The primary function of air conditioning is to maintain conditions that are comfortable to humans, or are those as required by a product or process within a confined space, to perform this function; equipment of the proper capacity must be installed and controlled throughout the year. The equipment capacity is determined by the actual instantaneous peak cooling load requirements. It is impossible to measure the actual peak cooling load in any given space, and hence these loads must be estimated, In the context of air conditioning in a built environment, it is generally known that there would be space heat gain from external as well as internal sources. However,' it is necessary to understand that there are four related but distinct hear flow rates, each of which varies with time. These are: (a) Space heat gain (i) From external sources (ii) From internal sources (b) Space cooling load (c) Space heat extraction rate (d) Cooling coil load. The space heat gain is the rate at which heat is transferred to and/or generated in a space at a given time. The space cooling rate is the rate at which heat must be removed to maintain space air temperature at a constant value; the space heat extraction rate is 7

the rate at which heat is removed from the conditioned space by the cooling and dehumidifying equipment. Cooling coil load is the rate at which energy is removed at the cooling coil which serves one or more conditioned spaces in any central airconditioning system.


The primary function of air conditioning is to maintain conditions that are comfortable to humans, or are those as required by a product or process within a confined space, to perform this function; equipment of the proper capacity must be installed and controlled throughout the year. The equipment capacity is determined by the actual instantaneous peak cooling load requirements. It is impossible to measure the actual peak cooling load in any given space, and hence these loads must be estimated, In the context of air conditioning in a built environment, it is generally known that there would be space heat gain from external as well as internal sources. However,' it is necessary to understand that there are four related but distinct hear flow rates, each of which varies with time. These are: (a) Space heat gain (i) From external sources (ii) From internal sources (b) Space cooling load (c) Space heat extraction rate (d) Cooling coil load. The space heat gain is the rate at which heat is transferred to and/or generated in a space at a given time. The space cooling rate is the rate at which heat must be removed to maintain space air temperature at a constant value; the space heat extraction rate is 7

the rate at which heat is removed from the conditioned space by the cooling and dehumidifying equipment. Cooling coil load is the rate at which energy is removed at the cooling coil which serves one or more conditioned spaces in any central airconditioning system. and • whether it is sensible or latent gain The first classification is necessary because of different fundamental principles and because equations are used to calculate different modes of energy transfer. ceiling and floors 8 . Heat conduction through exterior walls and roofs 3. Heat gain is classified by: • the mode in which it enters the space. Energy transfer as a result of ventilation and infiltration of outdoor air 4. i.1 SPACE HEAT GAIN Space heat gain. Solar radiation through transparent surfaces 2. 2.e. Heat gain occurs in the form of: 1. the instantaneous rate of heat gain is the rate at which heat enters into and/or is generated within a space at a given instant of time. Heat conduction through interior partitions.

sensible or latent. Essentially equals the product of the rate of condensation and the latent heat of condensation. The second classification. because any cooling apparatus has a maximum sensible heat removal capacity and a maximum latent heat removal capacity for particular operating conditions only. Miscellaneous heat gains. Heat generated within the space by occupants. The distinction between sensible and latent heat gain is necessary. the latent heat gain. To maintain constant moisture content in a space.5. is important for the proper selection of cooling equipment. 7 . light and appliances 6. The heat gain is latent when moisture is added to the space. and radiation. The amount of energy required to do this. The heat gain is sensible when there is a direct addition of heat to a space by any or all mechanisms of conduction. water vapor must be condensed out in the cooling apparatus at a rate equal to its rate addition to the space.

2 are described on the next page.1 and 2.The various components of space heat gains shown schematically Figures 2.1 Schematic diagram of heat gains in a space from internal and external sources. 8 . FIGURE 2.

2 HEAT GAIN FROM EXTERNAL SOURCES The first four types of heat gains in Figure 2.2 Eire distinctive in that these are heat gains from external sources and are weather-related variables. a brief review of solar radiation would be appropriate. Hence. and external sources. The principal weather-related variable influencing a building's cooling load is solar radiation. prior to discussing these heat gains.3 SOLAR RADIATION 9 . 2. particularly the first two.2 Types of heat gains in a space from internal. 2.FIGURE 2.

The factor that has maximum influence on the cooling load of a building is the solar radiation, of load. The earth revolves round the sun in an elliptical orbit, as shown in Figures 2.3 and 2.4 as the earth moves, it also spins about its own axis at the rate of one revolution every twenty-four hours. Its axis of rotation is tilted 23.5° with respect on its orbit around the sun. This angle of tilt essentially causes the distribution of solar radiation over the earth's surface and, consequently, the change of seasons.


Dc The Earth is inclined

Ea rth Ax is






FIGURE 2.3 The earth's revolution about the sun. Earth The revolves in an orbit
September 23rd

1 1

Arcti c Circl e

< n >
T r o p i c o f C a n c e r


Tr opi c of Ca pri co rn A n t a r c t

i c C i r c l e 1 3 .

2. It essentially defines the direction of the sun's that are affected by (a) location on the. (b)time of the day. reflected back into space and absorbed by the earth's atmosphere. A major part of the sun's radiation is scattered. However. When the sky is clear. The total radiation reaching a surface is equal to the sum of direct and diffuse radiation.through the atmosphere and reaches the earth's surface directly is called direct or beam radiation. and (c) day of the year. earthl's surface. It is called diffuse or sky radiation. it does not normally change with the orientation of the surface. the diffuse radiation increases and the direct radiation decrease considerably. with a hazy or cloudy sky. it is a maximum when the surface is normal to the sun's rays and zero when it is parallel to the sun's rays. As it is diffusing in astute. the diffuse radiations are usually a very small part of the total radiation. A part of this radiation is re-radiated and reaches the earth's surface uniformly from all directions.4 Solar angles: The sun's position in the sky is a major factor in the effect of solar energy on a building. The intensity of direct radiation depends on the orientation of the surface. These three quantities are -conveniently 1 .

respectively. as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2.6 shows the apparent path of the sun and the sun's declination angle.7 shows the variation of sun's declination. The latitude 1 is the angle between line OP and the projection of OP on the equatorial plane.specified by the latitude. Figure 2.5. The sun's declination & is the angle between a line connecting the centre of sun and earth and the projection of that line on the equatorial plane. The hour angle h is the angle between the projection of P on the equatorial plane and the projection on that plane of a line from the centre of the sun to the centre of the earth. 1 5 . the hour angle h and the sun's declination &.

6 Schematic celestial sphere showing apparent path of sun and sun's declination angle. South Celestial Pole .y$r V Potoffe FIGURE 2. hour angle d>.5 Latitude angle <p. W. \ 1 North Celesta! Pole FIGURE 2.

h and & defined earlier. The 1 7 .z (zenith) e (east) n (north) \ \I In air-conditioning calculations the sun's position is defined in terms of the solar altitude angle (3 and solar azimuth angle 6 which depend on 1. The solar azimuth angle 6 is the angle in the horizontal plane measured between South and the projection of the sun's rays on that plane. The solar altitude angle /3 is the angle between the sun's rays and the horizontal to the earth.

5 Solar insulation values: The amount of direct solar radiation or insulation falling on a given surface is equal to the product of the direct of the direct radiation falling on a surface normal to the sun's rays. and the cosG. 2.angle of incidence 6 is the angle between the sun'S rays and the normal to the surface. The total solar energy flux Ire on a 1 . /DN.8 illustrates the angles mentioned above. in W/m at the earth's surface on a clear day may be estimated from the following equation: where A is apparent extraterrestrial insulation and B is the extinction coefficient. The value of B depends on the time of year and the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. Figure 2. The intensity of the 2 direct normal irradiation ldn.

I TO = IDN cosQ + IDs + IR 2. The three components of the radiation are shown in Figure 2.1 Solar radiation through transparent objects: When solar radiation impinges on an unshaded glass window. the diffuse component of solar radiation IDS coming from the sky. part of the radiant heat (around 10% for clear glass) is reflected back outdoors.terrestrial surface of any orientation and tilt with incident angle 9 is equal to the sum of the direct solar component IDN COSQ. part of it (5 to 50%. and the reflected short-wave radiation from the surrounding terrestrial surfaces IR Thus. Incident radiation Absorbed radiation P Radiation and ^ convection heat (low \ X Transmitted radiation 1 9 . depending on composition and thickness of glass) is absorbed by the glass and the remainder is transmitted directly indoors.9.5.

=Q^+Qs i.8 Absorption.3 where Qtotai is the! total heat transmission through the 2 glass (W/m ) is the heat flow due to temperature difference between outdoor and indoor QR is the radiation directly transmitted through the glass QC is the inward flow of absorbed radiation QSHG is the solar heat gain. we get Q. Combining the last two terms.-1.\ FIGURE2.0. reflection and transmission of solar radiation in glass The total instantaneous heat gain through the glass area can be obtained from the following heat balance: Qtotal=Q*T+Qr+Qc--. Total heat transmission through glass = conduction heat gain — solar heat 2 S .a. The last two terms in the above are to be considered only when the surface is exposed to solar radiation.e.

The solar radiation ^transmitting through such transparent glass area may be expressed by the equation: Qsr = A(7rl] + Falx) = AI} (n + Fa) —1.The total load through the transparent glass area is the sum of the load due to conductive heat gain and the load due to solar heat gain (SHG). are described by the following relationship a+p+x=l where a is the absorptivity p is the reflectivity x is the transmissivity .6 Where. The relative magnitude of each of these terms affects the solar heat gain. The surface optical properties of glazed surfaces. 2 1 .

is referred to as solar heat gain as 2 . F=U/ho Equation (1.I] is the total solar radiation incident on the surface (W/m ) 2 F is the fraction of absorbed radiation transferred by conduction and convection to inside environment hQ is the outside heat transfer coefficient 2 (W/m . Under steady conditions.6) can then be restated The expression /.K) U is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the 2 glazing (W/m "K).

For calculation of heat transfer through structures. heat transfer conducted through these w. gives the same rate of heat entry into the surface as would the combination of incident solar radiation.e.alls differs not only because of their opaqueness but also because the walls are constructed of different materials in layers to form into a composite wall or roof. it is convenient to combine the effects of the outdoor air temperature T0 and the total solar radiation incident on the surface Ii into a single quantity.2 Structural heat gains Incident solar radiation heats up the exterior surfaces of a building and raises its temperature. radiant energy exchange with the sky and 2 3 . Heat gains through the exterior building envelope. in the absentee of all radiation changes. walls and roof if derived in the same way as those through glass areas.5. i.2. However.air temperature Tc which is formally defined as follows: Sol-air temperature is the temperature of the outdoor air that. known as the sol.

The general expression for the heat balance at a sunlit surface gives the heat flux on to the surface as + K(T0 -Ts)-adR. surface 2 (W/m ) ho is the coefficient of heat transfer by long wave radiation and convection at the outer surface T0 is the outdoor air temperature (°C) Ts is the surface temperature (°C) is the hemispherical emissivity of the surface SR is the difference between the long wavelength radiation incident on the surface from the sky and surroundings and the radiation emitted by a blackbody at T0.e. and convective heat exchange with outdoor air.8) where a is the coefficient of absorptivity of the surface for solar radiation Ii is the total solar radiation incident on the.other outdoor surroundings. the sol-air temperature T0 the theat transfer 2 . i.-(1. Introducing the equivalent.

2. (1. the ilong-wave correction term s5RIH0 is about -4°C and the same for vertical surfaces is 0°C.Q = h (Te-Ts) A '° (1.9) From Eqs. The average daily sol-air temperature can be calculated for any situation.3 An Example Calculation of the instantaneous sol-air temperature for a wall with the following known conditions: 2 5 .5.9) T =T+—L-— K K For horizontal surfaces receiving long-wave radiation from the sky only.8) and (1.

To 35 tal 0 dir W ec /m 2 t an d dif fu se so lar ra di ati on 2 .

Su 0. a 2 7 . rfa 85 ce ab so rpt ivi ty.

su K. rfa ce he at tra ns fer co eff ici en t 2 .O 20 ut W si /m 2 de .

O 35 ut ° si C de su rfa ce te m pe rat ur e 2 9 .

9 ° C hu M 20 . + rat =7 ^-£^ = 35 +3 085 * 350 + 0 = 49 . T.So lair te m pe ur e.

23VAT where 3 1 .005 + \Ms)VAT = \. For general applications.20 Kg/m is shown below: Sensible heat gain corresponding to the change in diy bulb temperature AT for a given air flow (standard conditions) V is Qs = 1. Heat gain corresponding to a flow rate of V through an enthalpy difference of Ah (for an air 3) density of 1.4 Ventilation heat gain Provision of ventilation air is mandated by local codes and ordinances. such as offices.2. 10 liters/s per person in recommended.20(1. It thus becomes a cooling coil load component instead of a space load component. Ventilation air is generally introduced at the AHU rather than directly into the conditioned space. The ASHRAE Standard 62 recommends minimum ventilation rates for most common applications.5.

Qs is the sensible heat change (W) m is the specific humidity (kg water)/(kg dry air) v is the 3 air flow rate (m /s). 2.7Heat Gain from Internal Sources Internal heat comprises sensible and latent heat gains from occupants. 2.6Infiltration heat gain The entire infiltration load should be considered in the space heat gain calculations. Often these sensible and latent heat gains may constitute a large percentage of the total load.5. Latent heat gain corresponding to the change in specific humidity (Ac?) for a given air flow V is =1. lights. Sensible and latent heat from infiltration gains can be calculated in the same way as ventilation air. appliances and equipment and piping.8Occupancy The occupants in conditioned space give off heat and moisture at rates depending on their states of activity.5.20x2500 Q2Ao) = 3010QsA6) 2. The procedure for calculating infiltration air is discussed in Chapter 11. etc. While the latent heat gains are considered 3 .5.

instantaneous.22 lists the rates of heat gains from occupants in conditioned spaces. The remaining part is the radiant heat which is initially absorbed by the walls.10) 3 3 .9. Like occupancy. all of sensible heat gains do not become cooling load because of the thermal storage characteristics of the space. the rate of heat gain at any instant can be quite different from the heat equivalent of power rating of the installed light fixtures. Table 13.Lighting Load Lighting is often a major component of space cooling load. floor. Part of the energy emitted from lights is in the form of convective heat that becomes instantaneous cooling load.5. furniture and upholstery and then released to the room air after a time lag (Figure 1. 2.

e Th in nt sta . 10 er al st or e Th m ag eff ec ts in co oli ng lo 3 fr ad o m lig ht s.FI C G U R E 2.

1. as decimal fraction <1. The special allowance is the ratio of the wattage in use. The motor load 3 .Qel is the heat gain (W) W is the total light wattage Ful is the lighting use factor F^ is the lighting special allowance factor.5.0 or decimal fraction M UM <1. for the conditions under which the load estimate is being made. 1.0. its value would be 1.10 Power The instantaneous heat gain from equipment operated by electric motors within a conditioned space is calculated as o =(Pr }F F zZtm ' m)1 UM !M G^ is the heat equivalent of equipment operation (W) 1 P is the motor power rating (W) E is the motor efficiency. The value may usually be taken as unity.0 FM is the motor load factor. to the total installed wattage.0 F is the motor use factor.0 or decimal fraction <1.For conventional applications. 2.0 The motor use factor may be applied when motor operation is intermittent .

factor is the faction of the rated load being delivered under the conditions of the cooling load estimate. (b) Temperature rise in the air stream as a consequence of static and velocity pressure. An improperly designed and constructed duct system can have leakage rate as high as 30%.5. Air leakage out of or into duct work can have much greater impact than the conventional duct heat gain or loss. It may be noted that 3 . A properly designed duct system should not leak more than 1-3% of the total system air flow. The space cooling load is the rate at which heat must be removed to maintain a constant space air temperature at the desired value. The outward leakage from supply duct is a direct loss of cooling and dehumidifying capacity and needs to be compensated by increased air flow. 2.11 Miscellaneous heat gain Fans: Fans that circulate air through the airconditioning system add energy to the system by the following processes: (a) temperature rise in the air stream from fan inefficiency. Temperature rise from heat generated by motor Duct heat gain and leakage: Heat gained or lost by supply duct could be significant and it is normally estimated as a percentage of space sensible cooling load (usually about 1 %). and (c) and drive efficiencies.

SOX surfaces. and ceiling. some of their heat will be transferred to the air in the room by convection (Figure212). The thermal storage effect can be exploited for economical equipment selection. furniture. curtains. etc. for example. the summation of all space instantaneous heat gains at a given time does not necessarily equal the cooling load for the space at the same time. and by the material in the space. for example. Once these surfaces and objects become warmer than the space air. upholstery. walls floor. The space heat gain by radiation is partially absorbed by the surfaces and by the contents of the space and does not affect the room air until 3 .

FI G U R E 2. 1 2 Di ff er en ce be tw ee n in st an ta ne 3 ou s he at ga in an d .

The highly varying and relatively sharp change of the instantaneous solar heat gain results in a large portion of it being stored at the time of peak solar heat gain.12.13 It may be seen that the peak heat gain is delayed as expected. 3 . Storage of heat in building structure The relationships between instantaneous heat gain and cooling loads is shown Figures 13.5. 2.12 and 13.instantaneous cooling load. for heavy construction.

1 3 A ct ua l co ol in g lo ad co m pa re d wi 4 th in st an ta ne ou s he at ga in .Ligh t co ofl m cti on M ed iu m H ea vy FI G U R E 2.

Once the control system is designed properly. medium.13 (b) illustrate the actual cooling load for a 24-hour operation.6 SPACE HEAT EXTRACTION RATE The space heat extraction rate is the rate at which heat is removed from a conditioned space. less heat is stored at the peak. Figure 2.13(a) is typical of the solar heat gain and the lower curve is the actual cooling load that results in an average construction application with the space temperature held constant. the computation of the space heat extraction rate results in 4 .13 (a) represent the heat stored and the stored heat removed from the construction. Since all the heat entering the space must be removed. One more item that significantly affects the storage of heat is the operating period of the air-conditioning equipment. these two areas are equal. This heat must be removed when the equipment is turned of the next day.The upper curve in Figure 2.13 (b) illustrates the relationship between the instantaneous heat gain and the actual cooling load in light. 2. which rarely occurs. and heavy construction. The cross-hatched areas (Figure 2. some of the stored heat remains in the building construction. while with heavy construction more heat is stored at the peak. It equals the space cooling load only when the room air temperature is kept constant. All the curves of Figure 2. If the cooling equipment is shut down after a certain number of hours of operation. With light construction.

Such additional load components may include (a) outdoor hot and moist air introduced into the system for ventilation and (b) heat gain into the air duct system. 4 . It is equal to the instantaneous sum of the space cooling load for all the spaces served by the system.a more realistic value of energy removal at the cooling equipment rather than using the values of the space cooling load.7 COOLING COIL LOAD Cooling coil load is the rate at which energy is removed at the cooling coil which serves one or more conditioned spaces in any central air. plus any additional load imposed on the system external to the conditioned spaces.conditioning system. • Variations in the location within the building so that solar loads. In order to maintain similar conditions in all the areas or rooms of a zone. 2.under the control of a single thermostat. 2. Where fairly uniform internal conditions are present the areas with similar daily load variations may be grouped into one zone. The daily variations in load are due to: o Variations in occupancy and equipment loads.8 CONTROL AND ZONING A zone is a section of a building which has the same air supply throughout. it will be necessary for these areas or rooms to react thermally with time in a similar manner.

The zones of a building may be achieved in the airconditioning system by the following methods: • Separate air handling plant or unit air conditioners to serve each zone. ® Common air handling plant supplying hot and cold air which is mixed according to the requirements of the zone. coil installed in the main supply duct to each CHAPTER 3: Cooling load calculation procedures 4 . • Common air handling plant delivering air to terminal units (mixing boxes. are different.) located in each zone. • Common air handling plant with volume domes at each zone. • Common air handling plant with separate cooling coil and/or heating zone. ® Variations in fresh air requirement.shade factors building construction.conditioning system vary. etc. induction units. Areas must also be zoned (a) where there is a need to maintain different internal condition and (b) where the hours of operation of the air. etc.

there are several benefits/limitations which feature each method.1 Simplicity. Simplicity and accuracy are two contradicting objectives to be fulfilled. such tables are incomplete. While modern methods emphasize on improving the procedure of calculating solar and conduction heat gains. outdoors weather variations.3. In other times it is the accurate predictability of the occurrence is also important.' and vice versa. when thinking about accuracy. Sometimes recommendations are mentioned about using 25% to 50% of the nameplate power consumption. This example for internal heat gain shows that. For example for equipment not mentioned in the tables.g. Handbooks include tables for the heat gain estimations from the internal sources. complex) which is effective. 4 . only -limited information is indicated about them. where the final value is left to the interpretation of the designer. human behavior. However. e. there are also other main sources coming from internal heat gains (people. Much of this is due to the unpredictability of occupancy. lack of and variation in heat gain data for modern equipments. accuracy and uncertainty in cooling load calculations For each cooling load calculation method. lighting and equipment). its accuracy would be a matter of question. There are high degrees of uncertainty in input data required to determine cooling loads. the frequency of using of equipment is very important to determine the heat gain. but uncertainties in the input data are also important. it is not only the method (simple vs. If a method could be considered to be simple.

Therefore.3. Otherwise. for the latent heat. However. The latent heat gain is assumed to become cooling load instantly.2 Cooling Load Calculation Methods and introduction of new building products and HVAC equipments with unknown characteristics. the main source is people. where the two components are combined. sensible and latent. the added time/effort required for the more complex calculation methods would not be productive in terms of better accuracy of the results if uncertainties in the input data are high. age and gender. likely. The latent and sensible heat gains from occupants should be computed separately until estimating the building refrigeration load. These methods deal with the sensible heat load. They are based on hourly calculation of the cooling load. simplified methods would. The total values and proportions of sensible and latent heat vary depending on the level of activity. 3 In this report five standard methods for the calculation of heat load are presented in brief. Those values are listed in tables. These generate uncertainties that far exceed the errors generated by simple methods compared to more complex methods. Heat gain from people has two components. According to the ASHRAE regulations. the sensible heat gain from people is assumed 30% convection 4 . have a similar level of satisfactory accuracy. whereas the sensible heat gain is partially delayed depending on the characteristics of the conditioned space.

and ambient weather conditions outside the building. 5.2. five methods which will be presented here are: The Heat Balance Method (ASHRAE 2001) The Radiant Time Series (ASHRAE 2001) CLTD/SCL/CLF (ASHRAE 1997) The Admittance Method (CIBSE 1986) VDI Methods (1996) 3.-conditions of occupancy and use. 4.1 Heat Balance Method (ASHRAE fundamentals 2001) The procedure described by this method is the most reliable mean presented by ASHRAE for estimating cooling load for a defined space. 2. The 1. .(instant cooling load) and 70% radiative (delayed portion). Fundamentals mentions that the Heat balance method (HB) and the Radiant time series method (RTS) have superseded (but not invalidated) other methods including CLTD/SCL/CLF. The ASHRAE 2001. any cooling load estimate is no better than the assumptions used to define conditions and parameters such as physical makeup of the various envelope surfaces. In fact. 3. air 4 . Other ASHRAE methods are simplifications of the heat balance principle. Main Features – Accurate method as it based on heat balance models – By this method it is possible to calculate: the cooling load assuming a constant zone.

g. or zone temperature when cooling system is on. 4 Assumptions Room surfaces can be treated as entities having: – Uniform surface temperatures – Uniform long. The determination of the CTF coefficients is relatively complex. past values of interior and exterior surface temperatures. two methods could be implemented: one . The calculation of the heat transfer includes multiplication of present values of interior and exterior surface temperatures. and past values of surface heat flux.and shortwave irradiation – One-dimensional heat conduction Advantages – Using a complete heat balance would give better results than simplified methods as the former balances all energy flow in each zone (which is not guaranteed for the approximate methods) – Additional information about the component performance could be determined and not only cooling load (e. – For heat transfer through walls. surface temperatures at various times) 4 .temperature. or the floating zone air temperature when there is no cooling system. conduction transfer functions (CTF) are used which include a time-series method.based on using an excitation function with a known Laplace transform and ztransform. To determine the CTF coefficients. the second is based on matching the frequency response to the frequency response of the s-transfer function at several frequencies.

or floating zone air temperature when there is no cooling system. Windows Heat balance equations are formulated for the windows taking into consideration the absorbed radiation by the window and the heat exchange at the exterior and interior surfaces to find the window surface temperatures. Internal heat gains 4 . Typical requirements of input data will be shown later for this method. and therefore. roof and floor Heat transfer balance equations arc set for the outside and inside surfaces and connected with the CTF solution for the heat conduction process. For the transmitted radiation. \ Disadvantages – A fairly complete description of the input data should be provided by this method.– The zone air balance equations can be formulated to solve for cooling load assuming a constant zone air temperature. or to find zone temperature when cooling system is on. direct and diffuse radiation are calculated and summed up. a computer program should be used Walls. noting that simplified methods tend to simplify the procedure by precalculating cases and grouping the results with various correlating parameters which reduces the amount of the required input information. – Iterative procedure is included because all of the heat balance equations must be solved simultaneously.

which is consisted of 24 radiant time factors. solar angles for the surface. should be generated for the conversion of the radiative portion of heat gains into cooling loads. There is no zone heat balance.2 Radiant Time Series Method (ASHRAE fundamentals 2001) This method is simpler to apply than the Heat balance method. The storage and release of structure energy are approximated with predetermined zone response. diffuse and ground-reflected irradiance from equations (this is applicable for the method presented by the ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001). The response factors for a single pulse are composed of 24 factors for steady periodic input. – Radiant time series. according to the location. time.2. A computer program for the heat balance method. 3. The cooling load is found directly but the zone air temperature is assumed constant. lighting and equipment are estimated from tables for the specified components. ground and sky properties. A computer program on a CD-ROM can be used to generate these factors for any multilayer wall. – Periodic response factors are needed to find the conduction heat fluxes for walls. Total surface irradiance It is calculated from summing the direct.The amount of heat gains from people. Main Features – Zone air temperature is assumed constant. and surface. Assumptions 4 . or a database for weighting factors have to be used to generate these factors.

significant overpredictions are noticed 5 .– Sol-air temperature is assumed for the outside air. radiant energy exchange with sky and other outdoor surroundings. roofs. and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air (ASHRAE 2001) – Zpne air temperature is taken as a constant – Solution is based on steady periodic conditions (where the design weather. and heat gain conditions are identical to those for the preceding day. Hourly sol-air temperatures are calculated according to the location from equations for the incident solar radiation. portions of the hourly heat gains are converted into hourly cooling loads using radiative time factors (24 factors) – The hourly cooling load is determined by summing up the loads from the convective portions and cooling loads due to radiative heat gains Advantages – This method is a simplification of the heat balance method which can be performed step by step. so that the load is repeated on a 24 hours basis) Methodology – Periodic response functions for the heat conduction through walls. occupancy. However. therefore it does not require iterative calculations – Can be implemented in a computerized spreadsheet – Can be used to find peak load Disadvantages – Results in small (!) overpredictions. and floors. which involves 24-hour-coefficients "-"The radiative.

thickness.specially for zones with large quantities of high conductance surfaces – The sol-air temperatures for the 24 hours have to be found for each surface 7 – The hourly periodic response factors for the conduction heat transfer have to found for each type of wall. roof. lighting and equipment are estimated from tables for the specified components. and the radiant time factors for the a specific construction Walls. Internal heat gains Heat gains from people. properties (computer programs are available on CD-ROM for calculating the periodic response factors for any multilayer wall) – Similarly. a procedure should be implemented to generate the hourly factors of the radiant time series.Not suitable for manual calculations because of the involved computerized calculations to find the periodic response factors for the related different walls. or floor according to its layers composition. roof and floor Conduction heat fluxes are found from knowing the sol-air temperature and the periodic response factors for the walls. which involves using a zone heat balance method (by a computer program) or a data base for weighting factors . Splitting the radiative and convective portions Since this method is based on the procedure of collection of all heat gains and then splitting them into radiative and convective portions. following is a list of percentage 5 .

radiative andpercentage convective portions of the heat gains. 20%. The CTF are used to describe the heat flux at the inside wall. 37% Roof conduction 84%. 30% Lighting 67%. respectively: Wall and window conduction 63%. ceiling or floor as a function of previous values of the heat flux and previous values of inside and outside 5 . Transfer functions are based on two concepts: the conduction transfer factors (CTF) and the weighting factors (WF). roof. 37% Infiltration 0%. 100% 3. However.3 CLTD/SCL/CLF METHOD (ASHRAE fundamentals 1997) (Cooling load temperature difference/solar cooling load factor/cooling load factor) Accurate simulation of a proposed building design without correct data is impossible. partition. 16% People 70%. 63%. the many variables required for consideration in good simulation often become tedious and force designers to spend valuable time consulting tables and performing repetitive calculations. 33% Equipment. This is especially true for the Transfer Function Method (TFM) which pertains this repetitive nature and is identified by ASHRAE as the fundamental methodology of peak cooling load calculation.2. Transfer function method was first introduced in 1967. 80%' Transmitted solar heat gain 100%. 0% Absorbed solar heat gain. This procedure is based on response factors and the interplay of heat exchange between various surfaces and sources of heat.

Assumptions – Sol-air temperature is assumed for the outside air – Zone air temperature is taken as a constant Methodology This method uses tabulated CLTD (cooling load temperature difference). which is a revised CLTD/CLF method. simpler than the RTS method. As a result of the TFM complexity. Due to this. SCL (solar cooling load 5 . ASHRAE published the cooling load temperature difference/solar cooling load/cooling load factor (CLTD/SCL/CLF) method (ASHRAE 1993. CLTD/SCL/CLF. solar heat gains. which are respectively. The WF are used to translate the zone heat gain into cooling loads. This method is a simplified method. Those factors are calculated using the transfer function method (TFM) which yields cooling loads for standard environmental conditions and zone types.temperatures. 1997). This method was subjected to several revisions to accommodate the problems that rose from approximations and limitations to cover more accurate tabulated data. The CLTD/CLF method depends on tabulated data to simplify its operation for manual use. – Three factors are used to deal with the conduction heat gains. ASHRAE developed a method called the cooling load temperature difference/cooling load factor CLTD/CLF (1975) which was derived from the TFM. Main Features – Zone air temperature is assumed constant. and internal gains.

The data are generated by weighting factors and conduction transfer coefficients. When this method is used in conjunction with custom tables generated by appropriate computer software. some additional errors is introduced. it can be expected that it will produce results very close to that produced by the TFM. This simplification allows cooling load to be calculated manually. with standard surface absorption factor for light and dark coloured surfaces. and for buildings where external shading is not significant. When the printed tables are used.factor). CLTDs. which yield cooling loads for standard environmental conditions and zone types. in many cases the accuracy should be sufficient. and CLF (cooling load factor) data. The cooling loads are then normalized for the specified zone conditions. The sol-air temperatures are listed for a given air temperature cycle. and CLFs all include the effect of (1) time-lag in conductive heat gain through opaque exterior surfaces and (2) time delay by thermal storage in converting radiant heat gain to cooling load. Adjustments can be introduced for other dates. Advantages – A simplified method – More suitable to be a manual calculation method including spreadsheet use 5 . latitudes and air temperature cycles. so it would be possible to calculate the cooling loads for each hour with a simple multiplication. SCLs. However. 9)Hourly solair temperature values are presented in tables for various orientations of a surface for 21 July at 40 N latitude.

Hourly CLTD values for 40°N latitude are tabulated for outdoor maximum temperature of 35°C with mean temperature of 29. the cooling load is calculated by the solar cooling load SCL factor which accounts for both the solar heat gain and the zone response.– The zone response can be accounted for more accurately by using ample available printed tables covering most common constructions.6°C. The fraction of solar gain that is transmitted is accounted for with a shading coefficient (SC) to correct for transmittance and shading devices qrad.A SC SCL 5 . or using a computer program to generate a set of tables for a specific zone.5°C and daily range of 11. An adjustment equation is indicated to correct for conditions other than the mentioned base case. roof and floor The heat gain is calculated by using the sol-air temperature. Windows The absorbed and then conductive portion of the radiation through the windows is treated like the walls where CLTD values for standard glazing are available to find the cooling load. latitude and month Disadvantages – The adjustment for a wall or roof which is not matching one of the listed groups is one source of errors – The inaccuracy of correcting for other months and latitudes Walls. The cooling load is calculated from a modification of the conduction equation qcond— U A CLTD. For the transmitted radiative portion.

Internal heat gains Cooling load factors CLF are used to account for the time lag of the cooling load caused by the building mass which is generated by heat from internal sources (lighting. The hourly heat gains for people. The weighting factors equation determines the CLF factors where a CLF represents the fraction of the heat gain that is converted to cooling load Qinternai_ loads ~~ Qintemaljgains CLF. For power driven equipments. occupancy period. lights and equipment are specified. and number of hours after entering. They were calculated according to the assumptions that (1) the conditioned space temperature is continuously maintained at a constant value. the application of air conditioning to office spaces in the UK in the post 5 . and 10 (2) the cooling load and power input to the lights eventually become equal if the lights are turned on for long enough. appliances.2. people. the radiant part of the sensible heat gain is delayed in becoming cooling load. The CLF for people load is dealing with the sensible part of the occupancy heat load.4 The Admittance Method (CIBSE) For climatic reasons. 3. and CLF values from tables are used in the same manner for other components. CLF data for lighting is tabulated also.). The CLF is a function of the time people spend in the conditioned space and time elapsed since first entering the space. etc. where the latent part is taken as instant loads. The appropriate CLF is selected from tables according to zone type.

T~ic ixjziz. and with a preponderance of hydronic radiant heating systems. calculation methods.S. CIBSE primary aim was to demonstrate the role of internal mass in modifying room temperature.S. and the U. The likely reason for this is that. methods were originally developed for calculating heating loads. whose methods were directed toward assuming a constant internal temperature. Main Features – The admittance method allows the calculation of overheating temperature for the room. 5 . K. The room model is known as the environmental temperature model. Two internal nodes were defined. Unlike ASHRAE. pi TUT PUNL V^SS of more interest. K. the other being an environmental temperature node. sy stern. methods is that the dynamic model of the room fabric is integrated with a simplified zone convection and radiant heat transfer model. the U.war period lagged behind that of the U. Another difference between the earlier U. one of which was the air node. but with the need to calculate maximum temperatures in natural and mechanically ventilated buildings that the Admittance method was first developed. a the load was met by AN axT-D&SSC. or peak cooling load calculation for a constant (internal) environmental temperature.. . It was not the need for the calculation of cooling load.

For the internal heat gains. Sinusoidal internal excitation is also assumed on the zone fabric. two other factors are used. Its concept is similar to that of the sol-air temperature used to define external surface heat transfer in that a combined radiant and convective conductance is used. where fj§is the inside air temperature. – The thermal network is defined by three nodal temperatures (sol-air. tm is the mean surface temperature for a room). Advantages – Simple – No iteration is needed 5 . The values of these factors are calculated using a frequency domain solution to the unsteady conduction equation with assumed sinusoidal input fluctuations.– Three factors are involved in this method. and air temperatures). Assumptions – Sol-air temperature is assumed for the outside air – The concept of the environmental temperature Tei is used to account for the combined radiant and convective heat exchange with interior room surfaces (Tei= 1/3 tai+ 2/3 tm. – Assuming sinusoidal external excitation (with a period of 24 hours) for the heat flow transmitted through the structure. the fabric admittance and the related surface factors. environmental. The decrement factor is used to account for the heat transmission through the structure due to external excitations.

– Allows the calculation in two modes: overheating calculation (floating temperature). and a peak cooling load calculation 5 .

– There are some criticisms about the treatment of solar gains because of the reliance on solar gain factors. Heat flows due to radiation affect the air temperature only after absorption at a room enclosure surface. The main component of the conduction gains can be pre-calculated for each hour.2.Disadvantages – The environmental temperature model was lately (1992. 1996) shown to have several logical flaws – Tends to under predict lighter weight zones cooling loads and over predict loads for heavyweight zones.5 VDI 2078-CooIing Load Calculations of Air-conditioned Rooms (1996) The air temperature of a room is defined by the sum of all influencing convective heat flows. delaying heat storage there. and are then divided into radiant and convective portions. and subsequent conversion into convectively transmitted heat. and the treatment of the radiant part of the internal gains which causes underproductions: Walls. This is done for the mean and the fluctuating components. roof and floor Conduction gains are always added directly to the environmental temperature node. where they are added to the environmental temperature node and the air temperature node. Plants with high radiation heat removal (cooling ceilings) are not dealt 6 . 3. This is because these gains are calculated based on analytical solution to sinusoidally excited conduction heat flow. Internal heat gains and Windows The internal heat gain and the solar gain through glazing are calculated.

). the Abridged (short-cut) method. This requires greater expense in calculation terms. variable room temperature. In which. For the cooling load caused by the heat conduction through walls and roofs. while the computer method can handle different boundary conditions.etc. cooling load factors are used to convert the internal heat gains to cooling loads. and the Computer method. – For the Abridged method. the room reactions can be found independent of the load by the "convolution mathematical process" using the control functions step response (transfer function)/pulse response (weighting factor). . It is thus possible to register the room reactions to any boundary condition within the framework of the calculation formulation.with under the basic approach of this regulation. and require separate consideration as they change the building storage and the operative temperatures. Two methods are presented in VDI 2078 for the calculation of cooling load. With the 6 ... Main Features – The Abridged method assumes a constant temperature inside the room. – For the computerized method. Due to increased importance of surface cooling systems. weighing factors have to be found for the room reaction. the regulation plans to treat cooling loads under such circumstances in detail in future editions. The Computer method was introduced in order to extend the scope of the application to virtually any boundary condition (variable shade. an equivalent temperature difference is used in the basic form of the conduction heat transfer equation.

the Abridged Method: Assumptions – Assumes periodic internal and external daily load variation cycles – For calculation of cooling loads for fixed boundary conditions (constant room temperature) Advantages – – Involves straight forward calculations Disadvantages – Data given are for Central. Following are the mean features of the simpler method is presented. the weighting factors can be determined. – Corrections and adjustments are required for parameters deviating from the standard Simple 6 . true local times. the value of an output time function at a particular time is calculated by the integration of the product of the weighting function by the input time function at a previous time period. the number of necessary weighting factors can be considerably reduced.. solar radiation at 50° latitude.convolution principle. European conditions (e. By using a recursive filter. Where the transfer function is known. mean atmospheric turbidity. etc..).g.

A typical room dimensions are defined. Walls. lighting and machines are treated with cooling load factor. surface characteristics. medium. constructions. light. Four room classes are defined according to their thermal storage capacity (very light. Similar method applies for the external load. . The cooling load factor for internal gains is multiplied by the internal heat gains to find the corresponding component of the cooling load. CHAPTER 4: PROGRAM CODES 6 . and heavy). If other structures exist a time adjustment must be introduced in order to account for such deviations.etc..C conditions defined to evaluate the tables for the equivalent temperature difference and the cooling load factors which includes inside and outside temperatures. Internal heat gains and Windows The cooling load factors from external solar radiation through windows and internal loads due to people. Corrections for the equivalent temperature differences are introduced for external surfaces which have absorption factors and emissivities deviating from standard boundary conditions. The wall and roof structures are classified into six construction classes according to their attenuation and delay behavior. roof and floor The effects of the unsteady state heat flow through the external walls and roofs are incorporated by implementation of the equivalent temperature difference.

The software has been programmed in the Turbo C++ programming language. building materials. The particular day and moth are often dictated by peak solar conditions. Several data tables have been used to find out necessary value of the factors and parameters. external surface color and shape are determined. For some cases a built in interpolation subprogram has been used to find the value in between two available value. These details are usually obtained form building plans and specifications. orientation and external shading. appliances and processes generating heat load are obtained. etc are specified. air velocity. (c) Indoor design conditions: Temperature. DESIGN GUIDELINES The general procedure required to calculate the space cooling load is as follows: (a) Building configuration and characterizing: The building location. occupancy. 6 . (e) Date and time: The time of the day and month to estimate the cooling load is selected. (b) Outdoor design conditions: The outdoor weather data for the building location are obtained and select the outdoor design conditions are selected. Several different times of the day and several different months need to be analyzed to determine the peak load time. internal equipment. (d) Operating schedules: A schedule of lighting. humidity.

2928 hours) in June. the heating and cooling loads are calculated to maintain the indoor design conditions when the outdoor weather data do not cxcced the design values. are (i) (ii) 23 C dry bulb temperature. and 28 °C wet bulb temperature The Code: Programmed in TC++ 6 . The outdoor design data is usually determined according to the statistical analysis of the weather data so that 1 to 5% of the total possible operating hours is equaled or exceeded the outdoor design values.5% of the total number of hours (i. Summer Design Condition The recommended summer design and coincident wet bulb temperature. when chosen as being equalled to or exceeded by 2. July.Design Conditions In principle.e. August and September. Outdoor Design Conditions It is not economical to choose either the annual maximum or annual minimum values of the outdoor weather data in determining the outdoor conditions.

H total Q 6 .h> //include <ctype.h> #include <string.h> #include <process.h> //include <conio.h> //include <math.h> #define north 1 #define east 2 #define south 3 //define west 4 //define roof 5 double sumQ=0.#include <stdio.

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