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Ayrshire Brown Swiss Busa Canadienne Dairy Shorthorn Dutch Belted Estonian Red Friesian Girolando Guernsey Holstein Illawarra Irish Moiled Jersey Kerry Lineback Meuse Rhine Issel Milking Devon Montbéliarde Normande Norwegian Red Randall Sahiwal

Ayrshire
History
The Ayrshire breed originated in the County of Ayr in Scotland, prior to 1800 and was regarded as an established breed by 1812. During its development, it was referred to first as the Dunlop, then the Cunningham, and finally, the Ayrshire. How the different strains of cattle were crossed to form the breed known as Ayrshire is not exactly known. There is good evidence that several breeds were crossed with native cattle to create the foundation animals of the breed. In Agriculture, Ancient and Modern, published in 1866, Samual Copland describes the native cattle of the region as "diminutive in size, ill-fed, and bad milkers." Prior to 1800 many of the cattle of Ayrshire were black, although by 1775 browns and mottled colours started to appear. The improvement of the native stock is thought to of begun around 1750 when it was crossed with other breeds such as the Teeswater cattle and Channel Islands cattle. Regardless of the details of origin, the early breeders carefully crossed and selected the various strains of cattle to develop the cow we now know as the Ayrshire. She was well suited for the land and climate in Ayr. The Ayrshire is an efficient grazer; noted for her vigour and efficiency of milk production. Ayrshire's are especially noted for the superior shape and quality of the udder. The composition of the milk made it ideally suited for the production of butter and cheese by the early Scottish dairymen. Many changes have taken place during the late 1980's and early 1990's which have affected the numbers of Ayrshires (and all other breeds) leading to a decrease. Much of this is due to increased profitability of all dairy cows, which has led to an over-supply of milk to the domestic market. However, careful management has convinced Ayrshire breeders that their chosen breed has served them well, and will continue to do so in the future.

Characteristics
Ayrshires are red and white in colour. The red colour is a reddish-brown mahogany that varies in shade from very light to very dark. On some bulls, the mahogany colour is so dark that it appears almost black in contrast to the white. The colour markings vary from nearly all red to nearly all white. The spots are usually very jagged at the edges and often small and scattered over the entire body of the cow. Usually, the spots are distinct, with a break between the red and the white hair. Some Ayrshires exhibit a speckled pattern of red pigmentation on the skin covered by white hair. Brindle and roan colour patterns were once more common in Ayrshires, but these patterns are rare today.
Photo courtesy of Topline Ayrshires, www.toplineayrshires.com

For many years, the Ayrshire horns were a hallmark of the breed. These horns often

reached a foot or more in length, they gracefully curved out and then up and slightly back. When polished for the show ring, the Ayrshire horns were a spectacular sight. Horns are not very practical, and today almost all Ayrshires are dehorned as calves. Ayrshires are medium-sized cattle and weigh approximately over 1200 pounds at maturity. They are strong, rugged cattle that adapt to all management systems including group handling on dairy farms with free stalls and milking parlors. Ayrshires excel in udder conformation and are not subject to excessive foot and leg problems. Few other breeds can match the ability of the Ayrshire to rustle and forage for themselves under adverse feeding or climatic conditions. The ruggedness of the terrain and the unfavourable climatic conditions of their native land led to the selection for those points of hardiness that adapt them to less than ideal conditions. These traits make Ayrshires outstanding commercial dairy cattle. Other traits that make Ayrshires attractive to the commercial dairyman include the vigor of Ayrshire calves. They are strong and easy to raise. Ayrshires do no possess the yellow tallow characteristic that would reduce carcass value, so Ayrshire bull calves can be profitably raised as steers. The Ayrshire is a moderate butterfat breed. Top producing Ayrshires regularly exceed 20,000 pounds of milk in their lactations. The current world record for Ayrshire is held by Lette Farms Betty's Ida. In 305 days, on twice-a-day milking, she produced 37,170 pounds of milk and 1592 pounds of fat. The Ayrshire Breeders' Association does not officially recognize records in excess of 305 days, but one Ayrshire has produced over 41,000 pounds of milk and 1800 pounds of butterfat in 365 days.

Statistics
They are known for low somatic cell counts, ability to convert grass into milk efficiently, and hardiness. The breeds strong points are the now desired traits of easy calving and longevity, Ayrshires are also free of genetic disease. Ayrshire milk is referred to as "the ideal drinking milk". Their milk is not excessively rich, not lacking adequate fat, and it possesses quantities of desirable non-fat solids such as protein.
Photo courtesy of Crawford Family Farm, www.crawfordfamilyfarm.com

In South Africa, a chain of large upscale stores selling only high quality products had their cliental taste different kinds of dairy milk (Ayrshire, Holstein, and Jersey). Over 70% preferred the taste of Ayrshire milk over all the other milk. As well, the high fat, protein and kappa casein in Ayrshire milk is a more desirable milk for conversion into yogurt, cheese and ice cream because the particles of fat are slightly smaller and better distributed throughout the milk. The actual average of all Ayrshires on Official DHIR test is over 12,000 pounds of milk with a 3.9% test. Ayrshires respond to good management and feeding practices and individual Ayrshire herds average as high as 17,000 pounds of milk and 700 pounds of butterfat. These

days it is not rare to see an Ayrshire cow producing over 10, 000 kg of milk per lactation or 80, 000 kg or more in a lifetime.

Distribution
Ayrshires remain popular in many countries such as Russia, North America, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Africa and parts of Europe and South America. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.usayrshire.com www.ayrshireontario.ca www.toplineayrshires.com www.crawfordfamilyfarm.com

Photo courtesy of Crawford Family Farm, www.crawfordfamilyfarm.com

Brown Swiss
History
Most dairy historians agree that Brown Swiss or Braunvieh cattle are the oldest of all dairy breeds. The beautiful brown cows were developed in the north-eastern part of Switzerland. Bones found in the ruins of Swiss lake dwellers date back to probably 4000 BC, and have some resemblance to the skeleton of today's Brown Swiss cow. Documentary evidence shows that the Benedictine monks residing at the Einsiedeln Monastery started breeding these cattle as early as approximately 1000 years ago. The canton of Schwyz was the scene of most of the early improvement of the Brown Swiss, and in Switzerland the breed is often referred to as Schwyer or Brown Schwyzer. All the cantons in which the breeds originated are inhabited by German speaking people, and apparently large cattle were brought in from Germany to improve the cattle of Switzerland, which until about 1860 were often lacking in size. And for that fact the Swiss Brown is also known as Braunvieh. Many people refer to Braunvieh as Brown Swiss and want to know the difference between the two. Brown Swiss dairy cattle were in fact developed from the Braunvieh beef cattle. Braunvieh was an extremely good milking beef breed and, many years ago, some animal breeders selected the best milking Braunvieh and began breeding these selected individuals for milk production. After many generations the dairy type was developed, and thus the Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Switzerland, the native home of the Brown Swiss is a very rough and mountainous country with a total area of about 15,940 square miles. However, approximately 25 percent of the area is covered with rocks, lakes, rivers, snow-capped mountains, and glaciers, and there are only about eight million acres of productive land of which one half is used for hay and pasture. Switzerland has been noted as a cheese producing country for many years, and in the summer many of the dairy herds are taken into the mountainous regions and are grazed on the abundant pastures and meadows that result from the heavy rainfall. A background of extreme terrain and weather has produced a cattle breed world renowed for many definitive characteristics. Today the Brown Swiss is the second largest dairy breed in the world with a reported over 8 million registered cattle and the world population estimated at over 14 million head.

Characteristics
The Brown Swiss or Braunvieh is light brown in colour with a creamy white muzzle and dark Photo courtesy of Bo Joy Farm, noze, dark-blue eye pigmentation which helps www.holsteinworld.com/Bo-Joy/home.htm the breed to resist extreme solar radiation. Brown Swiss cattle have been bred horned and polled, when horned the horns are short and white growing dark towards the top. Brown Swiss are robust, a prolific breeder, long-lived, strong, adaptable, and

very well-balanced in build with good hooves and limbs. This breed has a double utility as they are used for dairy and beef purposes providing good milk and meat output. Milk producers throughout the world are adding Brown Swiss to their herds daily, because of the good milk, protein, and butter fat production. Their correct feet and legs allow them to stay in the milking herd for more lactations than many other breeds. The milk of the Brown Swiss cow is coveted by cheese makers. The volume of milk plus the protein produced by Brown Swiss makes the best milk for the fluid and cheese markets. Brown Swiss breeders benefit from the best fat-to-protein ratio of any of the dairy breeds for production of most cheeses.

Statistics
• • Close protein/fat ratio - Brown Swiss milk possesses the closest protein/fat ratio of any dairy breed. Feet and legs - Properly structured Photo courtesy of Bo Joy Farm, legs allies to strong, hard, black, well www.holsteinworld.com/Bo-Joy/home.htm formed feet, that mean Brown Swiss cattle have few problems. No doubt this is one of the key qualities that enable many Brown Swiss to continue producing in the herd until they are 12-15 years of age. Quiet Temperament - Dairymen, members of the association, all of whom have worked with a variety of breeds are completely unanimous in their praise of the docile temperament and inquisitive nature of these quiet cattle. Longevity - The characteristic longevity of the breed is very evident in the Brown Swiss. While the breed tends to be later maturing than other breeds, cows tend to reach their peak in 5th or later lactations. Some breeds find it difficult to reach this stage, while the strength of the Brown Swiss allows them to lead long productive lives. Strength & Hybrid Vigour - Brown Swiss cows are cattle of great substance and strength. The experience of having cows ‘go down’ with metabolic problems or any other reason is rare amongst Brown Swiss owners. Brown Swiss are renowned for their role when crossed with other dairy breeds or for that fact with beef breeds as well, in generally improving the production and strength of the parent breed. This is evident throughout the world from the tropics to the alpine regions. Braunvieh bulls are noted for their scrotal and testicular development at a young age and are capable, fertile breeders at 12 to 14 months of age.

• •

• •

Comparative
Growth

Braunvieh-cross females produced 5% more weaning weight than the traditional HerefordAngus cross females and from 4% to 11% more weaning weight than any other Continental cross females. Economically, any commercial cow-calf operator that can increase the pounds of Source: US Meat Animal Research Center calf weaned per cow exposed by 4 to 11% has a tremendous economic opportunity to increase the herd's profit potential. By combining this calf weight-per-cow-exposed advantage with the 7% increase in conception rate from the use of Braunvieh bulls, the economic advantage for using Braunvieh genetics becomes significant. The following chart shows Braunvieh's advantage for calf 200-day weight per cow exposed. Milkiness Further data from the US Meat Animal Research Center shows why Braunvieh and Braunviehcross females make such good mothers. The date reveals that they rebreed and calve on a regular basis and milk sufficiently to produce heavy calves at weaning. Calving Source: US Meat Animal Research Center Increased Calf Survival: 10 to 15% Increased growth of crossbred calves: 4 to 11% Increased weaning weight due to more milk: 4 to 11% Fertility Increased Fertility: 10 to 15% Bull A documented example of Braunvieh fertility comes from Texas A&M Research Center, Uvalde, Texas, where, as part of a research project, the center turned out five Braunvieh bulls and five bulls of another heattolerant breed with 266

Source: US Meat Animal Research Center

crossbred cows. When the calves were DNA verified to their sire breed, the Research center found that 68% of the calves were Braunvieh-sired. Dam Braunvieh and Braunvieh cross females are sexually mature at a young age. At the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC), Clay Center, Nebraska, it was shown that the average age of puberty Source: US Meat Animal Research Center for Braunvieh cross heifers was 332 days and the percent of Braunvieh cross heifers pregnant at 550 days was 93%. These figures are graphed to illustrate a comparison for the Braunvieh cross females versus the other breed crosses in this MARC study. Meat The superiority of Braunvieh genetics for producing more pounds of marketable weight was first verified at the US Meat Animal Research Center where Braunviehcross females produced 4% more calf weight per cow exposed than their nearest competing breed cross.
Source: US Meat Animal Research Center Braunvieh cows will typically weigh 1,100 to 1,500 pounds and mature bulls 1,800 to 2,500 pounds. While moderate in size and frame, Braunvieh females and bulls will pass on their muscle, superior quality grade, growth rate and efficient feed conversion to their progeny. The cost of gain for Braunvieh and Braunvieh-cross cattle is comparable to, or less than, all other breeds and, because they are of moderate size and have the inherent ability to grade choice, Braunvieh and Braunvieh-cross cattle can be harvested from a feedlot situation at a live weight that eliminates days on feed other Continental breeds take to reach marketable condition.

Distribution
As the Brown Swiss or Braunvieh is very popular within the dairy and beef industry, it can be found in over 60 countries from the Tropics to the Arctic Circle including Europe, the USA, South America, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.gatewaybbs.com.au www.ansi.okstate.edu

http://homepage.braunvieh.ch http://browncow.ca www.fieldstonebraunvieh.com www.holsteinworld.com/Bo-Joy/home.htm

Busa
History
The breed of cattle called Busa or sometimes Busha, Bosnian or Illyrian are a small native breed which belong to a group of primitive short horned cattle (Bos brachyceros europaeus) with multiple strains of the breed being found across the Balkans. Some sources state that the Busa has existed around the Balkan Peninsula since Neolithic times. In the 19th Century, Busa from Croatia and Bosnia (then under the Austria-Hungarian Empire) were crossed with an Austrian breed. This cross is larger than the original Busa and it is exclusively grey in colour. During the civil war (in Bosnia) in the 1990's, the Yugoslav army brought Busa in from Serbia, these cattle were all used as a meat supply. So although the Busa is sometimes referred to as Bosnian the use of this name is incorrect as the majority of the Busa population is in the Southern Balkans and found in the mountainous regions of Serbia. Today in Kosovo, cattle are the main source Photo courtesy of Zoran Petrov, Busa breeder, Serbia of milk and meat with small scale farmers making up 95% of the industry. Research shows that the Busa in Kosovo is nearly the only breed which provides genetic bases for the majority of crosses in the country. Today a pure Busa is very rare and generally are found in mountainous, hilly areas of Serbia. There is a herdbook for the Busa, which is helping the determination of the different strains and increasing numbers of the breed.

Characteristics
Busa colour varies according to the regional strain. For example the strain from the Metohija region of Yugosalvia are red, while the Macedonian strain is blue-grey. In Serbia there are three strains - black (considered the oldest), red and grey. They have a compact conformation, the average cow stands 104cm at the withers and weighs between 230 and 270kgs. The average bull measures 115cm at the withers and weighs between 340 and 430kgs. The breed are very resistant to disease, internal and external parasites, plus survive well with a minimum ammount of management, low feed and natural grazing. It is also said that this breed is very clean as they defacate in one place only compared to other cattle which go anywhere. The milk production is very efficient compared to their small size, each lactation averages 1400kgs over a 240-280 day period. The calves are born at about 15 to 22kgs and put 500gms on per day.

Statistics
 Disease and parasite resistance

 Minimal management required  Thrives on natural grazing  Efficient milk producer relative to body size

Distribution
Busa can be found throughout southern Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia and Serbia. Breeding programs and associations are being set up to determine breed strains and standards as well as to keep Busa numbers constant. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.save-foundation.net Zoran Petrov

Canadienne
History
Canadienne cattle were developed in Canada primarily from animals imported from Normandy and Brittany during the 16th and 17th century. This stock was blended on this continent and selected for hardiness and productivity in the New World. The first regular importations of cattle into Canada were in 1608-1610 from Normandy in France. Later importations came from Brittany and Gascony. The population remained largely closed to other breeds and eventually became known as the Canadienne. Unfortunately, the breed's characteristics were not highly valued and by the mid1800's a number of influential farmers were encouraging the crossing of the native Canadienne with bigger imported breeds less adapted to local environmental conditions. In 1895 a small group of concerned breeders and academics joined to form the Canadienne Cattle Breeders Association. In recent years the Quebec government has initiated several programs aimed at conserving the breed and encouraging the breeders to continue. Most breeders and their cattle continue to be found in

Photo courtesy of www.ansi.okstate.edu

the province of Quebec. Canadienne Cattle have made a comeback today and are known as Black Canadians, Black Jerseys, Canadians, or French Canadians.

Characteristics
The Canadienne is small (cows weigh 1000-1100 pounds) about four and half foot tall, long-lived and has an exceptionally docile temperament. They are born pale, then become black or dark brown, often with paler muzzle, side, and udder or scrotum. There may occasionally be white on the udder, stomach and chest. Canadienne also have very darkly pigmented skin and dark hooves. Their horns are quite short and their straight faces are refined, tidy. Canadiennes produce good quantities of milk in relation to their own body size and food requirements. The meat tends to be lean, and the light bone results in a high percentage of usable meat in relation to total body weight. A cow annually produces about 3800 kg of 4.4% butterfat, 3.6% protein milk. An extremely rare breed, the Canadienne breed of cattle is well known in Quebec and are very well suited to Canada's cold climate.

Statistics
• Very hardy cattle

• • •

Adapts well to many dairy management systems They will thrive in pasture rather than on expensive imported grain Production of quality milk in quantity compared to body size

Distribution
This breed is mainly limited to Quebec in Canada and is still quite rare although they are making a comeback. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu

Dairy Shorthorn
History
The Shorthorn breed of cattle has evolved over the last two centuries, from Teeswater and Durham cattle found originally in the North East of England in the Tees river valley and Durham. In the late 18th Century two brothers, Charles and Robert Colling started to improve these Durham cattle using line breeding techniques established so successfully by Robert Bakewell on Longhorn cattle. In 1783 Charles Colling found four particular cows recorded as Duchess, Cherry, Strawberry, and Old Favourite among others, and at the same time his brother Robert had noticed the superiority of calves in the local market bred from a bull known as Hubback, which he subsequently bought for £8. It was a combination of these bloodlines, which led to the birth of the bull Comet bred by Charles Colling in 1804, and later sold at the Ketton sale in 1810 for 1,000gns. This was the first 1,000 guinea bull ever recorded, but the wisdom of this bid was later to be justified by his progeny and he has since become a legend in cattle breeding. The breed was used in the early part of the 20th Century, primarily as a dual purpose breed, but specialisation for beef and milk led to the beef breeders starting their own section of the herd book in 1958. The dairy breeders sought to improve the dairy aspect of their animals, and a blending scheme to introduce outside blood from other breeds was introduced in 1970. Some breeders did not wish to participate in this scheme, and so there is now quite a diversity of type within the Shorthorn breed. This diversity of type means that the Shorthorn can be used in a variety of different systems. In Ireland, the majority of Shorthorns are used for their suckler/beef capabilities, whereas in the UK the milking qualities of the breed have been developed. The importance of the Shorthorn breed in the development of other cattle breeds is enormous, and Shorthorn genetics have been used worldwide in the development of over 40 different breeds. The breed has a very long and distinguished history, and developments on both the beef and dairy sides have ensured that the breed also has a very bright future. The Dairy Shorthorn is also called the Milking Shorthorn in the USA and Canada.

Characteristics

Photo courtesy of Oceanbrae Farms

Dairy Shorthorns are either red, red and white, white or roan, the last named colour being a very close mixture of red and white, and found in no other breed of cattle. They can be horned or polled and are very docile in nature.

They are moderately framed at approximately 142cm and 635-990kg and have comparatively small calves that are vigorous at birth and easy to raise. These hardy cows recover quickly and are in condition to rebreed earlier. Shorthorn milk has the most favorable protein-fat ratio of the dairy breeds which is an added plus when marketing your milk for cheese. Shorthorns can be successfully crossed with any other dairy breed to quickly incorporate the Dairy Shorthorn-related grazing traits. Although no bulls can be completely trusted, Dairy Shorthorns tend to be quieter than other dairy bulls and fit well where a bull is used to get cows settled. Shorthorns are also known for their structural soundness and longevity. Most cows are productive for five or more lactations, and several cows have produced in excess of 10,000 kgs per lactation at greater than ten years of age. Dairy Shorthorns have very few problems with feet and legs, allowing the producer to cut out the expenses of lost milk production, veterinary bills, and replacement animals due to feet and leg difficulties. Both cows and heifers are easy calvers and excellent mothers, substantially decreasing calf mortality or unthriftiness. Dairy Shorthorns have been widely used as "foundation" females in the establishment of the European breeds introduced to Australia in more recent times (eg. Charolais, South Devon, Limousin, Maine-Anjou).

Statistics
• • • • • • • • • More efficient converter of feed to milk, especially pasture and other forages, lowering feed cost. Cows producing in excess of 9000 kgs of milk per 305 days on low input management. Superior feet and leg structure, with excellent hoof durability. Greater reproductive efficiency, with fewer days open, higher non-return rate of cows and heifers, and smaller calving intervals, meaning less wasted time and expense to the breeder. Ease of calving and excellent mothering ability - most cows require no calving assistance. Greater salvage value for bull calves and cull cows than other dairy breeds. Improved longevity, with the majority of cows lasting more than 5 lactations. According the Canadian Dairy Network (2001), the breed with the greatest percentage of cows recorded as very quiet or quiet temperament. According to recent CDN studies, the breed with the lowest average somatic cell score.

Comparative
In an extensive study done over a 13 year period on an Idaho dairy owned by a veterinarian, it was found that under the same management conditions, Dairy Shorthorns were significantly less prone to disease, particularly in the areas of lameness, mastitis, dystocia and milk fever, than their Holstein herdmates. (Paper presented at the 1995 World Shorthorn Conference by Dr. Martin R. Lee, Jerome, Idaho.) Lee (1995) notes that Milking Shorthorns have almost one half the incidence of cystic ovaries as Holsteins.

Milking Shorthorn milk can be worth more. On a recent USDA Sire Summary, Milking Shorthorns were listed with the lowest base Somatic Cell score of all dairy breeds, indicating the possibility of an increased resistance to mastitis which is consistent with the Idaho study. Minnesota DHI data shows Milking Shorthorns as having the lowest feed cost per hundredweight of milk, and the lowest total dry matter intake per hundredweight of body weight. The 1995 Minnesota DHIA data showed Milking Shorthorn cows with the shortest calving interval of any breed - 12.8 months. Fertility

Distribution
The Dairy Shorthorn is increasing in popularity and are found in the UK, the USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.shorthorn.co.uk www.milkingshorthorn.com www.cmss.on.ca Oceanbrae Farms

Dutch Belted
History
The Dutch Belted (Lakenvelder) breed traces directly to the original belted cattle which were described in Switzerland and Austria. The breed was then established in the Netherlands in the 17th century. From the records obtainable, it seems they were bred by the nobility who conceived the idea of breeding animals of all kinds to a particular colour, mainly with a band of white in the center and both ends black. The Dutch were very protective of their belted cattle and would generally not part with them. They were highly prized for their milking and fattening abilities. The breed began to flourish in Holland around 1750. (This historical account is found in Professor Raymond Becker's book, Dairy Cattle Breeds: Origin and Development.) The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy now lists Dutch Belted as on the critically rare breeds of livestock in the North America, with fewer than 200 registered cattle in the country.

In 1976, after two and a half decades of cross breeding the original Lakenvelders, the remaining cattle of those herds were only 2% well-marked. Since reintroduction of pure bloodlines via semen from the U.S. in 1990, the national Lakenvelder herd is 57% well-marked.
Photo courtesy of The Dutch Belted Cattle Association of America, www.dutchbelted.com

Dutch Belted have other unique characteristics which make them desirable in crossbreeding programs. Of course, due to the rarity of the pure Dutch Belted crossbreeding can only be recommended by use of Dutch Belted males or semen on common cows, not crossbreeding Dutch Belted females to males of other breeds. Such crossing has been to some extent responsible for the decline in numbers of pure Dutch Belted.

Characteristics
The name Lakenvelder or Lakenfield cattle derives from the word “laken” meaning a sheet or cloth, referring to the white band passing around the body. In some countries animals with this marking are known as “sheeted” cattle. This belt or sheet is of pure white hair extending from the shoulders to the hip bones and should encircle the body completely. The cattle are otherwise black (or occasionally red). In their original form they were horned and primarily a dairy breed – comparing favourably with the Holstein in milk yield. Cows weigh from 900-1500 pounds with bulls bulls weighing 1350-2000 pounds. Their milk tests 3.5 to 5.5 per cent butter fat making it an ideal drinking milk. Dutch Belted are small-boned, making them very easy calving. They have unusual longevity and fertility, high meat yield and friendly dispositions.

Statistics
• • • • • • • • The breed retains excellent grazing ability and forage efficiency. Optimum calving interval is an important trait for seasonal dairy production. Many cows produce over 20,000 Photo courtesy of The Dutch Belted Cattle Association of America, www.dutchbelted.com pounds of milk, primarily on forage. Longevity reduces replacement costs, and there are many teenage cows still in production. Moderate frame size results in high dairy beef yield. Heifers breed early and produce a calf every year. Conception rate far exceeds the average 2.7 services required for Holsteins. An average birth weight of 70 pounds assures calving ease and less postpartum stress.

The Dutch Belted offers remarkable genetic consistency resulting from centuries of pure breeding and selection. Dutch Belted bulls are prepotent, and their offspring are highly predictable and uniform. Dutch Belteds can impart significant hybrid vigor when crossed with other breeds. These crossbreds have found great favor in grassbased dairy production. Due to the rarity of the breed, crossbreeding can be recommended only if using Dutch Belted semen on dairy cows of other breeds. Pure Dutch Belted cows must only be bred to pure Dutch Belted bulls.

Distribution
The Dutch Belted although still quite rare can be found in the Netherlands, the USA, Canada, Mexico and there are a small number in New Zealand.

References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.embryoplus.com www.rarebreeds.co.nz www.dutchbelted.com

Estonian Red
History
Estonian Red cattle have evolved from continuous crossbreeding of the the native Estonian cattle with the Angler and Danish Red cattle. This crossbreeding started in the middle 1800's with the aim to create a breed which produced milk with a high fat content and an increased yield. Later on more attention was focused on weight and body size. The first Estonian Red animals were entered in the herdbook in 1885. The Estonian Red started to spread throughout Estonia towards the end of the 19th Century although a great number of herds perished during World War 1 and 2. In 1916 there were 269,000 cows which was reduced to 225,000 by 1920. A strong advocate of the breed Jaan Mägi set up the Estonian Angler Breeders' Society in 1919 to help the breed, and in 1928 he renamed the breed to what it is known today, the Estonian Red, it has been gaining popularity ever since. In 1993 the European Red Dairy Breed Association was set up in Denmark which aims to improve Red breeds to make them more economical, provide opportunities for breeders and increase communication between European Red cattle breeders with the Estonian Red being one of the five breeds. This breed is also part of the International Red Cow Club. In the last 10 years seven different breeds have been used to inprove this breed, these are, Angler, Danish Red, Swiss, Red Holstein, Norwegian Red, Ayshire and Swedish Red and White. The Estonian Red is now fully restored to its popular position and is fully competitive with the Estonian Holstein, as now it accounts for 63.3% of all cattle in Estonia.

Characteristics
The Estonian Red is medium in size with a strong frame. The coat colour is red and can range from light to dark, the bulls tend to be dark. Some body measurements are as follows; withers height 127.5cm, chest depth 70cm, chest width 45.5cm, oblique body length 157.9cm, heart girth 195.6cm, cannon bone girth 18.3cm. The mature cows weigh 450 to 550 kg with a maximum of 780 kg and mature bulls weigh 800 to 900 kg again an approximate maximum of 1000 kg. Calves at birth weigh 31 to 33 kg. The milk yield of 164,900 evaluated cows was 3456 kg with 3.92% fat. The production of Estonian Red cattle at 77 breeding farms is as follows; average milk yield per cow 3784 kg, fat content 3.98%, protein content 3.30%. In 12 high producing herds the average milk yield per cow during a 305 day lactation amounts to 4127-5029 kg, and fat content is 3.90-4.18%. There are 25 record holders in these herds: including cow 5338 - 5th lactation, 9610 kg milk, 4.14% fat; cow 4519 7th lactation, 8554 kg of milk, 4.47% fat; cow 2431 - 2nd lactation, 7806 kg milk, 4.65% fat. Improvement of the Estonian Red is being carried out by pure breeding and by crossbreeding with the Danish Red and the Angler. The new type with Angler blood should have the following performance; milk yield not less than 7000 kg with 4.0%

fat, milking rate 1.9 kg per minute, live weight of cows over 600 kg and wither height of at least 140cm.

Statistics
    High milk yield Increased milk fat content Strong conformation Good udder traits

Distribution
This breed is produced in Estonia. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.eau.ee

Friesian
History
The exact origins of the breed are difficult to determine but it is known that in the 18th century, herds of small black-and-white cattle were brought into northern Holland and Friesland from northern Jutland to replace animals that had fallen victim to disease and flooding. These animals were crossed with the existing Dutch cattle and formed the basis of the Friesian. Before the establishment of the Netherlands herdbook in 1873 and the Friesland herdbook in 1879, both black-pied and red-pied animals were maintained separately. The preference for black-pied cattle, particularly in the United States, led to the further segregation of red-pied animals and presently this colour variation only exists in small number in the Netherlands.

Photo courtesy of Lismulligan British Friesians, www.lismulliganfriesians.co.uk

Production levels of this breed declined during the 1950's when excessive emphasis was placed on correct colour pattern. During the 1970's Holsteins were imported from the United States and used to improved the milk production. This resulted in larger animals with a more pronounced dairy characteristics. The mixing of these two breeds is such that now many Friesians are 25% to 75% Holstein. The modern Friesian is pre-eminently a grazing animal, well able to sustain itself over many lactations, on both low lying and upland grassland, being developed by selective breeding over the last 100 years. Some outstanding examples of the breed have 12 to 15 lactations to their credit, emphasising their inherent natural fecundity. In response to demand, protein percentages have been raised across the breed and herd protein levels of 3.4% to 3.5% are not uncommon. As the Friesian is mainly a dairy breed, surplus male animals are highly regarded, as they are producers of high quality lean meat, whether crossed with a beef breed or not. Beef cross heifers have long been sought after as the ideal suckler dam replacement.

Characteristics
The Friesian can be one of two coat colour types, white with black patches (the common colour) or white with red patches. They are very similar in size and confirmation to the Holstein. The Friesian is a renowned dairy breed with some outstanding examples of the breed having 12 to 15 lactations to their credit, emphasising their inherent natural fecundity. In response to demand, protein percentages have been raised across the breed and herd protein levels of 3.4% to 3.5% are not uncommon.

One of the great strengths of the British Friesian is the ability of the male calf to finish and grade satisfactorily, either in intensive systems, or as steers, extensively.

Statistics
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Calve more frequently Calve more often in their lifetime Need less replacements Provide valuable male calves Have lower cell counts Have higher fat and protein percent
Photo courtesy of Lismulligan British Friesians, www.lismulliganfriesians.co.uk

They are also known for their:     Versatility Quality milk High lifetime yields High quality lean meat

Distribution
This breed is generally found in the Netherlands, USA and the UK, although semen exports are on the increase to grass based systems of milk production. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.britishfriesian.co.uk www.ansi.okstate.edu www.lismulligan-friesians.co.uk

Girolando
History
The origins of the first Girolando date from the 1940's, compared to other breeds it is a relatively young breed. Around the 1940's Brazilian farmers began to cross the Gir intensively with the Dutch, looking for two breeds which complemented each other to serve as an improved breed for the Brazilian market requirements at that time. Production and popularity of this breed as been sped up due to its high productivity in terms of fertility and efficiency plus, the efforts of the governmental project for improvement called 'Program Girolando'.

In 1989 the Ministry of Agriculture together with the representing associations, drafted the standards for the breeding of Girolando to be 5/8 Holtein and 3/8 Gir. Today the Girolando is responsible for 80% of milk produced in Brazil.

Photo courtesy of Fazenda Morro Da Mandioca, www.morrodamandioca.com.br

Characteristics
The Girolando takes its looks from the Holstein and the Gir, it can be black and white in colour but it can vary depending on the percentage of each in the cross. Their ears are large like Gir. Female Girolando have physiological and morphological characteristics perfect for the production in the tropics (udder capacity and support, size of teats, factors intrinsic to the milk, pigmentation, thermo-regulatory capacity, strong hooves and legs, forage conversion, reproductive efficiency). Girolandos start producing calves at around 30 months, the peak of milk production is at 10 years and they can keep on producing til about 15 years. The interval between births is around 410 days. The average production of milk per lactation is 3,600 kg (two milkings/day) in 305 days, with 4% fat, accumulating a lifetime production over 20,000 kg of milk. Males have adaptability (efficient foraging, resistance to diseases and pests, speed of weight gain), can perform comparable to any specific industrial crossing for meat, when placed in similar situations in breeding. In tests it has shown that average weight gain per day is 1kg, plus it has length and thickness with an even distribution of fat to produce a good carcase.

Statistics
 Hybrid vigour  Quiet disposition  Good milk production even in hotter climates

   

Adaptability Longevity Fertility and calving ease Meat yield

Guernsey
History
The Guernsey originated on the small Isle of Guernsey, situated in the English Channel just off the coast of France. There is no concrete evidence as to the development of the Guernsey before the 19th Century but there may be some truth in the theory that the Isigny cattle of Normandy and the Froment du Léon breed from Brittany were ancestral relatives of the modern Guernsey. Indeed the Jersey, the Guernsey and the Froment du Léon are the only members of the Channel Island sub type of European Blond cattle. The Guernsey was first recorded as a separate breed around 1700. In 1789, imports of foreign cattle into Guernsey were forbidden by law to maintain the purity of the breed although some cattle evacuated from Alderney during World War II were merged into the breed (Spahr and Opperman, 1995). The Guernsey breed built its reputation for the production of quality milk from grass during the 19th and early 20th centuries and then exported cattle to found significant populations in several other countries. From an original mixed foundation, island breeders concentrated on improving the stock by eliminating faults and making their cattle more homogeneous. All this was based mainly on visual appearance supplemented by some milk recording. Guernsey's renown as an unique producer of rich yellow coloured milk gave her the title "Golden Guernsey".

Characteristics
The colour of the Guernsey varies from yellow to reddish-brown with white patches. They have a finely tuned temperament, not nervous or irritable. Physically the breed has good dairy conformation and presents the visual impression of a plain animal bred for utility rather than good looks. The cow weighs 450 to 500 kg slightly more than the average weight of the Jersey cow which is around 450 kg (1000 pounds). The bull weighs 600 to 700 kg. They have an attractive carriage Photo courtesy of Hoards Dairyman farm, http://hoards.com with a graceful walk, a strong back, broad loin, wide rump and deep barrel, strong, attached udder extending well forward, with the quarters evenly balanced and symmetrical. Heifers generally come into milk at about two years of age. The average weaning weight of heifers and bull calves is 75 kg. The Guernsey bull has an attractive individuality, revealing ample vigour and masculinity. It has smooth-blending shoulders showing good refinement, strength and even contour.

Statistics
• Guernseys are efficient converters of feed to product, being of intermediate size, Guernseys produce their high quality milk while consuming 20 to 30 percent less feed per pound of milk produced than larger dairy breeds. Guernseys are capable of High Milk Flow. Guernseys reach reproductive Photo courtesy of The English Guernsey Cattle Society, guernseycattle.com maturity at an early age and can calve at 22 months of age. This provides an early return on investment. Guernseys produce calves big at birth, which are easy to rear. Guernseys are well known for having the minimum of calving complications. Guernseys are adaptable to all climates and management systems and lack any known undesirable genetic recessive's. Her fawn and white coat enhances her heat tolerance and reduces heat stress, which adds to her ability to maintain production levels anywhere. They are docile and have an ideal Dairy Temperament.

• •

• • • • •

Comparative
Milkiness Research carried out in USA has shown that 60% of Guernseys carry the Kappa Casein 'B' gene. This is of real economic benefit to cheese plants, giving a firmer curd, increased volume and better cheese characteristics. Guernsey milk contains 12% more protein, 30% more cream, 33% more vitamin D, 25% more vitamin A and 15% more calcium than average milk. 96% of Guernsey cows carry the protein Beta Casein A2 in their milk. There is some anecdotal evidence that this protein MAY be better for the health of some people than the Protein Beta Casein A1 that is found in most other milks. PDF

UK NMR Annual Report 1997/1998
Butterfat% Protein%
Guernsey Holstein 4.81% 4.02% 3.59% 3.19%

Calving Research has shown that Guernseys have the lowest incidence of calving difficulty of any of the major dairy breeds. This is witnessed by the fact that there is no need for AI companies to indicate 'Calving Ease' bulls in the Guernsey breed. Trials have shown that Guernseys also calve easily even when crossed with heavier beef breeds.

Distribution
Today, numbers of Guernsey's are decreasing slightly due to the increase in popularity of the Holstein, but it remains a popular breed and is bred in the UK, the USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.worldguernseys.org http://studbook.co.za http://hoards.com guernseycattle.com

Photo courtesy of The English Guernsey Cattle Society, guernseycattle.com

Holstein
History
The Holstein breed originated in Europe. The major historical developement of this breed occured about 2000 years ago in what is now the Netherlands and more specifically in the two northern provices of North Holland and Friesland which lay on either side of the Zuider Zee. The original stock were the black animals and white animals of the Batavians and Friesians, migrant European's who settled in the Rhine Delta region about 2,000 years ago. For many years, Holsteins were bred and strictly culled to obtain animals which would make best use of grass, the area's most abundant resource. The intermingling of these animals evolved into an efficient, high-producing black-and-white dairy cow.

Characteristics
Holsteins are most quickly recognized by their distinctive colour markings and outstanding milk production. Holsteins are large cattle with colour patterns of black and white or red and white. A healthy Holstein calf weighs 90 pounds or more at birth. A mature Holstein cow weighs about 1500 pounds and stand 58 inches tall at the shoulder. Holstein heifers can be bred at 15 months of age, when they weigh about 800 pounds. It is desirable to have Holstein females calve for the first time between 24 and 27 months of age. Holstein gestation is approximately nine months. While some cows may live considerably longer, the normal productive life of a Holstein is six years.
Photo courtesy of West Port Holsteins, www.westportholsteins.ca

Average production for all Holsteins enrolled in official U.S. production-testing programs in 1987 was 17,408 pounds of milk, 632 pounds of butterfat and 550 pounds of protein per year. There is growing interest in the polled factor in dairy cattle. All breeds have some polled (naturally hornless) cattle. A number of Red & White breeders have shown a special interest in developing polled cattle. A large number of polled young sires, both red and red factor are currently in sampling.

Statistics
Holsteins have the highest milk productions in the world. They have an unequalled genetically anchored achievement ability which has no biological ceiling. Genetic improvements of 1 to 2 percent per year are totally realistic.

They adapt to all management and utilisation systems. They can be stabled, but are equally suitable for grazing. They can be kept on grassland or in mixed farming systems with bi-annual grazing, or be stabled throughout the year. Neither does it matter whether they are kept in high-lying or low-lying area. Not only are Holstein suitable for low-cost farming systems, they are also eminently suitable as dairy industry cows in intensive farming, which requires the stabling of cows. However, Holsteins, compared to natural breeds, are not as resistant to heat and diseases when in difficult agro-ecological areas. Their reaction to such conditions is a reduced production capacity. Experience has taught that they exhibit divergent adaptation abilities, which should therefore receive attention from a technical point of view when breeding. In the case of cross-breeding with natural breeds the calves show a higher heat tolerance and higher production figures are achieved than in the case of cross-breeding with other cultural breeds. Holsteins produce vigorous calves distinguished by rapid growth, early maturity and easy care. If they are managed well, they exhibit no fertility problems.

Photo courtesy of West Port Holsteins, www.westportholsteins.ca

They are good-natured, are easy to handle and can be stabled without any problems. They are also resistant to stress, exhibit a herd mentality and are not solitary animals. Holsteins are more than just a dairy breed. The animal also contribute to the meat supply worldwide, have a high growth percentage in the fattening sector and produce meat with a fine fibre. In industries aimed exclusively at milk production, they are cross-bred with beef breeds for a better quality veal. Top producing Holsteins milking twice a day have been known to produce up to 67,914 pounds of milk in 365 days. unexcelled production, greater income over feed costs, unequaled genetic merit, and adaptability to a wide range of environmental conditions Such convincing evidence of genetic superiority has created an active export market for Holstein genetics. Currently, live Holstein females and males and frozen embryos and semen are being exported to more than 50 countries and used extensively to improve foreign food supplies and dairy producer incomes.

Comparative
Genetic Relationships between Lifetime Profit and Type Traits in Spanish Holstein Cows, PDF format

Distribution
Holsteins can now be found on every continent and in almost every country.
Photo courtesy of West Port Holsteins, www.westportholsteins.ca

References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.saholstein.co.za www.westportholsteins.ca

Illawarra
History
Illawarra cattle have taken their name from the Australian aboriginal word for a piece of land 50 miles south of Sydney, land locked between the Pacific Ocean and what was once a near impenetrable escarpment which rears abruptly to the west. In Australia dairying began as an industry in the 1840's, up till then cattle had mainly been produced for beef. The early settlers had for the most part, cleared the Illawarra area with the assistance of convict labour. All breeds, types and colours of cattle had been introduced into the area. Cattle grants from Government and private herds reached the Illawarra. These included Longhorn Durhams, Shorthorn Durhams, Red Lincolns, Red Ayrshires and Jerseys. However, three members of the Osborne family from Northern Ireland had, since 1829, laid the foundations of a dairy industry, and in doing so, the evolution of the breed the Australian Illawarras. The Osbornes imported the best cattle, promoted the first Agricultural Show at Wollongong and encouraged others in forming a dairy industry. The Australian and Californian gold rushes provided the impetus for an expansion of the industry and the Illawarra area took up the demand for butter and other dairy products, and dairy has remained an important Illawarra industry ever since. The Illawarra breeders were credited with having a flair for stockbreeding and an “eye for a good beast”. The 1860's saw increased recording of breeding details and facts, which noted the importation of several outstanding bulls bought to suit the environment. In 1898 the embargo was lifted allowing a fresh wave of cattle imports. Breeders introduced Jersey, Guernsey, Kerri Dexter, Friesian, Shorthorn and Ayrshire bloodlines and it was from this amalgamation that the Australian Illawarra dairy cattle descended. One Ayrshire bull, from Victoria, named “The Earl of Beaconsfield” proved outstanding when mated with cattle of the Illawarra. The progeny was magnificent and amongst the most celebrated was a cow called “Honeycomb”. Claimed to be Champion Dairy Cow of the world in the early nineties, she was also invincible in the show ring and winner of all the milk and butterfat awards. This was the cow that inspired the Illawarras, and the breeding programs began revolving around Red and Roan Shorthorns and Ayrshire bulls. Studs became more prevalent and spread to many other parts of Australia including Queensland. In 1910, dairymen met at Kiama to establish another Herd Book, under the title Illawarra Dairy Cattle. Milking Shorthorn and Illawarra Dairy Cattle Societies continued to flourish and expand throughout all Australian States. In Queensland the two breed Societies amalgamated to form the Illawarra Dairy Cattle Association of Queensland. This lead to further interstate amalgamations until, after protracted negotiations over many years, a national body called The Australian Illawarra Shorthorn Society was formed

in Brisbane in 1930. For many years they were referred to as the Illawarra Shorthorns, or “the A.I.S. cattle”. Now the term Illawarras is commonplace and the Society is called The Illawarra Cattle Society of Australia. The “Shorthorn” was dropped from the name because it caused confusion to some overseas buyers, who associate Shorthorn with dualpurpose animals. International recognition has consolidated the breed worldwide.

Characteristics
Illawarra cattle can be a rich red colour with a bit of white on the flanks or roan, other colours such as broken colours or black and brindle are not allowed. The breed has strong dark hooves and dark pigmentation which helps protect from skin cancers and sunburnt teats. They are a medium sized animal with a confirmation that increases in depth towards the hindquarters with a sharp, clean outline. Illawarras produce large quantities of milk in excess of 40 litres per day, the milk has moderate fat and high protein. Other favourable attributes of this breed are its adaptability to varying climatic conditions, the calving ease being one of the most noticeable features as they calve unattended and their pelvic formation being suited to the job. Illawarra cows can keep producing calves every year into their early teens which overall provides a very sound investment.

Statistics
      Produce large quantities of milk, many in excess of 40 litres/day Very adaptable to climatic conditions Calving ease with superior pelvic formation Longevity, can keep producing till their early teens Strong pigmentation, less skin cancers Good temperament

Distribution
Illawarras are one of the top ranking dairy cattle breeds in Australia. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.illawarrasqld.com.au

Irish Moiled
History
The Irish Moiled is one of the rarest cattle breeds which originated in Ireland. Traditionally a dairy cow, it has earned the reputation as a truly dual purpose breed, producing both high quality beef and milk from poor quality grazing. In the 20th Century the breed declined in numbers as it was superseded by new more specialised breeds. The decline was so dramatic that by the 1970's the breed had been reduced to less than 30 females maintained by two breeders in Northern Ireland - David Swan of Dunsilly and James Nelson of Maymore. The Society was formed in 1926 to develop and improve the breed. In 1982 the Society was revived with the encouragement of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust. The breed has enjoyed valuable research and guidance from both the Trust and the Genetics

Photo courtesy of Ystrad Traditional Organics, www.ystradorganics.co.uk

Department of Liverpool University. The Society has a well established DNA testing programme to ensure validity of pedigrees and the integrity of this important gene pool. In 2008 a breed conservation strategy was launched. It is hoped that this strategy will help maintain the genetic base of the breed and also reduce to a minimum any increase in inbreeding within the breed. Today there are approximately 140 members of the Society with over forty breeders on the mainland of Great Britain and the others being in Northern Ireland and the South of Ireland.

Characteristics
The Irish Moiled is a hornless breed with a varied colouration, characteristically red in colour marked by a white line or 'finching' on the back and under parts, but can vary from white with red ears to nearly all red. The name Moile is derived from the Gaelic language and relates to the distinctive dome or mound on top of the head. The Irish Moiled is of medium size for example, a mature cow can weigh up to 650kg. They are generally easy to handle with a placid docile temperament. Irish Moiled bulls are normally of an excellent temperament making their use in even the smallest herds commonplace. Surplus males sell well

Photo courtesy of Ystrad Traditional Organics, www.ystradorganics.co.uk

as steers finishing between 20-24 months on good quality forage diet to grade 03, at carcass weights from 220-260 kg. Where forage is poor, supplements will be required, but care must be taken to avoid them becoming over fat. The beef is of superb quality with a distinctive flavour. Rapidly growing specialist markets for the beef exist both in Great Britain and Ireland. The Irish Moiled cow can be relied upon to produce a calf every 12 months if kept in good health and body condition and is running with a bull. Artificial insemination is also successful. They will calve to a continental bull without difficulty and have sufficient milk to do a good job with the cross calf. They will continue to breed satisfactorily until at least ten years of age. Many have continued to 15 years and beyond. Tradition has it that they are "big bellied" to consume and digest large quantities of poorer quality forage which was their traditional diet. They are ready browsers, especially of willow ash and ivy, which makes them ideal in extensive or conservation grazing situations. In the dairy, yields of up to 5000 litres are being recorded on these extensive systems. In the suckler herd the cow will "milk off her back" to give the calf the best start in life. They are sound in hoof and leg and at home on most types of terrain. Moileds grow a thick winter coat and out-winter happily although being a heavy animal they will 'poach' soft ground. Silage or hay will be needed for out-wintering in most situations. Mineral supplements are advisable although concentrates should not be required unless cows start winter with no fat on their backs. Female calves are either retained within the herd or find a ready market with other breeders of pedigree Irish Moileds.

Statistics
      Dual purpose breed Easy calving Longevity Great tasting beef Hardy and will out winter Easy to handle

Photo courtesy of Ystrad Traditional Organics, www.ystradorganics.co.uk

Distribution
This breed in being conserved and produced in Ireland and Great Britain. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.irish moiledcattlesociety.com www.ystradorganics.co.uk

Jersey
History
Despite considerable research, nothing definite is known as to the actual origin of the cattle first brought to Jersey Island. Most research agrees, that the Jersey probably originated from the adjacent coast of France, where in Normandy and Brittany cattle resembling Jerseys are found. Whatever the correct phylogenetic form of the Jersey might be, it would appear, when analysing the available data, that the domesticated fore-father of the Jersey came from Asia, belonged in all probability to Bos brachyceros, was probably tamed during the Stone Age, some 10 000 years ago or more and migrated to Europe through Central and Southern Europe and North Africa to Switzerland and France. In Northern France some cross-breeding undoubtedly took place between the pure Bos brachyceros and Bos primigenius herds (which mostly came down the North Coast of Europe to as far down as Northern France). Jersey Island being joined to France until about A.D. 709 by a narrow isthmus, it stands to reason that cattle from Normandy and Brittany were brought over regularly in the early days to Jersey Island and must have played a very important role in the origin and development of the present day Jersey. Jerseys are known to exist in the UK mainland since 1741 and probably well before. At that time they were known as Alderneys.

Photo courtesy of Covington Jerseys, www.covingtonjerseys.com

The flourishing times for the breed was the period from the 1860s to the First World War when the Jersey cow enjoyed the greatest period of development for the breed worldwide. For many years, thousands of animals were shipped to the USA annually, but records show that early settlers took Jerseys there in 1657. Canada imported her first Jerseys in 1868. Jerseys first went to South Africa in 1880, and in 1862 New Zealand imported her first cattle. Although records of earlier importations into Australia are not available, it is believed that the first Jerseys arrived as "ship cows." The first reference of a Jersey dates back to 1829 when Mr. J. T. Palmer of Sydney advertised the sale of 200 pure bred Jerseys. Latin America imported its first Jerseys before the turn of the century. Records show that around 1892, the first cattle went to Guatemala. Brazil had its first Jerseys four years later. But it was probably Costa Rica that first imported the breed to Central and South America in 1873. Today, the Jersey breed is the second largest breed of dairy cattle in the world. On Jersey itself there are fewer than 6000 Jerseys in total with nearly 4000 of these being adult milking cows. The purity of the breed on the island is maintained by a strict ban on imports. This ban has been in place for some 150 years. There are no

other breeds of the cattle on the island. Jerseys are well known for their milk which is noted for its high quality - it is particularly rich in protein, minerals and trace elements. It is also rich in colour which is naturally produced from carotene, an extract from grasses. The Jerseys has an ability to adapt to many kinds of climates, environments and management practices.

Characteristics
It is typically light brown in colour, though this can range from being almost grey to dull black, which is known as Mulberry. They can also have white patches which may cover much of the animal. A true Jersey will however always have a black nose bordered by an almost white muzzle. The Jersey hard black feet are much less prone to lameness. The Jersey is relatively small in size - about 400 to 450kgs in weight and have a fine but strong frame.

Statistics
• • • • Jerseys produces a pound of milk components at a lower cost compared to the other major breeds. She has little or no calving problems, greater fertility, a shorter calving interval, and earlier maturity. Jerseys stay in the herd longer than any other dairy breed. Jersey milk has greater nutritional value, plus the highest yield and greater efficiency when processed into cheese and other value-added products. Photo courtesy of Covington Jerseys, Jersey milk commands a premium www.covingtonjerseys.com price in many markets. Jerseys perform well under a wide range of systems and are well-known for their high feed conversion efficiency Jersey milk is in many ways unique. As a product it contains:- 18% more protein, 20% more calcium, 25% more butterfat than "average" milk. Jerseys are well-known to be less susceptible to lameness because of their black hoof colour which makes their hooves very hard. Because Jerseys are a lighter breed this may also give them less problems with lameness. Good Temperament is important in a dairy cow. In today's modern parlours rapid throughput is of top priority. An animal misbehaving by continually kicking, off the units will cause unwanted delays and even damage to the expensive equipment. Jerseys are thought to have the one of the best temperaments among, the dairy breeds, although a lot of this depends on the handling the animals receive.

• • • • •

Comparative
Milk

Scientific studies also show the Jersey cow produces milk more efficiently than other breeds. This can be especially important in countries where feed may be restricted. As well as making the Jersey a profitable option in agriculturally developed countries. Calving

A study from USDA in 2005 showed Jerseys in the United States to show almost a 20% superiority in the number of easy calvings (with very low incidence of very difficult calvings) than other, larger dairy breeds evaluated in the same study, regardless of lactation. Likewise, figures from the Canadian Dairy Network in 2005 show first lactation Canadian Jerseys to have 96% unassisted or easy pull calvings, while cows in subsequent lactations have 99% unassisted or easy pull calvings. Health Results from several investigations lead to the conclusion that Jerseys are less susceptible to mastitis, e.g., in dairy herds of Florida, mastitis and udder disorders were more frequent among Holsteins (51% of cows treated) vs. 22% for Jerseys.

Distribution
The Jersey can now be found across the world with some of the largest populations in countries such as Australia, Canada, Denmark, New Zealand, South Africa, USA, and Zimbabwe, and in the UK. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.jerseycattle.org www.whyjerseys.com www.jerseycanada.com http://studbook.co.za www.covingtonjerseys.com

Kerry
History
Kerry Cattle are an Irish dairy breed believed to be one of the oldest breeds in Europe (from comparing skull formation) and most probably the descendants of the Celtic Shorthorn, brought to Ireland as long ago as 2000 B.C. They are still found grazing in the marginal pastures of the hill districts of southwestern Ireland. The Kerry has the distinction of being the first breed developed primarily as a milk producer. This breed is no longer classified as a rare breed. Kerry's are known for their milk and they produce good quality milk with small fat globules which are easily digestible and ideal for cheese and yoghurt production.

Characteristics
In appearance they are black, of fine dairy type with white horns tipped black, though many herds are now dehorned. The Kerry is adaptable and hardy, of manageable size (350450kg), calves easily and has a long and productive life, some still calving at 14 and 15 years of age. Average milk yield is between 2950 and 3650kg at 4% butterfat and there are quite a number of cows capable of yielding 4535kg at 4% and over. Globules of butter fat in their milk are much smaller than in any other breed and so the food value of the milk is

Photo courtesy of The British Kerry Cattle Society, www.kerrycattle.org.uk

enhanced

Kerrys are a manageable size, hardy, thrifty and easy calving and as such can make ideal house cows. As house cows they provide enough milk during each lactation for the average household and to rear several calves. As suckler cows double suckling is recommended after the first lactation. Calves are easily reared and steers will fatten well though they do take four to six months longer than modern breeds. They produce excellent quality beef weighing up to 535kg

Statistics
• • • • • • Hardy and thrifty Long lived Easy calving A manageable size A Good convertor of poor quality forage A producer of quality milk and beef

Distribution
This breed is very rare but through promotion of the breed it is slowly reappearing, the Kerry can be found in Ireland, the UK, Canada and the USA.

References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.kerrycattle.org.uk www.ansi.okstate.edu
Photo courtesy of The British Kerry Cattle Society, www.kerrycattle.org.uk

Lineback
History
The Lineback is a rare breed originating from America, in the 18th and 19th Century the Lineback was a dual-purpose animal, fulfilling the owners needs for both milk and meat. During these times there was an increase in importation of European and British breeds such as the Witrick, Gloucester and Welsh cattle. It can be assumed that cattle that were exported to the USA could have played a part in the history of this breed. During the 19th Century progressive American farmers began to look again to Europe for improved stock, including Ayrshires, Friesians, Herefords and Milking Shorthorns, all of which were capable of throwing occasional linebacked offspring. There breeds, plus the English Longhorn, probably contributed to the Lineback presence in the United States. As cattle breeds started to specialise in either beef or dairy production, the Photo courtesy of the American Lineback Dairy Cattle Association, americanlinebacks.tripod.com Lineback has over time been selected for improved dairy production although it remains very versatile. In 1985 a group of Lineback enthusiasts gathered together and formed the American Lineback Cattle Association. This group had the foresight and desire to maintain and improve this beautiful breed. Today there are several thousand Lineback dairy cows in the United States.

Characteristics
The Lineback has a very beautiful coat, it is generally black on the sides with a white line down the back and along the belly as the name suggests. They can also come in roan or white with red or black speckles on their sides. Two named patterns are the Witrick pattern where the cattle have speckled or dark sides, a black nose, eyes and ears. They fall into 3 major types of colour patterns; the White Classic Witrick, the Dark Sided Witrick and the Dark Speckle Witrick. There is also the Gloucester linebacks which have a solid black head, sides, legs, white belly, white garters around the tops of the legs and the distinctive white stripe across the back, from head to tail.

Distribution
The Lineback is being bred and conserved in the USA. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) americanlinebacks.tripod.com

Meuse Rhine Issel
History
The Meuse Rhine Issel originates from the Netherlands and Germany. In the Netherlands, it was developed in the region of the three rivers from which it gets its name. In Germany it comes from the regions of Westfalia, Rhineland and Schleswig Holstein, and is known there as the Rotbunt. The last part of their name is sometimes spelled "Yssel" or "Ijssel". The Meuse Rhine Issel is also known as Rotbunt, Roodbont, Maas-RijnYssel, Rotbunte holländische, Mosane-rhénane-ysseloise, Dutch Red-and-White, Red Pied Dutch, MRI and MRY. In 1874 the Dutch herdbook was formed and the German breed societies followed in 1900. They were run as one breeding area across the border until 1914. During the 1920's, the Dutch bull called Sjoerd 1 925 was used extensively in the Rhineland area and played a large part in establishing a good MRI type there. Between 1920 and 1950, Belgium, Luxembourg, France and Denmark founded their own Red and White Dual Purpose breeds, based on the Dutch and German stock.
www.dairydreams.co.uk The breed in its early years was bred as a dual purpose animal for beef and dairy, but recently breeders have concentrated on its dairy qualities although the beef is still excellent MRI cattle were first imported into the UK and Ireland in the early 1970's and have increased in numbers to around 31500 today. Current milk pricing structures ensure a huge demand for this extremely profitable breed, where yields of 8000 to 9000kgs at 4.0% protein are not uncommon. Photo courtesy of Dairy Dreams,

Characteristics
Meuse Rhine Issel are medium sized breed with a solid build, they are red and white in colour with good length and depth to the body. They are an adaptable hardy breed and have good disease resistance, they perform well on rough pasture. They are very docile in temperament, the cows have a relatively short gestation period and calve easily. The average weight for a cow is about 675 kgs with a rump height of 132 centimetres. For a bull the figures are probably around 1050 kgs and 143 centimetres respectively.

Statistics
          Higher milk quality - Protein production approaching 4% - Fat production over 4% - The right type of protein (high Kappa Casein-B for cheese making) Good milk yields - Up to 10000kgs is not unknown, large numbers of cows giving yields of 7500kg Longevity Proved in all UK conditions Higher calf values - Strong will to live

    

-

Take readily to bucket feeding Active, lively Sturdy and disease resistant Good feed conversion Good beef quality, ideal for bull beef

Distribution
The Meuse Rhine Issel can be found in many parts of Europe including the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Denmark, the UK and Ireland plus it has been exported to Australia, New Zealand and North America. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.mri.org.uk www.rarebreeds.co.nz

Milking Devon
History
The Milking Devon has been bred (in the USA) from the Devon which originated in Britain that is supposed to be descended from the same aboriginal breed as the Hereford and the Sussex. In 1623, two heifers and a bull from north Devonshire, England, were received by a member of the Plymouth Colony. They were the first importation of cattle from Britain, although the Spanish had introduced cattle in the south. Their immediate value was as draft animals. Cattle from Devonshire had long been recognised in England for their speed, intelligence, strength, willingness to work, and ability to prosper on course forage, in a wide range of climates. In later years, other cattle were imported and contributed to the American Devon, which developed as the ideal multipurpose breed. None could surpass it for draft work; the milk was good for cream and cheese making; and the carcass developed fine beef on poor forage. In more recent times, the importance of cattle for draft animals has all but disappeared and the Devon has been replaced by high producing dairy breeds like the Holstein and Jersey, with whom it could not compete for quantity. In 1952, the American Devon Cattle Club decided that the breed had to move into a specialist beef market in order to survive. At that time, a small group of breeders decided to form a separate association for dairy cattle and maintain triple-purpose stock. That association slowly dwindled, but thanks to their efforts, many of their animals can be traced into the new registry which was reformed in 1978. This registry represents a gene pool of genuine triplepurpose cattle able to survive and be productive under minimal management conditions in a harsh environment.

Characteristics
The Milking Devon is red in colour, varying in shade from deep rich red to light red or chestnut colour. They may show white on the tail switch, udder or scrotum. They are of a medium size, mature cows will weigh about 1,000 – 1,200 pounds at maturity and bulls may weigh 1,400 – 1,700 pounds at maturity. They have medium sized curving horns that are light coloured with dark tips. The Devon cow is especially elegant with her compact rounded form, and when treated with kindness, possesses a docile temperament. They have very

Photo courtesy of Devon Point Farm, www.devonpointfarm.com

few calving difficulties and adequate milk production to raise a calf and for use on the small farm. The Devon bull is noted for his ease of handling and even temperament. The Milking Devon is a triple-purpose breed adapted to survive on a low-quality, high forage diet under severe climatic conditions. They are healthy, long lived, and thrive on good care and management. Today, Devons are still sought out for use as oxen. Those qualities so highly prised by the colonists can still be found in today's Devons. The Milking Devon produces Jersey-quality milk, without the Jersey’s dependence on grain. Milk production depends a lot on feed of course. Butterfat and protein numbers in Milking Devons are high, in the same range as the Jersey and the Guernsey. Butterfat of 6% or higher is common. Milking Devons tend to have small calves, resulting in calving ease; yet because the Milking Devon cow produces high-component milk in moderate volume, she weans a proportionately large and fat calf. Because she readily adjusts to demand (whether that be a sucking calf, or milking, or both) she typically conserves condition and breeds back on time. Milking Devon steers, heifers, bulls and dry cows fatten easily. The Milking Devon is a good choice for grassfed beef with zero grain supplementation, because of the breed’s extraordinary efficiency converting forage into growth and marbling. A dress-out percentage of 60% is reasonable in steers of balanced breeding. The Milking Devon steer marbles with greater ease and under less favorable conditions than most other cattle breeds. The fat is an attractive creamy

Photo courtesy of Wiseacre Farm, www.milkingdevons.com

white.

When kept solely for cow-calf beef production, the Milking Devon cow does not require stripping when fresh even though she lactates generously; she easily adjusts her milk volume to meet demand. This natural flexibility is another factor favouring the Milking Devon for straight beef, dairy/beef or even once-per-day milking programs. Milking Devon cows gain condition easily. This means that after a summer on pasture alone it is possible for the herd to winter on hay, stockpiled hay and/or grass silage, and still have reserves for spring calving and freshening. Milking Devon steers gain as much weight in winter on dry hay, as they did when grazing intensively rotated perennial pastures during the previous season.

Statistics
• • • • • • • • • • • Early maturing Better adapted to warm latitudes Noted rather for the quality than the quantity of their milk suited to butter and cheese making Flesh evenly and smoothly hence they are not given to patchiness The meat is nicely veined and marbled, and is well flavoured, juicy, and of prime quality Easy-keeping, rugged vitality Longevity Excellent fertility and maternal performance Intelligence and mild temperament Agility and endurance Diverse forage palatability

Photo courtesy of Devon Point Farm, www.devonpointfarm.com

Distribution
The Milking Devon strain is unique to America and has been maintained and is represented by the American Milking Devon Cattle Association. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.milkingdevons.org www.milkingdevons.com www.devonpointfarm.com

Montbéliarde
History
The Montbéliarde originated in the Haute SaÔne-Doubs region of France, they descend from the Bernoise cattle that were brought by the Mennonites in the 18th Century to France. The breed was originally called the Alsatian breed until around the mid 1800's when it changed to Montbéliarde. In 1990 the Montbéliarde accounted for 11% of the French national cattle herd, ranking third in the list of dairy breeds in France; that year there were 1,8 million head, 840,000 of which were cows. Two years later it had passed the Normande and ranked second on the list of dairy breeds in France, and in 1994 the breed numbered 280,000 herdbook cows. It is distributed over central East and Southeast France: in the Franche Comté, the Auvergne and Rhône-Alpes (mainly in the departments Saône-et-Loire, Ain and Isère). Todays modern Montbéliarde is described as a composite of the breeds Tourache, Bernoise through integration since 1960 from Red Holstein. These cattle are renowned for their milk as traditionally the milk is processed into Emmental and Gruyère cheese.

Characteristics
The Montbéliarde is light red and white in colour quite similar to the red and white Holstein. They have a white head with a light muzzle and have lyra-shaped horns. Monbéliarde cows stand 135-140 cm at the withers and average 685 kg, while bulls stand 148 cm, weighing 1,100-1,200 kg. The breed is renowned for tough feet and strong udders. The milk yield of 287,734 cows in 1993 averaged 5,693 kg at 3.83% fat and 3.36% Photo courtesy of O.S. Montbéliarde, protein in 286 days. By 1991 the herdbook www.montbeliarde.org cows averaged 6,521 kg milk per lactation. Three month old veal calves and 14-15 month bulls are slaughtered at 130-180 and 470-570 kg. They dress out at 70% and 57%, respectively.

Statistics
Montbéliarde is placed in the first rank for its breeding qualities and functional characteristics: • • • • Resistance to mastitis (very low cell counts) Fertility (good success rate in artificial insemination) Longevity (24 % with 5 or more lactations) Calving ease (25 % of crossbreeding with the Charolais, no calving problems)

Montbeliarde milk has excellent cheese-making value (for making gruyere) because of its high level of protein content and a high frequency of Kappa Casein B variants.

All these features mean that it is a hardy, easily managed breed, which adapts remarkably easily to all environments. The Montbeliarde also has undoubted beefing qualities - its rapid growth rate and good conformation mean that its calves and young bulls are highly appreciated; the cull cows too produce good quality carcasses Photo courtesy of O.S. Montbéliarde, www.montbeliarde.org with no excess fat. In addition, this breed is very hardy and well suited to harsh climates; it is not affected by the heat, and can ingest large quantities of rough forage, which enables it to maintain its performances when used in much hotter regions.

Distribution
This breed is highly popular in France and exports of the breed have included South Africa, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Canaries, Chile, China, Columbia, Ivory Coast, Croatia, Spain, the US, Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, Ireland, Italy, Kuwait, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia. Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey and many more. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.tiho-hannover.de www.iol.ie www.cattlenetwork.net www.montbeliarde.org

Normande
History
The Normande originated in Normandy, France from cattle brought to the country by Viking conquerors in the 9 th and 10 th centuries. For over a thousand years these cattle evolved into a dual purpose breed to meet the milk and meat needs of the residents of northwestern France. The present herd book in France was started in 1883. Though the breed was decimated by the Allied invasion of Normandy during World War II, there are currently 3 million Normandes in France. Their present role in France is to provide rich milk for the cheese industry while maintaining their excellent carcass quality. In other parts of the world such as the US, this breed has been primarily bred for beef but now there is a strong push for it to be used for dairy too. In France, the Normande is associated with the production of such famous cheeses as Camembert, Pont-Lévêque and Livarot. While the Normande has always been used for dairy, it has always presented strong dual-purpose qualities. In France, the Normande has always been known for its unsurpassed Photo courtesy of CR Normande Cattle, marbling quality, flavour and http://home.earthlink.net/~crcattle/index.html tenderness, and regularly wins blind tests for its taste. A special label for Normande meat enjoys great popularity in major supermarkets. In the US, Normande bulls have won growth tests at various test stations and carcasses have often ranked first at major beef shows.

Characteristics
The Normande is a red and white cow with occasional sometimes widespread areas of brown hair. Typically, the brown hair has the look of tiger stripes, or brindles, interspersed with the red spots, and there is some degree of balance between the three different hues. However, one colour often dominates, and there is a different name for the dominance of each colour. The representative Normande is red and white (with brown brindles), this is said to be “blond” others are “quail” - when the white dominates, “brindled” - predominantly brown and “trouted” which is a multitude of brown spots on the skin underneath white hair. Some bulls appear black but it is really brown hair, the Normande is homozygous red breed. Calves do not display their brindles until a few weeks after birth, and altogether, Normande cattle tend to darken as they age. Normandes are a medium frame size breed with most cows weighing 1,200 to 1,500 lbs. and bulls 2,000 to 2,400 lbs. They possess excellent body depth and spring of rib while maintaining exceptional body length. The cattle are also very clean fronted and carry a strong topline.

Normande females reach sexual maturity early and have good fertility, mammary conformation, mothering ability and production longevity. They have large pelvic areas and calve easily with calves showing excellent vigour and most birth weights in the 70 to 95 lb. range. In France, milk production averages 14,000 lbs. per lactation with 4.2 % butterfat and 3.5 % protein. Because of the breed's high muscle mass to www.britishnormandecattle.co.uk bone ratio and their small heads, the Normande has a high percentage yield at slaughter. The carcass is very lean but marbles readily and purebred Normande steers will easily grade choice at 1,250 lbs. The Normande breed won’t produce bulging rear quarters of cheap ground round but will increase the length and width of the top priced loin area cuts.
Photo courtesy of the British Normande Cattle Society ,

Statistics
        Ultimate grazers that can be used for either beef and dairy production Incredible feed converters Rich milk for cheese production and good growth rate in calves Ideal for dairy crossbreeding Fertility Calving ease Strength High percentage yield at slaughter

Comparative
Growth Rates Recent bull tests have shown that this rapid growth rate will continue on high roughage feed. Normande bulls have topped the St. Croix Valley Bull Test at River Falls, Wisconsin in both years that they've been entered. In 1991 a Normande bull set an all time station record 4.93 lb. ADG and also had a 3.64 lb. WDA. The second place bull that year was also a Normande. In the 1992 test a Normande bull again topped the field with a 4.68 lb. ADG and a 3.49 lb. WDA. The 140 day test annually features 100 bulls from 8 to 10 different beef breeds fed a corn silage based high roughage ration. Studies in France have documented 5.0 feed conversion rates on the same type of diet. In the 1990 and 1991 Montana 4-H Steer of Merit Carcass Contests, three 7/8 Normande steers placed in the top 10 out of the 1,000 steers entered annually including crossbreds. A 1991 Normande steer had a 16.2 in. rib eye, a 0.15 in. backfat, and a yield grade of 0.99. North American Normande Association Normande cows on high forage feeding systems average between 14,000 and 15,000 lbs of milk per lactation at 3.6 % protein and 4.4 % fat. Many cows produce more than 22,000 lbs and some reach 30,000 lbs. These results do not reflect the genetic originality of the breed: more than 90 % of the individuals carry the B Kappa Caseine gene and 82 % of AI Bulls have the BB Genotype. The levels of casein beta and

kappa in the milk are known to improve the curdling quality of the milk for cheese manufacturing (speed and firmness of gel). In addition, Normande milk presents favorable calcium/phosphate ratio and casein miscella of small diameter, all of which result in yields of cheese 15 to 20 % higher depending on the type of fabrication/manufacture. www.normandegenetics.com TRIAL IN CASTLELYONS Three years ago Waterford Co-Op decided to look at ways of helping their suppliers improve profit margins on their farms. Three batches of heifers were bought in, Normande, Montbeliarde, and High RBI Dutch Holsteins. Their performances were measured alongside the Castlelyons animals. Cows calved down in Spring of '96'. Milk yield in 1997 for Normande is heading for over 1,000 gals. and with protein levels in the region of 3.6 percent on 500 kgs meal. The trial work being carried out by Waterford also looks at the financial implications of each breed from the average Waterford supplier based on 80 acres with 42,000 gallon quota and male progeny carried to beef. In estimating the profit implications, the following assumptions were made, dual purpose cattle achieving a factory price premium of £100 over ordinary Freisiens; Dutch cattle carrying a price penalty of £30 per head over own breed and no butterfat levy imposed. The comparisons show that the Normande herd provide for and increase in net profit of £6,277, the Montbeliarde herd increase was £4,796 and the high RBI herd increase was £1,748 over own bred cattle. Irish Normade Dual Purpose Cattle Breed Society

Distribution
Normandes have been exported world-wide but have received their greatest acceptance in South America where they were introduced in the 1890's. Total numbers there now exceed 4 million purebreds plus countless Normande crossbreds. Columbia alone has 1.6 million purebreds with the rest mainly in Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Uruguay. They are also growing in countries such as Madagascar, the US, Mexico, Belgium, Switzerland, Great Britain and Ireland. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) normandeassociation.com www.normandegenetics.com www.ansi.okstate.edu www.britishnormandecattle.co.uk CR Normande Cattle Irish Normade Dual Purpose Cattle Breed Society

Norwegian Red
History
This breed designation originated in 1961 when the Norwegian Red-andWhite, Red Trondheim and the Red Polled Østland. Later in 1963 the Døle was also absorbed into the designation and in 1968 South and West Norwegians were added. Others breeds which have been said to contribute to the gene pool include Ayshires, Swedish Red-and-Whites, Friesians and Holsteins. By 1975, 98% of the Norwegian national herd belonged to this designation. Using the classical Photo courtesy of Oklahoma State University, definition the Norwegian Red cannot be www.ansi.okstate.edu considered a breed. It is an amalgamation to develop superior strain of dual-purpose cattle. With time and selection this designation may develop into a breed but this is not the case yet. Cows are selected for milking potential, rate of milk flow and fertility, while bulls are selected on the basis of performance in a rate-of-growth test. In Norway they are also known by the name Norsk rodt fe.

Characteristics
Norwegian Red cattle do not express the external uniformity seen in a true breed, although they are red or red-pied for the most part. Cows weigh about 495kg to 600kg bulls about 900 kg. They produce approximately 6200 litres of milk a year. They are of a medium size and give a average yield, average milk-fat and average meat - they are specifically bred for these traits.

Statistics
• • • • • •

Photo courtesy of Oklahoma State University, www.ansi.okstate.edu

Calving ease - with shorter gestestion lengths, fewer still births and more live progeny High fertility - producing reduced semen, vet and AI costs High fat and protein milk Higher Mastitis resistance Choice of Polled or Horned Hardy hooves

Distribution
This breed or type of cattle is not one of the most popular in terms of export and global numbers, but they are found in Norway and have a population of about 280000. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.semex.co.uk neurocad.lva.lt

Randall
History
Randall cattle are a rare breed of purebred cattle developed in Sunderland, Vermont, USA, on the farm of cattle breeder Everett Randall. He produced a closed herd for over 80 years, they are considered to be a landrace breed, descended from the indigenous cattle common in New England in the nineteenth Century. In 1985 the Randall cattle were rescued from the Randall farm as Mr E. Randall had passed away and his wife was unable to keep them, Cynthia Creech took on the breed to preserve the genetics from extinction. During the following years the breed had been called various names but in the 1990's it was Photo courtesy of Cynthia Creech, www.cynthiasrandallcattle.com decided that they would be called Randall cattle and the Registry was set up in 2001. Randalls have historically been used as a dairy breed, although they also possess meat and draft qualities. From a small number of remaining animals this breeds population has increased to approximately 200 breeders which are being produced on small subsistence farms.

Characteristics
Randall cattle are variable in size and conformation and have a constitution that Randall cattle have black markings on a white base, other colours such as blue, mahogany, red and grey have been observed. This breed are similar in pattern to the Lineback but are not related. Their size and conformation is variable but they are usually of a medium size with the cows weighing about 600-1100 lbs. Bulls may weigh from 1000 to 1800 lbs. or more. Randall meat characteristics can vary down diferent family lines, for example some produce a lovely lean carcase with yellow fat and another produces a beefy well marbled carcase. Preliminary tests on their milk show an average of 3.7% Butter fat and 3.2% protein. Calving difficulties are rare, and metabolic disorders have not been seen. They have strong maternal and survival instincts, high intelligence, and are very docile when handled regularly. This breed is uniquely adapted to extensive or low input farming systems. Historically, the most suitable

Photo courtesy of Cynthia Creech, www.cynthiasrandallcattle.com

and natural environment for these cattle has been on small scale forage-based farms, subsistence farms, and homesteads. It is on such farms and homesteads that the unique genetic attributes of the Randalls can be fully expressed.

Statistics
        High functionality, modern triple purpose breed Self reliance Draft power, willingness to work Quick to train Hybrid vigour Easy calving Strong maternal instincts Very docile

Distribution
The Randall is being produced in the USA and Canada. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.randallcattleregistry.org www.cynthiasrandallcattle.com
Photo courtesy of Cynthia Creech, www.cynthiasrandallcattle.com

Sahiwal
History
The Sahiwal originated in the dry Punjab region which lies along the Indian-Pakistani border. They were once kept in large herds by professional herdsmen called "Junglies". With the introduction of irrigation systems to the region they began to be kept in smaller numbers by the farmers of the region, who used them as draft and dairy animals. Today the Sahiwal is one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan. Due to their heat tolerance and high milk production they have been exported to other Asian countries as well as Africa and the Caribbean. The Sahiwal was exported to Australia via New Guinea in the early 1950’s. In Australia, the Sahiwal was initially selected as a dual-purpose breed. It played a valuable role in the development of the two Australian Photo courtesy of The Australian Sahiwal Society, tropical dairy breeds, the Australian www.sahiwal.com.au Milking Zebu and the Australian Fresian Sahiwal. Sahiwals are now predominately used in Australia for beef production, as crossing high grade Sahiwal sires with Bos taurus animals produced a carcass of lean quality with desirable fat cover.

Characteristics
Their colour can range from reddish brown through to the more predominant red, with varying amounts of white on the neck, and the underline. In males the colour darkens towards the extremities, such as the head, legs and tail. It is tick-resistant, heat-tolerant and noted for its high resistance to parasites, both internal and external. Cows average 2270kg of milk during a lactation while suckling a calf and much higher milk yields have been recorded. They are generally docile and lethargic, making them more useful for slow work. The Sahiwal is the heaviest milker of all Zebu breeds and display a well developed udder. Sahiwals demonstrate the ability to sire small, fast-growing calves and are noted for their hardiness under unfavorable climatic conditions.

Statistics
       High milk yields Tick and parasite resistance Heat tolerant Ease of calving Longevity, reproducing for upto 20yrs Drought resistant Bloat tolerant

 Good temperament  Lean meat with even fat cover

Distribution
The Sahiwal is bred in Pakistan for its milking ability and in Australia for its beefing qualities but it has also been exported to Africa, the Carribean, India and other parts of Asia. References (the above information was cited from the following sites) www.ansi.okstate.edu www.sahiwal.com.au

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