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. A few forgot (his. and he should pay it. Many hens have escaped from (her. his. his. None of the boys has paid for (his. 5. their) own bus ticket. their) report later than tomorrow. 9. 6. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. 3. Several of the men have paid (his. its) leg when it jumped the fence.

The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall. her. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. 1. Wash the car yourself this time. Such cannot be true! 4. 5. 4. their. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. Emphatic. Write This is mine. 2. A few of us have received (his. Whose book is that on the floor? B. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. these. 3.g. 6. Did he really say that? 3. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. 5. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. and those as describing words later. our) marks. Then tell which is which. You will learn about the use of this. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. 2. Give me all of these and some of those. 1. . that. her or his. Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. This is the one I want to buy. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences.10. e.

The man who won is my friend Steve. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. Ian is the one who knows that. We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. Who stole the money? 2. 9. 1. 8. 8. What did you bring for lunch? 3. He said many things which I didn¶t understand. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. He hasn¶t decided what he wants to do next. What have you done with the keys? 10. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. Whom should we reward? 6. Page 91 17 7.I myself won¶t put up with that. 4. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns . 5. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. 10.

7. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. making notes as you go. but the house itself was undamaged. Page 92 18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. 6. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. 8. both of them look correct. . it always gives me the shivers. He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. When you talk about that accident. 2. Beside each one give as much information as you can about it. 1. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. The children themselves saw it. My first attempt was a failure. B. Which is right? There are two choices.A. 9. but later I had learned from it. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her. 5. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. 3. What would anyone do with that? 4. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. 10. The furniture was destroyed.

everybody 6. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. You didn¶t give that to them. 7.1. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. 1 person plural A. interrogative pronoun B. demonstrative pronoun . but the contractor poured the cement. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. 1. Something is missing from this recipe. relative pronoun D. did you? 5. but he took mine. Always ask yourselves. Sherri took your boots. 9. ³What can I do to help those less fortunate?´ 10. indefinite pronoun (plural) E. 2. reciprocal pronoun C. Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. each other 3. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. its 5. We did most of the work ourselves. 6. Match the term on the left with the example on the right. these st 2. our 4.

Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. j. she) went to the automatic teller. reflexive pronoun I. him). a word that doesn¶t exist J. himself 9. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. which) is barking lives next door. their. g. i. Mr. themself 8. me). Sheila and (her. a. The dog (who. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. its) tail. b.F. which 10. Page 93 19 f. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I. . what 7. you¶re) house is. c. its K. (they¶re. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. e. Hutchins bought (their. The cat often chases (it¶s. they¶re) old car. there) too expensive. there. possessive pronoun H. h. He cut (himself. d. hisself) on that rusty can. Be sure and tell her where (your. them) shoes. Don¶t buy (those. few 2.

we and the kids returned to Rexton. employees is the antecedent of them D. A. Underline every pronoun you have used. Those are mine. After the holidays. Which sentence below is correct? A. C.She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. Volunteers. he told them to spend it wisely. The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. Page 94 20 8. . Do you think there house is big enough? D. Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. A. C. bonus is the antecedent of it 6. A. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. 5. Which statement below is not correct. For each underlined pronoun. the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. B. B. B. C. it is the antecedent of bonus. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. B. D. Bill is the antecedent of he C. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. themself) 4. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. 7. Few of them knew the right answer. us and the kids returned to Rexton. the kids and them returned to Rexton. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can.

4. Ask your instructor to review your work. The dog jumped over the fence. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. B. Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. For each verb that you identify. We watched a movie last night. 5. Who knows anything about this? E. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. My sister¶s name is Paula. Then underline the verbs. 2.The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. 6. D. . The students were happy about their marks. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. Use each one in a sentence. The baseball hit the boy in the face. His car smashed into a bridge. Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. it is classed as an action verb. 7. Buy yourself something expensive. 3. 1.

identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. 15.Mr. 2. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. . The puppy carefully tasted his new food. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. Smyth was my uncle. Close the door to the garage. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand. Page 95 21 14. You know my aunt. 4. 13. 12. The pie smells good. 11. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. 6. 3. We feared the storm. 7. 9. He looks taller than Mario. The little mouse squeaked loudly. 8. the bookkeeper at Colpitt¶s. The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. Because of the dust. please. The children became excited before the snow storm. 5. 10. There were fourteen people in that class last year. we coughed all day. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. 1. 8. We were afraid of the storm.

the other with a linking or copula verb. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). That would have confused anyone! 5. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. Would you please flip the hamburgers? . if any. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. This stew tastes good on a cold winter¶s night. 4. I felt sick after the party. sound. 11. 2. Page 96 22 SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. 12. Madonna sings and dances well. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. Wolves always howl at the moon. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. grow. 14. 15. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. 13. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. Suddenly. We played ball against their team Saturday. feel.9. taste. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. 3. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. 10. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences.

Today. . There was a good show on TV last night. 5. Today. Sue may never have been given that letter.6. 1. not after the last trip. 8. Yesterday. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. He might have consulted a doctor. Have you ever heard such nonsense. 10. Carl had kicked the ball across the field. 9. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. Mitchell has lived here all his life. I will not be going. Carl will kick the ball across the field. Tomorrow. He had been learning Chinese at school. 4. 14. 3. won¶t you? 9. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. 10. 6. I shall never agree to his proposal. A child can easily learn this song. 12. 7. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. 2. 11. 15. Page 97 23 8. Today. 7. Tomorrow. Carl kicks the ball across the field. 13. The men should have eaten that supper by now. The washing machine has broken down. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences.

D. 2. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. we will serve dinner. B. When they arrive. B. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. C. I have completed my income tax return. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. B. C. B.Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. 3. I am completing my income tax return early this year. D. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. we had already served dinner. 4. By the time they arrived. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. They have lived here for two months. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. . Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. C. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa.

B. D. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. 7. She will design a logo for the company. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. 5. D. Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. C. She designed a logo for the company. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. They lived in Halifax before moving here. He will finish painting my house soon. She is designing a logo for the company. He will be finished painting my house by tonight. C. 11. He has finished painting my house. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. She has designed a logo for the company. He is finished painting my house. 10. B. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A. 9. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. D. 8. C. . Page 98 24 6.They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week.

2. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. The train will be making three stops before Montreal F. Barry threw the ball to first base. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. By the time you get to school. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. the bell will already have rung. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. I am feeling better already. Write your answers in your notebook. The butcher had already delivered our order. Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice . Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence. E. B. The disaster relief team has sprung into action.12. Page 99 25 4. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. C. D. SENTENCE TENSE? A. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. G. 3 Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. My son did his homework last night.

The child was struck by a stray bullet. I have just been thinking about you.Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. 14. 6. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. 1. . Sandra¶s writing is improving daily. 10. 13. the votes were recounted several times. 12. I was frightened by the storm. 7. 3. After the elections. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. My heart was broken. 2. 15. 8. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. 4. Page 100 26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. 5. 9. We have been searching for answers to our questions. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. 11. Stephen King has written many best sellers.

Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. Once they have been placed in a sentence. Now look up each word in the dictionary. This was a ³trick´ exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs.Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. they start to function by carrying the writer¶s meaning to the reader. words cannot have a part of speech. Change the passive verbs to active ones. Look at the words below. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. It is at this point that a . All by themselves.

3. 2. He has never drunk stout before. 5. 1. 7. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. Have you eaten here before? 4. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense. Number: 3 person singular rd Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. Lunch will be served at twelve o¶clock sharp. Page 101 27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. For each one you identified. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech.word develops into a part of speech. 6. write everything you can about it. . The first one is done for you. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee. C. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person.

I am doing my homework now. Something should be done about each of these problems. 4. 12. 7. The men were unhappy with both of those. What were you thinking? 10. they will announce the results. New friends are silver. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. 8. but old ones are gold. 3. and Verbs List the nouns. and verbs in each sentence. 1. The houses had just been repainted. 9. 2. They might not find each other at the airport. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. Everything that Tom says about them is true. 13. 5. pronouns. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. The couple usually walks to the office. He is dating a beautiful doctor. Pronouns. 9. Page 102 28 . 15. When everyone is finished. 11. 14. I shall be seeing you again next week. 10. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings.8. so the dog was destroyed. 6. The music will have been playing for several hours. My sister always rides her bike to the office. The child was severely bitten.

9. 3. He had watched TV for more than an hour. 8. Kevin gave me Marion¶s card. 3. Pronouns. Where was he going? 5. All of these will sell well. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. Then give as much information as you can about each. 1. Tony will have finished his course by next June. 1. 4. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother¶s now.Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. The jury is discussing its decision. 5. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. Your choices seem logical. and Verbs List the nouns. If you have too many mistakes. 2. 4. 2. How much money will you need next week? 7. . and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. Oprah has changed people¶s attitudes towards honesty. I am happy about your decision. Why haven¶t you written that letter yet? 6. Pronouns.

Those were made in China. What has anyone seen lately. 5. 8. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. Pronouns. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. SENTENCE . He smelled the fresh bread. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. 9. these come from Sackville. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba. If you find you are still confused about some points. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. The storm grew worse as night approached. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. Will you complete that survey? Page 103 29 10. and his mouth watered. 4. 3. Write your answers in your notebook. 6. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. 1. study it.10. 7. Don't forget articles. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. 2.

14. 13. Invite those six people. 10. sat on the dining room table. 6. juicy apples. Give them some light summer clothes. sparkling blue eyes. 4. An old rusty car is parked in my space. A few boys knew that they were lost. depressing day. The road was rough and uneven. Page 104 30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph.Adjectives Nouns 1. 12. Karl¶s hockey skates are dull. Two cats. 11. 2. 7. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. 5. sweet and lovable. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. These parcels are heavy. This trip takes several days 8. Our cousins were eating huge. We bought Shelley and Tim¶s house. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and . 15. Mexican food? 9. I have had a boring. 3. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. Do you like spicy. The little girl had big.

They were dressed too casually for the banquet. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches.autumn leaves that littered the ground. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. Where is the grocery store now? . but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. and the hills were gentle. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. Yesterday. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. piercing the inky darkness. The weather was warm. bright and narrow. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1. they saw a beam of light. Jensen¶s chicken farm. 3. and ate their supper. With relief. 2. Bob read the material carefully. They set up their canvas tents. After two long hours. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. lit a huge crackling fire.

4. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. 6. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. 7. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. 8. The circus was really exciting. 9. Simon is not a very good driver. 10. Krista almost never goes to the arena. Page 105 31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. For each adverb, tell whether it modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. 1. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. 2. Thoughtfully, the old man chewed his dinner. 3. Make sure that you review daily. 4. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. 5. Tim was very happy about his success. 6. I am sincerely grateful for your help. 7. His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun.

8. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. 9. The soldiers were really tired after their training. 10. She strolled leisurely down the mall. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Indicate the type of modifier, i.e: adjective or adverb. Write your answers in your notebook. Write an explanation of your choice. Example: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage.( ) Answer: She danced (graceful, gracefully) across the stage. (adverb) 1. Leah behaves (good, well). ( ) 2. Sheila feels (sad, sadly) about the death of her dog. ( ) 3. I am not (really, real) sure if I will have a party. ( ) 4. The directions were (simple, simply) to follow. ( ) 5. I don't feel (good, well). ( ) 6.

The repairs went (slowly, slow). ( ) 7. The change in speed was (gradually, gradual). ( ) 8. You work too (serious, seriously) sometimes. ( ) 9. We feel (awful, awfully) about what happened. ( ) 10. These chocolates taste (good, well). ( ) 11. Firefighters must respond very (quick, quickly). ( ) 12. Lynn spoke in a (calm, calmly) voice after the accident. ( ) 13. Tiger Woods putted (bad, badly) on that last hole! ( ) 14. The lights shone (brightly, bright) in my eyes. ( ) 15. Paul did (good, well) on his second driver¶s test. ( )

Page 106 32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. 1. Who is the (smaller, smallest, most small), Cathy or Diane? 2. My heart beat (rapidlier, more rapidly, more rapid) with each step. 3. It snowed (most, more) in January than in February. 4. The damage to the other car looked (worse, more badly, worser) than the damage to mine. 5. Tom thinks math is (difficulter, more difficult) than grammar exercises. 6. He is the (elder, eldest) of the candidates. 7. This idea is (more unique, unique, most unique). Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. Answer: Carl drove to, from, around, near, beside, etc. the bank. 1. Dawn fell the horse. 2. Earl worked him.

3. I will meet you the front entrance. 4. The horse galloped the field. 5. Smoking is not allowed the building. B In the next part of this exercise, find and underline the prepositions. 1. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day.. 2. Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father. 3. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. 5. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. 7. The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. 8. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. 9. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. C

During the night.....where:..... ..prepositional adjective phrase modifying ³woman´ on the bench.m. when. 2.....when..... If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun. The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p.prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ at 5:00 p......... the rest of the water drained from the basement. it is a prepositional adjective phrase..... with the red dress. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook. The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat....m.. why or how the action of the verb took place. Page 107 33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence. tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb....... If it is telling where.Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition.... Here¶s an example..... 1. After each one..... it is an prepositional adverb phrase..... Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb...prepositional adverb phrase modifying ³sat´ Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise..

all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill. he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba. the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day. The chili was not only spicy hot. 5. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens. Skiing is both fun and good exercise. the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms.Coordinate. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. the designer placed a beautiful statue. 4. I asked her to wait for me.3. On Fridays. but also steaming hot. After his graduation in 1992. . 6. Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. 10. In the middle of a big spacious lawn. or Lynn and Joan will take our place. Either Anna and I will go. 1. 7. 2. Exercise 70: Conjunctions . 6. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet. 5. Correlative. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4. 3. 9. 8. but she went home on the bus. Since his return. The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store. Because of the storm.

9. After the whale beached itself. 8. 4. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. 10. He organized his study time. Mark knows more than I do about that case. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. yet he decided to drive anyway. Tired but happy. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. 1. 6. He was the designated driver. he felt prepared. the children swam in the pool. 5. meanwhile. as a result. 14. 13. but also I will perform. some local citizens rescued it. Since I first met Sheila and her. 15. 8. 7. I won¶t be able to go even though I have the money. so he just drank pop all night. 2.Page 108 34 7. The weather was snowy. I know where they have hidden the treasure. We will go. they will be cut down. but I don¶t have a map. Not only will I attend. the team returned home. 3. however. she has always been very polite. we will not pay our own fare. 12. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. I wonder why they are leaving so early. . 11. I made supper. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find.

Although he is stronger. 1. Although it was quite sunny. Before they read the instructions. 13. You just answered my questions before I asked them. 10. After he won the gold medal. put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. If you are short. Unless the Leafs win this game. 18. 16. I don¶t know how I will get there. Les is five inches taller than I am. 20. 19. he couldn¶t turn it. Because you were late. 21. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. he turned pro. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). they are out of the playoffs. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. you can¶t reach that cupboard. He always talks as if he were an expert. the students asked if they could stay. After the lecture. 25. It isn¶t certain whether they will come or not. Thieves broke in while we were away. 12. For each sentence above. Underline all the relative pronouns. Copy these sentences into your notebook. 2. Page 109 35 B. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. they couldn¶t fix it themselves. 15. Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. The first one is done for you. 22.9. 23. 24. 11. you missed it. He reported that he had seen the incident. Are you sure that you are right? . 14. the wind was cool. 17.

9. . I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. mine lived near Moncton. Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported.(7) 2. 7. That book that you bought last month is very interesting. came for a visit. (10) 4. 4.000 aren¶t worth the money. Your ancestors lived beside the sea. Page 110 36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. 6. My sister. 1. Dogs make good pets for young children.3. (10) 3. who lives in Utah. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) 5. I know who bought the Fuller¶s house. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday. 8. The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. Cars that cost more than $20. 5. 10.

Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. (9) 15. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. the chairs were placed near the windows. The students in this program are very hard workers. If you have less than a 120. 1. The frail. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors¶ home. (6) 10. Count the number of correct answers. Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not.Those big. He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (11) There are a total of 150 words in this review. but today they are in a circle. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. I do not think about their problems now because I don¶t have time. Page 111 37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. (14) 7.(15) 6. Casually.(12) 8. Identify the parts of speech of each word. (11) 9. (5) 13. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. chunky pots sell for nine dollars. (9) 12. Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately. so you can buy several of them. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring. (12) 14. . Usually. She believes in his ability. (9) 11. (15) 2.

(10) 6. Hey Eric. (10) 9. Sue often seeks my advice. Very quickly. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. the damage was minor. If you correctly identified 160 of them. Because they have cashed their cheques. The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. you can . Finally. Miles¶ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can¶t pass those provincial exams. (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. Because of her problems. did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) 18. (6) 5. (12) 14. (13) Page 112 38 17. (8) 11. and I still don¶t know it. (13) 13. Ouch.(14) 3. I had been studying for three hours. the victims have recovered quite well. (14) 4. Since the accident. (9) 10. his clever tricks have failed. The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. Although the storm was very intense.(9) 7. they have some money. (6) 19. After they had mowed the lawn. (10) 8. They had been writing their essays before they went there . they bought lunch . Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) 15. (11) 16. they finished their work. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) 12.

Page 113 39 BAU ENGLISH . Proper noun h. Count noun b. Possessive noun d. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Collective noun .PRETEST 1. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Common noun g. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Concrete noun i. Read this paragraph. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. and meat. Ask your instructor for supplementary work. Singular noun e. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Non-count noun c. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. fruit. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech. Abstract noun j. In the paragraph above. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made.continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book.

The horses hooves needed new shoes. It¶s 6. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. possessive noun. singular . Someone 2. interrogative pronoun D. 3 person plural rd H. Paul¶s 7. d. e.(8) A. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. non-count noun 9. using apostrophes correctly.k. Its 5. Sallys covered a whole month of work. Their 4. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Plural noun f. Noun used as an adjective 2. Rewrite these sentences. 3 person singular rd B. 3. The six workers complaints were very reasonable. Sisters¶ 8. We 3. c. plural C. b. What 1. g. possessive noun. f. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work.(9) a. 1 person plural st G. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. means ³it is´ E. indefinite pronoun F.

3. They were afraid of bears. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. Charles. Linton. 6. .(10) 1. He always uses a cane since his accident. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. 2. 7. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. we work for Mr. 3. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence.(11) 1. (2) 7. 2. During the week. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. 6. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard.Page 114 40 4. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. The teacher with the beard is Mr. 5. The crows flew toward the swamp.

Write a sentence comparing two actions. 10. Use the correct form of the adjective good. Write a sentence comparing two things. His Ford has always run well. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. . 8. Write a sentence comparing two people. Use the correct form of the adverb early. 9. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Paula will rent a car in Boston. 10. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 4.John is always talking to his boss lately. we will go to Disneyland. Write a sentence comparing two actions. 9. 7. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. I was the first one there! 8. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. 12. 5. They ate six lobsters each. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. Page 115 41 11. Next summer.

she and them 2. 14. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. Count noun b. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. 5. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. 4. Read this paragraph. fruit.(41) 1. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. Common noun g. In the paragraph above. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. 1. Proper noun . 2. her) were the first to arrive. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. Our new neighbours have three young children. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. 3. Michael¶s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. and meat. Her 1. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend.13. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work.

Its 5. Noun used as an adjective 2. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. What 1. d. g. Rewrite these sentences. Concrete noun i. Collective noun k. 3. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. Someone 2. f. Sallys covered a whole month of work. indefinite pronoun F. using apostrophes correctly. We 3. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Singular noun e. plural C.(8) A.h. c. possessive noun. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. The horses hooves needed new shoes. Possessive noun d. e. Page 116 42 b.(9) a. It¶s . Their 4. The workers complaints were very reasonable. Plural noun f. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. interrogative pronoun D. 3 person singular rd B. Non-count noun c. not a personal pronoun E. Abstract noun j.

3. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. non-count noun 9. 6. Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. 7.(10) . 1 person plural st G. 3 person plural rd H. Sisters¶ 8. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. 5. Charles. singular 4. possessive noun. (2) 7. 6. List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. He always uses a cane since his accident. (15) walk cut sing think drive 5. The teacher with the beard is Mr. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. we work for Mr. 2. Paul¶s 7. During the week. Linton.6.(11) 1. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4.

His Ford has always run well. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. 4. 9. Write a sentence comparing two things.1. They were afraid of bears. Write a sentence comparing two actions. 7. The crows flew toward the swamp. I was the first one there! 8. Next summer. Page 117 43 5. Paula will rent a car in Boston. Use the correct form of the adjective good. . 2. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. 8. Write a sentence comparing two people. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. Are you cutting her hair? 6. 9. we will go to Disneyland. John is always talking to his boss lately. 3. 10. 10. They ate six lobsters each.

Many of these disks belonged to Jeb¶s friend. A. 3. Write a sentence comparing two actions. her and them 15. and (they. How many nouns does this sentence contain? . them) were the first to leave. 12. her) were the first to arrive. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she.Page 118 44 11. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. 13. 2. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. 14. her and they C. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions.(44) 1. she and them D. 5. 4. she and they B. Hey! What are you cooking for supper.

Five B. and qualities. describe substances. animals. marshes. including ponds. Three C. D. Eight Page 119 45 16. join groups of words or sentences. Six 17. are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. be playing C. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before. The complete verb in this sentence is A. Two D.Wetlands. playing Florenceville B. Six C. B. 18. and people. . Seven D. things. Nouns are words that A. are used to take the place of pronouns. include the names of persons. and swamps. Five B. places. C.

homeless. dirty C. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. the chocolate covered. was. D. dirty. They are moving to Moncton. They have never lost a game against that team. very B. lost against 20. or the glazed? B. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. was very hungry. never lost C. ragged. The adjectives in this sentence are A. The complete verb in this sentence is A. very. 22. C. lost D. ragged. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. hungry D. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A. hungry Page 120 46 21. dirty. This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember. ragged. The following sentences make comparisons. Which one? A. the. Which donut is the biggest. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. have lost B. . playing 19. homeless.has played D. homeless. the. ragged and dirty. ragged. The homeless man. B. dirty.

2. weeks¶ 2. . a. Molly¶s. D. I bought a pair of sneakers. E.PRETEST 1.Yesterday. Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. TOTAL: 133 Page 121 47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . B.(9) A. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. lady¶s. The dogs blanket wasn¶t in it¶s house when the storm hit. Sally¶s 3. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one. 23. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. C. Molly and Sally¶s 4. Answers will vary. Duncan¶s 5. D. Them sneakers are really great! C. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. week¶s 6. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. Them skates are real good.

It¶s means ³it is´ 7. singular 8.workers¶ 7. walk walked walked walking . What Interrogative pronoun 2. A. 3. horse¶s or horses¶ Explain the meaning of your choice. Their 3 person plural rd 5. Its 3 person singular rd 6. Paul¶s possessive noun. Someone Indefinite pronoun 3. plural 4. We 1 person plural st 4. sisters¶ possessive noun.

of the cereal in the cupboard during the week for Mr. Page 122 48 7. . Linton after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees in the light breeze with the red wheels beside the general store 6.cut cut cut cutting sing sang sung singing think thought thought thinking drive drove driven driving 5. Answers will vary.

. were.... That..... 13.adjective dog. Answers will vary..noun. 10.. was..preposition these...... 9...preposition Jeb¶s....adjective team.... will rent 8. Many....noun belonged. 1.adjective disks..adverb 4.noun is...verb three. Our.....noun and....preposition Mount Carleton...... ate. Answers will vary... will go... Hey...pronoun of.. is talking.flew.adjective children. 11..pronoun/adjective new........ are cutting.................... has run... 12...conjunction a..verb going.noun soon........noun have.interjection ....... Answers will vary.verb to.adjective young....adjective neighbours..... possessive friend....noun 2.... have sold..noun 3....verb to. Answers will vary.. Answers will vary.

noun were.....What....... A 20..verb for..adjective camp... A.........noun Page 123 49 14...verb the..... Those skates are really good...noun 5.....pronoun cooking.......pronoun of.. C 21.adverb discussing.. 2......pronoun are. A 15..verb you.noun from.. C 19... Several..preposition supper. D 16.. C 22....adjective weather....verb always.....adjective men. A 23.preposition the...... A 17... B 18....... ..adjective bad.preposition the......

Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband.(51) A. Oh no. 4.(11) E. C.He and I went to Ashley¶s house. Each of these would have been correct.(16) 2. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. . John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. 3. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D. 5. Identify the part of speech of each word. D. B. Cheryl¶s ideas are better than mine are. The dog¶s blanket wasn¶t in its house when the storm hit. Page 124 50 IAUENG . An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows.(9) C. In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband.PRETEST 1.(6) B. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband.

Relative pronoun 2. F. D. The Sullivans have a new boat. What b. D. Beth handled the dog very well today. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. C. The bosses letters are always long and dull. B. I will call you. Myself c. 4. C. B. E. (8) a. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. E. A. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. I bought those pants in the childrens department. Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years.3. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. Name the tense of each verb. Indefinite pronoun 1. (7) A. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. Sheilas mother lives next door. Personal pronoun . Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. Page 125 51 5. A month from now.

C. spend. Reciprocal pronoun 4. Jim. We watched the ships come in that night. Themself 9. Which f. singular 5. Read the following sentence. D. Interrogative pronoun 8. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. Christmas. left. Reflexive pronoun. Anne. These h. and. Us g.3. Emphatic pronoun. to. Someone d. Yourselves e. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. Demonstrative pronoun 7. . We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. 7. plural 6. with. Each other 6. for. B. B. D. Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. Cape Breton. C. 8. today. families. We will watch the ships arrive tonight.

C. Page 126 52 9. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. the cameras strap¶s 11. D. university womens' club. my neighbour's car. B. car belonging to my neighbour. the cameras' strap. university's women's club. 10. university women's club. C. the camera strap. my neighbours' car. B. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. my neighbours car.(6) early quite almost . B. university's women club. D. the camera's strap. C. D.Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A.

B. Write the tense of the verb. A.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. C. Page 127 53 14. Rewrite the paragraph. 13. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. I shovel snow mow lawns.fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. Rewrite the sentence. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? C. Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year.(3) A. The ferret belonging to Shirley was . changing the verb to the future perfect tense. using pronouns as you think are necessary. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Ron was late he stopped for me. B.) 12. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. D.

Use each in a sentence. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. cold water. A. 1. red and expensive.(5) 18. Monford¶s old barn. changing the verb to the present perfect tense.(5) B. Write three (3) sentences with interjections.(6) 17. List five (5) linking verbs. Write the tense of the verb. I heard a great new song on the radio. C. Our children don¶t like the icy. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs).(6) 4. In the following sentences. Their sporty new car.(3) 3. is too flashy.named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret.(4) 5. D. Rewrite the sentence. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. Monica¶s sneakers are always dirty and dusty. B. looked abandonned.(5) 2. 15. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity.(3) . As far as I can see. A. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. large and unpainted. 16. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives.

Page 128 54 19. Cindy .(5) 21. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow. Ted damaged his car (bad. really) (well. Write the tense of the verb. good). Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb.VERB . B. 22. B. Cindy writes letters. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). D.NOUN writes . privately) meeting. Rewrite the sentence. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. C. Choose the correct modifier. The managers had a (private. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following). B. good) after the meal. B. badly). Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs.(10) A. 20. A. E. slowly). changing the verb to the past perfect tense. A. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. The entire team did not feel (well. He answered those questions (real. D. C.(8) Example: A.

(12) 1. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course. E. but it still needs more work. While they were away. we cancelled our trip. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. G.(10) A. 6. 3. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim. F. 2. A storm was forecast. They completed the report which we requested. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. 8. B. He had went there several times before.letters . 4. Total 192 Page 130 . they visited Len and Jennifer. therefore. yet we never received it. The man who wrote that book is in town today. 5. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone.(5) Page 129 55 24. D. Your work is good. Could him and me rent a movie? 7. Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences. Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. 25.NOUN 23. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. He sure done good on his last test. C.

..interjection Matt...... An...........adverb have.PRETEST 1. Oh no....conjunction/pronoun they..pronoun really......adverb loud.............56 ANSWER KEY ...verb not...adjective clap. B.............adjective windows......adjective that.......... Cheryl¶s...noun...noun C...noun will..........verb here..verb you.........IAU ENGLISH ....pronoun are..verb..noun rattled... A..adverb D.verb coming.....adjective extremely...pronoun are.verb the.adjective than...verb .... Are...verb better.... possessive ideas...adverb happy..noun are..preposition thunder.....conjunction mine..noun of..

.......... A.... C Page 131 57 3.. Simple past B..................noun that.noun E..pronoun changed. Simple future D..preposition these..verb have........adjective tour.verb are.noun before..adjective answers.adjective 2. Past progressive C........verb been.adjective but... Simple present .adjective money......verb correct.... Each...conjunction/pronoun you...........the.....conjunction the...verb Woodstock.......pronoun of....................noun leaves..conjunction the.adverb wrong..verb now.pronoun would.

Nicole¶s D. B 11. B 7. 6. 9: e. A. d. bosses¶ E. children¶s C. Answers will vary. f. 2. Jones¶ weeks¶ 5. h. C 9. 5. a. 4 g. Sheila¶s B. c. mother¶s F. . b. A 8.E. 3. 1 6. 7. Present perfect progressive 4. B 10.

. 18.... lived Simple past have lived. feel simple present had felt...........adverb well...radio Monica¶s.. will complete 2. great. will have completed 13.. unpainted.... Answers may vary... 23...present perfect 16. . A. 14... Page 132 58 15..adverb well.. 21...... large. abandonned..barn Our.car 17.... Answers may vary.... Answers will vary. icy. new. Answers may vary..song the.past perfect 22.adjective (after a linking verb) private. red... badly. a.. Answers will vary... dusty. Answers may vary.. flashy........12......children the.. cold...... dirty.water their...sneakers Monford¶s.adverb really. old.adverb 20.. new.adjective slowly.. sporty. Answers may vary. Simple future 3. 19.. expensive...

......... and.co-ordinate conjunction either/or.relative pronoun but.....subordinate conjunction and..relative pronoun who.correlative conjunction while. Page 133 59 25. The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport.... He had gone there several times before.24... The driver could have finished this if he had had the time. The lawyer will do the work himself........... Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course.conjunctive adverb that..co-ordinate conjunction yet... I bought some of those apples from Jim and him. Page 134 ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 Page 135 1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns ..co-ordinate conjunction therefore.co-ordinate conjunction....

lobster 7. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. fishermen. hill. Japan 9. ocean. clams. few 2. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. Stones. themselves 5. markets. birds. night shipment. 8. All. daughter. Titantic. life. Who 8. area. top. Saint John. herself.1. car. hours. snow. Northumberland Strait 2. penguins. Confederation Bridge. those 7. catch 10. They. roads. weather 10. husbands. blueberries 3. something. dog. Robert. them. What. friend 4. canneries seafood. you 4. None. 1. boats 4. scallops. water B. cold 9. iceberg 7. Everybody. Many. porch 2. ship. passengers. lives. that . villages. motels 6. mussels. truck 5. She. Shediac. drivers. harbours. Florida. South Pole. us. she 6. cat. sea 6. couples. people. storms. fishermen. you. muffins. these 9. lobster 5. wives 8. collision. Answers will vary. computer. they 3. weather. traps. clouds 3. boats.

They. Flew 4. Thought 9. that 5. This. Was enjoying . 1. Them. her. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. us. any. Looked 10. Walks 7. no one 2. Dreamed 6. Who. him. them. we 10. her 3. He. Perched 3. Threw 2. Page 136 2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. it 8. What. Rides 8. Cost 5. his 6. Me. were jogging 2. Ate 3. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. it 4. She. Sat. Answers will vary. Many B.10. you. We 7. some 9. Mine.

dusty 2. The. Was bringing 4. quiet. annual 9. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. These. beautiful. dark. Paper. hot dry Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. The. torn. Early 2. 5. Are reading. Carefully . light 7. Has been driving 6. Had been broken 3. A. white 4. six flower the. Soon 3. Little. Learned 2. old. Became 6. Six. the. Will guess 7. The. hockey. have finished 8. Decided 5. summer. Brought 8. the steel 8. delicious 3. Hope. Are calling 10. faded 6. few. juicy. Could stay 5. Was returning 9. Agreed 10. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. new. The. A.4. the. train. that. Will send 9. red 10. the. Arrived 7. brown. long.

4. at the beach. Truly 9. Behind the desk. On the bed. at noon. Very. you are really thinking. Never 7. lately 8. why. Politely. very 4. Really. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. Generally. Relatively 2. there 5. 5. beside those. correctly 9. Finally. On airplanes. effectively 7. Yesterday. very. in the guest room 2. Quickly. Not. Of her dress. on the table. Page 137 3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. Daily 3. under the stairs 4. where. Not . Brightly 10. quickly 10. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. quite 6. Here. late 8. on trains . Surprisingly. Through the park. tomorrow 6. Today. If you identified them as adverbs. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. really Note: for class. accurately 5. towards home 3.

Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John¶s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared . Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. into a syrup 9.6. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. With the long scarf. On the porch 7. Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. On the road. in the mall Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. to Stanley 10. With tickets 8. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie¶s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8. From maple trees. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt.

And words (2 nouns) 3. Before ideas 8. And adverbs But ideas 5.Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most Page 138 4 10. Ouch 4. Oh no 3. And adjectives When . So ideas 6. And prepositional phrases 4. Yuck Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. And words (2 nouns) 2. Wow 2. No 5. After ideas 7.

ideas 9. Our pronoun/adjective and conjunction friends noun I pronoun in preposition . If so 8. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1. That both. When 9. Until 7. Because Exercise 15: Review 1. Carol noun 2. Although and 2. Because yet 3.. Or which 4. And 10..and 6. Because ideas 10. Who but 5.

The adjective (article) 4.Page 139 5 travelled verb Calgary noun to preposition were verb Alberta noun surprised adjective last adjective when conjunction year noun we pronoun arrived verb 3. Their pronoun/adjective tall adjective house noun majestic .

No interjection 6. We pronoun you pronoun jogged verb should verb quickly .adjective was verb Rocky Mountains noun built verb majestic adjective in preposition are verb 1990 noun a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun 5.

Most pronoun 8. She pronoun of preposition was verb the adjective (article) .adverb not adverb through preposition take verb the adjective (article) your pronoun/adjective dark adjective camera noun woods noun on preposition your pronoun/adjective trip noun 7.

giving verb students noun a adjective (article) listened verb short adjective politely adverb but conjunction interesting adjective lecture noun Page 140 6 9. The adjective (article) bought verb wind noun a adjective (article) was verb very . We pronoun 10.

This adjective 12.adverb cold adjective small adjective but conjunction quantity noun the adjective (article) of preposition sun noun food noun was verb yesterday adverb really adverb warm adjective 11. Sheila noun book noun and conjunction cost verb he .

pronoun six adjective were verb dollars noun talking verb to preposition her pronoun when conjunction it pronoun happened verb 13. The adjective 14. Turn verb American adjective at preposition fishermen noun the adjective (article) caught verb lights noun two adjective and .

conjunction salmon noun go verb for preposition two adjective lunch noun blocks noun west adverb 15. . Eric noun and conjunction they pronoun learned verb very adverb quickly adverb Page 141 7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1.

stars. language. Regina 3. leaves. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary. France. hockey*. arena. stores. maple*. path Black Lake 2. cow. city Bathurst. areas North America 8. computer. weekend Italy 6. rules. syrup.moonlight. parcel. Marsha. sister. Bay of Chaleur 4. settlers Gaspé. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. street Beresford 9. family. newspaper. people. grammar English 7. mill Robin. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. exceptions. school. bubbles . sale. Alberta 5. England 10. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. carnival.

dog¶s 3. happiness. a lot of. several. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. truth. several. . etc. skiing. Martha¶s sister was worried about her son¶s health. grace. etc. Mary¶s 2. (one son) 4.Abstract nouns: justice.) assignments to do this week. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. Ann receives (too much. men¶s 5. many pieces of.) junk mail. 2. Sue¶s. a few. 1. a large number of. Bob¶s uncle lives near Sharon¶s farm. months¶ 4. Charles¶ company owed him two days¶ pay. 3. 4. 3. a large amount of. (Many. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A.) deer were shot this season. the children¶s book Elvis¶s biggest fans the secretaries¶ meeting the bosses¶ memos my oldest son¶s car the men¶s department Page 142 8 the buses¶ schedule the cats¶ paws the coyote¶s barking two weeks¶ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. Owen has (many. etc. boy¶s B.

10. but the company¶s salesman went to my cousin¶s (cousins¶)* place. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. 6. The skateboarders¶ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 3. A March snow storm is sometimes called ³winter¶s last lament´. City Council¶s regular meetings are held on Mondays. 8. Childs¶ car was being serviced at Eaton¶s. 7. 7. The child¶s name is Nora. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. * Depending on the meaning. 4. his wife¶s income was reduced. (two uncles) 2. 10. Frank and James¶ mail order business is making them a rich man¶s fortune. Mark¶s mother lives at my sister¶s. My uncles¶ farmhouse was struck by during last summer¶s storm. Smith was worried about their sons¶ health. . either would be correct. Have you seen Mel Gibson¶s last three movies? 5. Finish your client¶s reports before you go to Smith¶s tonight. (two sons) 5. The girl¶s hair had been cut short for the twins¶ wedding. Because of the accident. 9. (one client) 9. 6. The sun¶s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. Mr. and the family¶s name is Boudreau.Mrs. The students¶ cafeteria will be closed after next week¶s graduation. The women¶s resumés were sent to the companies¶ head offices by the bosses¶ secretary.

That is my neighbour's new car. Ferry Road. C. . interjections 3. pronouns 3. verbs 4. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive. conjunctions 8. The eight parts of speech are: 1.A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. adverbs 6. The proper nouns in the sentence are B. This is Doris's store. prepositions 7. Page 143 9 2. Centennial Bridge. Laura is Pam's oldest sister. B. A. adjectives 5. 4. Chatham. nouns 2.

. thing. Canada Day E. 7.Pepsi. Campbellton. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. Those are the children's toys. Bathurst. John River.I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. Halifax. Boxing Day. Miramichi River. Consumer Reports. Saint John. New River D.Canadian Living. holiday Christmas. or quality. Labour Day. Edmundston. Chatelaine. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. river St. Easter. Sports Page 144 10 Illustrated. E. Thanksgiving. Entertainment. Truro. D. Halifax. Salmon River. Little River. Ottawa C. The nouns in the sentence are C. Orange Crush. town. Coca-Cola. place. A noun is a word which names a person. Check your answer with your instructor. Discover. A. magazine . friends. soda pop . Sprite B. Answers will vary. 7-Up. Fredericton. city Moncton. Nova Scotia. 5. Parents 8. New Brunswick Day. Inside Sports. 6.

province) A. count. count**.common. no corrections D. A. plural mob . Jupiter planet E. Saint John city D. B. church . There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. concrete. count. singular mice . possessive .common. abstract*. concrete. singular Canada¶s . Dr. Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? E.proper. C. January month B. abstract. non-count. 10. concrete. (Example: New Brunswick . singular beauty . count. I had a great time last St. The petals of the flower fell to the floor.Write a common noun for each proper noun given below.common. Patrick's Day. Canada country C. singular. collective.common. Parker doctor 9.

etc. abstract. abstract*. e. singular. abstract*. count.common. singular boy¶s . singular March .common. but mine is on the desk.common. ³Lions¶ possessive broccoli . singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one. . possessive Lions¶ Club . plural food .proper. singular English horn . concrete.common. Upper /Lower Canada. count. concrete. count. singular fragrance . singular trouble . count. French/English Canada.common.common.common. possessive loyalty .common. concrete. abstract. concrete.common.g. singular jury .common. concrete.proper. Did you give him his book? 2. abstract. count. I saw them eating their lunch myself 3.common. count. count. abstract. non-count.common. singular. collective. plural. singular surprise .common. singular armies . concrete. concrete. count. count. concrete. count. abstract*. singular Page 145 11 sunrise . count. singular men¶s .common. count. plural. abstract. He may have taken her coat. count.news . Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1. count. collective. concrete. abstract.common. count**. collective. concrete. singular/plural grammar . non-count. possessive company . singular gold . singular boys¶ .common. non-count. collective.common. count.

2 person singular nd 2.3 person singular theirs . hers. you .Person. Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns . her. They. My sister. Second person singular F. us. They .4.3 person singular feminine . First person singular A.3 person plural my . their. ours. me. Gender A. I.1 person singular they . 1. Third person plural B. Third person singular D.2 person singular/plural her . We. herself 3.3 person plural rd rd rd they . 1. ourselves 2. themselves 5. your. Cheryl gave her cold to them. theirs. I . her husband and their children visited your mother. myself B. my. Number. them.3 person plural its . mine. You.3 person plural it .3 person singular rd rd 3. yourselves 4. 5. First person plural C. She. our. yours.1 person singular st rd st your .

You 5.1 person plural our -1st person plural rd st Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. me 12. it¶s 10. you¶re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary. those. her 11. The following is an . his. he 2. Its. he.3 person plural we . Have your instructor check your answer. me 6.nd rd you . I 7. their 9. he 3. They . they. they 8.2 person singular/plural nd nd 4. Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection Page 146 12 1. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. her 4. Your.2 person singular/plural yours .

. Al met she at the movies. 3. That doesn¶t sound right. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. 5. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. Your other choice is her. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car.example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. His car is just like a new one. To find the right choice. We sent her some flowers. The word yous does not exist. 2. 4. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. it had not been driven very far when he bought it.. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. so try Al met her at the movies. 6.. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. The pronoun them never goes with a noun. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. Mary drove I to the mall. Read the sentence without John . Although his car is not a new one.. Her gave. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. Now it¶s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. . Al met John and her at the movies. Her is the right choice. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1. 7.

Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately.but try switching the sentence around. and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance. 10. and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? Page 147 13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. I was . Him is the man outside. (This is tricky and may not sound right. The man standing outside is he. In this sentence. The second choice makes more sense. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. Page 148 14 9. Use the same strategy as in sentence 11. Therefore. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret. He is the man outside. Jane's best friend was I. They kept the secret from Jack and me.) 8. Now the other pronoun choice. the second sentence sounds better. The pronoun yourself is singular. Me was Jane's best friend. They kept the secret from I. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I.) 11. The plural version of this pronoun is the right one. two people should be preparing themselves.

Mine 5... Ourselves..president 2.. They 2... It¶s means ³it is´.. themselves...Jane's best friend....we 9. Your instructor will check your answer.. B..... Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe.. Your 4... It.family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8.. Her.. Their...... 1. The obvious choice is the pronoun I....managers 3. The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun.. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1. Their.. Decide which sentence sounds the best. Their..books 4.students..one (Girls is not the antecedent...... Them. Her 3. Only one person received a trophy. ..family (used as a single unit) 6........... 12. His.jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5. Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech.....) 7... those.

.) Philip gave her Donna¶s present. the gender is not clear) Page 149 15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary. (Donna bought the present... The audience clapped for the actors¶ performance. 3.. 2. The police officer told the driver. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2. 4. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. Norm and Al filled Al¶s (or Norm¶s) basket with apples from Fredericton...) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn.. 3. Norm and Al filled Jim¶s basket with apples from Fredericton. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. As well. . (Philip bought the present.. His or her. ³You deserved this ticket.student (3rd person singular.. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale..´ 5. and you should pay it. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear.These. Philip gave her a present..donations 10.

None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket. Several of the men have paid their dues. those 5.. That B. Exercise 38: Reflexive... Yourself .... 8.Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding.. Yourself emphatic. A few forgot their lunches. This 2. These. 10. 7.an action he did to himself 2.no one else washed it 4. 1.. Many hens have escaped from their pen. Such 4. 9. Emphatic. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. One another reciprocal 5. The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence.. A few of us have received our marks. Himself reflexive. 4. Each other reciprocal 3. Answers will vary. That 3. 5. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. 6.

Myself emphatic Page 150 16 7. Himself. ---5. Who 2. Which 7. Themselves emphatic 8. What 10. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal . herself reflexive 10. Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is. (To) whom 6. Herself reflexive 9. Ourselves reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1. What 3.reflexive 6. ---8. ---Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1. ----4. Which 9.

neuter (no gender)..personal pronoun..personal pronoun..demonstrative pronoun 4. 3 person singular rd 3.R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B. 1 person singular. 3 person...personal pronoun... refers to person(s) nd who are present that.........personal pronoun. singular it.... 3 person plural. singular.emphatic pronoun..interrogative pronoun anyone. feminine . She. 3 person singular.. What..... refers to the noun rd children it... 2 person. 1.....indefinite pronoun. refers to person who is speaking st 2... singular or plural.. you... singular that..personal pronoun. replaces the rd noun accident me.... themselves....demonstrative pronoun.

........... masculine and/or feminine. singular or plural nd 6. That. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which.personal pronoun.. singular.. 3 person. their.. singular.demonstrative pronoun. modifies the noun bill them.relative pronoun.. feminine rd 5..personal pronoun. 2 person.indefinite pronoun her.. masculine and/or feminine rd .indefinite pronoun you... 3 person.....rd herself...... plural... singular or plural nd 7.... rd modifies the noun boss that.. singular. 3 person.. 3 person. singular... 3 person..personal pronoun. shows possession.personal pronoun.. 3 person...relative pronoun. used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone. feminine rd any.reflexive pronoun...relative pronoun. plural.... masculine.demonstrative pronoun.. used as a conjunction to join two ideas you....... plural.. rd shows possession..... masculine rd Page 151 17 his.....personal pronoun. singular that...personal pronoun..personal pronoun. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those.. He. 2 person....

they.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, masculine and/or feminine, refers rd to a plural noun mentioned previously it......personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, no gender, refers to a singular rd noun mentioned previously. 8. My.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession, modifies the st noun attempt, refers to the person speaking I.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, refers to the person speaking st I.....(as above) it.....personal pronoun, 3 person, singular, neuter, refers to a ³whole´ idea rd (the first attempt was a failure) 9. Which.....interrogative pronoun both......indefinite pronoun, plural, refers to the noun choices them.....personal pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to pronoun both which rd refers to the noun choices 10. itself......emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1. all.....indefinite pronoun my.....personal pronoun 2. who.....interrogative pronoun 3. they.....personal pronoun themselves......reflexive pronoun

4. You.....personal pronoun Page 152 18 that.....demonstrative pronoun them.....personal pronoun you......personal pronoun 5. who......relative pronoun each other......reciprocal pronoun 6. your......personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he......personal pronoun mine......personal pronoun, possessive 7. We......personal pronoun you.....personal pronoun who.....relative pronoun that......demonstrative pronoun 8. We.....personal pronoun ourselves......emphatic pronoun 9. yourselves......reflexive pronoun what.....interrogative pronoun I.......personal pronoun those.......demonstrative pronoun 10. Something.......indefinite pronoun Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1. 1 person plural C. st

interrogative pronoun F. or I. reciprocal pronoun B relative pronoun F. or I. indefinite pronoun (plural) K. demonstrative pronoun A. indefinite pronoun (singular) E. possessive pronoun J. reflexive pronoun H. a word that doesn¶t exist G 2. Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive. Page 153 19 3. a. she b. himself c. me d. which e. its f. your g. their h. those i. him

j. themselves 4. Answers will vary. 5. A. is incorrect 6. D. is correct 7. B. correctly completes the sentence. 8. A. Few.....indefinite pronoun, plural B. Those.....demonstrative pronoun, plural mine.....personal pronoun, 1 person, singular, shows possession st C. which.....relative pronoun themselves.....reflexive pronoun, 3 person, plural, refers to companies rd D. Who.....interrogative pronoun anything......indefinite pronoun, singular this......demonstrative pronoun, singular E. yourself......reflexive pronoun, singular something......indefinite pronoun Exercise 43: Action Verbs A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary. Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. jumped.....action 2.

hit.....action 3. smashed.....action 4. watched.....action 5. were.....linking 6. is.....linking 7. was.....linking 8. will be.....linking 9. were.....linking 10. feared.....action Page 154 20 11. squeaked.....action 12. were.....linking 13. drove.....action 14. believed.....action 15. tasted.....action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. smells.....linking 2. looks.....linking 3. looked.....action 4. became......linking 5.

drive will 2.action 7.. He must have taken my jacket by mistake......coughed.action 9.. Would you please flip the hamburgers? . We played ball against their team Saturday. publishes.action 11.. felt....action 6......action 15. sings. slammed.. That would have confused anyone! confused would have 5.. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter....... played ---------4. drove. Close.action 13. fell.....action 8..linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary.. felt.... broke. Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs SENTENCE MAIN HELPING VERB VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1....action 14. dances. know... howl... tastes...linking 10..action 12.. taken must have 3...

A child can easily learn this song. learn can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses . was ------7. The washing machine has broken down. heard have 12. lived has 8. He might have consulted a doctor. Mitchell has lived here all his life. consulted might have 13. given may have been 14. eaten should have Page 155 21 10. I shall never agree to his proposal. Have you ever heard such nonsense.flip would 6. not after the last trip. I will not be going. agree shall 15. broken has 11. The men should have eaten that by now. There was a good show on TV last night. going will be 9. Sue may never have been given that letter.

......simple future D.. Answers may vary.A... B.past progressive J. B..... 5.. 4.. will kick..future progressive I.. had kicked..present perfect F.. 3. Answers may vary.. He has talked to the Lions¶ Club before... 6.. A. will be leaving. is kicking.future perfect G. 9. has been kicking..... 8.. Answers may vary.past perfect H.. ..present progressive C.. Vanessa was signing her lease. was giving... had been learning. kicks. 7.simple present B.......present perfect progressive E.. will have kicked.past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1.. A... has kicked... They will have washed the laundry by then. 2... C. D..

Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs Page 156 22 1-3. Passive .10. Passive 5. Past perfect G. The couple will be needing even more room soon. A. Simple past Page 157 23 Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. Answers may vary. 4. Answers may vary. Simple past C. 11. Answers may vary. Passive 2. Present progressive B. Active 3. Future perfect E. Future progressive F. Present perfect D. It had been snowing for three days. We have been thinking about you lately. Active 4. 12.

6. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word¶s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Passive 15. Active 7. Passive 10. Have eaten 3 person plural 2 person (singular or plural) rd nd simple future present perfect active voice active voice . Active 14. Active 13. Active 12. Passive 11. Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Will show 3. Passive 9. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Passive 8.

Spoke 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd simple future simple past passive voice active voice ³The waiter´ will serve 8. Has been asking 3 person singular 3 person singular rd rd past perfect present perfect progressive passive voice active voice Page 158 24 The committee had asked Page 159 25 6. Shall be seeing . Will be served 7. Had been asked 5.4.

st rd future progressive simple past active voice passive voice The dog bit the boy 9 b) Was destroyed 10 a) Are 3 person singular (neuter) 3 person plural (m or f) rd rd simple past simple present passive voice active voice ³The vet´ destroyed 10 b) Are 11. Was bitten 1 person singular 3 person singular. Walks 3 person plural 3 person singular rd rd simple present simple present active voice active voice 12. Am doing 13. Will have been playing 1 person singular 3 person singular .9 a).

wings its landed 2. her rides 3. bike. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. office my. is . sister. planes. neuter rd rd present progressive past perfect active voice passive voice ³The painter´ had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. Pronouns. them says. ice. that. Gander. Is dating 15. Tom everything. Had been repainted 3 person singular 3 person plural.st rd present progressive future perfect progressive active voice active voice 14.

simple past. men both. 3 person. each other might find 9. will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. results everyone. parts us buys 6.. and Verbs 1. Kevin. concrete. they is finished. herself was teaching 7. ---you were thinking 10.... singular..noun.. problems something. those were 5. singular gave. airport they.Page 160 26 4.verb. Pronouns. company. active voice . Spanish my.. proper. each should be done 8. sister..

singular..... 3 person.noun. simple present..verb. singular.rd me. Pronouns. all..... singular 4. proper........pronoun. common. singular. singular 2. common. active voice rd Exercise 59:Nouns...verb.. 3 person.. 1 person singular st Marion¶s...verb.. chefs... common. concrete.. possessive rd decision. common.. 3 person. 3 person.. common..pronoun....verb.. present progressive.noun.pronoun. concrete. 1 person. demonstrative.. active voice rd its.. indefinite. plural these.. proper. singular.. singular. plural will sell... personal.. personal.. concrete lives. st mother¶s.. simple future... concrete.. concrete.. jury.noun. Aunt Gladys. possessive. plural 5.... concrete..pronoun. possessive rd recipes. and Verbs 1. singular 3.. singular are being asked.noun. . personal. concrete. 3 person.. plural..noun. personal.. possessive..noun. singular card.....noun. active voice rd my..... present progressive.. possessive.pronoun. 3 person.. common.noun....pronoun.. passive voice rd their.... concrete.... plural.. plural.... collective is discussing...

.. 1 person singular.noun.. personal. He.verb. 2 person.. linking.noun.... 1 person singular st am..pronoun. singular/plural nd have written.. past progressive.pronoun.. singular or plural... 3 person singular rd was going.. active voice rd his.. linking.pronoun. singular 2.verb.verb.. 3 person. action... concrete. 2 person.....pronoun. singular 4.... possessive rd girlfriend. singular is talking..noun.. concrete. singular... concrete.I.verb.. plural Page 161 27 seem.. common.. singular phone.... You.. personal.pronoun..... 3 person. common.. active voice rd 5. common.... 2 person. Your... present progressive. personal. singular. possessive nd choices. masculine. active voice ... concrete......noun.. personal. singular. common...... personal. 3 person... present perfect.. Luke. proper.noun. singular/plural.. plural. simple present rd 3.. action 3 person..... simple present st decision.verb.

... present perfect. Oprah. concrete. singular. active voice people¶s.... personal.verb... personal. singular hour... proper 10. concrete..pronoun. common. concrete.. concrete.. concrete......noun. personal. plural. singular June.... masculine rd had watched. singular 8. concrete.......verb. singular accident. 3 person. common.nd letter. singular 9..noun. singular you. 1 person. past perfect..pronoun. proper will have finished. possessive attitudes.. singular/plural nd will need....... singular.noun... 2 person. plural.. singular/plural.... singular. Tony... active voice nd 7....noun.. future perfect... 3 person. He. We. common.. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns .noun. concrete...noun.noun. plural st were walking. 2 person.. 3 person.........noun.verb. singular.... common. active voice rd course. common.. abstract..verb... common. concrete.. common. common.noun.. plural honesty. 1 person.. non-count.pronoun....... 3rd person.noun. common. singular. common. concrete...noun....noun. past progressive... simple future. concrete...verb.. active voice rd TV.. singular has changed.... active voice st beach..noun. singular 6. proper. money.

common.. count.... personal. proper 5. concrete. 3 person.. common.verb. common.noun..verb. concrete. active voice rd 2. 3 . count. 3 . 3 .noun.. simple past......pronoun.noun..... personal.. plural Cuba.verb... concrete. non-count.... storm.noun. singular.. his. He.pronoun. singular.. plural... 3 . singular 4.pronoun.. Many. common.. active voice rd bread... 3 . concrete.. plural ... singular watered... used as an adjective rd Page 162 28 mouth.. It.. simple past.. singular..pronoun. action. personal...verb... linking verb..verb. count. indefinite. concrete.... linking. common. plural rd were...1. masculine rd smelled. singular... masculine. singular approached. singular.. 3 ..noun..... action. active voice rd 3. rd night. count... singular..pronoun. simple past.noun.. simple past rd reservations.. 3 singular rd afternoon. personal.. concrete..... 3 . simple past... common..noun.... singular grew. action... They..

simple past.. Her...noun. concrete. 8. action.. possessive rd relatives. concrete.. plural come... common. What... concrete.... Will complete. singular/plural. concrete. count. plural were eating. personal. active voice nd survey.. 3 person. plural.. simple present..colours. action..noun. singular 7. demonstrative. concrete.. Those. 3 ... 3 person. singular 10. passive voice rd these.noun..pronoun.. plural.verb... personal. possessive rd lunch.. plural were made. concrete.. plural....... present progressive. present perfect. 3 .. common.... active voice rd 9.. 3 person. plural... action... concrete. 2 .noun. singular.... common. singular 6.noun.. feminine drove.... simple future..verb... proper.... concrete. interrogative has seen. non-count..... singular porch. singular heat.. 3 .pronoun.noun.. singular.noun.. passive rd decorator.. active voice rd their. common.noun. active voice rd Sackville. singular.. action.pronoun. past perfect.verb.pronoun.noun..verb..verb... concrete.. count.verb... common.. demonstrative. singular/plural. count.verb... plural. Liz....... plural are being changed...pronoun. past progressive.. common.. 3 ..... active voice rd .. common. action.... 3 . proper.

. big spoon 4. reflexive. sugary.pronoun. rusty car my space 3. uneven road 2. those. proper.noun. an. rough. old.. concrete Page 163 29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1.. singular.. boring. feminine rd Central Hospital. six . 3 ... light* bulb 5. sweet icing the.. a. depressing day 6. the child the.herself. a. The. ragged string dusty..

sparkling. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun. spicy. dull skates 15. sweet. lovable cats the. blue eyes 11. this trip several days 8. our cousins huge. some. two. these parcels 12. little girl big. Exercise 62: Adjectives . The. they can be identified as adjectives. hockey*. Mexican food 9.people 7. juicy apples 13. summer* clothes 14. Tim¶s* house 10. light. Karl¶s*. Shelley.

piercing the inky darkness. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. lit a huge crackling fire. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. With relief. After two long hours. They set up their canvas tents. They weren¶t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1. A few boys knew that they were lost. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. and ate their supper. they saw a beam of light. Jensen¶s chicken farm. and one older Page 164 30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook.The young hikers walked through the dark woods. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. . He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. bright and narrow. and the hills were gentle. The weather was warm.

thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3. Adjectives.... never..when never..........interrogative adverb now.. .....when carefully............when 8.interrogative adverb very..... Why...... not. and Adverbs 1..how casually 3.. quite..yesterday.....how too.how exciting 9..how efficiently 6..how good 10......... almost... politely modifies the verb asked 2...how important 7. casually..when extremely... daily modifies the verb review 4.when 4....where later.. there.......when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs... really....negative very...how quickly 5...how 2.. where...how useful efficiently.how more.

. very modifies the adjective happy 6. The sentence describes how she behaves. 5. deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8. An adverb is needed to Page 165 31 modify the verb behaves. simply is an adverb. so well. 4. Really. Simple is an adjective. Really is an adverb. 2. Good is an adjective. real is an adjective. sadly is an adverb. Simple. sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7. very modifies the adverb fast 9. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. an adverb. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. Sad is an adjective.tightly modifies the verb packed 5. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. really modifies the adjective tired 10. An adverb is required to modify the adjective. Sad. Well. 3. is the best choice. fast modifies the verb travel.

Badly is an adverb. Although well is usually an adverb. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. Gradual is an adjective. An adverb modifies a verb. Use the adjective good to complete it. 8. 6. Seriously. Well. Smaller. Awful is an adjective. Quickly. Gradual. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver¶s test. Awful. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. Comparing two people 2. Calm is an adjective. 13. 14. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. Badly. Quickly is an adverb. 11. bad is an adjective. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone.Well. calmly is an adverb. Taste is a linking verb. 9. An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone¶s health. 15. quick is an adjective. 12. serious is an adjective. 7. 10. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. Calm. gradually is an adverb. awfully is an adverb. Slowly. Good. More rapidly . Brightly. Seriously is an adverb. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice.

1. under 5. Comparing more than two 7. of 3. by (on top of) 9. Worse (comparing two things) 5. in. of. in 4. with. at 8. Unique. Eldest. Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. More difficult (comparing two things) 6.3. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. to. For. along. with 6. near. in. Answers will vary. for . Page 166 32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. down. Among. around 7. beside. of (at the end of) 2. More. in. for. B. at. on.

for shells and pebbles.adverb.. with Page 167 33 C. with the hornets¶ nest 6. at the end. for the conference 10..adverb. in this store 4.... to the door.. in the world... among the rubble... with the funny hat D. for the best costume.. .... down the hill. by my son (on top of the hill) 9. of the day (at the end of the day) 2... 1.. With the sore ear. For shells and pebbles. along the beach..why along the beach... around the corner 7.10....adverb... in 1960.. for. to.. of the hill. near the trees. in your group.modifies the noun end 2... beside the store. 1.where at the end. for pictures.when of the day. at noon 8. to the clown..adjective.. under my son¶s bed 5.. of her mother and father 3... on top.

....... near the trees...how Page 168 34 9.......adverb.adverb...adjective.....adjective.modifies the noun cat to the door......adverb.....when by my son.adjective....adverb.adjective.modifies the noun houses on top.where 4..........when 8. Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition..............where around the corner..where with the hornets¶ nest...adverb....where 5......among the rubble....adverb.... for the best costume....modifies the noun theme 10..adjective.....adverb....... beside the store.modifies the noun houses of the hill.....modifies the noun socks under my son¶s bed....adverb...adverb.modifies the noun women for the conference.adjective..... in this store.......adverb..adjective..........where at noon...... down the hill...................modifies the noun top on top of the hill...why of her mother and father...... in your group.. with the sore ear....can be considered as one prepositional phrase.........modifies the noun pictures 3..adjective.modifies the noun prize to the clown.where for pictures...adjective.adverb. in 1960............modifies the noun trees 6....adverb.....adjective.......... how .where 7.... in the world....where............

.adjective.adjective.....modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn..where 8..............adjective..where in the closets..where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store...adjective..adverb..........adjective......... near the mall.........how.where of me..........with the funny hat..........adverb.......when of the water.where of a big spacious lawn....adverb..modifying the noun station at the old mill....adverb..adjective... where 2....how long in the heat.modifying the noun lady into the line..adverb... during the night.....modifying the noun men for two hours...when of the staff..... in the kitchen...adverb....modifying the noun north 4.....adjective. In the middle.......adverb.............where 7............adverb.............adverb....modifying the noun front in front of me....adverb.modifying the noun women under the tables............adverb.......adjective.....where 3.......modifying the pronoun all at the radio station......where 6......adverb.modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1.adverb.. On Fridays.where of the city limits............adjective....where in front... on the roof......where to the north..adjective......where 5.adverb.modifying the noun rest from the basement.. .......adverb... with big hat.adverb...

... but 13...modifying the noun ad in Manitoba.adjective.where 10.. both... nor 7. meanwhile 11...why from the day care....modifying the noun graduation for a job. not only..adverb........ neither......adverb..adjective... neither.... however 8... and. After his graduation....modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1. but also 3. and 6.. but 2.. so .modifying the noun day care around the block... not only. and 12........ and 5. or 4.Because of the storm......when Page 169 35 in 1992..adjective..... nor 9... but also 10..... yet 14. either..modifying the noun children at the church.. or.adjective......adverb..adjective..

15. as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. because 2. since 3. even though 4. after 5. where 6. since 7. why 8. than 9. whether 10. how 11. before 12. if 13. although 14. because 15. while 16. because 17. although 18. how 19. if 20. why 21. as if 22. unless 23. than 24. after 25. before B.

1. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). 2. (Since I first met Sheila and her), she has always been very polite. 3. I won¶t be able to go (even though I have the money). 4. After the whale beach itself, local citizens rescued it. 5. I know (where they have hidden the treasure), but I don¶t have a map. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. 6. (After the maple trees were damaged), they were cut down. 7. I wonder (why they are leaving so early). 8. Mark knows more (than I do about that case). 9. It isn¶t certain (whether they will come or not). 10. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). Page 170 36 11. (Before they read the book), they fixed it themselves 12. After the lecture, the students asked (if they could stay). Compare the use of after. In sentence 12, after is a preposition. Why? 13. (Although he is stronger), he couldn¶t turn it. 14. (Because you were late), you missed it 15. Thieves broke in (while we were away). 16. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). Compare this with, The roads were slippery because of the snow. 17. (Although it was quite sunny), the wind was cool.

18. I don¶t know (how I will get there). 19. (If you are short), you can¶t reach that cupboard. 20. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 21. He always talks (as if he were an expert). 22. (Unless the Leafs win this game), they are out of the playoffs. 23. Les is five inches taller (than I am). 24. (After he won the gold medal), he turned pro. 25. You just answered my questions (before I asked them). Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. that 2. that 3. who 4. which 5. who 6. whom 7. who 8. that 9. that 10. that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. Exercise 74: Review A 1. dogs noun 2.

The adjective (article) make verb pioneers noun good adjective settle verb pets noun quickly adverb for preposition on preposition young adjective the adjective (article) children noun small adjective farms noun around preposition Page 171 37 Gloucester noun 3. your adjective (pronoun) 4. Does verb (auxiliary) ancestors noun

he pronoun lived verb often adverb beside preposition go verb (main) the adjective to preposition sea noun the adjective mine preposition beach noun lived verb during preposition near preposition the adjective Moncton noun summer noun 5.

I pronoun big adjective do verb (aux) chunky adjective not adverb pots noun think verb (main) sell verb their adjective/pronoun for preposition problems noun nine adjective now adverb dollars noun because conjunction so conjunction I pronoun .Those adjective/pronoun 6.

you pronoun do verb (aux) can verb (aux) not adverb buy verb (main) have verb (main) several pronoun time noun of preposition them pronoun 7. Casually adverb 8. Everyone pronoun the adjective recognized verb thieves noun his adjective/pronoun surveyed verb courage .

noun the adjective and conjunction neighbourhood noun strength noun until conjunction even if conjunction they pronoun he pronoun Page 172 38 spotted verb did verb (aux) the adjective not adverb right adjective house noun 9. Lilacs noun .

Mark noun always adverb smelled verb smell verb the adjective wonderful adjective skunk noun in preposition and conjunction spring noun left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb 11. She pronoun students noun believes verb in . The adjective 12.10.

He pronoun frail adjective has verb (aux) old adjective always adverb lady noun been verb (main) . The adjective 14.preposition in preposition this adjective/pronoun his adjective/pronoun program noun ability noun are verb very adverb hard adjective workers noun 13.

You pronoun must verb (aux) never adverb .is verb a adjective safe adjective really adverb but conjunction excellent adjective unhappy adjective hockey adjective/noun at preposition coach noun the adjective seniors¶ adjective/noun home noun Page 173 39 15.

Fred noun 2.show verb (main) your adjective/pronoun fear noun of preposition snakes noun to preposition your adjective/pronoun children noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. Usually adverb sat verb the adjective on preposition chairs noun the adjective were verb (aux) .

fence noun placed verb (main) and conjunction near preposition ate verb the adjective his adjective/pronoun windows noun lunch noun but conjunction while conjunction today adverb the adjective they pronoun others noun are verb went verb in .

I pronoun 4.preposition into preposition a adjective town noun circle noun 3. Very adverb had verb (aux) quickly adverb been verb (aux) they pronoun studying verb (main) finished verb for preposition their adjective/pronoun three adjective work noun hours .

After conjunction had verb they pronoun been verb had verb writing verb mowed . They pronoun 6.noun and conjunction Page 174 40 I pronoun still adverb do verb (aux) not adverb know verb (main) it pronoun 5.

verb their adjective/pronoun the adjective essays noun lawn noun before conjunction they pronoun they pronoun bought verb went verb lunch noun there adverb 7. Although conjunction they pronoun the adjective have verb storm . Because conjunction 8.

Because of preposition the adjective her .noun cashed verb was verb their pronoun very adverb cheques noun intense adjective they pronoun the adjective have verb damage adjective some adjective was verb money noun minor adjective 9. Since preposition 10.

Have verb 12. The adjective you pronoun .adjective/pronoun accident noun problems noun the adjective Sue noun victims noun often adverb have verb seeks verbs recovered verb my adjective/pronoun Page 175 41 quite adverb advice noun well adverb 11.

elderly adjective ever adverb waiter noun seen verb who conjunction those adjective served verb boats noun us pronoun in preposition beer noun the adjective is verb harbour noun an adjective before adverb old adjective of .

Where adverb thinks verb did verb that conjunction you pronoun these adjective hide verb train adjective/noun the adjective tickets noun candy noun are verb which conjunction ours pronoun I pronoun . Who pronoun 14.preposition hers pronoun 13.

Miles¶ noun/adjective that adjective brother noun knife noun is verb is verb extremely adverb so adverb intelligent adjective sharp adjective even if conjunction that conjunction he .and conjunction bought verb those pronoun are verb theirs pronoun 15. Ouch interjection 16.

Hey interjection 18.pronoun Page 176 42 I pronoun can verb cut verb not adverb myself pronoun pass verb badly adverb those adjective provincial adjective exams noun 17. Finally adverb Eric noun his adjective/pronoun did verb clever .

The adjective Canadian adjective economy noun is verb becoming verb worse .adjective you pronoun tricks noun complete verb failed verb that adjective work noun on preposition those adjective cars noun during preposition the adjective weekend noun 19.

adjective very adverb quickly adverb .