Drilling Hazard Mitigation

Controlled Pressure Drilling® CPD®

A better way to drill

Controlled Pressure Drilling
December 06, 2007
Presented by JOSE DANILO MORALES

Hazards Causing Non-productive Time (NPT)

Conventional Drilling Operation
Hazard
Tight Hole Conditions Directional Deviation Well Control Hard Formations Wellbore Ballooning Lost Circulation Hole Cleaning Equipment and/or Tool Failure Reservoir Impairment Excessive Mud Weight Nuisance Gas H2S

Non-Productive Time (NPT)
Reduced ROP, mechanically stuck pipe, LIH, sidetrack or abandon well Pull back, set whipstock or cement, sidetrack Reduced ROP, HSE concern Reduced ROP Uncertain flow conditions lead to multiple well control events Differential sticking, LIH, cementing time, sidetrack or abandon well Reduced ROP, stuck pipe, jarring time or LIH, cementing time, sidetrack or abandon well Reduced effective ROP Loss of well, reduced reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery Reduced ROP Well control Well control

CPD™ Optimization Mitigates Hazards

CPD™ Drilling Operation
Hazard
Tight Hole Conditions Directional Deviation Well Control Hard Formations Wellbore Ballooning Lost Circulation Hole Cleaning Equipment and/or Tool Failure Reservoir Impairment Excessive Mud Weight Nuisance Gas H2S

Non-productive Time (NPT)
Reduced ROP, mechanically stuck pipe, LIH, sidetrack or abandon well Pull back, set whipstock or cement, sidetrack Reduced ROP, HSE concern Reduced ROP Uncertain flow conditions lead to multiple well control events Differential sticking, LIH, cementing time, sidetrack or abandon well Reduced ROP, stuck pipe, jarring time or LIH, cementing time, sidetrack or abandon well Reduced effective ROP Loss of well, reduced reservoir productivity and ultimate recovery Reduced ROP Well control Well control

Redefined Time to Drill Well
Conventional Well
Perfect Well Time Invisible Lost Time Drilling Hazards Conventional Drilling NPT

Time to drill a well without any lost time

Lost ROP intrinsic to weight drilling fluid

Unplanned drilling events

Lost time due to unplanned events

Redefined Time to Drill Well
Conventional Well
Perfect Well Time Invisible Lost Time Drilling Hazards Conventional Drilling NPT

Conventional Normal Well Time Technical Limit CPD™ Redefines Normal Well Times

Removable Time CPD™ Can Remove

Controlled Pressure Drilling® (CPD®) Wheel

What is Underbalanced Drilling?
• Underbalanced reservoir drilling is defined by the IADC UBO committee as:

A drilling activity employing appropriate equipment and controls where the pressure exerted in the wellbore is intentionally less than the pore pressure in any part of the exposed formations with the intention of bringing formation fluids to the surface. The hydrostatic head of the fluid may naturally be less than the formation pressure or it can be induced. The induced state may be created by adding natural gas, nitrogen or air to the liquid phase of the drilling fluid. Whether the underbalanced status is induced or natural, the result may be an influx of formation fluids which must be circulated from the well and controlled at surface.

Underbalanced Drilling
Underbalanced Drilling P reservoir > P bottomhole = P hydrostatic + P friction + P surface

Managed Pressure Drilling
• Managed Pressure Drilling is an adaptive drilling process used to more precisely control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore. • The objectives are to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits and to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly.” • It means that we control the annular pressure profile in such a way that we balance the well at all times

Managed Pressure Drilling
• An adaptive drilling process used to precisely control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore. The objectives are to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits and to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly. • MPD is intended to avoid continuous influx of formation fluids to the surface. Any flow incidental to the operation will be safely contained using an appropriate process.
Technical Notes • MPD process employs a collection of tools and techniques which may mitigate the risks and costs associated with drilling wells that have narrow downhole environmental limits • MPD may include control of back pressure, fluid density, fluid rheology, annular fluid level, circulating friction, and hole geometry, or combinations thereof. • MPD may allow faster corrective action to deal with observed pressure variations. The ability to dynamically control annular pressures facilitates drilling of what might otherwise be economically unattainable prospects.

Managed Pressure Drilling
• Reactive or “Contingency” MPD
– Tool up with closed & pressurizable returns system – The technique is effectively on Stand-by as enhanced form of well control to manage unexpected pressures. – Attempt drilling with conventional casing & fluids program – Apply backpressure to control kicks, keep drilling when circulating out, e.g., drill through kicks, reduce drilling flat time – Enhanced HSE (required by some underwriters)

• Proactive MPD
– Design fluids program around ability to apply backpressure, e.g., nearer-balanced than conventional – Design casing program (deeper set points, maybe eliminate a size) – The technique is used to its maximum effectiveness to mitigate a wide range of drilling hazards.

Proactive MPD Variants
PMCD
Pressurized mud-cap. Mitigate extreme losses and reduce associate NPT when drilling highly depleted zones, avoiding well control issues resulting from the inability to maintain a full column of mud in the annulus

The goal of managed pressure drilling (MPD) is to use a closed and pressurizable mudreturn system to control bottomhole pressure (BHP) in a way that eliminates many of the drilling and wellbore stability issues that are inherent to conventional drilling

CBHP
Constant bottomhole pressure MPD reduces NPT and enables fewer and deeper casing strings when pore- to fracture-pressure gradient windows are narrow,

DG
Dual gradient MPD enables total well depth in the right hole size in deep-well and deepwater drilling.

HSE
Returns-flow-control (HSE) MPD reduces risk to personnel and the environment from drilling fluids and well control incidents.

Managed Pressure Drilling
Managed Pressure Drilling P reservoir = P bottomhole = P hydrostatic + P friction + P surface

Performance Drilling

• This is normally air drilling technique to increase penetration rate. • In Air Drilling the bottomhole pressure is as low as possible to increase drilling performance. • The objective of Air Drilling is to reduce the drilling costs by drilling faster. This is normally achieved by using gas or air as a circulation medium. Reducing the bottom hole circulation pressure significantly increases the penetration rate.

Air Drilling
Air Drilling P formation >>>P bottomhole = P hydrostatic + P friction + P surface

Emerging Technologies

• Semi & Automatic Choke systems • Solid expandables • Drilling with casing • Downhole Isolation Valves • Continuous Circulation Systems • RCH

Alternate methods to trip during CPD Operations

• Kill the well with heavy weight fluids • Utilize Snubbing Unit to overcome forces • Flow the well to reduce surface pressures and reduce forces • Downhole Isolation Valve

Downhole Isolation Valve
• There's no need to kill the well so formation damage is minimized. • Eliminates time required to circulate kill fluid into and then out of the well • Protect against potential swabbing and kick while tripping • No fluid loss • Eliminates the need enhancing safety for snubbing operations,

• Pipe can be tripped at conventional tripping speeds, reducing rig-time requirements and improving personnel safety. • Allow for installation of long complex assemblies, such as whipstocks, slotted liners, and expandable sand screens

UBD + Downhole Isolation Valve
Hole Size Formation Depth Pore Pressure Well Type Objectives: Previous wells had to be killed to avoid the cost and risk of snubbing
Isolate the formation and allow for safe and economic means of tripping the drill string in and out of the well during UBD operation. Minimize rig time and cost associated with loading the hole Improve production rate by preventing formation damage

6-1/8” James Lime Trend 6,400 TVD 3,400 psi Gas Reservoir - Multilateral

Results:
19,200’ (4 lat.) of 6-1/8” hole drilled through Valve over a period of 14 days Reduced operators tripping procedure time by an average of 7.75 hrs. per trip (45 52%) Valve successfully isolated formation pressure for the three required drillstring trips and allowed for the subsequent underbalanced installation of tubing completion string

PMCD + Downhole isolation Valve
Formation Annular pressure Well Type Fracture Limestone 3,400 psi Wet Gas

Objectives:
Drill safely through formations that typically cause total loss of circulation. Reduce Well control incidents Use MPD in tandem with downhole isolation valve to intersect multiple productive fractures and handle severe or total loss of returns while drilling. Run the completion without killing the well Reduce the cost of mud materials

PMCD + Downhole Isolation Valve
Results: •
• • • • • The well was drilled, using pressurized mud-cap drilling (PMCD), a variant of MPD. Drilling was able to continue for an additional 167 ft (51 m) after total loss of circulation began. Total depth was declared after massive hydrocarbon-producing fractures were intersected. A maximum of ~3,400 psi was observed in the annulus before Downhole isolation valve was closed for tripping. Use of the Isolation valve eliminated the need for killing the well before setting the completion string Use of MPD (PMCD) reduced consumption of lost-circulation material. The volume of drilling mud lost to the formation was estimated at 2,500 bbl before the shift to PMCD was made. This is a fraction of the mud lost on similar drilling campaigns.

Conveting to a PMCD system generate savings in mud materials by using aprox. 12.000 bls or water rather than mud.

UBD + Rotary Drilling With Casing
Casing Formation Distance Well type 5-in., 18 lb/ft, L-80, DwC/C Sand/shale Depth in: 483 ft MD depth out: 2,300 ft MD (1,817 ft) CO2 Injection Well

Costly and challenging from a well control perspective due to induced lost of circulation and resultant formation influx Objectives:
•Minimize drilling induced formation damage •Minimize induced losses and differential sticking. formation integrity would be compromised if 18 ppg MW used in conventionally drilled well. •Integrate DwC and CPD technology to accomplish completion objective. Avoid potential well control problems due to surges form conventional tripping (condition the well for csg running) Parameters: Bit WOB Distance RPM ROP Flow 6-3/4 in 6-12 klbs 1,817 ft 80 54 ft/hr 300 gpm (water) with 450 – 800 psi

Results:
• 121 ft of cement and 1,696 ft of new hole and was set at planned depth 2,300 ft. • Reduced flat time • Eliminated fluid lost into the formation • Penetration rates were doubled compared with offset wells. • CBL showed improved cement bonding over conventionally drilled wells in field. Eight

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