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Relative atomic mass (r.a.


Number of times the mass of one atom of an element is heavier than one
twelfth of the mass of carbon-12 atom

r.a.m = mass of one atom of an

1/12 x mass of one carbon
Relative atomic mass of Hydrogen is 1

Relative molecular mass (r.m.m)

Molecules are formed when atoms are joined together by chemical bonds.

Relative molecular mass (r.m.m) is the number of times the mass of one
molecule of a compound heavier than one-twelfth of the mass of a carbon-
12 atom.

r.m.m= mass of one atom of compound

1/12 x mass of one carbon-12 atom

Relative molecular mass of H2O = 1+1+16 =18

For ionic compound, we use the term relative formula mass (r.f.m)

Relationship between number of moles and number of particles

No of
÷ NA

The number of particles in 12 grams of carbon-12 is 6.02 x 1023 . This is

called Avogadro number. NA

Relationship between number of moles of a substances and its mass

One mole of a substance has a mass equal to relative atomic mass (Ma) or
relative molecular mass (Mr) expressed in grams.

Helium (Ma) =4 = 1 mol = 4 g of mass = 6.02 x 1023 of atoms

÷ Ma or
Mass Mole

x Ma or
Relationship between number of moles of gas and its volume

The volume occupied by one mole of gas at standard temperature and

pressure (s.t.p) is 22.4 dm3. The conditions at s.t.p are temperature of
0C and Pressure at 1 atm

Mole 22.4dm3



x Ma or
÷ NA
Number of
Mole Mass
÷ Ma or
x NA

x ÷
22.4dm3 22.4dm3


Chemical formulae

The chemical compound is represented by molecular formula.

From chemical formula, we can know

• Element present in the compound

• Relative number of each element
Chemical Chemical Molecular Constituent
compound formula formula
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 2 hydrogen atom
4 oxygen atom
1 sulphur atom

Ammonia NH3 1 nitrogen atom

3 hydrogen atom
Cations: positive charge ions
+1 Na+, K+, Li+
+2 Mg2+,Ca2+,Ba2+
+3 Al3+,Cr3+

Anions is the negative charge ions

+1 Cl+, K+, Li+
+2 Mg2+,Ca2+,Ba2+
+3 Al3+,Cr3+

Cations Anions Chemical Example

X+ Y- XY NaCl
X2+ Y3- X3Y2 Mg3N2

Emperical formula and molecular formula

Emperical formula shows the simplest ratio of atoms of the element that
combine to form the compound.
Molecular formula shows the actual number of actions of element that
combine to form compound.

Example 1

The table below shows the mass of metal M and chlorine that combine to
form a compound. Determine the empirical formula of this compound

Element M Cl
Mass of the element 2.08 g 4.26g
r.m.m 52 35.5


Element M Cl
Mass 2.08 g 4.26 g
No of moles 2.08 = 0.04 4.26 = 0.12
52 35.5

Simplest ratio 0.04/0.04=1 0.12/0.04=3

Emperical formula = MCl3

Chemical equations

The steps involved in writing a chemical equation:

Step1: write the correct formulae of the reactants on the left side equation

Step2: write the correct formulae of the products on the right side

Step3: balance the equation. Never alter the formulae of the compound

Step4: write the physical state of reactants and product

Quantitative interpretation of chemical equations

The coefficient in front of the chemical formula represents the numbers of

moles of the reactants or products involved in the chemical reaction.
4Al (s) + 3O2 (g) 2Al203(s)

4 moles of solid Aluminium react with three moles of oxygen gas to

produce 2 moles of solid Aluminium Oxide.