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THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

- consists of a single independent clause which may be one of seven types [cel 1]
- the verb in a simple sentence is always a finite verb phrase
- optional adverbials can be added to sentences of any type

VERB CLASSES

- three main verb classes: 1) transitive – followed by and object


2) intransitive – followed by no obligatory element
3) copular verbs [linking verbs] – followed by Sc or Ca

- there are three types of transitive verbs:


1) monotransitive – He made a cake
2) ditransitive – He gave her a nudge
3) complex-transitive verbs – Jessie made James her deputy. You can put the
dish away

COMPLEMENTS

- obligatory elements of a sentence, without them a sentence would be incomplete


- three types: Sc, Co, Ca
- complement adverbials usually refer to space
o space adverbials include not only position but also direction They went to bed.

Daniel stayed in bed. He is without a job. They threated her kindly. They
were under suspicion. Norma was in good health. Barbara appeared out of
breath. That seems of no importance.

OBJECTS

- two types of objects – direct and indirect


- indirect object – indirect object comes before the direct object, often optional
- can be paraphrased by a prep. phrase functioning as an adverbial
Justin poured David some whiskey. Justin poured some whiskey for David.

SYNTACTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CLAUSE ELEMENTS

1. THE VERB
- always realized by a verb phrase
- present in all clauses
- it determines what other elements may or must occur in the clause (except S)
2. THE SUBJECT
- typically NP
- typically occurs before the verb and after the operator in yes-no interrogative cl
- determines the number and person, where relevant, of the verb
3. THE OBJECT
- typically a noun phrase
- follows the subject and the verb
- if both objects present – indirect normally comes before the direct one
- a subject of an equivalent passive sentence
4. THE COMPLEMENT
- typically a NP or AdjP
- follows the subject and verb if Sc and the Od if Co
- does not have a corresponding passive subject
5. THE ADVERBIAL
- normally an AdvP, PrepP or clause, but can be a NP
- can occur in more than one position
- optional, except Ca

Middle verbs

- a small group of verbs that seem transitive in other respects, normally occur only in
the active: Fred and Annie have four children. The coat doesn’t fit me.
Five times six equals thirty.

SEMANTIC ROLES OF CLAUSE ELEMENTS

- every clause describes a situation with one or more participants


- participant is an entity realized by noun phrases
Unfortunately, their child broke my window yesterday.

SUBJECT ROLES

1. Agentive participant
 animate participant that instigates or causes the happening denoted by the verb
Margaret is mowing the grass.

2. External causer
 expresses the unwitting [nenamjeran] (generally inanimate) cause of an event
The avalanche destroyed several houses. The electric shock killed him.

3. Instrument
 the entity (generally inanimate) which an agent uses to perform an action or
instigate a process [pokrenuti]
A car knocked them down. The computer has solved the problem.

4. Affected
 intransitive verbs
Jack fell down. (accidentally) The pencil was lying on the table
 can be applied to subjects of copular verbs
The pencil was on the table.

5. Identified
 the subject complement, as an attribute, identifies the subject
Kevin is my brother.

6. Characterized
 the subject complement, as an attribute, characterizes the subject
Martha was a good student.

7. Recipient
 verbs like have, own, possess, benefit (from)
Mr. Smith was given a radio.

8. Experiencer
 perceptual verbs: hear, see
 verb look at, listen to  agentive
 taste, smell, feel can be agentive and experiencer
I heard that you quit. I saw an elephant the other day.
I tasted the soup <> I can taste the pepper in my soup
The soup tastes good  affected role
I thought you were mistaken. I liked the play  experiencers

9. Positioner
 intransitive stance verbs – sit, stand, lie, live, stay, remain
 transitive verbs related to stance – carry, hold, keep, wear [Ods are
affected]
 the participant is in control, but the situation is not resultative in that no change
is indicated in the positioner during the period in which the situation lasts
I have lived in London most of my life.
The hijacker is holding a gun. They are staying at a motel.

10. Locative
 designates the place of the state or action
LA is foggy. [It’s foggy in LA] This jar contains coffee. [There’s coffee intj]
11. Temporal
 designates the time of the state or action
Yesterday was a holiday. [It was a holiday yesterday]

12. Eventive
 the head noun is deverbal (derived from a verb) or a nominalization
The match is tomorrow. The Norman invasion took place in 1066.
The dispute lasted a decade.

13. Prop it subject


 empty, dummy it

DIRECT OBJECT ROLES

1. Affected participant
 a participant (animate or inanimate) which does not cause the happening
denoted by the verb, but is directly involved in some other way
James sold his digital watch yesterday.

2. Locative
 verbs like walk, swim, pass, jump, turn, leave, reach, surround, cross, climb
Joan swam the river. [Joan swam across the river ]
I passed a cyclist. [I passed by a cyclist ]

3. Resultant [effected]
 object whose referent exists only by virtue of the activity indicated by the verb
Baird invented television. They are designing a new car.
 not X did sth to Y !!!

4. Cognate object
 refers to an event indicated by the verb
John will sing a song for us. She lived a good life.
 the role of noun in the object is to repeat the meaning of the verb

5. Eventive object
 an extension of the verb and bears the major part of the meaning
 takes the form of deverbal noun, proceeded by a verb of general meaning – do,
give, have, make, take
They are arguing. <> They are having an argument.
I gave them some advice. The baby’s having a bath.
INDIRECT OBJECT ROLES

1. Recipient
 animate being that is passively involved by the happening or state
We paid them the money.

2. Affected
 combines with an eventive direct object and the most common verb is give
We’ve given the baby a bath. I should give the car a wash.
Judith paid me a visit.

SUBJECT COMPLEMENT

- his role is to be an attribute (identification and characterization)


- 2 types of attributes:
1. Current – verbs used statively
- He is my brother
- She remained silent
- We feel cold
- They consider me their friend.
2. Resulting – verbs used dynamically
- We became restless
- He felt ill
- They elected him president
- He drives me mad