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Kedar Karki, Dr.Krishna Raj Panday, Dr.Salina Manandhar, Dr Pragya Koirala, Dr.Karuna Sharma. Central Veterinary Laboratory Tripureswor Kathmandu Abstract
An abrupt mortality of pigs mostly age group of 3 to 4 month age in Kathmandu valley in month of April to June 2010 was reported .Clinical history as reported by owners’ revealed limited information sudden death of one or several pigs within three months. In all farm death was associated with Hotel restaurant waste left over feeding was common.Postmortem of the dead pig revealed dark black color liver with Fibrosed,spleen enlarged and dark black coloroured ,lung anemic emphysematous,ballooned intestine with severe hemorrhage. Numerous yeasts and mould Penicillium was detected in mucosal impression smears tissue of ileum, colon and caecum. Additional analyses in farms suffering from big losses due to HBS suggested that several environmental and management factors may be involved.
Pathogenetically feeding only once a day of excessive amounts of a liquid diet especially swells a highly fermentable substrate, poor hygiene of liquid diets high bacterial counts and yeast concentrations. In mixed breeding and fattening units, the aforementioned factors could be responsible also for sudden deaths in dry sows caused by colonic bloat often associated with intestinal rupture and torsions of the stomach and/or the spleen. When rest of herds were treated with toxin binder Varishta and Albmd mixed in same feed along with probiotic Lactoline and Chlortetra cycline in water for seven there was check in mortality.
Key words: Swill feeding, pigs, Hemmorrhagic Bowel syndrome, Penicillium, Varishta, Lactoline, Albmd, Kathmandu.
and intestines filled with gas and blood wad observed at necropsy.Background: An outbreak of disease affecting pigs raised in around Kathmandu valley mostly age group of 3 to 4 month of age in the month of April to June 2010 was reported. M. Significantly more cases of HBS was seen during spring and early summer. The small intestine contained bilestained mucus to the level of mid-ileum where hemorrhage began and became gradually more copious with large blood clots in the terminal ileum. Intestinal contents are usually watery and contain unclotted brownish blood.restaurants mostly consisting of rice.edu/. D. O. G.html. A total death of 346 pigs in herd of 1056 was reported. The pig use to become bloated after death with unusual speed. Osborne. thin-walled appearance. The terminal jejunum and entire ileum had thick corrugated mucosae and large intraluminal blood clots. gastrointestinal torsion or volvulus.iastate. and the stomach can often be filled with feed was similar reported in alpharmaswine. E. C. swaying gate movement which were generally treated with antibiotics without recovery were investigated. Pigs on affected styes were mostly fed with stale leftover from hotel . colon and rectum contained dark.vegetables. Radostits. Its blood was thin and watery. A.. tarry blood which was similar to report of W./miscellaneous-lesions – Laboratory examination of. Necropsy revealed that the entire intestinal tract has a severely congested.purdue. The condition must be differentiated from gastric ulcers. feed sample. Material and Methods: Clinical and post-mortem examination of Herds: Clinical history as reported by owners revealed limited information sudden death of one or several pigs within three months. found dead without warning. Cecum. The large intestine contained a great deal of clotted blood which appeared to have been passed from the ileum. D./HMBS_enteric.ces. www.all cooked in heavey oils and left over deaserts. The pig to die was in excellent condition but extremely pale.htm. 2 . and A. Yates.al../gigf. which was similar to the findings of Karki et. association with Hotel restaurant waste left over feeding was common. Enweani. An affected pig was typically one of the best-doing pigs.2008.. Clark. fish. The ileal mucosa was thickened and irregular due to corrugations involving the entire circumference and oriented in both transverse and longitudinal planes. meat.. Theede. and post-mortem tissue samples Samples of Swills of different lots and post-mortem tissue samples in mycobioal culture media revealed the growth of penicillum spp.edu/.. G.Pigs mostly age groups after consuming such (swills) Kitchen waste garbage started showing symptoms like diarrhorea.com/.The condition has no definitive lesions. and from the hemorrhagic form of proliferative enteritis was similar to earlier reported in vetmed. C..
however. Severe bleeding into the intestine which may result in sudden death. so the economic costs of HBS can be very high with even a few affected pigs even though mortality is usually around 2%.edu/. including hypersensitivitv reactions to Escherichia coli antigens or to whey proteins. often taking the best pigs. using intragastric administration of this organism and homogenized intestinal mucosa from pigs with adenomatosis (W. M. Yates. or bloody. BMD.html. The condition is well known to veterinary pathologists in Canada but has not been formally reported. There has been some success in reproducing the condition experimentally. irregular diets or feeding schedules. It strikes suddenly. The suggested causes for the unexplained hemorrhagic enteropathies seen in swine have been numerous.ces. mycotoxins. Enweani. E. found dead without warning./gigf. mesenteric torsion. O. Australia and Europe. A. Thinning of small intestinal wall with no proliferation of intestinal cells. Some call it the stealth bomber of swine disease.purdue. G. mixed in swill. history all the pigs in affected styes were treated with toxin binder Varishta. Radostits. without warning. and high summer temperatures. The condition has no definitive lesions. Outbreaks may last 7 to 10 days. often coming in waves in which several pigs are affected and then the herd seems healthy until the next wave.com/. and A. Reports from other countries indicate that cases occur elsewhere...Haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) causes 3 ..thepigsite. G. Osborne. Vitamin E deficiency. including genetic predisposition./HMBS_enteric.. D... clostridial or coliform enterotoxemias. Its major cause is unknown but is likely a combination of many things. An affected pig is typically one of the best-doing pigs. Taiwan. United States. The hog may become bloated after death with unusual speed. alpharmaswine.genetic predisposition and or clotting defects and stress . HBS most often occurs in finisher/market pigs over 160 lb. D. tar-like. Theede). Review of literatures: Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome has been reported from the United Kingdom. C. and intestines filled with gas and blood may be observed at necropsy. Clark. Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome Pigs weigh >150 pounds Similar to bloody form of proliferative ileitis. the strongest correlation is found with the presence of the bacterium Campylobacter sputorum subspecies mu(cosalis in affected areas. indigestion leading to gaseous distension and shock .com/. In the specific case of Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome . And it frequently leaves the producer wondering what struck his herd--and why www. Blood filled loops of small intestine.Treatment and prevention attempted. and the stomach can often be filled with feed. C./hemorrhagic-bowel-syndrome-is-39stealth-bomber39of-swine-diseases. and Lactoline Tylosin and Chlortetracycline antibiotic in water for 7 to 15 days the condition subsided subsequently. It kills quickly. Stool may be dark. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) is an unpredictable medical condition of swine. www.htm. Based on clinical observation.
Further humid and hot weather condition favors the mold growth and putrification leading to formation of mycotoxin and endotoxin which detrimental to livestock. D. LLC. Universität Bern.thepigsite.com/. Conclusion and Recommendation: From all above finding and observation it is concluded that when ever there is climate changes from cooler season to hotter humid summer in tropics there is likely increase in fermentation in swill which mostly contains grains. If these feed are fed untreated there is likely loss of these animal need to be looked into. Carthage A Veterinarian’s Perspective Will Nutrition and Management Stop Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome? Veterinary Service.the sudden death of 4-6 month-old fattening pigs (70-120kg). USA and published in the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference 2006. Schmidt J The "hemorrhagic bowel syndrome" of swine: clinical.. Hollis.thepigsite.com/. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. Häni H./understanding-and-managingsudden-death-in-fattening-pigs-during-summ. Usually. Huber A./will-nutrition-and-management-stophemorrhagic-bowel-syndrome. Zimmermann W.Institut für Tierpathologie.... HBS can account for up to one-third of total fattening mortality.ncbi.. 3. Ltd./understanding-and-managingsudden-death-in-fattening-pigs-during-summ.thepigsite.. www. www. 1993.. William L.135(4):117-24.nlm. Refferences: 1...S. poultry and pig. www. As a result../pig.thepigsite.. there is no clinical or pathological previous history../will-nutrition-and-management-stophemorrhagic-bowel-syndrome. In most of the cases. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome is such defined due to the low prevalence and inability to target one specific disease process or organism as the contributor to the syndrome. B. the diagnosis of HBS is mainly done post-mortem.. and no warning signs that could alert the farmer.V. pathologo-anatomic and etiopathogenic aspects.. the weight and health conditions of the affected animals are perfectly normal..nih. 4 .gov/pubmed/8506473 2. heavy fat and protein in hotel and restaurant waste which is common practices to feed pigs./pig.. IL..M. www.com/. Understanding and Managing Sudden Death in Fattening Pigs DuringSummer:www.com/. Professional Swine Management.
ces. G.iastate.purdue. Chandra Bahadur Rana for his tireless effort in handling the carcass during post-mortem work. Growing/Finishing Diarrheal Diseases:www.ncbi. 6.html Kedar Karki and Purnima Manandhar: ClinicalEpidemiologicalInvestigation of Mouldy Corn Poisoning due to Penicillium spp.gov › Journal List › Can Vet J › v. E..edu/. in mules at Udayapur District.nih. W. Radostits..Bhimsen Adhikari Vet. C. 20(10): 261–268. and Syndromes | Iowa State . Technician of Microbioly Unit. A... Purna Maharajan Vet Technician of Central Veterinary Laboratory for doing the microbiology and post-mortem works and office assistant Mr.Ram Krishna Khatiwada Program Director of Directorate of Animal Health Tripureswor Kathmandu for providining early indication of problem. 8. 7. and A. Tek Bahadur Air Senior Vet. Enweani. Osborne. Miscellaneous Lesions. Technician and Mr.htm 5 . O.edu/. vetmed. D. Oct 1979 5. Conditions. 1979 October.. Nepal: Veterinary World pp 107-110 vol. Theede Can Vet J.20(10). G../miscellaneous-lesions – Hemorrhagic bowelAlpharma:alpharmaswine.4. D. 4 April 2oo8 Acknowledgment: We would like to thank Dr. 1 no. Mr./gigf. PMCID: PMC1789606 Proliferative Hemorrhagic Enteropathy in Swine: An Outbreak and Review of the Literature: www. C. Bal Bahadur Kunwar Mr. Clark.com/…/HMBS_enteric.nlm. Thanks are due to Mr. M. Yates.
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