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B axcrepsepnsrx xsazrparrrax

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8

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II HeMpo<pII3IIOJIOrIIqeCKIIe

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nosenenae. YTBep)K,ll;eHII5I 0 rroxsanparrre CqIITaIOTC5I IICTIIHHbIMII,
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runny)

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pa»

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na

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na ero

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cozrepacanne MO)KHO TOJIbKO B znranore C
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narrepnsr. YHIIKaJIbHOCTb nexoropsrx
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9

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He MlIpa?» - lIMeeT scero zrsa OTBeTa - «,ll;a» (cnpaanm.noe lIJIlI «HeT» (cnnoxoe

rronezteane»).
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2.

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(HLJ:eH)

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MaJIbIX rpYIIII

10

xopnoparasasm KOprrOpaTHBHM

HMlI,LI)K perryranna

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eCTeCTBeHHbIH

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crepeoransr, rrpenyoeaoreaaa nosenenxecxae narrepnsr
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C
C5I na

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rpyrmsr

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cxeaasm

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l(eHHOCTeM HeT

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHOrO csoero

cymecrsyer
B

6e3

MaTepIIaJIbHOrO

KOppeJI5ITa -

TO )Ke BpeM5I onpenenenose-

y6e)K,ll;eHII5I HbI ero

II noseztenne

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a BO MHorOM

MeCTOM B COl(IIaJIbHOM crpyxrype,

a 06ru;IIe

zten-recsne

narrepnst

BHeIIIHe

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MbIX B COl(IIaJIbHOM nos

xsanparrre

II COl(IIaJIbHbIX rpyrrrr. IIHCTIITYTbI,

Cnocofisr

ansnsre

aasortsr

II cpencrsa

11

HIIKaU;IUI, rrOJIIITIIqeCKIIe MorYT 6bITb HII

rrapTIIII

II CeMbII, HII

pacsr

II Hal(IIII

He HO

«IICTIIHHbIMII»,

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HeCOOT-

CBOIIM Q:>YHKl(II5IM B CTPYKTypIIpOBaHHOM

COl(IIaJIbHOM rrpOCTpaHCTBe, rne IIHCTPYKl(II5IX HbIMII COl(IIaJIbHbIe

aaxpennennsre Pe-ts
nner

B 3aKOHax II KOHKpeT-

POJIII pa3bIrpbIBaIOTC5I

COl(IIaJIbHbIMII

cy6beKTaMII.

He 0 B3aIIMOa0

rrOHIIMaHIIII

(KaK B KYJIbTypHOM xsanparrre),

rjJYHKlfUOna xpacperYJIIICOl(IIaJIb-

HaJlbHOM coomeemcmeuu:
HbIM CBeT, ,ll;JI5IraIIIIIHIIKa PYIOIIJIIX noseztenne HOM .rpancuopruoti

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;, npoexaaumii HapYIIIIITeJIb rrpaBIIJI,

BO,ll;IITeJIeM KaK yqaCTHIIKOB CIICTeMbI. Hal(IIOHaJIbHOCTb,

y6e)K,ll;eHII5I

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IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a 3HaqeHII5I He IIMeIOT.

nosenen-recsnn KBa,ll;paHTOM COl(IIaJIbHbIM ofipasyer cencouomopuoe npocmpaucmeo, KOMxoroporo rrOMIIMO COl(IIaJIbHbIX cytit.exros II MexaHII3MOB, KHIIr) 51BJI5IIOTC5I

rrOHeHTaMII

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)KIIBbIe cYIIJeCTBa.

KyJIbTypHbIM

II COl(IIaJIbHbIM

xsanparrru

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couuoxynsmypnoe
MyHIIKal(IIII .

npocmpaucmeo,

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JI5IIOTC5ICOl(IIaJIbHbIe

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ansnsre

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COl(IIaJIbHbIe KaK

opraHII3al(IIII,

xoropsre

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rJIaCOBaHbI ztpyr

C zrpyrosr

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KOHKpeTHbIX COl(IIaJIbHbIX rrpIIHIIMaTb rrIITbIBaTb).

3aKOHbI, JIOBIITb npecrynmrsos,

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HbIM qJIeH 06IIJeCTBa,

«rrortronsrrs»,

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CTII rro OTHOIIIeHII5I K CBOIIM qJIeHaM.

Hanpnraep,

12

CTBO IIOJIHOMOqHO

OrpaHIIqIIBaTb yrpO)KaIOT

npasa

O,ll;HOM

rpyrmsr
II B 3TIIX

rpaacnaa,

eCJIII OHII

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ztpyrnx

cyru;eCTBOBaHIIIO OTHOIIIeHII5IX -

caxroro

rocyzrapcrsa.

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BCeBJIaCTIIe rOCY,ll;apCTBa, xorzta

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI aHapXII-

paCCMaTpIIBaIOTC5I KaK «BIIHTIIKII»,

IIJIII, Ha060pOT,

qeCKa51 BCe,ll;03BOJIeHHOCTb. Hna-re rOBOp5l, IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; BXO,ll;IIT B COl(IIaJIbHYIO rpyrrrry HbIM (<<COl(IIaJIbHbIM») rpyrmossm rrpaBIIJIaM. no 'rex rrop, noxa cneztyer Q:>opMaJIb-

II HeQ:>opMaJIbHbIM (<<KYJIbTYPHbIM») OH MO)KeT ,ll;eMCTBOBaTb rro CBoeMY

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HO ,ll;OJI)KeH OC03HaBaTb rrOCJIe,ll;CTBII5Icsoero nnpase naxasan, HapYIIIIITeJI5I II, Ha060COl(IIO-

Tpynua noomprrn,

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IICrrOJIHIITeJI5I

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Onnoapenemroe
rpyrmsr
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BXO)K,ll;eHIIe

pasnsre
C O,ll;HOM ztpyr He-

6bICTPO rrepeKJIIOqaTbC5I

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npornaope-rauraa
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noro

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B CBoeM KapTIIHe 'roro,

COBMeCTIIMbIe l(eHHOCTII. craryca

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«Mu-rpynn»

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(3KOHOMIIqeCKOM, sener K

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qeCKOM, KYJIbTYPHOM) HeII36e)KHO 51M» BO scex anna OCTaJIbHbIX.

«rrepenememrIIH,ll;II(HeBp03bI),

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3a60JIeBaHII51). COl(IIaJIbHbIX CpaBHIITe rpyrrrr 6ecco-

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BII,ll; OKa3bIBaeTC5I CJIYQaMHO, II CrrJIOQeHHYIO xosranzry HOMbIIIIJIeHHIIKOB, BpeMeHII. B KOTOPOM OH rrpOBO,ll;IIT 60JIbIIIYIO

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YBeJIIIQeHIIeM JIOM rpyrrrre

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13

IIIeHlUIX, a qJIeHbI MeCTHoro coofimccrna ,ll;IIBII,ll;OB CO scero CTaTIICTIIqeCKIIe

KaK

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(B03paCT, MO)KeT

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IIJIII pa3BJIeKa3TII rpyrmsr B CIICTeMbI C rryTb

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epynnu.
qeTKOiI

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COl(IIaJIbHbIe

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JIaMII II BHyTpeHHeiI ceHCOMOTOPHOiI cpenoii. rr05lBJIeHII5I opranaaauaii MeCTe B xa-recrse Y)Ke cyuiecreyrouieri IOT ztpyr
HOUleHUR.

-

KOHCTpYIIpOBaHIIe na «rrYCTOM» ztpyroii (BbIIIIeCT05lru;eiI) oprannsaom-

nonpaanenerma opraHII3al(IIII). B «6e3JIIIqHbIe»

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l(IIII, IICrrOJIH5I5ICBOII ,ll;OJI)KHOCTHbIe 06513aHHOCTII, ncrynaC ztpyroxr
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14

TeJIeM II/IIJIII PYKOBO,ll;IITeJIeMOpraHII3al(IIII. paa Heo6xo,ll;IIMOCTb C<pOpMIIpOBaTb IIIIIHCTBOM pa60THIIKOB

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pa3,ll;eJI5IeMYIO 60JIbl(eHHO-

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CTeM (KOprrOpaTIIBHYIO KYJIbTYPY), KOTOpa51crrOC06CTBOBaJIa 6bI YKperrJIeHIIIO COl(IIOKYJIbTYPHOM IIHTerpal(IIII Bparu;eHIIIO HOBeHIIM. OpraHII3al(II5I ocyru;eCTBJI5IeT IIHCTpYMeHTaJIbHYIO B coo6KaK ee II KOMMYHIIKaTIIBHYIO ,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTb, rrO,ll;QIIH5I5ICbcymecrBYIOru;IIM COl(IIOKYJIbTypHbIM HOpMaM. H3MeHeHlI5I mecrse BbIHY)K,ll;aIOT PYKOBO,ll;IITeJI5I OppeKTIIpOBaTb K II COl(IIaJIbHbIMII cy6beKTaMII BHYTpIIKOprrOpaTIIBHbIX II npenorKOH<pJIIIKTHbIX CTOJIK-

CTPYKTYPY, TaK II <pOPMbI B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I ,ll;pyrIIMII opC raHII3al(II5IMII rpyrrrtaxm), (IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;aMIIII IICrrOJIb3Y5I, B QaCTHOCTII, meXftOJlOZUUcouuans-

nux KOMMYHU1WlfUii. Bonpocu
U 3aOaUU.Jl

1. Bu e cocmaee ceoeii YIJe6Hoii epynnu omnpaeunuce e mypucmuuecuuii noxoo. Paccuompume »my cumyauuto e uumeepaiu.nou npocmpaucmee. 2. Iloscnume na oeyx-mpex numepamypnstx npuuepax, KaKUM o6pa30M U3MeHeHU5l e OdHOM U3 «eaopanmoe enusuom na cooepotcanue opyeux «eaopanmoe. 3. Kaxue uemoou u3YlJeHU5l xaocooeo U3 «eaopanmoe eau useecmuu? 4. Onutuume ceoii «oxcmepiep». 5. Conocmaesme «apmuuu uupa (uupoeosspenus) deyx numepamypnstx nepcouaoceii. 6. Ilepeuucnume couuanuuue epynnu, e «omopue eu exooume. Kaxue U3 HUX nensuomcsi on« eac «Muepynnauu» ? 7. "Imo maxoe «xynemypuuii UlOK»? 8. Kaxoeu rjJYHKlfUU maKOZO COlfUaJlbHOZO uucmumyma KaK cucmeua otipasoeauus? 15

9. Kaxue couuanuuue cauxuuu npuuensuomcs e ceuse, tipueaoe patiouux, e epynne dxuuunoe? 10. B ueu npuuuunuansnoe omnuuue deMOKpamUlJeCKOZO otnqecmea om momanumapuoeo? 11. Ilepeuucnume munu couuanuuux opeauusauuii. 12. B ueu cocmoum «6e3JlUlJHOcmb» rjJYHKlfUOHaJlbHblX omnotueuuii? 13. Haoo JlU aoanmupoeams enympenutoto cpeoy opeauusauuu K ee enetuueii cpeoe? IIOlJeMY? 14. KaKYlO pone uepatom uanue epynnu e opeauusauuu? 15. Ilpueeoume oea-mpu npuuepa npomueopeuueux mpetioeanuii pasuux couuansuux epynn K uuoueuoy.
Tanonorua couaarusaerx
COIJ;IIaJIbHbIe COl(lIaJIbHbIe 6e3pa3JIlIqlI5I cy6beKTbI

B03AelllcTBVllII
ztpyr C zrpyrosr B3alIMHoro B

BCTyrraIOT

B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I (xpoxte IIJIII 1I36eraHII5I).

cny-raes

B
scerzta

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B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBIIII B JII060M MOMeHT BpeMeHII

TOT, KTO B03,ll;eMcTByeT (3TO B03,ll;eMCTBIIIO (3TO

norrsepraerca

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MeH5IIOTC5I POJI5IMII.

xoropsre nepnoCneumpnxa COl(lIaJIbHOrO
IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHbIMII clITyal(1I1I CBOMB (eCJIII IIMeTb

B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I onpenenaerca CTBaMII axropa BII,ll;y CTpaTerlI1I II oc06eHHOCT5IMII axropa).

Tpytio

roBOP5l, aKTOp IICXO,ll;IIT 1I3 rrpe,ll;CTaBJIeHIIM 06 B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I. anpe-

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IIplI

3TOM aKTOp He MO)KeT He COOTHOCIITb CBOII ,ll;eMCTBII5I He TOJIbKO C anpecarov, HO II C zrpyrasm, corrpIICYTCTBYIOru;IIcy6beKTaMII. na ztpyrax Ec-

MIl IIJIII OTCYTCTBYIOru;IIMII, COl(lIaJIbHbIMII JIll 3TlI YCJIOBlI5I -

CMeHa pOJIeM II oplIeHTal(1I5I

He C06JIIO,ll;aIOTC5I, IIMeeT

MeCTO He B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBlIe ,ll;ByX O,ll;HOrO cytit.eicra C 06beK-

cyfisexros,

a nexne

oneparmn

16

TOM lIJUI IIHCTpYMeHTOM.

Tlaccaxcnpu
06ru;aIOTC5I ztpyr

B rrOJIyrrYCTOM asrofiyce a cocymecrsyror

-rame

scero

He

C ztpyroxr,

KaK npezmerst na 6IIOJIOrII0 <peHOMeHax

na q:m3IIqeCKOM yposne qeCKOM yposne. 3MOl(IIOHaJIbHOrO asrooyce

II )KIIBbIe

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(Bnpo-rexr,

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sa Me-

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CTO peaJIII3yeTc5I nepenansn.

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II opra-

B
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06 axrope

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COB II

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OT COOTHOIIIeHII5I l(eHHOCTeM, IIHTepeBCTyrraIOT ztpyr C ztpyroxr BO

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3).

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3.

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KOH<pJIHKTOB H KPH3HCOB

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H MaHHrrymrl(HH KOMMYHHKaTHBHhIe AHTHCTpaTerHH

TPYLl:HWIeCTBa

Ilponaraazra:
«rr03HTHB» o X03J!HHe

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zta:
<<HeraTHB» o KOHKYpeHTe

nponaranna:
peaKTHBHbIH «rr03HTHB» 06 axrope

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3TOM ozma II3 CTOPOH ofinanaer

18

IIMyru;eCTBOM

B pecypcax, JIlI60

TO ztpyras

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YKJIOH5IeTC5I OT

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rrO,ll;qIIH5IeTC5I. CTaHOB5ICb CO speII rrOCT05lHHbIMII, 3TlI

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rrOBTOp5leMbIMlI nopornrn,

BJIaCTHbIe OTHOIIIeHII5I, B KaK (OKIIBOiI IIHCT-

KOTOPbIX «X0351IIH» IICrrOJIb3yeT «crryry» pYMeHT».

Ilosezrenne
MlIHlIpyeTc5I BO BbIpa)KeHHbIM

«X0351IIHa»

KaK cyfit.exra

BJIaCTII nerepII OTqeTJIII-

MOTIIBOM BJIaCTII, T.e. YCTOiIqlIBbIM CTpeMJIeHlIeM ,ll;pyrlIMII

,ll;JI5Iy,ll;OBJIeTBOpeHII5I CBOIIX JIIO,ll;bMII rro CBOeMY ,ll;JI5I«CJIyrII»

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BOJIy. 06JIa,ll;a51 )K1I3HeHHO Ba)KHbIMII MIl, «X0351IIH» KOHTpOJIlIpyeT noaeztenne ero IIX

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«crryroii».

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«CJIyrlI»

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KOTOPbIX crpax,

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uosnarpaacneane), II uomunpnnsrrxa rrOBIIxapnaaa «X0351IIHa». Eo.nee 'roro,
,ll;06POBOJIbHO B351Toe 06513a«X0351IIHa» IIJIII y6e)Ksoaneiicr-

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TeJIbCTBO BbIIIOJIH5ITb pacnopaacenna ,ll;eHHOCTb (KaK pe3YJIbTaT

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Ta6JIHQa

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4).

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crpaxn

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Haeansnsre crpaxn
H rrorpeoaocrn Kpeil:HTHOCTb axropa CKJIOHHOCTb K YCTYilKaM TPMHIIIDI IIO)J,'IHIDITbCJ[

Koaqropanocrs
CHJIa MOTHBa BJIaCTH axropa COIIHaJIbHbIe crpaxn

H rrorpeoaocrn Y6e)l(,.[(eHHOCTb C aKTopOM

JIerHTHMHOH BJIaCTH )J;oroBopeHHocTb

19

Hanpnraep, COJI,ll;aT, IIIKOJIbHIIK IIJIII rrO,ll;qIIHeHHbIM BbIIIOJIH5IIOT pacnopaacerma xosranrmpa, yqlITeJI5I IIJIII naqaJIbHIIKa, rlITIIMHbIe IIIeHlI5I Y)Ke He omyuiaa HaClIJIlI5I nan CBoeM JIlIqHOCTbIO (JIeBJIaCTHbIe OTHOIIMrrepaTIIBHbIe TeXHOJIOrlIlI).

npn 3TOM He 3aMeru;aIOTC5I COTpY,ll;HlIqeCTBOM, XOT5I conepzcar B ce6e nexoropsre ero 3JIeMeHTbI, rrOCKOJIbKY
KOMMYHIIKal(lIlI, HaCIIJIII5I. TeXHOJIOrlIM (sa IICKJIIOqeHe 51BOCa He HaB5I3bIBa-

YCTaHaBJIlIBaIOTC5I B xone IOTC5I C novoun.ro ECJIII HlIeM

orxpsrroro

,ll;JI5IIIMrrepaTIIBHbIX

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JI5IeTC5I06513aTeJIbHOM, TO

xooneparnsnsre

TeXHOJIOrlIlI,

HOBaHHbIe na B3aIIMorrOHIIMaHIIII, BIIMbI. AKTOP cnocofiea OH

6e3 zmanora

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C

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20

npasrenenaa

KapaTeJIbHbIX

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21

Pa3HOBII,ll;HOCTb rpyrmosoe

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pacnopaaceanii) .
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axropa na «mrrepsep» anpecara C l(eJIbIO cneumpn-recxoro 1I3MeHeHlI5I ero 3HaHIIM, MHeHIIM II rrOBe,ll;eHII5I. Y6e)K,ll;eHlIe npezmonaraer He TOJIbKO YCTaHOBJIeHlIe B3aIIMorrOHIIMaHII5I, HO II cnocofinocrt, anpecara KplITlIqeCKII Ol(eHIIBaTb, npaHIIMaTb IIJIII orsepran, zrosonsi axropa. Y6e)K,ll;eHHbIM axTOPOM a,ll;peCaT crroco6eH caM 060CHOBaTb rrplIH5ITOe lIM C y-reron ero rrOCJIe,ll;CTBIIM. Bnpo-rexr, IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; mrrepnpernponan, CBOII ,ll;eMCTBII5I KaK caMOCT05lTeJIbHbIe, ,ll;a)Ke eCJIII nozrsepraercs IIMrrepaTIIBHOMY B03,ll;eMCTBIIIO. JIerlITIIMHoe ,ll;OMIIHlIpOBaHlIe TO)Ke npermortaraer B3aIIMorrOHIIMaHlIe, XOT5I II B MIIHIIMaJIbHOM CTerreHII.

pemenne
MO)KeT

Y6e)K,ll;eHlIe

MeTO,ll;aMII <popMaJIbHOM JIOrlIKII

Ha3bIBa-

eTC5I apryaemauneii. Y CTaHOBJIeHIIIO KOHTaKTa II

C06CTBYIOT 3MOl(IIOHaJIbHOe

axropa C anpecarov crronosezrensecxoe aapaacenne,
II COrrpOBO)K-

xoropsre
ztaror
ee.

II

rrpe,ll;IIIeCTBYIOT

KOMMYHIIKal(lIlI,

3MOl(IIOHaJIbHOe HIIBaHlIe»

aapaacenne

ofiecne-ranaer

«nsrpaaC Co-

rrcaxorpasnvecxoro

COCT05lHlI5I anpecara

22

CT05lHlIeM MaKCIIMYMa,

axropa, Ero

CKOPOCTb II axropa

crenens
neiicrsyer

,ll;OCTlIraIOT aneprn-rCy6b-

eCJIII B xa-recrse

HbIM, 06a5lTeJIbHbIM,

XaplI3MaTlIqHbIM

II apTIICTlIqHbIM II

eKT. O,ll;H03HaqHa51 CB5I3b Me)K,ll;y

aapaacenaexr

ero

OTplII.J;a-

TeJIbHOM/rrOJIO)KIITeJIbHOM COIJ;lIaJIbHOM OIJ;eHKOM OTCYTCTBY-

er. CpaBHIITe: peJIlIrlI03HbIe 3KCTa3bI, MaCCOBbIe rrCIIX03bI, pnryansnsre TaHIJ;bI, crropTIIBHbIM asapr, TPY,ll;OBOM 3HTY31Ia3M,

noozrymennenne
CTIIMYJIlIpOBaHlIe

60MIJ;OB

na

<PPOHTe.

nonpaacaana nozrpaaynesaer xonnposanne anpecarov naenmero anna II nosezremra axropa. MO,ll;eJIbIO ,ll;JI5Inonpaacanaa cnocofiasr CTaTb TOJIbKO pediepeumuue rjJUZYPbl, KOTOPbIX anpecar YBa)KaeT 1I/IIJIII JII06lIT
sa IJ;eHIIMbIe ,ll;OCTII)KeHII5I. JIIIBaTb lIM IIX JIlIqHOCTHbIe xanecrsa II COIJ;lIaJIbHbIe YCTaHaB-

Tlonpaacanne

noxroraer

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;Y

nepssre

COIJ;lIaJIbHbIe KOHTaKTbI, lI,ll;eHTII<pIIIJ;lIpOBaTb JIlIqHOCTbIO IIJIII pedieperrrnoii rpynnoii, rpyrmosoro 06b5lCH5IeTC5I MO,ll;bI. COOTBeT-

ce651 CO 3HaqlIMOM

51BJI5IeTC5I O,ll;HIIM 1I3 <paKTOPOB e,ll;IIHOo6pa3HOrO rrOBe,ll;eHII5I. 3TlIM <peHOMeHOM BO MHorOM

<pOpMlIpOBaHlIe

06bIQaeB

II pacnpocrpanerme

Y

norrpaacarornero

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a pa3BIIBaIOTC5I

CTBYIOru;lIe ,ll;eMCTBII5IM CHaQaJIa 6e)KIIM,

rrcaxodiaarorectore

COCT05lHlI5I (<<MbI rrOTOM HaM

rrOTOM nyraexrca,

CHaQaJIa nnane«,

ncnsrrsrsaera
CTBIIII conancy) MlIpa.

rope,

CHaQaJIa CMeeMC5I, a rrOTOM Y)Ke

CTaHOBlITC5I CMeWHO») (finaroztapa

(3aKOH YJl,JlCeUMca),
K 1I3MeHeHlI5IM

QTO snocnen,ll;IIC-

caMoaTplI6YIJ;1I1I

II KorHIITIIBHOMY B ero

MO)KeT npnsornrn,

KapTIIHe

TeXHOJIOrlI1I IOTC5I, npeacne IIHTepeCbI

pe<pJIeKCIIBHoro

yrrpaBJIeHlI5I

rrplIMeH5Ixorzta

scero,

B OTHOWeHlI5IX COrrepHIIQeCTBa, cyfit.exros

(IJ;eJIII)

COIJ;lIaJIbHbIX

nepecexarorcs

IIJIII HeCOBMeCTIIMbI. OT zrpyroro

Ka)K,ll;bIM cyfisexr

CKpbIBaeT CBOII IJ;eJIII

II CTpeMlITC5I K rrOJIYQeHIIIO

nsrronsr

,ll;JI5Ice651 c

ypOHOM

,ll;JI5Inpyroro.

KOHKypeHIJ;1I5I - 3TO B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I ,ll;ByX IIJIII 60JIee

23

COl(lIaJIbHbIX l(eJIII

cyfisexros,

KOTOpbIe IIMeIOT

npornsope-raurae

rro OTHOIIIeHIIIO

K O,ll;HIIM II TeM )Ke (COBrra,ll;aIOIl(IIM) B 3KOHOMlIqeCKOM crpepe B rrOJIIITII3JIeKTOpaT, B l(eHHOCTeM ,ll;06IIBaeTC5I pemenne

l(eJIeBbIM rpyrmaxr - 3TO

(ay,ll;IITOplI5IM).

qeCKOM -

nportasnsr-xonxyperrrsr II IIX noxynarenn, rrOJIIITlIqeCKlIe rraprmr/xannnnart.r II
IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB. Ka)K,ll;bIM 1I3 cyfisexron 06Il(lIe

KYJIbTYPHOM - BbIpa.3lITeJIII pa.3HbIX KYJIbTypHbIX II

rpyrmsr

TOrO,

qT06bI

uenessre rpyrmsr
-

rrplIH5IJIlI

IIMeHHO B ero no.nssy. PeQ:>JIeKCIIBHoe ynpaanenne MOCB5I3aHHbIX IIHCTpYMeHTaJIbHbIX HbIX ,ll;eMCTBIIM cy6beKTa correpnnxa Hoe) 3TO MHO)KeCTBO B3alI1I/IIJIII KOMMYHIIKaTIIB,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTbIO (rrponrpsnnnosene-

,ll;JI5IyrrpaBJIeHlI5I

C l(eJIbIO HaB5I3aTb eMY YIl(ep6HOe II

,ll;JI5IHero

nsrromroe

,ll;JI5Icaxroro

cytii.exra

nne. Hna-re
er nponeccoxr roBOP5l, aKTOp CKPbITO ,ll;JI5Ianpecara rrplIH5ITlI5I lIM ynpasna-

psre
pyer

3aTparlIBaIOT y anpecara

IIHTepeCbI JIlI60

[anpecaron] peIIIeHIIM, KOTOaxropa, ,ZJ,JI5I aroro OH Q:>0PMII,ll;JI5I ce651 npezrcrannenne BbIrO,ll;HYIO 0 ,ll;JI5I ce651

nsrrozmoe

KOHTeKCTe uens, JIlI60

B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I, JIlI60

BbIrO,ll;HYIO ,ll;JI5Ice651 CTpaTerlIIO. peQ:>JIeKCIIBHoe yrrpaBJIeHlIe nasna-reaae

B KOMMYHIIKapeaJIlI3yeTc5I HaB5ICOl(IIcpe-

TIIBHOM

acrreKTe

rrOCpe,ll;CTBOM MaHunYJlRlfUU, 3bIBaHlIe anpecary

KOTOPbIX 0

IICKa)KeHHOrO npn-ranenae rpyrrrr

npezrcrannenna ero

aJIbHOM crrryanna, ,ll;1I 06Il(IIX l(eJIeBbIX

ypona

perryrarmn ero

II pa.3pYIIIeHlIe

KOMMYHIIKa-

l(IIM C 3TlIMlI

rpyrmaxm. HeCKOJIbKO rrpOBOl(IIPYIOIl(IIX sepfiansuen-

IIepeqlICJIIIM HbIX 'rparrepos, HOCTII:

xoropsre

3KCrrJIyaTlIpYIOT

PbIHOqHbIe


51:
BbI

OKa.3aJI BaM

MHe

ycrryry, OTBeTHYIO ycnyry
Y)Ke BOT TO

rr03TOMY

BbI

,ll;OJI)KHbI OKa.3aTb

C,ll;eJIaJIII BOT 3TO,

rr03TOMY

,ll;OJI)KHbI ceiinac

czterran,

24

Bee
BbI

3TO ,ll;eJIaIOT, rr03TOMY II BbI ,ll;OJI)KHbI3TO

czterran,
rrpa-


51: BaM
BIIJIbHO

HpaBJIIOCb, 3HaQIIT, II MOll lI,ll;elI BaM HpaB5ITC5I rr03TOMY TO, QTO 51 rOBOpIO,

MHe zrosepaere,

ECJIII

BbI

He COrJIaCIITeCb C MOIIM

npennoacenaen

He-

Me,ll;JIeHHO, BbI yrrYCTIITe

nsrrozty

Bonpocu

U

saoanus

1. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa moeo, !WK conpucymcmeytotuue cytn.exmu HeReHO enusuom na noeeoeHue uuoueuoa. 2. KaKuM o6pa30M cesnauu rjJu3UlJeCKOe conpucymcmeue U couuansuoe esauuooeiicmeue? 3. Ilpouseoouu nu Mbl «axue-nutio oeiicmeust 6e3 KOMMyuuuauuii c dpYZUMU? 4. Moeym nu e atane KOMMYHuKalfuu coeuetuamscn HeCKOflbKOueneii? 5. Hasoeume uemeepmuii mun couuanuuux esauuooeiicmeuii. 6. Ha ueu «oepocamcs» enacmuue omnotuenust? 7. Pacnpeoenume uomueu enacmu U nOdlJUHeHUR no «eaopaumau unmeepansuoeo npocmpaucmea. 8. B KaKOM cuucne «neeumuuuu» neeumusuiue uunepamueuue mexuonoeuu? 9. Kaxuuu pecypcauu otinaoaem 3rjJrjJeKmueHblu axmop
KaK «X03RUH»?

1 O. B ueu omnuuue cucmeuuoii uumeepauuu om «ynumypHOU uumeepauuu? 11. 06'bRCHUme pasuuuy MeJICdy cunoeuuu, cxputmsiuu U neeumusuiuuu eosoeiicmeunuu.
12. «HeKpUmUlJeCKOe
eocnpusmue cootnueuuii» umo

omo? 13. Ilpueeoume

mpu-uemupe

npuuepa opueumauuu aope25

cama na rjJOPMYU UCmOlJHUKcootnuenus.

14. BHYUleHue - omo 3JlO. Bu COZJlaCHblC 3mUM ymeepotcoe-

uueu? 15. B lWKUX cumyauusx Hee03MOJICHO otioiimuce uenmauuu? 16. Kaxue JlUlJHOCmHble «auecmea mpeoyiomcn
lfUOHaJlbHOZ03apaJICeHuR?

6e3 apey-

on« 3MO-

17. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa, «oeoa noopascanue nouoeaem uuoueuoy copuenmupoeamscn e cumyauuu U aoanmupoeamscsi « epynne. 18. KaKuM o6pa30M MOJICHO ucnaueoeams rjJeHoMeH nodpaJICaHUR on« OKa3aHUR COlfUaJlbHOZOeosoeiicmeun?

19. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa uucmpyuenmansnux oeiicmeuii, ucnomeyeuux e petpneucueuou ynpaeJleHUU.

20. Kaxue npoeouupytotuue suaeme?
UeneBble

eeptiaiu.nue

mpueeepu

eu

rpynns: VI npo6neMHas:l caryauaa
II opraHII3al(IIII, OT KOTOPbIX B yc-

COIJ;IIaJIbHbIe cy6beKTbI cYIl(eCTBeHHoiI rreIIIHOCTb CTerreHII

3aBIICIIT

IIHcTpYMeHTaJIbHa51

axropa,

Ha3bIBaIOTC5I

ueneeuuu

epynnauu. HaKOH-

npavep,
HMeHHo

,ll;JI5I areHTCTBa He,ll;BII)KIIMOCTII 3TO nepconan,

TpOJIIIpyIOIl(IIe

opransr, )KypHaJIIICTbI, KOHKypeHTbI, CMIl. uenessre rpynnsr, «nopoacnaewsre» rrOCT05lHHbIMII,
IIJIII HeO)KII,ll;aHHbIMII rrp06JIeMHbIMII B xone CIIB

3aKoHoMepHbIMII Tyal(II5IMII,

xoropsre

OKa3bIBaeTC5I axrop

csoeii ero

,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTII, 51BJI5IIOTC5I anpecaravn C006Il(eHIIiI. ,ZJ,JI5I oroopa Il(IIe • KpIITepIIII: KpIITIIqHOCTb l(IIaJIbHOrO (3HaQIIMOcTb) cIITyal(IIII l(eJIeBbIX rpyrrrr

(ayznrropaeii)

IICrrOJIb3YIOTC5I CJIe,ll;YIO-

C yqaCTIIeM

co-

cytit.exra/oprannaarmu

,ll;JI5I IIHcTpYMeHaxropa. 3HaqII-

TaJIbHOiI ,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTIIII • HaJIIIqIIe

perryranan

y COl(IIaJIbHOrO cyfn.exra/oprannsamm

26

TeJIbHbIX pecypcos • 3alIHTepecoBaHHocTb

(Ta6JI.

5).
COl(lIaJIbHOrO

cyfisexcrrryamm.

'ra/opranasarraa
• IIo3lITlIBHa51

B TOM lIJIlI lIHOM ncxone HeraTlIBHa51

lIJIlI

rrpe,ll;B351TOCTb cyfisex-

'ra/opranasarraa
• rOTOBHOCTb rrOJIb30BaTb

rro OTHOIIIeHlIIO K arcropy. cyfn.exra/oprannsaumt rrpOTlIB aKTOpa lIJIlI lICB ero

COl(lIaJIbHOrO CBOlI pecypcbI

normepzcxy.

cmyauari C y-racraen cyfisexra/opranaaanaa. Paaxrepsr COl(lIaJIbHOrO cyfn.exra/oprameiauna.
PerYJI5IpHOCTb (rrOBTOp5leMOCTb) COl(lIaJIbHOrO Ta6JIHQa

5. Pecypcsr

COQHaJIbHOrO

cyfisercra.

l1H(pOpMal(HOHHbIe MMHHHc-rpaTHBHbIe

Eaorpaqra-recsne Harennexryansnsre
JIo66HcTCKHe OpraHH3al(HOHHbIe 3KOHOMWIeCKHe

Bnacrnsre
JIWIHocTHbIe HaCHrrbCTBeHHbIe

Penyranaoaasre

PaCCMOTplIM zrsa

npasrepa.
Mo6lIJIlI30BaTb 60JIbIIIOe KOJIlIqennxe-

1. Arpeccnamre
CTBO rOpO)KaH

,ll;eMCTBlI5IMaJIeHbKOM rro qlICJIeHHoMY co-

cTaBY, HO cnocofinoii

rpyrmsr

aHapXO-3KOJIOrOB onacnee

nporecrsr KaK axrop MO)KeT araopaponars. 2. IIoCKOJIbKY nencaonepsr - 3TO caMbIM
TOB IIIKOJIbHbIX y-nrreneii, ropar,

KOTOPbIX BJIaCTb

aKTlIBHbIM 3JIeK,ll;JI5I JII06oro nomrnrae-

TO OHlI 51BJI5IIOTC5I l(eJIeBOM rpynuoii B

xaazmztara
CKlIX MaJIO xoro

ztenyrarsr

He3aBlIClIMO

OT ero

B033peHlIM.

CooTBeTcTBeHHo,

npezmpnmraarena

lIHTepecYIOT

KaK lI36lIpaTeJIlI.

27

CTpaTerM~ rpynuoii

B3aMMO~eMCTBM~ C KOHKpeTHOM QeneBOM
MnM

- ~OMMHMpOBaHMe, KOHKypeHQM~, MMMTaQM~KOOCOTpy~HMqeCTBO
M

nepauna,

M36eraHMe -

BbI6MpaeTC~
M MX

aKTOpOM B 3aBMCMMOCTM TOrO, KaK COOTHOC~TC~ OT ero MHTepeCbI/QenM
HM

pecypcsr.
CBOMMM

TOT <paKT, qTO mo60M aKTOp B mo60M MOMeHT npesre-

naxoznrrcs

B KaKMX-TO OTHOIIIeHM~X co

uerte-

rpynnasra, ormcsrsaerca KaK asmyansnast cumyauus. Korna ee napaxierpst cymecrsenno pacxozrarcs C uoeansuoii cumyauueii, napaxrerpu KOTOPOMaanansr xopnoparnaBbIMM
HOM

<pMnOCO<pMeM, MnM C QeneBOM cMTyaQMeM KOMMYHMKa-

TMBHOM

nporpaxorsr, OHa zmarnocrnpyerca
BbIXO~
M3

KaK

npotineu-

HaR cumyauus.

KOMMYHMKaTMBHOMrrp06neMHOM

cMTyaQMM ecrs He qTO nnoe KaK rrOCTaHOBKa M peIIIeHMe rrocne~OBaTenbHOCTM KOMMYHMKaTMBHbIXsana-r nocpencrsoxr MMeIOru;MXC~y axropa (rafin. anroprrrwon.

Ecnn TaKOBbIX He 06KaK KpU3UCHaR

Hapy:>KMBaeTC~,cMTyaQM~ xaamnprnmpyerca

6). 3HaqMMOCTb «ouuynutcamuenoii

npotineuu 3aBM-

CMT OT paanepoa ypona,

KOTOPbIMMO)KeT 6bITb nanecen pe-

rrYTaQMMaxropa cpezm KOHKpeTHbIx uenensrx rpyrrrr. TaKMM 06Pa30M, nnap - smo nJlaHupyeMaRKoMMYHU«amueuan oesunensnocme COlfUaJlbHOZO cytn.esma UJlU opeauusauuu on« rjJ0pMupoeaHuR nOJlOJICUmeJlbHOiipenymauuu cpeou ueneeux epynn. B KnaCCMqeCKOMTpaKToBKe naap npencrasnaer C060M «opnopamueuue KOMMYHuKalfuu, cyfit.etcroi« rro nosorry .rensnoro qMMOCTM axrope
HMM, M

KOTOPbIX~Bn~eTC~ opramraarma.
M3 MHeHMM

Penymauust CKna~bIBaeTC~
KOHKpeTHbIx nepnozta
M

uenensrx rpyrrrr
B TeqeHMe ztrrn-

~eMcTBMM

axropa rpyrrrr.

~Bn~eTC~ rrrorosoii
3TMX

oQeHKoM ero 3HaCOBoKyrrHocTb

rrone3HOCTM ~n~

scex qaCTHbIX penyraunti OQeHOK M

KaK KOHrnOMepaT

naer otnuecmeeuuoe uuenue 06 pacnpocrpanemrsrx npencrasnecy)K~eHMM, xoropsre KOHKpeTM3MpYIOTnpnY)Ke cymecrsytourae B MaCCOBOM

MeHMTenbHO K axropy

28

C03HaHlUI

couuanuuue cmepeomunu
cy6beKTOB. 3<p<peKTIIBHbIMII II

OTHOCIITeJIbHO noztofi-

HbIX COl(IIaJIbHbIX CaMbIMII BaHII5I cpencrsa

IIHCTpYMeHTaMII MHeHII5I

<P0PMIIPO51BJI5IIOTC5I II pexrpyrmaxr

perryranan

06ru;eCTBeHHOrO

MaCCOBOM KOMMYHIIKal(IIII,

BKJIIOQa51CMIl l(eJIeBbIM

JIaMHbIe TeXHOJIOrIIII. rrOCpe,ll;CTBOM

B

o6ru;eM II

cnysae

rry6JIIIKal(IIM

peKJIaMHbIX UMudJ/C

MaTepIIaJIOB axropa KaK

rrpe,ll;b5lBJI5IeTC5I CKOHCTpYIIpOBaHHbIM ofipas, COCT05lru;IIM II3 rr03IITIIBHbIX IIoJIo:>I(lITeJIbHa51 rrOMOraIOru;IIM axropy II KPII3IICHbIe perryranna ycneumo

,ll;JI5I HIIX KaqeCTB. 3TO MOru;HbIM pecypc, rrp06JIeMHbIe CJIaBa» cyfis-

npeozronesars

cIITyal(IIII,

B TO BpeM5I KaK «nypnas ,ll;JI5ICOl(IIaJIbHbIX

qaCTO 060paqIIBaeTC5I eKTOB II OpraHII3al(IIM

rII6eJIbHbIMII pellIeHII5IMII

IICrrOJIHIITeJIbHOM, 3aKO-

HO,ll;aTeJIbHOMIIJIII CY,ll;e6HOM BJIaCTII.

Ta6JIHQa 6. IIpo6JIeMHaSi Kopnoparasaaa
<pHrroco<pIDI KOMM)'HHKaTHBHM

cHTyaQHSI.

nporpasora IJ;eJIeBaSi HTyaQHSI t Koppesrma
crpaTerHn/TaKTHKH

IIpooJIeMHaSi cHTyaQHSI
PerryTaU:HoHHbIH ypOH IJ;erreBbIe""

rpynnsr

I1HcrpYMeHTarrbHbIH ypOH

Pecypcsr
coyqaCTHHKOB

._ KOMM)'HHKaTHBHbIH MOHHTopHHr

~

CrrHCOK coyqaCTHHKOB

Axryansnaa

cHTyaU:IDI

Bonpocu 1.

U 3aOaUU.Jl pasuuuy MeJ/Cdy nOCm051HHblMU, 3aKOHO-

06051CHUme

uepusiuu

U

neoxcuoannsiuu

npotineuusiuu

cumyauus-

29

MU.

2. "Imo eu nouuuaeme nod «KpUmUlJHOCmblO» cumyauuu on« couuansnoeo cytn.exma? 3. Hcnonssys: «pumepuu eutiopa ueneeux epynn, nocmpoiime ux xnaccudnixauuio. 4. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa npotineuuoii cumyauuu, onutuume ee uncmpyuenmani.uue U KOMMYHuKamueuue acnexmu. 5. Onpeoenume coomtunuenue couuanuuux KOMMYHuKauuii U nuapa.

6. lfMUdJIC npeoi.nensemcn, penymauust - sapatiamueaemCR. Ilpououueumupyiime omo uueuue. 7. B KaKUX cnyuasx paCXOJICdeHUe uuuootca axmopa c eeo peanunuuu «auecmeauu He cosoaem npotineuuoii CUmyalfuu?

8. MOJICHO nu cosoams ynueepcaiuniuii UMudJIC? 9. Bceeoa nu on« rjJ0pMupoeaHuR nonootcumensnoii penymauuu ueotixoouuo npeounenstm» cyzy60 nosumueuue «auecmea? 10. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa moeo, KaK nOflOJICUmensuasi penymauust nouoeana couuanunouy cytn.etony tiucmpo petuums «ouuynuxamuenue npotineuu.
KOHTeKCT, KOHTaKT VI cOIlVioKynbTYPHbl1l1 clIeHapVlII1 B ceHCOKO-

AKTOP YCTaHaBJUIBaeT KOHTaKT C anpecarov MOTOPHOM II IIH<popMal(IIOHHOM TOPbIX 6JIarOrrplI5ITcTBYIOT IIJIII pa. IIplI KOHTaKTe) KOHTeKCTax,

xa-recrsa
l(emlM

npenarcrsytor

aKTO-

onocpeooeanuoii
IICTOqHIIK

KOMMYHuKalfuu
aKTopa rrplIBbIqHbIM II

(BlIpTyaJIbHOM IIJIII 06 aKTope

co06~eHII~

,ll;OJI)KeH 6bITb ,ll;JI~ anpecara.

ztocryrnrsm,
B
JIlI60

,ll;OCTOBepHbIM JIlI60 He

rrpOTIIBHOM cnysae anpecar

co06~eHII~

,ll;OM,ll;YT no anpecara, MO aroro, cnenyer

lIM He noseprrr. noxrex

IIOMII-

y-nrrsraars nann-rae

B BII,ll;e OT-

30

BJIeKaIOr.u;IIX BHIIMaHlIe

anpecara

C006r.u;eHIIM

ztpyrax

aKTO-

POB, a TaK)Ke B03MO)KHYIO nensypy. PaCCMOTplIM TOp II anpecar

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,[(51CbP5l,[(OM B q:m3IIqeCKOM sanaxa axropa npn

rrpaBIIJIbHO

(BbIrO,[(HbIM

CMo,[(eJIlIpOBaTb

KOHTeKCT BOCrrplI5ITlI5I anpecarov ,ZJ,eJIO TOM, qTO B

coofimenaii.
BO MHorOM orraKTyaJIII-

naenmee

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B3aIIMo,[(eMCTBII5I. cHTyaQHSI (Co6bITHe).

7.

COQHaJIbHaSi

repOH ArpH6YThI, H cooomenaa ArpH6YThI )l;eHCTBIDI

CeHcoMoTOPHbIH

KOHTeKCT

Tepoa

COl(HoKyrrbTYPHbIH

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H )l;eHCTBHJ!

coyqaCTHHKOB 06beKTHBHbIe

C06bITHHHbIH

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pesynsrarsr

l1H(pOpMal(HOHHbIH IIpo6rreMHbIH

KOHTeKCT

Harimonarenn

KOHTeKCT

Eo.nee uocnovnaaaae)

'roro,

3MOl(IIOHaJIbHOe BJIlI5IHlIe na

COCT05lHlIe

anpecara

OKa3bIBaeT 60JIbllIOe

aanoxrananae

(II ocofienno 3MOl(1I1I

coofimenaii

axropa.

CIITyaTIIBHbIe 3arrOMlIHaeMbIX

CTaHOB5ITC5IQaCTbIO HerrpOlI3BOJIbHO 51pKIIX (BbIIIYKJIbIX) 1I3Be,[(eHIIII KOMrrOHeHTOB

caxrsrx
socnpoas-

crrryanna,

npn

KOTOPbIX cnycrs BcrrOMIIHaeT II ero

nexoropoe rrepe)KIITYIO

BpeM5I anpecar clITyal(IIIO

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B l(eJIOM,

BKJIIOQa51axropa

coofimeane

(Ta6JI.

7).
rro TOMY (Ta6JI.

JII06a51 cTaH,[(apTHa51 clITyal(1I5I IIJIII IIHOMY

pa3BIIBaeTC5I

couuouynsmypnouy

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8). Cpas31

HlITe

,ll;PY)KeCKIIM Y)KIIH

npn

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B 3arOpO,ll;HOM ,ll;OMe

3lIMHlIM

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C

y-racraen
B )KapKIIM

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JIIIl(

xompepenu-sane

normens. cuenapaii rrOMIIMO nafiopa yqaCTHIIKOB C npennacamrsum lIM POJI5IMII BKJIIOqaeT B ce651 <p1I3lIqeCKlIe
JII060M MapKepbI eTC5I». outymaer)

nnourarnca,
anpecar

na KOTOPOM OH 06bIqHO BOCrrplIHIIMaeT

«passrrpsrsaCJIbIIIIIIT, II Orr03Ha-

ECJIII

(BII,ll;IIT,

CMO,ll;eJIlIpOBaHHbIe aKTOpOM MapKepbI KaK CTaH,ll;apTHYIO, TO nanee OH

er clITyal(IIIO

npnnepacasace651 nporno-

eTC5I COOTBeTCTBYIOll(erO Cl(eHapII5I, T.e. sener 3lIpyeMbIM ,ll;JI5Iaxropa 06Pa30M.

,ZJ,aBHO 1I3BeCTHO, qTO JIIOno TeX rrop,

,ll;1I npezmo-nrraror noxa CqlITaIOT 'raxoe IIOMIIMO 51BIITb anpecary IIJIII

,ll;eMCTBOBaTb rro IIIa6JIOHY nosenenne

3<p<peKTIIBHbIM. aKTOp MO)KeT

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npezrs06pa3bI B03-

CTIIMYJIOB

npeznrersr,
MexaHlI3M

nposounpyroume

eeptiaiu.nue mpueeepu,
3arrYCTlITb 1I/IIJIII cnpoaormponars aay-rar

qT06bI

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IIJIJIIO-

B anpecare

'rpefiyeersre
xorzta

CJIa6bIe zrosonsi

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anpecar IIOMIIMO

HaXO,ll;IITC5IB

npanozmsrroxr
II

HaCTpoeHIIII.

MO,ll;eJIlIpOBaHII5I KOHTeKCTa BOCrrplI5ITlI5I (a KOMMYHIIKal(1I1I y-recrs B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I) aKTOp KYJIb-

npn

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,ll;OJI)KeH erne

xynumypnuii

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.rypnsre
qlIMbIe

HOPMbI,

aanpernsre
scero

TeMbI/,ll;eMCTBII5I), a TaK)Ke 3Ha-

MOTIIBbI anpecara. B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB KOHTeKCT rro-

IIOCKOJIbKY -rame

rrOBTOp5lIOTC5I, Ka)K,ll;bIM KOHTaKT <popMlIpyeT CJIe,ll;YIOll(IIX KOHTaKTOB, B CIIJIY -rero panee paspafiart.mart, anpecarov nporpaxrsry

aKTOp BbIHY)K,ll;eH 3a-

B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBIIM C KOH-

KpeTHbIM

KaK rrOCJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHOCTb B3aIIMOCB5Iormy 1I3 TaKIIX crpare-

3aHHbIX B03,ll;eMCTBIIM. PaCCMOTplIM rlIM. IIplI nepsoii ncrpe-re

aKTOp y6e)K,ll;aeT anpecara

OKa-

32

san,

eMY He3HaqIITeJIbHYIO

ycrryry,

B YCTHOM IIJIII rrIICbMeH-

HOM <POp Me nozrrsepmm, csoe COrJIaCIIe C npennoacenaea II nnpezn, eMY rrovorars. Bnaronaps 3TOMY npn rrOBTopHOM ncrpe-re aKTOp C 60JIbIIIeM Bep05lTHOCTbIO ,ll;06beTC5I 60JIee cymecraennsrx II Y)Ke aarparnsrx ,ll;JI5I anpecara ycrynox.

Eo.nee

'roro,

anpecar

caM C<P0PMYJIIIpyeT ,ll;JI5Ice651 ,ll;JI5I ce651 pemenna. 3TO

ztosonsr
CTaHeT

B rrOJIb3Y HeBbIrO,ll;HOrO

B03MO)KHbIM, TOJIbKO eCJIII anpecar C5ICOl(IIaJIbHOM l(eHHOCTII «6bITb

)KeCTKO npnnepxorsaer-

rrOCJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHbIM». KOMMYHIIKal(IIII. COl(IIOKOH-

IIPO,ll;OJI)KIIM paCCMOTpeHIIe axra BCTpeTIIBIIIIICb KYJIbTypHOM TaKT, IIJIII C anpecarov

B KOHKpeTHOM

KOHTeKCTe, aKTOp YCTaHaBJIIIBaeT

C HIIM

ocyr.u;eCTBJI5IeT rrO,ll;CTpOMKY na

l(IIOHaJIbHOM, 3aBoeBaHIIe pecar BepIIT

MO,ll;aJIbHOM, l(eHHOCTHOM ypOBH5IX.

cencopno«, 3MOLlens rrOCKOJIbKY an(3aCJIY)KII-

,ll;OBepII5I CO CTOPOHbI anpecara, coo6r.u;eHII5IM

TOJIbKO Kpe,ll;IITHbIX

BaIOr.u;IIX ,ll;OBepII5I) aKTOpOB II/IIJIII HbIX IICTOqHIIKOB. HbIM aKTopOM? LITO neofixoztmro,

coo6r.u;eHII5IM II3 xpeznrr-

-rrofisr

CTaTb xpeznrr-

Bo-nepnsrx,
My TeJIbHO,

6bITb rrOXO)KIIM na anpecara C HIIM 06r.u;IIe l(eHHOCTII

rro BHeIIIHeII, CJIe,ll;OBa,ZJ,OBepIIe

BII,ll;Y, paanerom, npanannecsars cyfn.exros

K O,ll;HOM «Mu-rpynue». K «CBOIIM» B03HIIKaeT

COl(IIaJIbHbIX MaTIIqeCKII.

rrOqTII aBTO-

BO-BTOPbIX, POM (IICTOqHIIKOM) CIIJIbHbIM anpecary, IIJIII

6bITb -

,ll;JI5Ianpecara

pedieperrrnoii

<pIIry-

rrpIIBJIeKaTeJIbHbIM, 60JIbIIIe

KOMrreTeHTHbIM, aKTOp HpaBIITC5I

CTaTYCHbIM. LIeM

TeM OXOTHee anpecar

eMY ycrynaer. T.e. BepIITb B npasnnszmpexropa

B-TpeTbIIX,

6bITb IICKpeHHIIM,

HOCTb II IICTIIHHOCTb CBOIIX CJIOB. BbIcTyrrJIeHIIe XIIMIIqeCKOrO Tpe60BaHIIM KOM6IIHaTa sa Y)KeCTOqeHIIe

3KOJIOrIIqeCKIIX

K rrpOMbIIIIJIeHHbIM

rrpe,ll;rrpII5ITII5IM BocrrpIIHII-

MaeTC5I IIIIIPOKOM 06r.u;eCTBeHHOCTbIO KaK 60JIee yfieznrrensHoe, He)KeJIII pe-ts na Ty )Ke TeMY «senenoro» rrOJIIITIIKa,

33

rrpe,ll;B351TOCTb KOTOpOrO 3IIl(II5I ero

o-resazma,

LIeM

neoxoutannee

rro-

axropa,

TeM 60JIbIIIe

y anpecara

OCHOBaHIIM CqIITaTb

IICKpeHHIIM

II Ha,ll;e)KHbIM.
Ta6JIHu,a

8. BOCnpUSITHe
cHTyaIJ,HH:

H noaezreuae.

AInYaJIhHaH 06CTOHTeJIbCTBa

H yqacTHHKH

caryanan

<PYHKl(HOHaJIbHOe COCTOHHHe anpecara HH<popMal(HOHHbIH C06bITHHHbIH KOHTeKCT

KOHTeKCT cHTyaIJ,HH:

Bocnpnsrrne
COl(HaJIbHbIe

aInYaJIhHOH

3<p<peKTbI BOCrrpHHTHH

cxeusr

BOCrrpHHTHH H KaTerOpH3al(HH yqacTHHKOB cmyanaa KOppeJIHl(HH)

KaTerOpH3al(HH

(crepeornnsr,

rrpOTOTHIIbI,

HJIJl1030pHbIe cmyarraa

KaTerOpH3al(HH (COl(HOKYJIbTYPHbIH BhIOOP noaenea-recxoro

KOHTeKcT)

nar-repna:

rrpHBbfqKH,IIOTPe6HOCTH,l(eHHOCTH

Ilpornos
onenxa

HaJIWIHbIX

ycneumocrn nonenenna: H rrpezmonaraeasrx pecypcos
noaenenaa:

Ilpornos
onenxa co

nOCJIeil:CTBHH

peaxnna coy-racraaxon CTOPOHbI perpeperrrnsrx <pHryp
IIJIaHHpoBaHHe IIOBeil:eHHH

H rpyIIII

Ilosezreane Onenxa
IIOCJIeil:CTBHH IIOBeil:eHHH CaMOaTPH6Yl(HH

B-qeTBepTbIX, CJIOBa

)KeCTbI,

MIIMIIKa,

nossi,

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II T.e.

axropa

,ll;OJI)KHbI COOTBeTCTBOBaTb

ztpyr zrpyry,

axrop ,ll;OJI)KeH 6bITb KOHrpY3HTHbIM. H3BecTHo, qTO npn nepsoii ncrpe-re ztonepne K axropy na 55% 3aBIICIIT OT ero MIIMIIKII II )KeCTOB, na 38% - OT pIITMIIKII, IIHTOHal(IIM II rponxocrn pe-m II JIIIIIIb na 7% - OT cozrepacanna ero BbI34

CKa3bIBaHIIM. HeKOHrpY3HTHbIM B-rr5lTbIX, KOMMYHUKalfuu, cofimozrars B qlICJIO

axropaxr

He separ.

nocmynamu

«oonepamuenoii

KOTOPbIX BXO,ll;51T,B qaCTHOCTII,

cnenytoume: • Coofimaii
IICTIIHHOM,

TOJIbKO TY IIH<popMal(IIIO, 060CHOBaHHOM II

KOTOpyIO CqlITaeIIIb OTHOIIIeHlIe K

IIMeIOru;eM

o6CY:/K,ll;aeMOM'rexte]


Coofimaii
OTBeqaM IIIIIBaeT

CTOJIbKO IIH<popMal(lIlI,

CKOJIbKO neofixonasro

,ll;JI5I aCKpbITlI5I o6CY)K,ll;aeMOM TeMbI! p C TOM crenensro rrO,ll;p06HOCTII, C KaKOM crrpa-

anpecarl
HeO,ll;H03HaqHbIX BbIpa)KeHIIM! IIH<popMal(IIIO B JIOrlIqeCKOM rrOCJIe,ll;OBaTeJIb-

• •

II36eraM II3JIaraM HOCTII!

• •

06513aTeJIbHO OTBeqaM na He neperpyzcaii II

sonpocsr anpecaral
CIIHTaKClIqeCKIIMII CJIOBaMII II o6opo-

CBOIO pe-ts

TaMIl

HerrOH5ITHbIMII

anpecary

nsrpaxceYMbIIII-

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nenpezmaaepennoro
KaKIIX-JIII60 ero

IIJIII

JIeHHOrO HapYIIIeHlI5I pecar

aKTopOM

rrOCTYJIaTOB an-

MO)KeT pacnemrrs

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na 3TOM OCHOBaHlI1I npexpanrrs COl(IIOKYJIbTYPHbIM l(1I1I.

cuenapaii

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T.e. cxexra

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npomoaaposamre

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noeeoenuecxuii nammepn,
3TO

T.e. cxexra

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IIJIII O)KII,ll;aeMOrO rrOBe,ll;eH1I5IIIHnoseztenxecxoe

CTaH,ll;apTHOM crrryarmn.

npermncanae.
CJIe,ll;OBaHlIe cnenapmo aBTOMaTlI3lIpyeT npouecc

35

06ru;eHlUI

II rr03BOJUIeT IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;Y B CTaH,ll;apTHOM clITyal(1I1I He 3a,ll;YMbIBaTbC5I nan TeM, qTO II KaK ztenars. nose-

npaxrnaecxa
3TO naer

B03MO)KHOCTII ,ll;JI5ICOl(lIaJIbHO nesasrernoro

axropa nozt aY,ll;IITOpIllO, qTO nepnsrii KOHTaKT, HO MeIIIaeT B3aIIMorrOHIIMaHIllO, eCJIII npespamaerca B uepenonaansnoe nosenenae. Y MbIIIIJIeHHOe rpyfioe HapYIIIeHlIe cnenapna aKTOpOM sener
,ll;eH1I5III CKPbITOM rrO,ll;CTpOMKII ofiner-raer KaK K YBeJIlIqeHIIIO MIIHaeMOCTII) TeJIbHbIM BbIIIYKJIOCTII (II, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, saneTaK II K clITyal(1I1I ,ll;JI5IcoyqaCTHIIKOB,

xapa-

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CTOPOHbI. PaCCOrJIaCOBaHHOCTb sener K HerrOHIIMaHIIIO II arpec-

cnenapues
CIIII.

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3.
3aXO,ll;IITe B 3aJI CTOJIIIK

4. Hmere CBo6o,ll;HbIM 5. Carnrrecs
6. 7. 8. 9.
LIIITaeTe MeHIO

IIO,ll;3bIBaeTe o<pIIl(lIaHTa

,ZJ,eJIaeTe 3aKa3 E,ll;IITe II nsere

10. Tlpocrrre cner 36

11. Pacnna-ntaaerecs C o<pIIl(IIaHTOM 12. OTrrpaBJI5IeTeCb B rapnepof 13. IIOKII,ll;aeTe pecropan
ECJIII MOM, MY:>KqIIHa rrplIIIIeJI B pecropan

ne-repon

C na-

TO B03MO)KeH paCIIIlIpeHHbIM

Cl(eHapIIM,

B KOTOPOM

nperrycsrorpem.r 'rannsr, -raensre,
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TaKCII II T.rr. HapYIIIeHIIe K 6JIOKIIpOBaHIIIO cuena-

He rrYCTIIJIII B rrpeCTII)KHbIM pecropan, JIII60 K BCTaBKe B Cl(eHapIIM B

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pecropaae»).
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cztenan,

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nosenen-recxaii C y-reron
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HlUIMII. B 3TOM TaHaBJIIIBaeT 06Pa3l(OB rrJIIIHr), IIIIITb

cny-rae

BeJIIIqIIHY OTBeTHOrO

«nonapxa»

yc-

aKTOp, a He

anpecar.

(KOHeqHO,

eCJIII OH He

CKJIOHeH K cIITyaTIIBHOMY aHaJIII3Y). neCrrJIaTHa51

pasnaaa
(C3MCOBep-

nponyxnan

nenanexo

OT MeCT

rrO,ll;TaJIKIIBaIOll(a51CJIyqaMHbIX

nponaacn npoxoacnx

noxynxy, cxoro 'rparrepa.
KII san,

3TO 51pKIIMnpmaep rrO,ll;06HOrO IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OM TeqeHIIe B

nosenense-

BbIpa60TaHHbIe

)KII3HII HaBbI-

na

OCHOBaHIIII q:m3IIqeCKIIX MapKepOB II,ll;eHTII<pIIl(IIPOII, COOTBeTCTBeHHO,BbI6IIpaTb K cIITyal(IIII, HO

cIITyal(IIII,

azrexsarnsre
60JIee IIJIII

COl(IIOKYJIbTypHbIe Cl(eHapIIII 6bICTPO MeHee

rr03BOJI5IIOT eMY He TOJIbKO

anarrraposarsca TOqHbIM npornos

zrenars

OTHOCIITeJIbHO rrOBe,ll;eHII5I coysauepeirru K COl(II3TOM

CTHIIKOB. JII060e

CYll(eCTBeHHoe OTKJIOHeHIIe pa3BIITII5I CO-

6bITIIM OT Cl(eHapII5I BbIHY)K,ll;aeTaxropa aJIbHOM aTpII6Yl(IIII, C60M KaKIIMII-TO TeM JIII60 qIITbC5I

-rrofisr cna-rana

06b5lCHIITb ce6e

panee

He 3aMeqeHHbIMII

ceHCOMOTOPHbIMII

06CT05lTeJIbCTBaMII IIJIII oco6eHHOCT5IM coyqaCTHIIKOB, a 3a-

npexpanrrs
ztpyroii

B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBIIe, JIII60

nepexmo-

na

Cl(eHapIIM. 3TOT BbI60p BO MHOroM 3aBIIIIH,ll;IIBII,ll;arrpIIHII-

CIIT OT IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHOM crroco6HOCTII

MaTb HeTpIIBIIaJIbHbIe (TBOpqeCKIIe) peIIIeHII5I.

Bonpocu

U 3aOaUU.Jl

1. "Imo eu nouuuaeme nod «uiupopuauuotouau KOHmeKcmou»? 2. KaK020 pooa KOHmaKmbZ otiecneuueatomcst HumepnemOM?

3. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa «ouuynuuauuii, KOmopue OKa3aJlUCb He3rjJrjJeKmueHbzMu U3-3a nenpaeunsH020 eutiopa UCmOlJHUKa cootnuenus. 4. 'Ie» 06'b51CH51emC51 oeiicmeenuocms nponaeauou e momanumapuou eocyoapcmee? 5. Kaxoeu «nntocu» U «MUHYCbZ»npstuoii KOMMYHuKalfuu? 38

6. Bcnouuume, e peanusauuu lWKUX couuoxynumypnux cueuapuee eu npUHUMaJlU yuacmue ceeooun? 7. 0 KaKUX cuenapusx eau HanOMUHalOm cneoytotuue npeouemu: «pacnoe 3HaMR, eopsuuas ceeua, 3HlfUKJlOnedUlJeCKUU cnoeap», eautiypeep, MaJlUHOeblU nUdJICaK? 8. Kaxue U3 mpetioeauuii K «peoumuouy axmopy eu CIJUmaeme cauuuu eascnuuu? 9. Kaxoea rjJYHKlfUR YHUrjJOPMbl? 10. JIeJlRlOmCR JlU «auecmea «peipepenmnocmu» ynueepCaJlbHbIMU?

11. C KaKOU uenuto napytuatomcs nocmynamu «oonepamueuoii KOMMYHuKalfuu? 12. Kaxue rjJYHKlfUU eunonusuom couuoxynsmypnue cueuapuu?

13. Otn.ncnume, umo maxoe «xynemypuuii UlOK». 14. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa YMblUlJleHHOZO HaPYUleHuR cuenapus. Kaxux ueneii ootiueancn axmop? 15. Cpaeuume Ha60Pbl cueuapuee UlKOJlbHUKOe U yuumeneii. 16. OHU »cueym, KaK KOUlKa C cotiaxoii. 060RcHume »my cumyauuu. 17. « fJeM tionutue Y uuoueuoa yceoenuux cueuapuee. meu ... ». Ilpooonotcume omo eucxasueauue. 18. Ilocmpoiime uepapxuto cueuapuee no cmeneuu 0606tueunocmu. 19. K KaKUM nocneocmeueu MOJICem npueecmu nenpaeunsHoe UCnOJlHeHUe cuenapust U omoensnux rjJpeuMoe? 20. « 'Ie» ocmpee «onxypenuust nompetiuocmeii, meu ...». Ilpooonotcume omo ymeepocoeuue. 21. Jl,JlR ycnetuuoeo uanunynupoeanust axmop uooenupyem KaK a6COJllOmHO npueuuuue. max U a6COJllOmHO uoeue on« aopecama couuanuuue cumyauuu. 060RcHume ncuXOJlOZUlJeCKUe uexauusuu moii U opyeoii meXHOJlOZUU. 22. Kaxoea cesn» ueuuocmuux cueuapuee U npoeouupytotuux eeptiaiu.nux mpueeepoe? 39

23. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa cuenapust «ycJlyza sa
yCJlyzy».

24. Iloemopeuse - uamu yvenu»: Ilpoxouuenmupyiime
nocJloeulfy.

»my

25. Bceeoa JlU Mbl nputieeaeu K couuanunoii amputiyuuu? 26. B ueu «otubopuucmu npOUZPb18alOm meOplJeCKUM JlUlJnocmstu, a e ueu - euuepueatom y nux?
Ka-recraa coo6~eHVlS'I
IIocJIe TpaHCJI5Il(lIlO BocrrpIIHIIMaeT, rrO,ll;CTpOMKII K (rrepena-ry) anpecary axrop xoropoe HaqIIHaeT anpecar saneII l(IIKJI

coofiuteana,
C006rn;eHIIe 'roro

rrOHIIMaeT (IIJIII

rrpIIHIIMaeT

na nepy), axropy -

MIIHaeT, 3aTeM nepenaer rrOBTOp5leTC5I (Ta6JI. MHeHIIe II/IIJIII

ceoe 9). Llens

II zrpyroro

II3MeHIITb

rrOBe,ll;eHII5I c06eCe,ll;HIIKa nepena-m

B CBOIO rrOJIb3Y C B BII,ll;e

nonoursro

nonepexrennoii

C006rn;eHIIM

TeKCTOB II/IIJIII

aKl(IIM (CIIMBOJIIIqeCKIIX ,ll;eMCTBIIM). npencrasnaer II C060M

Cootnueuue
Ha60p Bep6aJIbHbIX 06Pa30B),

ynopano-renusrti

HeBep6aJIbHbIX IIJIII

3HaKOB (CIIMBOJIOB,

xoropsre

60JIee TaK II

MeHee O,ll;IIHaKOBO rrOHIIMa3TO TeKCTbI na ecreCJIYXOBbIX

IOTC5I KaK axropoja,

anpecaron.

CTBeHHOM 513bIKe, KOMrr03IIl(IIII IIJIII KIIHeCTeTIIqeCKIIX 06Pa30B,

II3 3pIITeJIbHbIX,

a TaK)Ke coficrsenno

de ii-

cmeust.

CooTBeTcTBeHHo,

C006rn;eHIIe nepezt

MO)KeT npencrasnars

C060M YCTHoe BbIcTyrrJIeHIIe CKOM 513bIKe, aHaJIIITIIqeCKYIO

aY,ll;IITOpIIeM na KIITaManpecnyro BII-

CTaTbIO B rasere,

JIIICTOBKY rrp5lMOM rrOqTOBOM paCCbIJIKII, ,ll;eOCIO)KeT na TeJIeBII,ll;eHIIII, HOM peKJIaMbI IIJIII

rrpeCC-peJIII3,

,ll;IIHaMIIqHbIM

ofisexr
B

HapY)Krrp5lMOM

MaCCOBYIO ,ll;eMOHCTpal(IIIO. aKTOp

Me)KJIIIqHOCTHOM xozmpyer rroxr pe-m, csoe

KOMMYHIIKal(IIII

,ll;OrrOJIHIITeJIbHO

C006rn;eHIIe

)KeCTaMII, TOHaJIbHOCTbIO, TeM-

rr030M (Ta6JI.

10).
IIJIII nosenenne C006rn;eHII5I ,ll;ByX KJIaCCOB.

LIT06bI anpecara,

OKa3aTb BJIII5IHIIe na MHeHIIe TpaHCJIIIpyeT

axrop

40

Ta6JIuQa

9. Honroromca

U CTMUU

QUU.

axropa

C COl(HarrbHbIMH

1. Bsaaaozreiicraae cytisexraan 2. l1il:eHTH<pHKal(IDI
npofinema

.-

arcra KOMMYHuKa-

16. 113MeHeHHe

rroaeneana MHeHIDI MeH

a)l;pecaTa

15. 113MeHeHHe
a)l;pecaTa

KOMMYHHKaTHBHoii

3.

l1il:eHTH<pHKal(IDI

14.

3arroMHHaHHe

nenessrx rpyrrrr

coo6IIIeHIDI

azrpecarosr

4. Onpezreneaae
nenn H MeH KOMMYHHKal(HH

13. Bepa anpecara
B HCTHHHOCTb coo6IIIeHHH

5. Onpezreneaae crpareran
KOMMYHHKal(HH

12. IIoHHMaHHe 11. Bocnpnarae

coo6IIIeHIDI coo6IIIeHIDI

azrpecarosr azrpecarosr

6.

BbI60p

connosynsrypaoro coo6IIIeHIDI <pOPMbI

Cl(eHapIDI H BbI60p MeH

7. Koacrpyaposaaae
coo6IIIeHIDI KOMMYHHKal(HH

H BbI60p xaaana (HCTOqHHKa)

8. 110ll:errrrpoBaHHecHTyal(HH

-.

10. Ilepezrasa

coo6IIIeHHH

a)l;pecaTy

9. Y CTaHOBrreHHe
C azrpecarosr

KOHTaKTa axropa

IIepBbIM rrpIIHIIMaIOTC5I MeHTal(IIII.

-

3TO

cyeeecmueuue
na sepy

C006U/eHUR,
6e3

KOTOpbIe apry-

anpecarov

KaKOM-JIlI60

Cyrrecrnamre
KOHHOTal(IIII, 06eCrreqIIBaIOT

KOMrrOHeHTbI -

npecyrmoamma,
qTO

norrrexcrsr,
CMbICJIbI -

MeTaQ:>OpbI, Q:>OHOCeMaHTIIqeCKIIe BHYIIIeHIIe. 3aBIICIIT

Tlon-repxae«,
OT ero

cyrrecTIIBHOCTb

C006ll(eHII5I

co6CTBeHHbIx

KaqeCTB, MaCTepCTBa axropa

II IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHOCTII anpeca-

ra.
BTOPOM 3TO

apzYMeHmupoeaHHbze
II rrpIIHIIMaeT

cootnuenun,

KOIIJIII

.ropsre
HOM

anpecar

rrOHIIMaeT

KaK IICTIIHHbIe

orsepraer

KaK JIO)KHbIe rrOCJIe paCCMOTpeHII5I pal(IIOHaJIbHbIX IIJIII

npezrsannen,ll;OBO-

aKTopOM

IIppal(IIOHaJIbHbIX

nos.

Iloustmuue
scero nepenarorcs

II aprYMeHTIIpOBaHHbIe

C006ll(eHII5I

-rame

B BII,ll;e TeKCTOB na eCTeCTBeHHOM 513bIKe. Bep05lTHOCTbIO rrOMMeT II npmter Co-

Azrpecar

C 60JIbIIIeM

41

ofimeane,

KOTOpOe COCTOIIT 1I3 3HaKOMbIX neztynteii KapTIIHe

eMY CIIMBOJIOB,

COOTBeTcTByeT ero rrpOTIIBOpeqlIT TIIBHbIM ero

MO,ll;aJIbHOCTII BOCrrplI5ITII5I, He

xnrpa

II ztocryrmo

ero

KorHII-

HaBbIKaM. Ta6JIHQa

10.

KaHaJIhI

KOMMYHHKaQHH

H cl>OpMhI co-

06LQeHHii.

HapY)l(HM

pexnaaa
B

Ilporpasora CMH

«JIWIHbIe

scrpe-ra»

Menaa-axnan
PeKJIaMa H «)l;)KHHca» (HHTepBblO, rrpeccKOH<pepeHU:HH, KOMMeHTapHH) IIoqTOBM aHOHHMHbIX H SMS-paccbIJIKa H rrepCOHaJIbHbIX

«Kpyrnsre Ilepdiopaancsr
H

CTOJIbI»

TeKCTOB

Koprroparasnsre Ilporpasora
H

H3)l;aHIDI B PYKH»

rrpeserrranaa
aKl(HH

«11:3 pyx

Macconsre

<l>a6pHKaU:IDI

CrryXOB

BHYTPHKOprrOpaTHBHbIe MeporrpIDITIDI

«yre-rxa HH<p0pMaU:HH» Ilporpasorsr «Tenerponnoe snezrpeaae»
H «rOpH'IM JIHHIDI» «KOMMYHHKaTHBHbIH

Ilporpasora «06IIIecTBeHHM rrpneanaa»
rrapa3HTH3M»

HaKOHel(,

neooxoznoao, -rrofisr

KaqeCTBO

coofimenaa
ero

coomeemcmeoeano
,ll;OCTaBKII. Cyru;ecTBYIOT

KaHaJlY KOMMYHuKalfuu
zrse rJIaBHbIX

KaK crroco6y

cmpameeuu apeyueumaII B

uuu.
ECJIII aY,ll;IITOpII5I COrJIaCHa

npmnnme

nacrpoena 6JIarO)KeJIaTeJIbHO C npeztnaraexroii TOqKOM 3peH1I5I,
TOJIbKO

aKTO-

py ,ll;OCTaTOqHO nperrsasrrrs

zrosonsr

«sa» II ,ll;a)Ke He sanaxa yrJIy-

ynoxnmars KOHTP,ll;OBO,ll;bI, rrOCKOJIbKY ero 6lITb panee YCTaHOBJIeHHOe C anpecarov nne. 3TO oonocmopotooot apeyuenmauus.

B3aIIMorrOHIIMa-

42

ECJUI )Ke aY,ll;IITOPlUl HaCTpOeHa npeztyfieacztenno Y)Ke 3HaeT KOHTP,ll;OBO,ll;bI, axropy TO JIyqIIIe npnfiernyrt,

II K

oeycmopouneii apeyueumauuu
pya anpecary

«3a»l>mpoTIIB»,

,ll;eMOHCTplIcrrryanrm cy-

CBOIO IICKpeHHOCTb. TaK aKTOp <p0pMlIpyeT

,ll;OBep1I5I ce6e CO CTOPOHbIanpecara. K

B

3TOM

ry60 rr03IITIIBHOe C006~eHlIe aY,ll;IITOpII5I BOCrrplIMeT KaK 51BHOHe06beKTIIBHOe. O,ll;HaKO aKTOp MO)KeT JIIIIIIb IIMIITIIposars «,ll;BYCTOpOHHlIeC006~eHII5I», npezrsannaa anpecary caxrsre CIIJIbHbIe apryxrerrrsr II caxrsre CJIa6bIe xoirrpapryMeHTbI (<<MHIIMbIMBbI60p»). ,ZJ,BYCTOPOHH5I5I aprysrerrrarma IICrrOJIb3yeTc5I TaK)Ke ,ll;JI5IOCJIa6JIeHII5I KOHTP,ll;OBO,ll;OB, KOTOpbIe KOHKypeHTbI axropa C 60JIbIIIOM Bep05lTHOCTbIO npezrsaaar 06~eM l(eJIeBOM rpyrrrre B 6JIII)KaMIIIeM 6y,ll;y~eM. 3a6JIarOBpeMeHHOe oficyHeaKTyaJIbHbIMII II 6aHaJIb)K,ll;eHlIe C aY,ll;IITOplIeM 3TIIX KOHTP,ll;OBO,ll;OB ,ll;eJIaeT IIX B ,ll;aJIbHeMIIIeM HeIIHTepeCHbIMII, HbIMII (KOMMYHU1WmUeHaReaxuunauusiy. IIOCKOJIbKY anpecar IIMeeT npaso B JII060M MOMeHT ocnoprrn, ztosonsr axropa (orrposeprnyrt, IIX IICTIIHHOCTb IIJIII «CIIJIY»), TO «oonepamuenast KOMMYHUKalfuR npencraBIIMa B BII,ll;e npouecca «aprysrerrrarma - xonrpapryxrerrral(1I5I - aprYMeHTal(II5I», nafiopa pexoveanauati OCHOBaHHOrOna KOMMYHIIKaTIIBHbIX rro rrpaBIIJIaM plITOplIKII KaK ,ll;JI5I xropa, a rrOCTYJIaTaX II nporexarouiero

Hanpuaep:

1. YqlITbIBaM KapTIIHy xnrpa II HaBbIKII anpecaral 2. 06pa~aMc5I K crepeornnaxr anpecaral

3. Ha-mnaii C apryxrenros,
rJIaCeH! 4.

C KOTOPbIMII anpecar

Y)Ke co-

IIpIIBO,ll;1I cna-rana CIIJIbHbIM rro CIIJIe aprysrerrr

aprynerrr, rrOTOM Cpe,ll;HIIM

II JIIIIIIb 3aTeM caMbIM CIIJIbHbIM ap-

rYMeHT (<<MeTO,ll; Toxrepa»)' 5. II3JIaraM apryxrerrrsr TaK, qT06bI na Ka)K,ll;OM mare no6IIBaTbC5I COrJIaCII5Ianpecara 6. (<<MeTO,ll; COKpaTa»)! B O,ll;HOMII
TOM

He rrOBTOp5lMO,ll;IIH II TOT )Ke aprysrerrr

43

)Ke Q:>0pMe!

7.
8.

BKJIlOqaM B qlICJIO CBOlIX aprysrerrroa Te651 apryxrerrrsr BOBJIeKaM

rrplIeMJIeMbIe B

,ll;JI5I ero rro

anpecaral anpecara B rrOlICK uporueope-uui

KOHTpaprYMeHTax!

9.

COrJIaIIIaMC5I C ClIJIbHbIMlI cxesre MeHTbI «,ll;a, HO... »! B

aprysrenraan

anpecara

l Oi Onpoaepraii,
IIoMlIMo

nepsyro

o-repezn., caxrsre

CJIa6bIe apry-

anpecaral
JIOrlIqeCKlIX

npnesroa

qaCTO lICrrOJIb3YIOTC5I

npaensr
• • • • • • •

COQ:>lICTlIKlI:

AprYMeHT K HeBe)KeCTBY AprYMeHT K COCTpa,ll;aHlIIO AprYMeHT K napony AprYMeHT K 60JIbIIIOMY qlICJIY AprYMeHT K 60JIbIIIlIHCTBY AprYMeHT K qeJIOBeKY OTO)K,ll;eCTBJIeHlIe KOppeJI5Il(lIM C rrplIqlIHaMlI

• •
• •

Henpasoraepuue Henpasoraepuue
TaBTOJIOrlIlI Kpyr

o606ll(eHlI5I aHaJIOrlIlI

B ,ll;OKa3aTeJIbCTBe

O,ll;HaKO

npeacne

qeM

anpecar

CTBlIIO C006ll(eHlIM,

OHlI ,ll;OJI)KHbI6bITb lIM

nonaeprnerca B03,ll;eMcaanana saxrenorry-raer lI3

-rensr,

a 3aTeM II BOCrrplIH5ITbI. ,ZJ,eJIOB TOM, qTO

anpecar

nenpepsrsno

pa3HbIX TeJIbHO -racrs, KaIOT,

lICTOqHlIKOB MHO)KeCTBO C006ll(eHlIM, lI/lIJIlI 6eCC03HaTeJIbHO see scero,

HO C03Ha-

nrnopapya
npeacne

OCTaJIbHbIe.

orfinpaer JIlIIIIb MaJIYIO Ero BHlIMaHlIe npnnnecoo6U/eHUR, KOlI/lIJIlI lI/lIJIlI HOBbIe

rjJU3UlJeCKUeunytoiue

.ropsre
lI/lIJIlI

rrpe,ll;CTaBJI5IIOT C060M lI/lIJIlI 51pKlIe lI/lIJIlI 06beKTbI.

lI/lIJIlI 60JIbIIIlIe

ezmmrrnsre lI/lIJIlI pesxae

rpoxnore

usernsre

uerrrpansnsre

lI/lIJIlI

nonnnacasre
44

lI/lIJIlI lI3MeHqlIBbIe

3Q:>Q:>eKT eBOJIbHOM (HeOC03H

HaBaeMOM) KOHl(eHTpaU;IUI BHIIMaHlUI JIbIX npeztsrerax

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a na BbIIIYKJIe)KIIT B OCHOBe

(3q)(jJeKm «rjJOH-qJUzypa»)
rrepeqIICJIeHHbIX

MO,ll;eJIIIpOBaHII5I KOHTeKCTa BOCrrpII5ITII5I. IIOMIIMO napaxrerpoa q:m3IIqeCKa51 rrJIOTHOCTII rroC

BbIIIYKJIOCTb ,ll;OCTIIraeTC5I TaK)Ke rrOBbIIIIeHIIeM B03,ll;eMCTBII5I (uyni.munnuuauueii). CJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHO TpaHCJIIIpyeTC5I ,ZJ,JI5I aroro

anpecary

MHO)KeCTBO coofimenmi

O,ll;HOMII TOM )Ke II,ll;eeM, HO II3 pa3HbIX IICTOqHIIKOB. O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO MOM II,ll;eII. ,ll;OCTIIraeTC5I YBeJIIIqeHIIe 3arrOMIIHaeMOCTII ca-

Korna

KOJIIIqeCTBO TpaHCJIIIpyeMbIx

coofimenaii

rrpe-

BOCXO,ll;IIT rrcaxorpasauectore IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a, nacrynaer xoropoe BJIeQb sa

II KorHIITIIBHbIe

B03MO)KHOCTII

IIH<popMal(IIOHHOe

MO)KeT BKJIlOQIITb C060M

nepenacsrmenne, 3rjJrjJeKm tiyuepauea, T.e. rroanpecarov JIl06bIX rrOCJIe-

OTTOp)KeHIIe axropa.

,ll;YIOru;IIX coofimenaii LIT06bI

3aIIHTepeCOBaTb

anpecara,

coofimenne HaMepeHlI5IMII, cIITyal(IIII, T.e.

,ll;OJI)K6bITb 6bITb

HO COOTHOCIITbC5IC ero 3HaQIIMbIM ,ll;JI5I Hero IIJIII ,ll;a)Ke

aKTyaJIbHbIMII

B aKTyaJIbHOM

yuecmauu
TyaTIIBHbIM MyHIIKal(IIII KpOMe

«noxau.nusc»,

T.e. CB5I3aHHbIM C CIIaxra KOM-

KyJIbTypHbIM . 'roro,

<pOHOM KOHKpeTHoro

coofimenae

,ll;OJI)KHO cxopee

nozrrsep-

)K,ll;aTb KapTIIHy 06bIQHO

MIIpa anpecara,

He)KeJIII rrpoTIIBOpeQIITb

eM.

QeJIOBeK nrnopapyer

IIJIII IICKa)KaeT IIH<popMal(IIIO, l(eJIOCTHOCTb II rrpaBIIJIb-

KOTOpa51 CTaBIIT HOCTb ero

rro,ll; COMHeHIIe

3HaQIIT, Tpe6YIOTc5I npueuneseue (cnpanam.asre» ,ll;JI5Ianpecara) coofimeana. B TO )Ke BpeM5I coofiuteana, He 3aTparIIBaIOru;IIe 6a30MIIpoBo33peHII5I.

nsre
xe,

l(eHHOCTII anpecara ,ll;OJI)KHbI 6bITb

II He yrpoxcaroume

ero

CaMOOl(eHopIIrII-

Heo6bIQHbIMII,

HeO)KII,ll;aHHbIMII,

HaJIbHbIMII rro CO,ll;ep)KaHIIIO. IIO,ll;o6HbIe

cumyamueuo sprue
co-

coofimenaa K TOMY )Ke JIYQIIIe 3arrOMIIHaIOTC5I. Y MeCTHOCTb, rrpIIeMJIeMOCTb II 51PKOCTb BMeCTe

45

CTaBJUIIOT CO,ll;ep)KaTeJIbHYIO BbIIIYKJIOCTb ,ZJ,JI5Ipa30BOrO

coofimenaa.
6bIBaeT O,ll;HaKO

crrryarnsnoro
BbIIIYKJIOrO

B03,ll;eiIcTBII5I C006ru;eHII5I.

,ll;OCTaTOqHO e,ll;IIHlIqHOrO

xorzta anpecar npmnoaaer pemenne He CPa3Y, a crrYCT5I Hexoropoe BpeM5I rrOCJIe KOHTaKTa C aKTopOM (nanpmaep, -repes
MeC5Il( rOJIOcyeT

na

BbI6opax),

IIJIIi

xorzta

Tpe6yeTC5I

cymecrsennsre 1I3MeHeHlI5I B MliPOB033peHlIe anpecan (nanpmrep, npn aocrnrranan ztereii) neooxomoao, -rrofisr coofimenas axropa XOPOIIIO 3arrOMIiHaJIIiCb.
BHeCTIi

Tlepsoe

YCJIOBlie - 3TO Y)Ke yrroM5IHYTa51 51pKOCTb.

Bropoe
TlIqeCKa5l) JIyqIIIe

- uynsmuuooam.nocme.
(3pIITeJIbHa5l,

LIeM

60JIbIIIe

MO-

,ll;aJIbHOCTeiI BOCrrplI5ITlI5I

CJIYXOBa5l, KIiHeCTe-

coofiurenaesr B anpecare, TeM Canoe 3<p<peKTIIBHoe soaneiicrBIle - 3TO BOBJIeqeHlIe anpecara B COBMeCTHbIe CIiMBOJIlIqecxne (<<KYJIbTYPHO OKpaIIIeHHbIe») ,ll;eiICTBII5I, xorna OH, naOHO 3arrOMIiHaeTC5I. rrClIxo<p1I3lIqeCKOM COCT05lHIIII, CJIbIIIIIIT II BocrrpOII3BO,ll;IIT

arcrnaapyerca

XO,ll;51CbB Crrel(II<plIqeCKOM

cyrrecrasnsrii

TeKCT. cxexr

xpaneHlI5I II CTPYKTyplipOBaHlI5I IIH<popMal(1I1i (crepeornnoa, COl(IIOKYJIbTypHbIX cuenapnes, rrporortmou). 3TlI cxesrsr rro3BOJI5IIOT anpecary oneparnsno OTHeCTIi Ha3BaHHbIe aKTOPOM B coofiurenna cyfisexrt.r, 06beKTbI II C06bITlI5I K 3HaKOMbIM KaTerOp1I5IM, npnmrcars liM ,ll;a)Ke He yrroM5IHYTbIe axIICrrOJIb30BaHlie COl(lIaJIbHbIX TOPOM IIX TaK)Ke 06513aTeJIbHbIe II IIX <PaKYJIbTaTIIBHbIe ,ll;eiICTBII5I II Ha3BaTb rrplI3HaKII, a

Tperse -

CBoiIcTBO

cnpornosaponan, coofimenmi
-

MO)KHO

nosenenae. 3TO «cxeuamuuuo-

cmuto». Koreperrrnsre coofimenocneooeamensuoe 1I3JIO)KeHlIe ,ll;OBO,ll;OBaxropa, qTO zrocrnraerca C noxroun.ro CIIHTaKCIIqeCKIIX, rpadnotecrcnx, <pOHeTlIqeCKIiX npaexros.
LIeTBepToe

K02epeHmHocmb.

HlI5I

rrpe,ll;CTaBJI5IIOT co6oiI

46

Ta6JIHQa

11. 3c1>cI>eKTHBHoe C006LQeHHe.
B3BeIIIeHHoe 3aIIOMHHaeMoe

AprYMeHTHpOBaHHOe )J;ocToBepHoe

Hnrepecaoe
KOHrpY3HTHoe 11YJIbTHMO~aJIbHOe OqeBMHOe IIpHeMJIeMoe

Korepearnoe
JIoKaJIbHOe 11YJIbTHIIJIHQHpOBaHHOe IIoIDITHoe

Ilposepaeuoe Cxeuarn-raoe
YMeCTHoe 5IpKoe BbIrryKJIOe )J;OCTYIIHbIH HCTOqHHK Kpe~HTHbIH aKTOp

Cyrrecrasnoe
Y6e~HTeJIbHOe <l>opMaJIbHO MeKBaTHoe <l>H3~ecKH )J;ocToBepHbIH IIPHBbJqHbIH HCTOqHHK HCTOqHHK

IITaK, BII5I na

3Q:>Q:>eKTIIBHbIe C TOqKII

3peHII5I

CIIJIbI B03,[(eMcTBbIIIYKJIbIMII, cyrrecrna-

anpecara coofimeana
3arroMIIHaIOru;IIMIIC5I, II3

,[(OJI)KHbI 6bITb

y6e,[(IITeJIbHbIMII HbIMII),

(aprYMeHTIIpoBaHHbIMII

II/IIJIII

ropa

II/IIJIII

o6ru;eHII5I HeM JIerKO )Ke 6aJIaHCa HbIX

IICXO,[(IITb OT xpezrrrrnoro axxpezrrrrnoro IICTOqHIIKa. ,ZJ,ocToBepHocTb co,[(JI5I anpecara YCIIJIIIBaeTC5I sa cner HaJIIIqII5I B nposepaesn.rx Q:>aKTOB (eoueeuouocmum, a TaKCOl(IIaJIbHO rr03IITIIBHbIX II COl(IIaJIbHO cyfit.exros HeraTIIBII CO-

Ol(eHOK

orrIICbIBaeMbIX

COl(IIaJIbHbIX (Ta6JI.

l(IIaJIbHbIX

51BJIeHIIM

(aeseetuenuoens

11).

Bonpocu

U 3aOaUU.Jl

47

1. Otn.ncnume, na lWKUX cmaousx U KaKUM 06pa30M MO»cem npousoiimu «ouuynuxamuenuii ctioii. 2. Otnuuii stsu« otiecneuueaem MUHUMaJlbHOe esauuonoHUMaHue. Bu coenacuu C 3mUM ymeepocoeuueu? 3. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa neeeptiant.nux 3Ha«oe. 4. Kaxoeo pooa CUMeOflUlJeCKUe oeiicmeust eau useecmuu? 5. Ilpueeoume no mpu npuuepa npecynnosuuuu, KOHHOmauuu U uemaipopta. 6. B03MOJICHO nu cosoanue ynueepcanunux cyeeecmueuux mexcmoe? ECflU Hem, mo nOlJeMY? 7. 'Imo 3HalJUm «nonsms cootnueuue»? 8. Kaxoeu npeonocunxu moeo, umo aopecam coenacumcst C coothuenueu atonopa? 9. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa pauuonansuux apeyueumoe. Jl,flR KaKOZO pooa ayoumopuu omu ooeoou nensuomcsi pauuonam.uuuu? 10. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa uppauuonansuux ooeoooe. IIolJeMY eu cuumaeme ux uppauuonansnuuu? 11. B03MOJICHbl nu co06U/eHuR 6e3 cxpumoeo eHYUleHuR? If uaotiopom? 12. BaM HYJlCHO nepeoams UlUPOKOii otnuecmeeuuocmu npoepauuy cOlfuaflbHo-3KOHOMUlJeCKOZO paseumus ZOpooa. Kaxoeo pooa co06U/eHUR U no KaKUM «auanau KOMMYHuKalfuu eu tiyoeme mpancnupoeams? 13. Koeoa 3rjJrjJeKmueHee oonocmopotooot apeyuenmauust; a «oeoa - oeycmoponusu? 14. Koeoa KOMMYHuKamueHaR npueuexa neyuecmua? 15. Coenacuu nu eu C meu, umo e KaJICdoM cootnueuuu axmopa dOflJICeH cooepocamscn OdUH apeyueum (unu «oumpapeyueum)? Ecnu oa, mo nocneooeamensnocms cootnueuuii dOflJICHa coomeemcmeoeams pumopuueCKOMY nopnoxy npeounenenust apeyueumoe, He max nu? 16. Ilpueeoume npuuepu na «aocoui; U3 npueuoe cotpuc48

museu. 17. YeellUl.JUeaRKOllUl.JeCmeo cootnueuuii, Mbl ... KaJICdo20 U3 HUX. Bcmaesme nponytueuttuii enaeon. 18. C KaKUM npaeunou pumopuxu coomuocumcn uynsmunnuxauun cootnueuuii c oouou U moii »ce uoeeii? 19. Iloscnume na mpex-uemupex npuuepax, umo maxoe «uoen cootnueuun». 20. Kauiy MaCllOM He ucnopmuuu.. IIpuMeHuM nu omom npuuuun K couuanuuuu KOMMYHuKalfuRM? 21. Otn.ncnume, e ueu cocmoum npo2H03upYlOU/aR cuna couuanuuux cxeM xpauenust U cmpyxmypupoeanust UHrjJ0pMalfuu.

49

rIlaBa 2.
eOl...U,1AIl bHOE

socn PlI1f1TlI1 E.
VI cxeMbl crrryanrm BOCnpVlS'lTVlS'I B l(eJIOM II ee

3ct:>ct:>eKTbl Pe3YJIbTaTbI

BOCnpVlS'lTVlS'I BOCrrplUlTlUI

KOMrrOHeHTOB 3aBlIC5IT OT aKTyaJIbHOrO TOB BOCrrpII5ITII5I, JIlIqHOCTHbIX CTeM II HaBbIKoB)

COqeTaHlI5I 3<p<peK-

xapaxrepacrnx (cnocofinonocnpmraaaromero IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a II npezmoliM COl(lIaJIbHbIX cxexr BOCrrpII5ITII5I,

-nrraexesrx Tlpn

(YCBoeHHbIX)

xareropnaanan

II Ol(eHKII. B none BOCrrplI5ITlI5I HeCKOJIbKIIX 06beKHeBOJIbHO BocrrplIHlIMaIOTC5I CB5I3aHHbIe ztpyr C zrpyrosr

HaJIlIqlI1i

TOB COCe,ll;CTBYIOIl(lIe 06beKTbI IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OM KaK BHyTpeHHe

(3q)(jJeKm aHaJlOZUU),
BaHlI5I anpecary MlipOBaHlI5I

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aJIbHO HeraTIIBHbIX TOT CKIiMIi

- KOHTeKCTOB BOCrrpII5ITII5I. KOTOPbIM ofinanaer cneundnoreco

1I3 06beKTOB,

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3HaqlIMbIMli

,ll;JI5IIIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a l(eHHOCT5IMIi IIJIIi aKTyaJIbHbIMIi (r.e. CO,ll;ep)KaTeJIbHO BbIIIYKJIbIM), <pOHe 1I3 ztpyrax 06beKTOB CTaHO-

rroTpe6HOCT5IMli

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(3q)(jJeKm
a,ll;pecaTY

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emopuunocmu.
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B

CJIe,ll;YIOTO,ll;HOsa zrpyrav,

a IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; npnmnaaer 3HaqlIMbIMli

60JIbIIIOM rrpOMe)KYToK BpeMeHII,

B5ITC5Izrosonsr,

xoropsre

cozrepscarca ECJIIi )Ke

(3<p<peKT rrepBlIqHOCTII). rrpOXO,ll;IIT MHoro

nepson C006Il(eHIIIi Me)K,ll;y nepssm II BTOPbIM
B BbIBO,ll;bI cpaTO peIIIaIOIl(IIMIi

BpeMeHII,

a IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; nenaer C006Il(eHII5I,

ay

rrOCJIe rrOJIyqeHlI5I sroporo

50

CTaHOB5ITC5Iapryxrerrrsr PlIqHOCTII). EnarOrrplI5ITHOe IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a OT nepsoro cyfit.etcroi« 51T1I5I roro a cyfn.etcra

3TOrO C006ru;eH1I5I (3<p<peKT BTOIInlI He6narOrrplI5ITHOe BCe nocnerryroume BrreqaTneHlIe counansnsm ero socnpnIInlI COl(II-

KOHTaKTa C ,ll;pyrlIM B counansno ecrs

«OKpaIIIIIBaeT»

rr03lITlIBHbIe

ansno HeraTIIBHbIe TOHa. 3TO 3q)(jJeKm

opeona.

Y nI060ro
pennoe

-renosexa

csoe c06CTBeHHoe, npose'ro.nsxo 06 o-rens ManeHb-

onsrroxr

npeztcrannenne

KIIX <pparMeHTax MlIpa, rr03TOMY IIH<popMal(IIIO 0 «nansneii peanbHOCTII» OH no.ny-raer B xone COl(lIanII3al(1I1I (B cexn.e, B IIIKone, na pafiore) II OT connansnstx cytit.etcroa, KOTOpbIM ztonepaer (<<3HaqIIMbIM ztpyrmr»).

B xone

06ru;eH1I5I

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; nocnpmmaaer

HOBbIe 3HaHlI5I II MHeHlI5I KaK rrpaIIX Y)Ke B xa-recrse 06-

nnnsnsre II B ,ll;anbHeMIIIeM ncnonssyer cxexr BOCrrpII5ITII5I. Connarrsnsre ner-raror Cmepeomun pas counansnoro
MIl.

cxesrsr cymecrsenno

npnnsrme peIIIeHlI5I B He3HaKOMbIX cIITyal(1I5IX.
- 3TO CXeMaTlIqHbIM II YCTOMqlIBbIM 06-

cyfisexra, KOTOPbIM YCBalIBaeTC5I IIH,ll;IICOl(lIanbHbIMII cyfit.exracnenapna, ero

BII,ll;OM npn 06ru;eHIIII C ,ll;pyrlIMII

Crepeornmr,
ztaror -renosexy

KaK II

counosynsrypnsre

B03MO)KHOCTbnpn nepsoii cy6beKToM KOHKpeTHOM xareropan

)Ke BCTPeqe C HeII BbI6paTb rrpa-

3HaKOMbIM connansnsm KaK npezrcranrrrena

6bICTPO orrosnan,

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caxrsre cyutecrsennsre)

xapaKTeplICTIIKII

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po-

na cy6beKTOB. IIplI BII,ll; nocrenenno

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nsrpafiarsraaer 60nee coztepacarensnsre npencrasnenaa 0 naprnepe. Ammumtoou (counam.asre YCTaHoBKII) KaK IIH,ll;IIBIIztyansnsre
3HaHlI5I II MHeHlI5I 0

counansnsrx

cytit.ex-

.rax/ofrsexrax, CB5I3aHHbIe C COOTBeTCTBYIOru;IIMIInosezten51

qeCKIIMII peOTIIrrOB,

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na

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onsrra.
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II qeM

Casnre

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a6CTpaKTHbIe

C5I COl(IIaJIbHbIX CTaJIKIIBaeTC5I

cy6beKTOB/06beKTOB,

C KOTOPbIMII

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;

penxo.
aTTIITIO,ll;OB cIITyal(IIII,

«PeaJIII3al(II5I»

xoppexrnpyerca

IIHTepCO-

uperanneii
CT05lHIIeM

aKTyaJIbHOM II aKTyaJIbHbIMII

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nosenenaen coyqaCTHIIKOB. B 1934 ro,ll;y aMepIIKaHcKIIM
,ll;ByM5I cTY,ll;eHTaMII-KIITaMl(aMII COTHII aMepIIKaHcKIIx rOCTIIHIIl(

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C

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C rrOJIOBIIHOM

II rrOqTII BO scex cny-raax npnexr. Hepes zrsa rona p.narrbep pa30cJIaJI B 3TII rOCTIIHIIl(bI rrIICbMa C npocsfioii 3a6poHIIpOsan, noxrepa ,ll;JI5I KIITaMl(eB. B rrOJIOBIIHe OTBeTOB coztepBCTpeTIIJIII pa,ll;YIIIHbIM )KaJIC5I OTKa3, 3TO MHIIMoe B OCTaJIbHbIX YKJIOHqIIBbIe <P0PMYJIIIPOBKII.

npornaope-me
Ol(eHKOM

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rrOTeHl(IIaJIbHbIX

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«napanoxc Jlansepa». B qeM)Ke
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nosenenaen nonyryT neno?

B nepson cnysae
rJIaCHO

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KOH<P0PMIICTCKYIO

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norrrsepaxrepaxamtea».
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co

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52

06JIerqaIOT OHII».

qJIeHaM

«Msr-rpynnsr»
II BHellIHeM

pa3JIIIqeHIIe

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K

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BOCrrpII5ITII5I, a C ztpyroii

53

CTOPOHbI -

npenocrasnaer

B ero

pacnopaacenne

pecypcsr
COl(II-

,ll;JUI rrpO,ll;OJDKeHII5I COTpY,ll;HIIQeCTBa co aJIbHbIMII rpynrravn II

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Bonpocu 1.

U 3aOaUU.Jl MHe

ceoeeo opyea, U 5l C1WJlCY, «mo mu. 0 Kaeocnpusmusi uoem peus? 2. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa uooenupoeauun «oumexcma eocnpusmusi nocpeocmeou aHaJlOZUU. 3. Ilpouniuocmpupyiime 3q)(jJeKm «tpou-tpueypa» na zasemuoii nonoce. 4. fJeM eu 06051CHUme 3rjJrjJeKmbl nepeuunocmu U emopuuuocmu? 5. Bcmpeuatom no OdeJICKe, a npoeootcatom no yMy. Ilaume smoii nocnoeuue nCUXOJlOZUlJeCKOe monxoeauue. 6. II OlJeMY uuuoocueiixept« max MHOZO eHUMaHU51 yoenn10m «oppexuuu eueucueeo euoa totuenma? 7. Metuatom JlU cmepeomunu esauuononuuauuto? 8. Kaxoeu rjJYHKlfUU cmepeomunoe? 9. Hasoeume KOMnOHeHmbl mpex-uemupex cmepeomunoe. 10. II OlJeMY »cumento oepeeuu mpyouo aoanmupoeamscn K JlCU3HU e 60JlbUlOM eopooe? 11. Ecms JlU y eac ammumtoou omHOCUmeJlbHO uaipuosu, 6YUlMeHoe, auaoeuuxoe? 12. B ueu cyms «napaooxca Jlaneepa»? 13. IIOlJeMY cpeou npUC5lJlCHblX saceoameneii dOJlJICHbl tium» npeocmaeumenu pasnux couuanuuux epynn? 14. Kaxue cnocotiu eblpaJICeHU51 epynnoeoii UdeHmUlJHOCmU eau useecmuu? 15. Ilpouniuocmpupyiime na mpex-uemupex npuuepax U3 petoiaunoii npasmuxu uanunynupoeanue nompe6umeJl5lMU nocpeocmeou uunnuuumuux couuansuux meoII01WJlCU KOM 3q)(jJeKme

54

puii.

16. A y eac ecms coticmeeunan uunnuuumnast meopust uocmu? B ueu OHacocmoum?
KorHVlTVlBHbl1l1 AViCCOHaHC VI

JlUlJ-

counarusaaa

aTpVl6YllVlS'l

II36IIpaTeJIbHOCTb

BOCrrplI5ITII5I BO MHorOM

onpenenaMHeHII5I,

eTC5I KaK IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHOM KapTIIHOM MlIpa, -raer B ce651 HaKOrrJIeHHbIe

KOTOpa51BKJIIO-

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OM l(eHHOCTII,

aTTIITIO,ll;bI, 3HaH1I5I, B TOM qlICJIe ce6e (51-KOHl(errl(IIIO), TaK II ero

rrpe,ll;CTaBJIeH1I5I 0 caMOM 61I0JIOrlIqeCKIIMII, HOBbIe COl(II-

aJIbHbIMII ner-re

II ,ll;YXOBHbIMII rroTpe6HOCT5IMII.

CBe,ll;eHII5I

3aMeqaIOTC5I II ny-nne

3arrOMIIHaIOTC5I, eCJIII OHII JIlI60 a6COJIIOTHO KOHKpeTHbIM

rrOJIHOCTbIO COOTBeTCTBYIOT, JIlI60 -rar KapTIIHe

npornsopeCTepeOTIIBOHeUH-

xnrpa

IIJIII

rraM/aTTIITIO,ll;aM ofinte He

Tlpouie rOBOp5l, IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; ofipautaer BHlIMaHlI5I na nenpnesorevsre 1I/IIJIII
IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a. co06ru;eHII5I. COrJIaCHO HIIKJIacy JIYMaHY, 3TO ,ll;OrrOJIHIITeJIbHbIe CBe,ll;eHII5I

YMecTHbIe

rjJ0PMalfuR CTII) IIJIII 06

(nonpofinocyfit.exre He 3HaeM,

Y)Ke 1I3BeCTHOM IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;y COl(lIaJIbHOM qTO MbI soofime

COl(lIaJIbHOM 51BJIeHIIII. To,

Hac He

mrrepecyer. nocnpannnaer, II nopozconpenenermsrx paxncax. JIIOIIMeeT npaso II cnocofien IICTOJIee JIlIqHOCTHbIM CMbICJI), 1I3Me-

LIeJIOBeK O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO II naer ,ll;eMCTBIITeJIbHOCTb, HO B yqaCTHIIK clITyal(1I1I

60M

KOBaTb ee rrO-HOBOMY (1I3MeHIITb

HO OH He MO)KeT 6e3 COrJIaCOBaHlI5I C coyqaCTHIIKaMII HIITb

pasnenaeaoe

(ofiutee)

COl(IIOKYJIbTypHoe

rrpOCTpaHCT-

BO, B KOTOPOM II rJIaCHO

rrpOIICXO,ll;IIT 3TO B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBlIe. (Co-

,ll;eJI5IeTC5I aK K BII5IM» ).

reopeae YlIJIb5lMa Toxraca, «eCJIII clITyal(1I5I orrpepeansnas, OHa peansna rro CBOIIM rrOCJIe,ll;CTCTpeMlITC5I K TOMY, qT06bI lIM caMIIM CorJIaCOMHeHlI5I II TepMII-

LIeJIOBeK 06bIqHO san,

HOBbIe 3HaH1I5I, BbICKa3bIBaeMbIe lIM nocrynxn

conepuraevsre

(3TO see 0603HaqaeTC5I

55

HOM «KOrHIIIJ;IUI»)

C C06CTBeHHOM KapTIIHOM Mllpa.

Korzra
B

3TO Y,ll;aeTC5I, OH nepeaorsaer rrpOTIIBHOM cnysae 6bICTpee -

rrOJIO)KIITeJIbHbIe 3MOl(IIII,

,ll;IICKOM<pOPT,OT KOTOpOrO CTpeMlITC5I

1I36aBIITbC5I.

Ilosezrenne

qeJIOBeKa B 3TOM

crrrya-

l(1I1I 06b5lCH5IeTC5I .reopaeii K02HUmUBHbZU

KOrHIITIIBHOrO

,ll;IICCOHaHCa.

dUCCOHaHC -

3TO COCT05lHlIe ,ll;IICKOMrrOCJIe rrOJIyqeHlI5I

<pOpTa, KOTOpOe IICrrbITbIBaeT C006ru;eHII5I IIJIII COBepIIIeHlI5I

qeJIOBeK

,ll;eMCTBII5I, npornaopeaamax (Ta6JI.

ero 3HaHII5IM, MHeHlI5IM IIJIII 5[-KOHl(errl(1I1I

12).

Coofimenne
JIIIHIIII rr03lITlIBHbIX

0 HeraTIIBHbIX

acnexrax ofisexra

Y)Ke BbI6paHHoM (KaK II 3HaHlIe nozrsepraer a TaK)Ke rroce6e. ~eM

rrOBe,ll;eH1I5IIIJIII BbI6paHHoro CTOPOH

orroprnyrsrx

sapnarrroa)

COMHeHIIIO rrpaBIIJIbHOCTb C,ll;eJIaHHOrOBbI6opa, 3lITlIBHoe 60JIbIIIe rrpe,ll;CTaBJIeHlIe 3TO pacxoacienne II pearn.nsm IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a 0 caMOM

(,ll;IICCOHaHc) Me)K,ll;y ,ll;OJI)KHbIM (<<C,ll;eJIaHHbIM»),TeM 60JIbIIIe (pe,ll;YKl(IIIO). HH,ll;IIBII,ll; norrrsepBbIBbI-

(<<rrpaBIIJIbHbIM») CIIJI .rpefiyerca JIlI60 npncrynrrr

na ero

coxpamerme
peIIIeHlI5I

K noncxy ero

coofiuteami, (r.e. II

xoropsre

,ll;51T rrpaBIIJIbHOCTb 6paHHoro/HeraTIIB 6paHHoro/rro3lITIIB B CBOIO cacresry unpyrouiero

YCIIJIIIT rr03lITlIB OCJIa6lIT nnecer HeraTIIB

orseprnyroro ornepruyroro), l(eHHOCTeM

JIlI60

1I3MeHeHlI5I nposo-

(noasrcna
YMeHbIIIIIT

3HaqlIMOCTb CHlI3lIB

,ll;IICCOHaHC ,ll;OBO,ll;OBII JIlI60

3HaqlIMOCTb

IIMeIOru;IIXC5I 3HaHIIM), qlIMOCTb

JIlIqHOCTHYIO 3HaIIH,ll;IIBII,ll;

Y)Ke rrplIH5ITOrO

peIIIeHlI5I.

HTaK,

nsrraOTKJIO-

eTC5I YBeJIlIqlITb TIIBbI

rrplIBJIeKaTeJIbHOCTb

1I36paHHoM ansrepnarr03lITlIBHOCTb

II O,ll;HOBpeMeHHo YMeHbIIIIITb

neanoro pnsars

napnarrra,

B

KpaMHeM cny-rae,

OH MO)KeT paccvar-

3TlI aJIbTepHaTIIBbI ECJIII

KaK O,ll;IIHaKOBO npneranem.re. pa3HOrJIaCII5IMII csoe IIJIII C «MbIy6e3Ty

,ll;IICCOHaHC BbI3BaH

rpynnoii»,

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; MO)KeT 1I3MeHlITb

MHeHlIe, rroKIIHYTb

,ll;IITb qJIeHOB rpyrrrry.

rpyrmsr

B csoeii

npasore

TaKIIM

06Pa30M,

KorHIITIIBHbIM

,ll;IICCOHaHC, KOTO,ll;IICKOM<pOPT,qaCTO

pbIM nopoaoiaer

CIIJIbHbIM BHyTpeHHIIM

56

rrO,ll;TaJIKIIBaeT qeJIOBeKa KaK K rrOIICKY HOBbIX e,ll;IIHOMbIIIIJIeHHIIKOB, TaK K rrOIICKY HOBbIX C006ru;eHIIM rro aKTyaJIbHOM ,ll;JI5I ero n rrpofineste (KOMMYHIIKaTIIBHOM aKTIIBHOCTII). KYPIIJIbru;IIK MO)KeT CJIe,ll;OBaTb O,ll;HOMII3

Hanpnraep,
'rpex TaKTIIK:

1.

06eCl(eHIITb

zrocrosepnocrs

co06ru;eHIIM

Me,ll;IIKOB (zterro-

BaJIbBal(II5I nonoro senenne

3HaHII5I), qT06bI CBOIO KapTIIHY

He MeH5ITb csoe MIIpa

II 3aru;IITIITb

(nepuerrrna-

Ha51sannrra).

2.

COrJIaCIITbC5I C ,ll;OBO,ll;aMII Me,ll;IIKOB, II3MeHIITb KapTIIHY MIIpa, II CBOIO nosenenae,

II CBOIO

T.e. OC03HaHHO 6po-

CIITb KypIITb.

3.

Oc03HaTb peHII5I

l(eHHOCTb KypeHII5I

KaK cnocofia

Y,ll;OBJIeTBO3a60TbI

rrorpefiaocrn,

KOTOpa51,ll;JI5IHero T.e.

saacnee

o snoposr,e )KaTb KypIITb. TaKIIM KorHIITIIBHoro HOCTHoro II36eraHIIe, HaKO npn OTJIO)KIITb

(caMoaTpII6Yl(II5I),

OC03HaHO npozton-

06Pa30M,

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; IICrrOJIb3yeT ,ll;JI5I nsrxona

II3

,ll;IICCOHaHca KaK BHYTPIIJIIIqHOCTHOro

l(eH-

KOH<pJIIIKTa

pasnsre CTpaTerIIII, nonasneaae, KOMrrpOMIICC II
OCTaeTC5I erne C,ll;eJIaHHOrO BbI60pa

B qIICJIe KOTOPbIX pa3peIIIeHIIe.

OnJIII60

3TOM Y Hero Ol(eHKY

zrsa BapIIaHTa:

(BbICKa3aHHOrO MOMeHTa nony-

MHeHII5I IIJIII

COBepIIIeHHoro

rrocryrnca)

no

qeHII5I ,ll;OrrOJIHIITeJIbHbIX CBe,ll;eHIIM rro rrpofineste

(1), JIII60 npnaaars npnoprrrer HOBbIX KOrHIIl(IIM II yfieznrn, qJIeHOB «Mu-rpynnsr» B csoeii npasore (rro CyTII nena, nonsrrarsC5I II3MeHIITb nnyrparpyrmosoe COl(IIOKYJIbTypHoe rrpocrpaacrno) (2). OqeBII,ll;HO, qTO TOT II ztpyroii BapIIaHT
IIMeIOT nenocpencrsennoe aJIbHOrO B03,ll;eMCTBII5I. CTpeMJIeHIIe CTaHOBIITC5I rrOqTII rrpII5ITIIII )KIIBaeT II36e)KaTb KorHIITIIBHoro ,ll;IICCOHaHca BOCyneprrpoOTHOIIIeHIIe K CTpaTerII5IM COl(II-

HerrpeO,ll;OJIIIMbIM

<pIIJIbTPOM npn co06ru;eHIIM», xoropoe

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OM «HerrpaBIIJIbHbIX ero BbICKa3bIBaHIIM IIJIII

nocrynxos,

57

TlIBOpeqaT pe3YJIbTaTbI

«Mu-rpynne»,
csoeii
Ta6JIHIJ,a

a TaK)Ke

B3BeIIIeHHO

onenasan,

,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTII.

12.

KorHHTHBHbIH

Il:HCCOHaHC.

,l1;HCKOM<i>OPT

HOBbIe KOrHHIJ,HH cyih,eKTa

r----

«Crapsre»
KOrHHIJ,HH

1.

,l1;eHcTBHH cyih,eKTa IIepl(errTHBHM 3aIIIHTa

r---. r---. r---.

HCXOLl: KOH<i>JIHKTa II36eraHHe KOH<pJIHKTa

5I- KOHl(errl(IDI
cy6beKTa

Onenxa
cy6beKToM CBoero IJ;eHHocTH cy6beKTa )J;eBaJIbBal(IDI HOBoro 3HaHIDI IIoll:aBJIeHHe KOH<pJIHKTa

rrocrynxa

-r-HOBbIe 3HaHIDI cy6beKTa

3HaHIDI cy6beKTa ATIHTlOll:bI cy6beKTa HOPMbI «MbI-

~

Koppesrma
KapTHHbI MHpa

113MeHeHHe rrOBell:eHIDI

BbIXOIl: H3 «MbI - rpyrrrrbI»

Pa3peIIIeHHe KOH<pJIHKTa

rpynnsr»
TOQKa speHIDI cy6beKTa 3HaHIDI «MbI-

CaMoarpH6Yl(IDI

rpynnsr»
MHeHHe «MbIIIo~HHeHHe

rpynnsr»

«Msr-rpyrme»
IIoHCK «rrpaBHJIbHbIX OTBeTOB» (KOMMYHHKaTHBHM aKTHBHOCTb) B031l:eiicTBHe aa «MbI-

t--

KOMrrpOMHCC

____.

____.

rpynny»

58

ECJUI IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI C BblCOKOii TaIOT KOppeKTlIpOBaTb pa, JIlI60 rrpnfieraror

cauooueuuoii
lI/mUI

npezmo-nrKapTIIHY MII-

CBOe nosenenne

K KOMrreHClIpYIOru;IIM

TaKTIIKaM

«3aTO

MbI zrenaesr C HU3KOii HIIKaKIIX

paxersr» IIJIII «3eJIeH nnnorpan», cauooueuuoii JIlI60 He 3aMeqaIOT
JIlI60 -rpesxsepno

TO IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI B peaJIbHOCTII

rrpOTIIBOpeqIIM,

rrpeYBeJIlIqlIBaIOT

3HaQlIMOCTb HOBOM

IIHQ:>opMal(1I1I ,ll;JI5I ce651 JIIIQHO. COl(lIaJIbHOe B03,ll;eM-

C

O,ll;HOMCTOPOHbI, QeM MeHbIIIe KorHIITIIBHbIM

CTBlIe nposounpyer 3YJIbTaTIIBHee, pecaroxt Ho

,ll;IICCOHaHC, TeM OHO peOHO omymaerca an-

rrOCKOJIbKY TeM cnafiee

KaK BHeIIIHee zrannenae. C ztpyroii CTOPOHbI, CIIJIbHbIM KorHIITIIBHbIM KOMMYHIIKaTIIBHYIO aKTIIBHOCTb ,ll;IICan-

COHaHC nposounpyer pecara, qeM

MO)KeT JIerKO II

BOCrrOJIb30BaTbC5I aKTOp,

o6JIa-

,ll;aIOru;IIM HaBbIKaMII cencosrcropnoro ITo

B03MO)KHOCT5IMII

MO,ll;eJIlIpOBaHII5I

II IIHQ:>opMal(IIOHHOro

KOHTeKCTa. BocrrplIHIIMa51 npn-nr-

Heo6xo,ll;IIMOCTII

1I36lIpaTeJIbHO

,ll;eMCTBIITeJIbHOCTb, QeJIOBeK rrbITaeTC5I 06HapY)KIITb HbI npoacxoronnero Mllpa. Ha sonpoc, soxpyr Hero

Bpaukax

CBoeM KapTIIHbI

rrOQeMY HeKTO 3a6oJIeJI paKOM II KaK eMY JIIO,ll;1I OTBeT5IT rrO-pa3HOMY.

BbIJIeQIITbC5I,

pasnsre
-

Tlpasorrpo-

CJIaBHbIM CB5Iru;eHHIIK CKa)KeT 0 rpexax Q:>eccop Me,ll;IIl(IIHbI 0 6lIOXlIMlIQeCKOM 0 xapxre

II rrOKa5lHIIII,

6aJIaHCe II nexapII Me,ll;IITal(lIlI, a axnpn-

CTBax, 6Y,ll;,ll;IICTCKIIM MOHax TIIBIICT 3KOJIOrlIQeCKOrO

,ll;BII)KeHII5I -

0 aarpaanenan

ponsr
HbIM

II 0 rapMOH1I1I C 6IIocQ:>epoM. ECJIII «npasnnsnoe» npn COl(lIaJIII3al(1I1I ztpyrnx (r.e. COOTBeTCTBYIOru;ee YCBoeHCl(eHapII5IM) He HY)KB He-

COl(IIOKYJIbTypHbIM

nosenenne zraercs B

JIIO,ll;eMB 3HaKOMbIX clITyal(1I5IX 06b5lCHeH1I5IX, IIJIII TO nonanas

cneunansnsrx
06CTaHOBKY

06bIQHYIO nocrynox,

Ha6JIIO,ll;a513KCTpaOp,ll;IIHapHbIM K

MbI QaCTO rrpnferaexr

couuanunoii amputiyuuu
(xareropnsacaxroarpa3JIIIQaIOT

KaK KOMrrJIeKCY aJIrOplITMOB l(1I1I) ,ll;eMCTBIITeJIbHOCTII. ITo

IIHTeprrpeTal(1I1I 06beKTY

59

p1I6Yl(lIlO

II KaY3aJIbHYIO aTpII6Yl(IIIO.

Cauoamputiyuun
MOMY ce6e JIIOqeHlIe

-

3TO 06b5lCHeHlIe nocryrncoa MlIpa

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OM ca1I/IIJIII YM03aKII JIlIqHOCTHbIX

CBOIIX C06CTBeHHbIX

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a 0 CBOeM KapTIIHe

-reprax

na OCHOBe aHaJIlI3a csoero

rrOBe,ll;eHII5I. Ha6JIIO,ll;a51 II

06b5lCH5I5I csoe CTpalIBaeTC5I « ... KapTIIHa HlIe ... ». KapTIIHa KorHIITIIBHbIM

nosenenae,
-

MbI

nosnaen
KapTIIHa

caMIIX

ce651. BbI-

6eCKOHeqHa51 MlIpa rrOBe,ll;eHlIe -

rrOCJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHOCTb: MlIpa rrOBe,ll;e-

xnrpa

BJIlI5IeT na BOCrrplI5ITlIe II

,ll;IICCOHaHCII caMoaTplI6Yl(1I5I KapTIIHbI MlIpa. COBepIIIIIB

nosenenae, a MoryT npnaecnocryrrox, KO-

TIl K 1I3MeHeHlIIO

TOPbIM rrpOTIIBOpeqlIT ero JIlI60 BHeIIIHIIMII

5[-KOHl(errl(lIlI,

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; 06b5lCH5IeT

06CT05lTeJIbCTBaMlI

(« ...

rrOTOMY qTO JIlI60 crrryaqTO 51

MeH5I 3aCTaBlIJIlI TIIBHbIM

IIJIII 51 6bIJI BbIHY)K,ll;eH») COCT05lHlIeM

(1),

rrclIx0<p1I3IIqeCKIIM

(« ...

norosry

He KOHTPOJIlIpOBaJI ce651»)

(2),

JIlI60 6bIJIlI

CBOIIMII

l(eHHOCT5IMII

(« ...
JIlI60

norosry

qTO

MHe

HY)KHbI

ztem.rn/cnaaa»)

(3).
COOT-

ECJIII HII O,ll;IIH 1I3 3TlIX BaplIaHTOB «He rrpOXO,ll;IIT», IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; BHOCIIT B CBOIO KapTIIHy

xnrpa

II 5[-KOHl(errl(IIIO

BeTCTBYIOll(lIe

1I3MeHeHlI5I (<<OKa3bIBaeTC5I,51CJIa60BOJIbHbIM, JIlI60 OCTaeTC5I B COCT05lHlIlI xorII BTOPOM aJIrOplITM - 3TO

)Ka,ll;HbIM, Tll(eCJIaBHbIM»), HIITIIBHoro

,ll;IICCOHaHca. ITepBbIM

oticmonmenecmeenuan amputiyuus, TpeTIIM - JlUl.JHOCmHaR amputiyuus. 06beKT «aysansnoii amputiyuuu - nosenenne zrpyroro qeJIOBeKa. Y crrex ztpyrnx JIIO,ll;eM MbI 06b5lCH5IeM 06CT05lTeJIbCTBaMII, a nposan - IIX JIlIqHOCTHbIMII KaqeCTBaMII. 3Ta
rjJYHdaMeHmaJlbHaR OUlu6,W amputiyuuu
CTaHOBlITC5I o-re,ll;eMCTBIIM y-raII nocroponnero nposan HeCqaCTJIII6eCTOJIKOBOBII,ll;HOM, eCJIII cpaBHIITb Ol(eHKII

neyrra-msrx

CTHIIKa C06bITlI5I co CTOPOHbI coy-racrnnxa Ha6JIIO,ll;aTeJI5I. CoyqaCTHIIK BbIMII 06CT05lTeJIbCTBaMII, ITo sceii 06b5lCH5IeT

a Ha6JIIO,ll;aTeJIb -

CTbIO yqaCTHIIKa.

BII,ll;IIMOCTII, 60JIbIIIa51 BKJIIOqeH-

60

HOCTb coynacrnnxa Ol(eHKaMII HIIIO. yqaCTHIIKa, rOBOp5l,

B C06bITIIe

C6JIII)KaeT

ero

Ol(eHKII

C

KOTOPbIM CKJIOHeH K casroonpaana-

Hna-re

nenocpencrsennsre
noxa

yqaCTHIIKII

C06bI-

TIIM II CTopOHHIIe Ha6JIIO,ll;aTeJIII He MoryT rrOHIIMaHII5I no 'rex rrop, IIIKypy» npyroro. CKJIOHHbI K atrrponovoprpusnr npn nepecxase

,ll;OCTIIqb B3aIIMO-

Ka)K,ll;bIM II3 HIIX «He BJIe3eT B

JIIO,ll;II scero

06b5lCHeHII5IM CO,ll;ep)KaHII5I TeJIe<pIIrypaMII CTy-

II BC5I. Haupuvep,

pOJIIIKa C ,ll;BII)Kyru;IIMIIC5I reOMeTpIIqeCKIIMII ,ll;eHTbI 06HapY)KIIJIII y TpeyrOJIbHIIKOB

II xaanparos

xapax-

'repsr,

JIIIqHOCTHbIe xanecrsa

II MOTIIBbI. «IIpOBOKaTopaMII» qaCTO CTaHOB5ITC5I nntosopuue u

rrO,ll;06HbIX YM03aKJIIOqeHIIM

«oppensuuu, xoropsre
rrCIIXOJIOrIIqeCKIIX

rrpe,ll;CTaBJI5IIOTC060M CTOMKIIe y6e)K<pII3IIqeCKIIX II nosezremra CBOMCTB, JIIO,ll;eM: neiicrsyer

,ll;eHII5I OTHOCIITeJIbHO B3aIIMOCB5I3II xapaKTepIICTIIK -

«xsaztparnsrii
peIIIIITeJIbHO», KO», «)KeCTKIIe HarrpOJIOM» . BbI60p

nonfoponox «60JIbIIIOM BOJIOCbI -

CIIJIbHa51 BOJI5I YMHbIM -

JI06 -

Be,ll;eT ce651 p06xapaKTep II,ll;eT

CBoeHpaBHbIM

TIIrra

aTpII6Yl(IIII

BO MHorOM

orrpe,ll;eJI5IIOTC5I

COl(IIOKYJIbTYPHOM Crrel(II<pIIKOM JIIO,ll;II C KOJIJIeKTIIBHbIM (rrypnypm.nr, HbIX nocrynxos pII6Yl(IIII, a CIIHIIM,

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a. IIOH51THO, qTO l(eHTpOM T5I)KeCTII HeraTIIB-

l(eHHOCTHbIM npn

3eJIeHbIM)

06b5lCHeHIIII

60JIee CKJIOHHbI K 06CT05lTeJIbCTBeHHOM arC IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHbIM (KpaCHbIM, OpaH)KeBbIM,

)KeJITbIM) - K JIIIqHOCTHOM.

Bonpocu

U 3aOaUU.Jl

1. 'Imo maxoe «unoueuoyau.nas uapmuna uupa»? 2. Kaxue U3 lJeJlOeelJeCKUXnompetiuocmeii eu OmHeCJlU tiu K 6UOJl02UlJeCKUM, couuau.uuu, oyxoenuu? 3. B KaKOM cuucne ntotioii U3 Hac nopoucoaem oeiicmeumensuocms? 4. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa, «omopue nod61

meepocoaiom meopeuy YUflb5lMa Touaca. 5. MOJICHO nu pas U uaeceeoa otiesonacums cetin om KOZHumueHOZO ouccouanca?

6. Ilepeuucnume

peoyxuuu

maKmUKU, «omopue ucnonseytomcst KOZHumueHOZOoucconauca.

on«

7. CUflbHbZU KOZHumueHbZUoucconauc - omo eceeoa sno.
BbZ C02JlaCHbZ 3mUM MHeHueM? C

8. Otn.ncnume, KaKUM 06pa30M »cenauue ustieocame e03MOJICHOZO ouccouanca JlCOZOnoeeoeuun? ompaotcaemcn na noeeoeuuu.

9. Koeoa MbZ saoyuueaeucn 0 uomueax ceoeeo unu lJy10. KaKuM otipasou couuansnan amputiyuun censaua C KOZuumuetiuu oucconaucou? 11. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa oticmosunenscmeenHOUamputiyuuu.

12. 'Imo ueotixoouuo coenams, lJm06bZ ustieocame rjJYHdauenmansnoii oUlu6KU amputiyuuu? 13. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa Uflfl1030PHbZXKoppenstuuii.

Ka)K,ll;bIM 1I3 Hac BXO,ll;IIT B MHOrOqlICJIeHHbIe

COl(lIaJIbBbIIIOJIH5I5I B

nsre rpynnsr, 3aHIIMa51 B HIIX pasasre CTaTYCbI II pasasre POJIII. 3a y,ll;OBJIeTBOpeHlIe rroTpe6HOCTlI JIe)KHOCTII (sa BXO)K,ll;eHlIe B «Mu-rpyrmsr»)
paCrrJIaqlIBaIOTC5I rrO,ll;QIIHeHlIeM rpyrmonsnr caMbIM YKperrJI5IIOT

npananlITeM 'roro,

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI

HopMaM

epynnoeyto cnnouenuocm». Eo.nee
60JIee

QeM 60JIbIIIe

YCIIJIIIM IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; rrOTpaTIIJI ,ll;JI5IBXO)K,ll;eHII5I B TeM

«Mu-rpynuy»,
zraercs nne, HlIe

(JI05lJIbHbIM CTOPOHHIIKOM) OH CTaHOBIITC5I, TeM rrer=re CKPbITOMY IIJIII

npnsepacenuea non51BHOMY nayrparpyrmoaowy ztasneee csoe MHeHlIe II nosenerpyrrrroBoro 60JIbIIIIIHCTee JIII,ll;epa II Ol(eHIIBaeTC5I

npeztannsm

T.e. ,ll;06POBOJIbHO cornacyer C MHeHlIeM II rrOBe,ll;eHlIeM

60JIbIIIIIHcTBa.

(Jluoep

MHeHUR

62

BOM qJIeHOB 6bIMII

rpyrmsr
II

KaK IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;, KOTOPbIM ofinanaer BbICOKOM KOMrreTeHl(IIeM rro

OCO-

3HaHII5IMII

KpIITIIqeqJIeHaM

CKOM ,ll;JI5I

rpyrmsr
BHe

rrpofineue,
II

YMeeT

06b5lCH5ITb no

rpyrmsr
II ero

CYTb nena

II ,ll;OHOCIITb CBOe MHeHIIe

pedieperrrO,ll;HIIM

HbIX <pIIryp

rpyrmsr).
-

3TO B03,ll;eMCTBIIe na IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a, 0603HaqaIOTC5I

COOTBeTCTBYIOru;ee noseztenne

II TeM )Ke TepMIIHOM

«KOH<P0PMII3M».

(Tlozt

KOH<P0PMII3-

MOM rrOHIIMaIOT TOJIbKO Hoe) II3MeHeHIIe

neocosuaeaeuoe (nenpertnaxrepenMHeHII5I II/IIJIII nnyrparpyrmosoro noseero MHeHII5I IIJIII ,ll;eMCTBII5I, rrOXO)KIIMII Ha6JIIO,ll;aTeJIb CqIITaeT

,ll;eHII5I IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a, a He JII06bIe

xoropsre

rrOCTopOHHIIM

na nosenenne CIIJIa

IIJIII MHeHIIe KOHrjJopMU3Ma

rpyrmosoro
KaK

60JIbIIIIIHCTBa). B03,ll;eM-

nrryrpnrpyrmoaoro
qeM MeHbIIIe

CTBII5I 3aBIICIIT OT HeCKOJIbKIIX <paKTOPOB: • KOJIIIqeCTBO qJIeHOB B rpyrrrre: rpyrrrra,

TeM CIIJIbHee KOH<P0PMII3M. • BJIII5ITeJIbHOCTb aBTopIITeT IIJIII

nnnepa

MHeHII5I: qeM 60JIbIIIe

xapaaxra,
CIIJIbHee

aBTopIITapHOCTb

nnnepa,

TeM

KOH<P°PMII3M. • COl(IIOKYJIbTYPHoe rrpOCTpaHCTBO

rpynnsr:

KOH<pOP-

MII3M CIIJIbHee B rpyrrrrax l(eHTpOM T5I)KeCTII na

C BbIpa)KeHHbIM

l(eHHOCTHbIM

KOJIJIeKTIIBHOM BOJIHaX (rryprryp-

HOM, CIIHeM, 3eJIeHoM).

Cneumpnxa

aKTyaJIbHOM

cIITyal(IIII:

BO

BpeM5I

KOHKOH-

<pJIIIKTHOro B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5I C «qy)KOM <pOPMII3M YCIIJIIIBaeTC5I. • CTaTYC IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a BHyTpII qJIeH

rpynuoii»
HII)Ke

rpynnsr:

qeM

CTaTYC,

TeM ner-re ,ll;aBJIeHIIIO. •

rpyrmsr

nozmaerca

nnyrpnrpyrmoaosry
oc06eHHOCTII -me-

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIbHbIe na

rrCIIXOJIOrIIqeCKIIe KaK

rpyrmsr

(KOH<p0PMHOCTb

CKJIOHHOCTb non-nr-

H5ITbC5I). KOH<pOPMII3M (<popMlIpyeT YKperrJI5IeT II

rpyrmosyio

CrrJIOqeHHOCTb

60JIbIIIIIHCTBO)

O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO YMeHbIIIaeT

63

qYBCTBO JUIqHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII Ka)K,ll;OrO

sa

pe3YJIbTaTbI

COBMeCTHbIX

rpyrrrrax IIpII

3TO MO)KeT rrpIIBeCTII

-mena rpyrmsr ,ll;eMCTBIIM. B «nyprrypnsrx» K oeuuoueuoyanusauuu.
aKTOp MO)KeT npn-

B3aIIMO,ll;eMCTBII5IX C rpynnoii

,ll;ep)KIIBaTbC5I O,ll;HOMII3 ,ll;ByX

crparernii: 1. Y CIIJIIIBaTb KOH<pOPMII3M, cnocoficrsya YKperrJIeHIIIO aBTopIITeTa nnnepa MHeHII5I II rrpOBOl(IIpy51 KOH<pJIIIKT C «qy)KOM rpynnoii». 2. Tlonnepacnsan, nnyrparpyrmoasrx ,ll;IICCII,ll;eHTOB (IIHaKOMbICJI5Ill(IIX) II ,ll;06IIBaTbc5I CMeHbI nnnepa MHeHII5I. B 3TOM cnysae axrop, B qaCTHOCTII, IICrrOJIb3yeT 3q)(jJeKm ueiu.tuuncmea, KOTOPbIM rrp05lBJI5IeTC5I, xorzta «,ll;IICCIIzrerrrcxaa» nonrpynna cnno-renaee II nocnenosarensnee 60JIbIIIIIHCTBa, nosrosry cnocofiaa B xone snyrparpyrrnosoii ,ll;IICKYCCIIII BbICKa3aTb 60JIbIIIe y6e,ll;IITeJIbHbIX ,ll;OBO,ll;OB TeM caMbIM II

«neperaayrs»

na CBOIO CTOPOHY

npasepzsennes
ECJIII TO

60JIbIIIIIHcTBa. rpyrrrrax, B

KOH<pOPMII3M rrp05lBJI5IeTC5I B MaJIbIX

«cnupanu

YMOJllJaHU5l»

pacxpy-msaerca

B C006ll(eCTBe

l(eJIOM. 3TOT 3<p<peKTTO)Ke 6a3IIpyeTc5I OCTaTbC5I B II30JI5Il(IIII l(II5IM, cnysae II nonseprayrsca MHeHII5I

na crpaxe

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a CaHK-

COl(IIaJIbHbIM

HO BbIpa3IITeJIeM ,ll;JI5Inero

60JIbIIIIIHCTBa

B ,ll;aHHOM

51BJI5IeTC5I He naztep ,ll;JI5IHero

MHeHII5I, a BJIII5ITeJIbMaCCOBOM IIH-

nsre

II 3HaqIIMbIe

JIIIqHO cpencrsa

<popMal(IIII. MHorIIe IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI B 'rex CJIyqa5lX, xorzta nponaranpacJIII60

zmpyevsre
rrpIIMKHyTb JIIIqHOrO

eMH

B3rJI5I,ll;bI na COl(IIaJIbHYIO rrp06JIeMY JIIIqHbIM MHeHIIeM, JIII60 npezmo-nrraror

XO,ll;51TC5IC IIX

K rr03IIl(IIII

eMil,

B03,ll;ep)KaTbC5I OT rry6-

BbICKa3bIBaHII5I csoeii BJIII5IHIIIO

TOqKII 3peHII5I. LIeM 60JIbIIIe eMil, TeM 6bICTPee eMH

JIIO,ll;eM nonnarorcs

CTaHOB5ITC5IBbIpa3IITeJI5IMII noro l(IIeM 60JIbIIIIIHCTBa, xoropoe

Y)Ke He BIIpTyaJIbHOrO, B caMOM nanane II60

a peans-

6bIJIO rr03II)KypHaJIIICTOB

)KypHaJIIICTCKOro

MeHbIIIIIHcTBa,

64

MeHbIIIe,

qeM -urrareneii, HOBOiI IIJIII

3plITeJIeiI

II CJIYIIIaTeJIeiI. clITyal(1I1I IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI ee yna-

B

HeO,ll;H03HaqHOiI na

CKJIOHHbI OplIeHTlIpOBaTbC5I CTHIIKOB, II,

nosenenne

ztpyrax

BOCrrpIIHIIMa51 ero

KaK rrpaBIIJIbHOe,

,ll;eiICTBO-

san,
ea).

TOqHO TaK )Ke

(3q)(jJeKm
-

COlfUaJlbH020
YJIlIqHbIe aroro

ooxasamenecmII «JIOHeOKa-

5[pKa51 IIJIJIlOCTpal(1I5I LIaCTHoe

pacnpoztaacn 3<p<peKTa -

XOTPOHbI». sanae JIlI60

npoaanenne

rrOMOll(1I )KepTBaM HaClIJIlI5I IIJIII 51BHOrrOCTPa,ll;aBIIIIIM B MeCTax CKOrrJIeHlI5I JIIO,ll;eiI, JIlI60 ztpyr OT npyra IIJIII npn HaJIlIqlI1I 1I30-

JIlIpOBaHHbIX

coeoeo

tiesoeiicmeun eeocecmeai (pluralistic
Ta6JIHQa

(3q)(jJeKm Mac3q)(jJeKm nfllOpaJlUCmUlJeCK020 HeHa6JIIO,ll;aTeJIeiI (Ta6JI.

ignorance)

13).
B3aHMOll:eiicTBHSI.

13.

3c1>cI>eKTbI

enyrparpyrmoeoro

KompopMH3M

COIIHaJIbHM <l>aCHJIHTaIIIDI COIIHaJIbHM JIeHOCTb

«Cnnpam,

YMOWIaHIDI»

Fpyrmonsrcnae
3<l><l>eKT MeHbIIIHHCTBa 3<l><l>eKT MaCCOBoro 6e31l:eiicTBIDI

COIIHaJIbHOe Il:OKa3aTeJIbCTBO

Tpyrmosaa
rrOIDIpH3aIIIDI «TYHHeJIbHOe MbIIIIJIeHHe»

3<l><l>eKT ll:eHHil:HBHil:YaJIH3aIIHH

Tpyrmosaa
ll:eMOpaJIH3aIIIDI

B

KOHl(eHTplIpoBaHHoM

BII,ll;e KOH<pOPMII3M II zrpyrne

snyrparpyrmoasre 3<p<peKTbI rrp05lBJI5IIOTC5I B rjJeHoMeHe epynnouucnus. C yxpennenaen CrrJIOqeHHOCTII COl(lIaJIbHOiI rpynnsr,
B03rJIaBJI5IeMOiI CIIJIbHbIM (aBTopIITapHbIM, aBToplITeTHbIM IIJIII xaplI3MaTlIqHbIM) IIHcTpYMeHTaJIbHOiI naer l(1I1I, JIII,ll;epOM, pacrer rrp0,ll;YKTIIBHOCTb ee

,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTII, HO O,ll;HOBpeMeHHo rrauerrrpa» B crrryarro

ee 3<p<peKTIIBHoCTb KaK «M03rOBoro KOTOpa51 rpeoyer 6bIcTporo

rrplIH5ITlI5I

peIIIeHlI5I

65

CJIO)KHOMrrpofineve.

B
llITaTHbIX nne,

CrrJIOqeHHbIX

rpyrrrrax,

qJIeHbI

KOTOPbIX ,ll;a)Ke B

crrryarraax

npezmo-nrraror

KOH<pOpMHOe

nosene-

KOJIJIeKTIIBHOe CTpeMJIeHlIe

JII060M

l(eHOM COXpaHIITb

e,ll;IIHO,ll;YIIIlIe

oronsnraer
crrryanrm

3<p<peKTIIBHOCTIi

xprrrepna IIHCTpYMeHTaJIbHOM rrplIHIIMaeMbIX peurenaii na 3a,ll;HIIM nnan.
qJIeHbI

B

KPlI3lICHOM

rpyrmsr

HaqlIHaIOT

OIIIY-

IIIaTb ce651 1I36paHHbIMII,

nenorpeunmsnaa
HeraTIIBHbIX

II HeY5l3BlIMbIMli qTO

(BCe 3TO YCIiJIIiBaeTC5I 3MOl(IIOHaJIbHbIM sener K IIrHOplipOBaHIiIO

sapaxcennew'),

rrOCJIe,ll;CTBIiM npenpemenna rrpofine-

naraeasrx
psre
TaMIl

JIII,ll;epOM MHeHlI5I napnarrroa

MbI II O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO K OTKJIOHeHIIIO rrpe,ll;JIO)KeHIIM, KOTOBbICKa3bIBaIOTC5I He BXO,ll;51IIIIIMIi B 3Ty rpyrrrry axcnep-

(3q)(jJeKm

mYHHeJlbH020

MblUlJleHUR).

Tlpn

3TOM npnguards) liM OCT-

6JIII)KeHHbIe He ztaror paKlI3MOM

K nnnepy

«xpaHIITeJIIi

MHeHII5I» ( mind yrpoxcaa

BbICKa3aTbC5I IIHaKOMbICJI5IIIIIIM, (1I3rHaHlieM (xnena

dbReOJla»
He rrp06JIeMbI TeJIbCTBa:

1I3 rpyrmsr), a rr031Il(1I5I «aoeoxama rpynnsr, KOTOPbIM xprrraxyer JII06bIe

rrpe,ll;JIO)KeHII5I) HIiKeM He 3aH5ITa. crroC06CTBYIOT B CrrJIOqeHHOM ncecroponnesry paccsrorpemuo eIIIe 'rpn 06CT05l-

«Mu-rpynue»

1.

LIJIeHbI

rpyrmsr

)KIIByT

B O,ll;HOM l(eHHOCTHOM COl(IIOII He B COCT05lHlIli 3arAAHYTb IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI CKJIOHHbI npananepexnansrsars OTBeTCTBeH(3q)(jJeKm couuanunoii JleHO-

KYJIbTypHOM

npocrpaacrse

sa ero roplI30HT.

2.

Pa6oTa51 B COCTaBe rpyrrrre, rars MeHbllIe YCIiJIIiM II

HOCTb na

zrpyrnx

qJIeHOB

emu).

3. B
(IiJIIi

cumyauuu
CBOIiX

conpucymcmeust
,ll;eMCTBIiM co

605l3Hb

HeraTIIBHoM

Ol(eHKII

CTOPOHbI

coyvacrmrxoa
yXy,ll;CJIO)KHbIe 3anerxnx), oco-

Ha6JIIO,ll;aTeJIeM) rrpIIBO,ll;IIT K cliTyaTIIBHoMY cnocofinocru IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a pemars pemenne

llIeHIIIO

,ll;aqlI (O,ll;HOBpeMeHHo ynpoutas

66

6eHHO

rrpM

pOCTe

BHyTpMrpyrrrroBoll na cefia

Harrp~~eHHOCTM COl(MaJIbHOll OTBeT-

M3-3a OC03HaHM~

npanxroii

CTBeHHOCTM sa peIIIeHMe

rrp06JIeMbI

(3q)(jJeKm

couuansrro CO-

HOU rjJaCUJlUmalfuu).

Eo.nee
OTHOIIIeHMIO

TOrO, B xone

o6cy~,ll;eHM~

ysrepeansre

pMCKM/BbIMrpbIIIIM B pe3YJIbTaTe -rero

TaKTMKM

BbITeCH~IOTC~

KpallHOCT~MM,

OCTaIOTC~ TOJIbKO MJIM JIM60 Q:>aHTa-

BbIITOJIHMMbIe, HO 3TMqeCKM CTMQeCKMe, HO 3aTO

nenpaesrnesrsre,

rrpMeMJIeMbIe

BapMaHTbI

(3rjJrjJeKm
He-

epynnoeoii

nonnpusauuui.
Q:>eHOMeHarpyrmovsrcnas nposornrn, C TaKMMM «M03rOBbIMM otiy-raa MX PYKOBO,ll;MTeo6cy~,ll;eHM~

,ZJ,JI~ npenorspamenaa 06XO,ll;MMO perynspno uerrrpaxm» neii,

KPU3UCHble mpeHUHZU,
B crrryanrm

JIM,ll;epOB M QJIeHOB HaBbIKaM rpyrmosoro

CJIO~HbIX rrp06JIeM

HeOrrpe,ll;eJIeHHOCTM.

Bonpocu

U 3aOaUU.Jl

1. Onpeoenume ceou cmamycu U POJlU e pasnux couuansnux epynnax.
2. Kaxoea rjJYHKlfU5l pumyanoe sauut C yooenemeopeuueu
JleJICHOcmu?

uuuuuauuu U KaK OHU cestnompetiuocmeto e npuuao-

3. 4.

Saue« uunnuapoepau
JlCe? 3Hal.JUMbl JlU npoueoypu napmuu

oopoeue stxmut U stiiua cIJa6epnpueua e unenut nOJlUmUl.JeCKOU
oaeKOHrjJOPC

on« ee 3rjJrjJeKmueHocmu?

5. Hasoeume
JleHU5l.

omupumue rjJOPMbl euympuepynnoeoeo
cytuecmeytom

6. Kaxue
MU3Ma)

etue

npuuuttu
noeeoeuus,
C

(nouuuo
«omopoe

uuoueuoyau.uoeo

n03U-

uuu natintooamensi

coenaoaem

noeeoeuueu

60JlbUlUHMaKcuMY-

cmea uneuoe epynnu? 7. B KaKUX epynnax KOHrjJOPMU3M oocmueaem
Ma?

67

8. KaK ocnatiums KOHrjJOPMU3M? 9. IIolJeMY oaoce CnJlOlJeHHbZe epynnu pacnaoatomcn? 10. Kmo He noooaemcn otptbeumy «cnupani. YMOJllJaHuR»? 11. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa 3rjJrjJeKma couuansH020 ooxasamenscmea. 12. IIolJeMY e 60JlbULOM eopooe MOJICHOyuepems na MH020ntoouoii ynuue om CepdelJH020 npucmyna?

13. Onutuume cumyauuto, e «omopoii C tioneucoii eeposmnocmuo nposeumcn rjJeHoMeH epynnoeoeo MbZUlJleHUR. 14. Cpaeuume POJlU «xpauumeneii MHeHUR» U «aoeoxamoe
dbReOJla».

15. IIolJeMY «M0320ebze uenmpu» HYJICdalOmcR e uesaeucuMbZXeeuepamopax uoeii?

16. Ilpueeoume npuuep couuanunoii JleHOCmU U3 JlUlJH020 onuma. 17. IIolJeMY epeouo samsteueams epynnoeoe 06cYJICdeHue npotineuu?

,ZJ,O CIIX rrop MbI IICXO,ll;IIJIII II3 'roro, ,ll;eMCTBIIII C anpecarov rIIqeCKIIMII penenenuoii axrop II rrCIIXIIqeCKIIMII

qTO npn B3aIIMO6IIOJIO-

co crrel(mlmqecKIIMII

CBoMcTBaMII HaXO,ll;IITC5IB orr-

ceHcoMoTOPHOM cpezte B COCTaBe KOHKpeTHoM

COl(IIaJIbHOM rpynnsr, qbII l(eHHOCTII II

.repnsr OH [axrop]
HbI csoeii

nosenensecxae narBocrrpIIHIIMaeT KaK l(eHHOCTII II narrepcoB 3TIIX )Ke -reBOCrrpII5ITII5I,

co6cTBeHHoM KapTIIHbI MIIpa. 3a,ll;aqa axropa

CTOIIT B TOM, -rrofisr IICCJIe,ll;OBaTbanpecara

'rsrpex acrrexrax [nersrpex xsazrparrrax IIHTerpaJIbHOrO rrpoCTpaHCTBa] II, IICrrOJIb3Y513<p<peKTbI II cxesrsr KaTerOpII3al(IIII II IIHTeprrpeTal(IIII, aJIbHOe B03,ll;eMCTBIIe. O,ll;HaKO na nparcrnxe cara, zteransnoe IICCJIe,ll;OBaHIIeanpeBO BpeMeHII. Ho OKa3aTb na Hero COl(II-

no-nepnsrx, HeII36e)KHO HOCIIT Bep05lTHOCTHbIMxapax68

rep, a BO-BTOPbIX, aKTOp scerzta orpamrsen

,ll;a)Ke B TOM

cnysae, eCJIlI aKTOp pacnorraraer o-rens 60JIbIIIIIMII pecypcaxra, nepezt HIIM BCTaeT erne ozma cepsesnaa rrpofineua: «Kaxne KOHKpeTHbIe TeXHOJIOrlI1I COl(lIaJIbHOrO B03,ll;eMCTBII5I npmrensrrs rro OTHOIIIeHIIIO K KOHKpeTHOMY anpecary B KOHKpeTHOM cnryanaa, qT06bI ,ll;061ITbC5I KOHKpeTHOrO pe3YJIbTaTa?». B03bMeM,

nanpavep,

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(3aCJIY)KIIBaIOr.u;erO ,ll;OBepII5I)

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ECJIII ,ll;JI5I nozrpocrxa, KOTOPbIM BXO,ll;IIT B MOJIO,ll;e)K-

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69

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erne

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TOPbIM caM pemaer,

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peansnsre «axcrepsepnsre» IIJIII nnpryansnsre «mrrepsepnsre» rpyrmsr (xareropnn): rro rrCIIXOTlIrraM, rro
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70

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roe,

ce651 rrOCJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHO. MbI qaCTO rOBOplIM O,ll;HO,a

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71

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72

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73

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Bonpocu
1.

U 3aOaUU.Jl

06051CHUme, !WK eu tiyoeme eomoeumscsi « ecmpeue C neucuonepauu. 2. «Sanao ecms Sanao. Bocmo« ecms Bocmo«, u ... ». KaK tiu eb13aKOHlJUJlUomo ymeepocoeuue? IIolJeMY? 3. Ilepeuucnume totaccu unmepeepuux U sucmepi.epnux «ameeopuii, e «omopue eu exooume. "Imo U3MeHUJlOCb sa nocneouue nsuns nem? 4. Kaxoii JlCU3HeHHou cmpameeuu cneoyeme JlUlJHOeu? 5. Omxyoa tiepymcn uuuoeauuu? 06051CHUme, KaK U30tipemenue menetpona (unmepnema, nopoxa, «oneca) U3MeHUJlO unmeepanenoe npocmpaucmeo.

6.

"Imo

otn.eouunem eduHOMblUlJleHHUKOe C mOlJKU 3peHU51 couuanuuue epynnu? Hasoeume

CnUpaJlbHOU ounauuxu?

7. IIolJeMY pacnaoatomcn

He ueuee nsmu npUlJUH. 8. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa paccoenacoeauuoemu e UHmeZpa.JlbHOMnpocmpaucmee.

9.

uuoueuo pacnosuaem «ueemuocms» cumyauuu? Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa. 10. KaK eusteums ueuuocmuuii ypoeens msmcecmu couuKaK aJlbHOZOcytn.exma?

UeHHOCTHble

BOflHbl

74

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BCe BOJIHbI O,ll;IIHaKO-

BO Ba)KHbI. 3TO

npuuuun xonapxuu. Llennocrnsre BOJIHbI COCTaBJI5IIOT zrsa
II na BOJIHaX nepsoro KaK apyca,

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eouucmeenno npaeunsnue.
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(<<KYJIbTYPHa51TeprrIIMOCTb»)

cozrepacanne

EeJICeeaR eonua Tlepasre qeJIOBeqeCKIIe
rpyrmsr
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pa.

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B BII,ll;e 6JIarOrrpII5ITHbIX

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75

Ilocrenenno
nsr

HeKOTOpbIe IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI, a 3aTeM II rpyrr-

rrO,ll;HIIMaIOTC5I na

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(aHIIMII3M), 3aIIIIIIIIa51

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nozt PYKOBO,ll;CTBOMuraxrana

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LIeJIOBeK Y)Ke OT,ll;eJI5IeTce651 OT )KIIBOTHbIX II pacreHIIM, HO He OT rrJIeMeHII B l(eJIOM. C06CTBeHHO rOBOp5l,

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KaK TaKOBa51 eIIIe He rr05lBIIJIaCb.

Boaon,

nonxpenna-

er 3Ty rrepBIIqHYIO

(axroprpayro)

CrrJIOqeHHOCTb TeM, qTO B B l(eJIOM, a BOJIHe II

ycnenrnsrx

,ll;eMCTBIIM rrOOIIIp5leT rpyrrrry ECJIII na

He KOHKpeTHbIX

IICrrOJIHIITeJIeM.

6e)KeBOM

Ka)K,ll;bIM B3POCJIbIM 3aH5IT BbI)KIIBaHIIeM rrOIICKOM ,ll;06bIqII ,ll;JI5I ce651 II

(penpozryxmreri

CBOIIX zterensnneii),

TO na

uypnypuoii - do6bZlJY nOJlYlJaem nJleMR.
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xoropsre

060c-

HOBbIBaIOT He06xo,ll;IIMOCTb KpeTHOM cIITyal(IIII

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IICrrOJIHeHIIeM

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npemcos.
IIpIIMepbI MIIPOB033peHII5I COBpeMeHHbIX - 3TO sepa rrp05lBJIeHIIM «nypnypnoro» B CYIIIeCTBOBaHIIe 3JIbIX ,ll;YXOB II KPOBII, II aMYJIeTbI y,ll;aqII, a

aHreJIOB-XpaHIITeJIeM,

KJI5ITBbI na 3THIIqeCKIIe

npmreru

II cyesepas,

cexreiinsre

pIITyaJIbI,

TaK)Ke caTaHIIHCKIIe rrpeofinanaror MHorIIX

KYJIbTbI. MIICTIIqeCKIIe

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B crropTIIBHbIX

KOMaH,ll;aX, 6aH,ll;aX, a TaK)Ke BO MIIpa». HOCIITeJIII

co06IIIeCTBax

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3TOM

napamrrm.r,
nee qeM

COCTaBJI5I5I10% HaCeJIeHII5I, 06JIa,ll;aIOT He 60BJIaCTII. MIIpoB033peHIIeM, xoropoe yrsepzcztaer cy-

1%

IIepBbIM

76

ru;eCTBOBaHlIe

CYBepeHHOM

JIlIqHOCTII,

«OT,ll;eJIIIMOM»

OT

rpynnsr, CTaHOBlITC5I IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yaJIIICTlIqeCKa51 xpacnas BOJlna. B q:mJIOreHe3e (pa3BIITIIII ofiutecrsa) - 3TO BpeM5I noaaJIeHlI5I Q:>eO,ll;aJIbHbIX rrOMeCTIIM, a B onrorenese 'rpex no nsrrn JIeT C ,ll;eTCTBOC

nonropenaen

B rrO,ll;pOCTKOBOMsospac-

're.
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XIIru;HIIK, )KepTBa,

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COOTBeTCTBeHHO, upoarpaeuruii, -

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Byzu,

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nopsmsr

II qYBCTBa, He ,ll;YMaM 0 rrOCJIe,ll;CTB 3TOM MlIpe nenyr 6YllIYIOru;eM»!

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«Kpacnue»

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rpynnnpoaxn a

nenpepsrsnsre

BOMHbI sa «TeppIITopIIIO»,

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6epeT

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rrOCB5Iru;aIOTCBOIO)K1I3Hb KpOBaBbIM 6IITBaM.

Y npaanenne
KOTOPbIM sanmmaer, 06MeH pacnser

rpynuoii

na ce651 EOJIbllIOM II narpaacnaer

Bocc,

HaKa3bIBaeT

qJIeHOB B

na JIlIqHOe rrOCJIYllIaHlIe pa6CTBa, xpenocrnoro nansopa

II rrO,ll;HeBOJIbHbIM 'rpyzt. 3TO npasa, nan rrOTorOHHOM CIICTeMaJIeHbKIIMII rpynna60c-

MbI. ,ZJ,JI5I crrryarnsnoro MIl

Eocc
B

rro

CBoeM rrplIXOTII

nasnaaaer

«MaJIeHbKIIX

COB». «KpaCHOM» coofimecrse IIJIII naxasaane rrplIMeH5IeTC5I

ueueonennoe Ilo-

noanarpaacienne

sa IICrrOJIHeHlIe IIJIII HeIICII ero rrpII6JIII)KeHHbIx. Ho KaK TOJIbKO Eocc

rrOJIHeHlIe pacuopaaceanii

Bocca

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CJIa6eeT, ero MeCTO 3aHlIMaeT 51BJI5IeTC5I CIIJIbHeMlliIIM.

TOT, KTO B ,ll;aHHbIM MOMeHT

,ZJ,JI5I 20% HaCeJIeHlI5I 3Ta BOJIHa 51B-

JI5IeTC5Il(eHTpaJIbHOM, HO

«xpacnsre»

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5%

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77

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«peecrp»

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npasermoro
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BCe 3TO

xopnoparnanoe rocynapcrso, nprorersr OpaHJlCee020 78

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npencrasnaer

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B COOTBeTCTBlI1I C rr03HaBaeMbIMlI 3aKOHaMII. rr03TOMY 3TlI 3aKOHbI IIH-

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IIX II IICrrOJIb30BaTb Ha

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pe,ll;eJI5IBIIIeM MeCTO IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a B coofimecrse,

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nay-mo-

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sa cner

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CTaH,ll;apTHbIM «opaioxeauii» HbIM, TO no-resry

TaKOM 6e,ll;HbIM?». rJIaBHa51 pOJIb OTBO,ll;IITC5IpaCOOTBeTCTBeHHO, MaTeplIaJIbHOrrOCKOJIbKY pa60THlIKlI KaK paCCMaT-

B

CIICTeMe ynpasneana MOTIIBaM II,

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«Opanacenaa»
npornsope-rasa: IOTC5I ornensnsre

C O,ll;HOM CTOPOHbI,

peHl(1I5I Me)K,ll;y pa60THIIKaMII, rrOJIHOMOqII5I.

a C ztpyroii

lIM zrenernpyMHoro BHIIMa-

Eo.nee

'roro,

79

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yzrenaercs yxpennenmo
rrpOTIIBOpeqIIBbIM

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B pe3YJIbTaTe rrpIIBO,ll;IIT K HeBpOTII3al(IIII

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«Msr-rpynnsr».
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80

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lIM

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81

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«)KeJITbIM» aKTOp rrpIIBJIeKaeT

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«unera», «nepexrentaacs» BHII3 rro ,ll;IIHaMIIQeCKOMCrrIIpaJIII B rrOIICKax azrexBaTHbIX cIITyal(IIII CTpaTerIIM. rJIaBHbIM KpIITepIIM npn <pOpMIIpOBaHIIII KOMaH,ll;bI- crenens JIIIQHOM KOMrreTeHTHOCTII rro KOHKpeTHbIM aonpocaxr. PYKOBO,ll;IITeJIb pacnpenenaer 3a,ll;aHII5I cpezm IICrrOJIHIITeJIeM, IICXO,ll;51I3 IIX HaBbIKOB II I
II3 IICTOQHIIKOB JII06oro IIHTepeCOB, a rJIaBHbIM MOTIIB ,ll;JI5IHIIX - B03MO)KHOCTb ca6e3 HaHeCeHII5I MOpeaJIlI3al(IIII

rrpOII3BO,ll;IITC5I C YQeTOM T.e. do6w-JY

ypona zrpyrioa. Tloouipenne JIIIQHOrO sxnana B ofintee zteno,
IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB coofimccrs II na

nonyuaem

cauuii KOMnemeHmHbZU.
nepexozt Te IIJIII IIHbIe

,ZJ,aJIee cneztyer

6up1030ebZU
6bITII5I sa,

ypoeeiu.. omrcansr B

acnexrsr

3TOM

BOJIHbI

«IIHTerpaJIbHOM

MeTa<pII3IIKe»

Y IIJI6epa, TeopIIII «crrIIpaJIbHOM ,ll;IIHaMIIKII» KJI3pa «ranorese rem) ,ZJ,)KeMMCaJIaBJIOKa, TeopIIII «IIMrrJIIIl(IITHOrO nopsznca» ,ZJ,3BII,ll;a Eoxra, B rrOH5ITII5IX«noocrpepa» BJIa,ll;IIMIIpa Bepnancxoro II TeM5Ipa ne Illapneaa, «nmopaJIIICTIIQeCKa51 rapMOHII5I» Maxarxtsr Tannn, «rJI06aJIbHa51
zrepeans» MaKJII03Ha, «Mop<poreHeTIIQeCKIIe rrOAA» Pyrrep-

Kena Tpeiis-

82

'ra Illennpeiuca.
,ZJ,JI5I«6IIpI030BOrO» 'rexra B3aIIMOCB5I3aHHbIX, C03HaHII5I Mllp 3TO )KIIBa51 CIICcyumoII sa Mllp HO BCe )Ke He3aBIICIIMbIX caxra

CTeM, Ka)K,ll;a51 II3 KOTOPbIX B l(eJIOM. BbIpa)KeHIIe Mllp BCerO LIeJIOBeK -

orne-raer

sa

ce651

OCTPOB B MIIPOBOM COqeTaeTC5I

apxnrrenare.
paoora

CaMOsa

JIIIqHOCTII

C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTbIO

B l(eJIOM, )KIIBOrO,

)KII3HeHHbIM

rrpIIOpIITeT

na

6JIaro

a He 3rOIICTIIqeCKOe

ofioramenne
rrpIIHIIMaeT see

KOHKpeT-

HbIX IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB IIJIII rpyrrrr. «nIIpI030Boe» see l(eHHOCTHbIe II

ynpaanenne
BOJIHbI,

BO BHIIMaHIIe qYBCTBa, rrpo-

COe,ll;IIH5IeT

3HaHII5I,

IIHTyIIl(IIII 6JIeM

IIHCTIIHKTbI

,ll;JI5I peIIIeHII5I

rJI06aJIbHbIX

na

MaKpoypOBHe,

nenaer

axuerrr

na

,ll;YXOBHOM CB5I3II

II OCMbICJIeHHOCTII er Hoe IIHHOBal(IIII

pa60TbI

,ll;JI5IKOCMoca Ha 3TOM

B l(eJIOM, BOJIHe

II KOOrrepal(IIIO.

noornpanonrocpo-rztea-

rrJIaHIIpOBaHIIe

COe,ll;IIH5IeTC5I co B IICTOPIIII

crrOHTaHHOCTbIO

TeJIbHOCTII.

Bnepaue

qeJIOBeqeCTBa

do6W-JY noCJIOII CTa-

nyuaem )/{U3Hb.

Llennocrnsre
KapTIIH xnrpa

BOJIHbI

KaK

MIIPOB033peHqeCKIIe rpyrrrr qaCTO

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB II COl(IIaJIbHbIX KOH<pJIIIKTOB.

HOB5ITC5I IICTOqHIIKaMII

Bo-nepnsrx,
)K,ll;y cy6beKTaMII, HOCTHbIX )KII3HeHHbIe COl(IIaJIbHbIe CypCOB BOJIHax.

3TO

cooepocamensuue
na
60Pb6a sa

KOHrjJJlUKmbl
O,ll;IIHaKOBbIX

Me-

l(eHTpIIpOBaHHbIMII 3TO

uen-

pecypcu.
sa

IIOCKOJIbKY

npaoprrrerst
cy6beKTbI

connanaror,
CBOIIX

COOTBeTCTBYIOru;IIe

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rrpnofiperenne
(3TO ozma

peHaII

,ll;JI5I peaJIII3al(IIII

C06Cm(3eHHblX ueneii.
II IICJIaMa

npavep, npnaepacemn.r
'ra xce CIIH5I5I BOJIHa) )Ke

rrpaBOCJIaBII5I

XOT5IT B03BeCTII 3eMJIII»,

xpaxrsr na

O,ll;HOM II TOM YJIIIqHbIX

ynacrxe

«CB5Iru;eHHOM sa

zrse

«KpaCHbIX»

6aH,ll;bI

COrrepHIIqaIOT

«KpbIIIIeBaHIIe»

npennpmnorare«JIII6epaJIbI» B II

JIeM na
BJIaCTII.

O,ll;HOM TeppIITopIIII, BbI,ll;BIIraIOT

«oparosessre»
CBOIIX

«516JIoqHIIKII»

KaH,ll;II,ll;aTOB

opransr
B03-

Pa3peIIIeHIIe

pecypcnsrx

KOH<pJIIIKTOB BrrOJIHe

83

MO)KHO B xone

neperosopoa,

rrOCKOJIbKY rrpoTlIB060pCT-

BYIOr.u;IIe CTOPOHbI 6JIaro,ll;ap51 CXO)KeCTII MIIPOB033peHIIM, rro KpaMHeM Mepe, rrOHIIMaIOT ztpyr BO-BTOPbIX, Me)K,ll;y 3TO npyra.

BHeUl1IUe ueunocmuue
«l(eHHOCTHbIMII CTOJIKHOBeHII5I IIMeIOT B OrpaHIIqeHHOM

KOHqJJlUKmbl
l(eHTpaMII MeCTO, xorzta

rpyrmaxia

C pa3HbIMII

rpaBIITal(IIII». 3TII

TaKIIe

rpynnsr,

nepecexaacs

CeHCOMOTOPHOM

rrpOCTpaHCTBe, rrbITaIOTC5I BJIII5ITb na O,ll;HII II 're )Ke

uenessre
BOO-

rpynnsr. Hanpnraep,

B xone

rrpe3II,ll;eHTCKIIX

BbI60pOB

pY)KeHHOe BbICIIIeM HCTIIHOM «CIIHee»

06r.u;eCTBO HaXO,ll;IITC5I na IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yKOTO-

B COCT05lHIIII BOMHbI C OpIIeHTIIpOBaHHbIMII aJIbHOe npeycneaanne pbIM B CBOIO o-repezn, CKIIe «OpaH)KeBbIMII»

rrOJIIITIIKaMII,

rrpOTIIBOCT05lT «3eJIeHbIe» rrpOTIIB

3KOJIOrIIqe-

rpynnsr,

nstcrynarounre

6e3Y,ll;ep)KHOrO pOCTa

rrpOMbIIIIJIeHHOrO B-TpeTbIIX,

rrpOII3BO,ll;CTBa. 3TO

mu, nopoaoiaevsre
aJIbHbIX II rpyrmosstx aJIbHbIX rpyrrrr)

euympennue ueunocmuue cocymecrsonanaea BHyTpII
KapTIIH MIIpa

KOHrjJJlUKIIH,ll;IIBII,ll;yCOl(II-

(IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB II

pa3HbIX

l(eHHOCTHbIX BOJIH. ECJIII na IIH,ll;IIK pacmerrnennro K pe-

BII,ll;yaJIbHOM yposne JIIIqHOCTII

3TO MO)KeT rrpIIBeCTII

na Cy6JIIIQHOCTII,

TO na KOJIJIeKTIIBHOM -

Q:>opMal(IIII, pacnany

rOCY,ll;apCTB II pa3BaJIY ceMeM. KOHQ:>JIIIKTbI rro CBOIIM rrOCJIe,ll;CTBII5IM

Llennocrnsre
3HaQIITeJIbHO

onacnee

pecypcnsrx,

rrOCKOJIbKY HOCIITeJIII

MeHee CO,ll;ep)KaTeJIbHbIX BOJIH He B COCT05lHIIII rrOH5ITb 'rex, KTO y xoro CTBO IIIIIpe l(eHHOCTHbIM xpyrosop. HaYQHbIX HIIKaKoe KOJIIIQey6e,ll;IIT

«oparoseasrx»

,ll;OKa3aTeJIbCTB He «3eJIeHbIe»

«CIIHIIX»

BepYIOr.u;IIX B MIIQ:>,HIIKaKIIe

QeJIOBeQe-

CKIIe CB5I3II He rrpOII3Be,ll;YT BrreQaTJIeHII5I na «opaH)KeBYIO» arpeCCIIBHOCTb no 'rex rrop, noxa caMII IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI II COl(II-

ansnsre

rpyrmsr

He rrp05lB5IT rOTOBHOCTb rrpO,ll;OJI)KIITb Pa3-

BIITIIe rro ,ll;IIHaMIIQeCKOM CrrIIpaJIII.

K

CO)KaJIeHIIIO, «Me)KypOBHeBbIe peIIIeHIIM,

,ll;e6aTbI» HIIKOr,ll;a He

3aKaHQIIBaIOTC5I rrpIIH5ITIIeM

xoropsre

YCTPOIIJIII

84

6bI

BCeX yqaCTHIIKOB,

rrOCKOJIbKY BCe OCTaIOTC5I HeYCJIbIII3-3a 3TOrO HaCTOMqlIBbIe II 3aMeHlITb «CII-

IIIaHHbIMII

II HeOl(eHeHHbIMII.

HeCBOeBpeMeHHbIe HIOIO» peJIlIrlI03HYIO

«oparosessre»

rrOrrbITKII

CIICTeMY KOJIJIeKTlIBlI3Ma na l(eHHOCTII

«opaaaceKpOMe

nsre»

IIH,[(IIBII,[(yaJIIICTlIqeCKlIe anpecara

HlIqerO

perpeccrm

K «nypnypnosry» npmaep -

BapBapCTBY He npnoxxynanna

BO,[(51T.HarJI5I,[(HbIM HpaKa. B03HlIKaeT

aMeplIKaHCKa51

sonpoc:

«A

B03MO)KHO JIll

soofime

nod-

nuuuoe
HeT, a

B3alIMorrOHlIMaHlIe IIO,[(JIIIHHOe

HOCIITeJIeM pa3HbIX B3aIIMorrOHIIMaHlIe,

MIIPOB03-

3peHIIM?».

6e3YCJIOBHO, na, HO TOJIbuerrrpnpo-

«oncmpyxmueuue
60JIee

e3aUMoomHOUleHU51 cyfn.exrt«,

KO B TOM cnysae, BaHHbIe na

eCJIII COl(lIaJIbHbIe

BbICOKIIX l(eHHOCTHbIX BOJIHaX, B03bMYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb sa COl(lIaJIbHbIM Mllp CJIOBa. B

na ce651 60JIbIIIYIO TOM II zrpyrosr

CMbICJIe aroro

Bonpocu

U 3aOaUU.Jl

3peHU51?Ecnu KUM otipasou?

1. Cytuecmeytom nu «pumepuu «npaeununocmu» uupoeosoa, mo «axue? 2. MOJICHO nu yuenuuums «onuuecmeo «tieuceeoeo»? Ka3. «MbZ c motioii OdHOU xpoeu». Hasoeume coepeuenuue
rjJ0PMYflupoeKu omoeo npuuuuna.

4. Bee nu «opnopamueuue pumyanu nypnypuoeo «ueema»? 5. Kmo UCnOflH51emrjJYHKlfUU «tuauaua» e «nypnypuux» opeauusauusx ? 6. KaK e «nypnypuux» cootnqecmeax nocmynatom c unoueuoyanucmauu? 7. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa useecmuux eau omHUlJeCKUXunu ceMeUHbZXpumyanoe.

8. KaK nyuuie opeauusoeams uue» epynnu?

eosoeiicmeue

na «nypnyp-

85

9. Onutuume «spacuyto» JlCu3HeHHYlOcmpameeuto U «xpacuue» uemoou dOCmUJlCeHURJlUlJHblX U epynnoeux lfeneii. 10. B ueu OmJlUlJUR«xpacuoeo»
ynpaenenust dR? om cmamyca Eocca U eeo

uemoooe
BoJIC-

U uemoooe

«nypnypuoeo»

11. KaK «uanenstcue 60CCbl» cmauoestmcn EOJlbUlUMU Eoccauu? 12. KaK nOHUMaemCR cnpaeeonueocms lJJleHaMU «xpacuux» cootnuecme? 13. Moeym JlU compyonuuams dee «xpacuue» epynnu? 14. Bocnpuuuuatom JlU «xpacuue» uuoueuou pauuouansuue apeyueumu? 15. Kaxoii
noee«; JlCU3HeHHou cmpameeuu dOJlJICeHcneooeams lJe-

umotiu coomeemcmeoeams mypneiu uopuau?

«CUHUM» COlfUOKYJlb-

16. Paou ueeo »cepmeytom JlCU3HblO «tiesceeue», «nypnypnue», «xpacuue» U «CUHue»? 17. Kaxuuu cpeocmeauu otiecneuueaemcn UCnOJlHUmeJlbCKaR oucuunnuua e «xpacuux» U «CUHUX» opeauusauustx? 18. B03MOJICHa JlU mpanapopuauun «upacuoii» MOJlodeJICHOUepynnupoexu e «CUHlOlO» tioiicraymcxyto opeauusauuto? ECJlu oa, mo KaKUM otipasou?

19. Huetom JlU «opanotceeue peeoniouuu»
pauue «axoe-mo omnotueuue

e rpY3UU U YK-

K OpaHJlCeeOUueunocmnoii

eonue?
C lJYJICaKaMu «nypnypuue», «xpacnue», «CUHue» U «opanotceeue»? 21. «3a oeuseu MOJICHOxynums ece». Onpoeepeuume omom me3UC C «nypnypuux», «xpacuux» U «CUHUX» nosuuuii. 22. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa neeamueuux couuau-nux nocneocmeuii nonumxoppexmuocmu. 23. Kmo ReJlRemCR on« «seneuux» lJYJICaKaMu U KaK «seneuue» omHOCRmCRK lJYJICaKaM?

20. 3a umo tioptomcn

86

24. Kaxue useecmuue eau couuau.uo-ncuxonoeuuecxue
3q)(jJeKmbl neotcam e ocuoee ece eospacmatotueeo eflURHUR

uapeunau.uux
tiom.tuuncmeo?

couuansuux epynn na mpaouuuounoe
KaK 3mOMY cnoco6cmeyem «senenast» KOH-

uenuust nntopanusua U pensmueusua uenuocmeii? 25. Ilpaeoa nu, umo npaea uenoeexa uoeym tium» passoeo «ueema» ? 26. Cpaeuume uemoou euympuepynnoeoeo oaenenust; npuuensteuue e epynnax C pasusiuu uennocmnsiuu ueumpauu msuscecmu. 27. Ilaume mpu-uemupe npuuepa, unntocmpupytotuux Hapytuenust npuuuuna «HYJICHoe epeus; HYJICHoeuecmo. HYJICuue ntoou, HYJICHblUuemoo». 28. fJeM CUflbHbl «nypnypuue», «xpacuue», «CUHue», «opauoceeue» U «seneuue» uuoueuou? 29. Kaxoeu enaeuue uomueu «tiesceeux», «nypnypuux», «xpacuux», «CUHUX», «opanotceeux», «seneuux» U «ncenmux» patiomnuxoe? 30. Ilpueeoume na KaJICdblU mun «otupnuuma no mpuuemupe axmyanunux npuuepa. 31. Kmo dOflJICeH cmams uuuuuamopou paspetuenus uenHocmHOZO «otupnutana? IIOlJeMY? 32. MOJICem nu tium» npooyxmueuuu «3KCnOpm oeuoxpamuu»?

87

rIlaBa 3.
lI1HCI>OPMAl...U,10HHOE npOCTPAHCTBO.

OT HIIKau;IIM COCTOIIT

KOHTaKTHbIX

(npsnrsrx)
C

Me)KJUIqHOCTHbIX KOMMyB qeM )Ke

nepeiiztexr
ee

K MaCCOBOM KOMMYHIIKal(lIlI.

cneundnrxa

COl(lIaJIbHO-rrCIIXOJIOrlIqeCKOM

TOqKII 3peH1I5I?

C

TOqKII 3peHlI5I

AY,ll;IITOPII5I cyfisexros, rna

axropa: COCTOIIT 1I3 orpovnoro

qlICJIa COl(lIaJIbHbIX

C 60JIbIlllIHCTBOM

1I3 KOTOPbIX aKTOp HIIKOB rrp5lMOM KOHB03paCTa-

He BCTyrraJI (II HIIKOr,ll;a He BCTyrrIIT) OHII - aHOHUMHbze «cxeMaTlIqHOCTII»

TaKT. ,ZJ,JI5I Hero er 3HaqlIMOCTb

anpecarsr.
II

cyrrecTIIBHOCTII C006Il(eHIIM rrOBTOpeHlI5I

C006Il(eHIIM.

Y CIIJIeHlIe
cner IIX

y6e,ll;IITeJIbHOCTII MHorOKpaTHoro

,ll;OCTlIraeTC5I sa

( My JIbTlIrrJIIIKal(1I5I

coo6 ut eHIIM). HaXO,ll;51TC5I pa3HbIX B TOqKaX ceHCO1I3

Anpecarsr axropa
MOTopHoro MHO)KeCTBa HaR o-rem, B

rrpOCTpaHCTBa II rrOJIyqaIOT IIH<popMal(IIIO

pasnsre

IICTOqHIIKOB.

3TO

rrpOCTpaHCTBe

aY,ll;IITOpII5I,

paccpeoomoueurr03TOMY y axropa
ceHCOMOero

MaJIO B03MO)KHOCTeM MO,ll;eJIlIpOBaTb

TOPHbIM KOHTeKCT BOCrrplI5ITlI5I l(eJIeBbIMII co6CTBeHHbIX C006Il(eHIIM. 51BJI5IIOTC5I JIeHaMII q 3TO

rpyrmasm

Anpecarsr axropa
COl(lIaJIbHbIX rpyrrrr.

caxrsrx xpaiine eemepoeennas
II

pa3HbIX (Pa3HO-

pozmaa)

aY,ll;IITOpII5I, rr03TOMY nanaer KorepeHTHOCTII

3HaqlIMOCTb

npn-

eMJIeMOCTII, C006Il(eHIIM. •

aprYMeHTlIpOBaHHOCTII

,ZJ,JI5I nepena-m san,

C006Il(eHIIM

aKTOp BbIHY)K,ll;eH IICrrOJIb30HeII36e)KHa51 meXHOJlOcrre-

cnemransnsre

cpeztcrsa.

ZUlJHOCmb

KOMMYHIIKal(1I1I

BO MHorOM

onpeztenaer

88

ll;IIqnIKY

C006IIJeHIIM,

cpezm

KOTOPbIX

npeofinaztaror

TeKCTbI, a He aKl(IIII. TeXHIIqeCKIIX

C ztpyroii

CTOPOHbI, pasuooopasne M)'JIbTII-

HOCIITeJIeM rr03BOJI5IeT cosnasan,

MO,ll;aJIbHbIe C006IIJeHII5I. • AKTOP -rame scero He pacnonaraer online) C B03MO)KHOCT5IMII aynn-

HeMe,ll;JIeHHO (B pe)KIIMe TOpIIII. 3TO

Y3HaTb peaKl(IIIO

KOMMYHIIKal(II5I

omCpOlJeHlIOU

otipamuoii

Ce513blO.

Cpencrsa
lJeCKUMU KaMu)
xone

MaCCOBOMIIH<popMal(IIII

51BJI5IIOTC5I cnennaII

JIII3IIpOBaHHbIMII

HOCIITeJI5IMII C006IIJeHIIM

(meXHOJlOZUCOl(II-

KaHaJIaMII KOMMYHIIKal(IIII),

II OC06bIMII

aJIbHbIMII cy6beKTaMII

(KOMMYHuKamueHblMu
IIHTepecaMII,

nocpeouuqTO BHOaxropa B

co CBOIIMII co6cTBeHHbIMII

CIIT CYIIJeCTBeHHbIe IICKa)KeHII5I B C006IIJeHII5I IIX rrpe06pa.30BaHII5I B rry6JIIIKal(IIII

CMIl.
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C TOqKII 3peHII5I anpecara: Azrpecar nenpepsrsno norry-raer
qeCTBO C006IIJeHIIM HO BocrrpIIHIIMaeT OT 60JIbIIIOrO JIIIIIIb

HeIICqIICJIIIMOe

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rrOBbIIIIeHHbIe ciiTyaTIIBHoM

KOMMYHIIKal(II5I, Tpe6oBaHII5I

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npezrsaanaer

K <pII3IIqeCKOM BbIIIYKJIOCTII II

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Azrpecar

He pacrrorraraer

pearnponan,

na HapYIIIeHII5I

rrepaTIIBHOM KOMMYHIIKal(IIII na TOM ero

nosenenae.

3TO

ztpyroii
rro

OTCpOqeHHOM 06paTHOM

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MaCCOBa51 KOMMYHIIKal(II5I

aCUMMempUlJHOU
• TIIrrIIqHOe zraercs zrpyroro

nponaeanoe,

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KOHKpeTHoro HIIKal(II5I C

IICTOqHIIKa.

06Pa.30M, 3TO KOMMy(Ol(eHIITb

pasuumuu

aemopcmeou

KOH-

89

xpemuue

BKJIa,ll;bI B

rtyfinmcauaro

axropa,

)KypHamICTa

II

IICTOqHIIKa

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HIIKY·

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npouec-

MHOrOqIICJIeHC

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MHO)KeCTBa C006Il(eHIIM

Crrel(IIaJIII3IIpOBaHHbIX (CMK) nopoaoiaer

cpeocme

uaccoeoii KOMrrpo-

uyuuxauuu

IIH<pOpMal(IIOHHOe

CTpaHCTBO II <p0pMIIpyeT

MaCCOBOe C03HaHIIe.

Htupopuauuonnoe
BCeX C006Il(eHIIM,

npOCmpaHCmeO
II

-

3TO MHO)KeCTBO COl(IIaJIbHbIe MaCCOBOM

KOTOpbIe

TpaHCJIIIpYIOT cpencrsa

cyfisercrsr,
Il(eHIIe

IICrrOJIb3Y51 TeXHOJIOrIIII a IIMeHHO: npoxar

KOMMYHIIKal(IIII, peKJIaMbI,

<pa6pIIKal(IIIO

CJIYXOB, paasre-

KIIHO<pIIJIbMOB, uroy-finsneca CMIl

'rearpansnsre
II rry6JIIIKal(IIII

rroB

CTaHOBKII, CMIl.

MepOrrpII5ITII5I

MHO)KeCTBO

C006Il(eHIIM

COCTaBJI5IeT ueouanpocrpan-

npocmpaucmeo
CTBa.

KaK 06JIaCTb IIH<popMal(IIOHHOro

HarrOMHIIM, rrpnofiperaer Tyal(IIM, TII5IX,

qTO

CBOM )KII3HeHHbIM

onsrr

qeJIOBeK qIICJIY CII-

6JIaro,ll;ap51

secsna

OrpaHIIqeHHOMY y-racrne.

B KOTOPbIX OH

JlUl.JHO rrpIIHIIMaeT

xoropsre

rrpOIICXO,ll;51TBHe aroro OT

0 C06bI«6JlUJICHeZO xpyea»,
II rpyrrrr, JIII60

OH Y3HaeT

JIII60

petpeperrrm.rx

<pIIryp

6JIaro,ll;ap51 CJIyxaM IIJIII CMK. LIeM

ztansme

HeKa51 rrpofineva

OTCTOIIT OT ero

nonce-

,ll;HeBHOM )KII3HII

(PYTIIHbI),

TeM 60JIbllle

Bep05lTHOCTb, qTO IIJIII

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; 06paTIITC5I CMIl,

K KOHcYJIbTaHTaM, CrrpaBOqHIIKaM

II O,ll;HOBpeMeHHo TeM MeHbllle

Bep05lTHOCTb, qTO OH

CMO)KeT (B

npoeepums norry-rennsre

CBe,ll;eHII5I na IICTIIHHOCTb CJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHO, eCJIII He C006Il(IIJIII IIH,ll;II-

ceHcoMoTOPHOM

rrpOCTpaHCTBe).

,ll;OCTOBepHbIe (xpernrrtrue) BII,ll;y 0

IICTOqHIIKII

cotiumuu,

yqaCTHIIKOM

IIJIII OqeBII,ll;l(eM (Ha6JIIO,ll;a-

90

TeJIeM) KOTOpOrO OH He CTaJI, OHO nepearn.no BJIlI5IeT na ero KapTIIHy MlIpa) no 'rex rrop,

,ll;JI5I ero H noxa

(II He

OH JIlIqHO

He CTOJIKHeTC5I C ceHCOMOTOPHbIMII C06bIT1I5I. 3lITC5I B

rrOCJIe,ll;CTBII5IMII aroro

Hna-re rOBOp5l, noxa «,ll;aJIbHIIM oxpyr» He orpaeMIl, OH He CTaHeT ,ll;JI5IIIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a ,ll;a)Ke «snpryrrOCKOJIbKY co06ru;eH1I5I paBHOCIIJIbHbI peaJIbHOCTII, MlIpa, 0 C06bITlI5IX 1I3

aJIbHOM peaJIbHOCTbIO».

II

Ha060pOT,

oocmoeepuux

IICTOqHIIKOB

,ll;JI5I IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a TO 3TlI coofi-

y,ll;OCTOBepeHIIIO IIX

[C06bITIIM] KapTIIHy

ru;eH1I5I BJIlI5IIOT na ero

,ll;a)Ke eCJIII

onncsrscero

saextsre
JIIIIIIb

C06bITlI5I

soofinte

He rrpOIICXO,ll;IIJIII, 6Y,ll;yqlI KOHeqHO, rro

ueouacotiumunuu.
C06bITlIM IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a,

CIIJIe B03,ll;eMCTBII5I IIJIII

OHII cnafiee

C JIlIqHbIM

y-racraexr

rrplICYTCTBlIeM

HO COBpeMeHHbIe K MIIHIIMyMy

eMK

XOT5I 6bI C rr03BOTeJIedigital). C peans-

JI5IIOT CBeCTII 3Ty

paaarmy

(nanpmrep,

nazremre
HbIMII

BbICOKoro pa3peIIIeHlI5I

C CIICTeMOM Dolby 0 C06bITlI5IX

OTO)K,ll;eCTBJIeHlIe C06bITlI5IMlI -

cootnueuuii

3TO O,ll;IIH 1I3 pe3YJIbTaTOB

couuanunoii
KOMMyOT ero

eupmyanusauuu,
HIIKalllI1I KOMMYHIIKalllIM TOB (nanpmrep,

KOTOpa51 nenaer

HeOTJIlIqlIMbIMII cy6beKTaMlI 3TlIX

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a C COlllIaJIbHbIMII C MaTeplIaJIbHbIMII

otipasauu

cyfisex,ll;JI5I ouenB co-

B KOMrrbIOTepHbIX nrpax). C06bITlIM B «6JIII)KHeM xpyre»

ECJIII 3HaqlIMOCTb

ce651 JIlIqHO IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; MO)KeT xa, rro KpaMHeM Mepe,

onpezremrrs

caxr, TO ero

HeKOTopbIX

C06bITlIM

II cyfn.exroa II xanecrsa

«nansnen

xpyre»

3aBlIClIT

OT KOJIlIqeCTBa

06ru;eHIIM 0 HIIX. HaB5I3bIB a51 OlleHKII, B CBOIIM aY,ll;IITOpII5IM rrpe,ll;CTaBJIeHII5I,

nosenen-recsne

«oucmpyupoeanuu
Maccy

narrepnst II TeM caMbIM yqaCTBY51 couuansuux npotineu, eMK <P0PMIIBep05lTHOCTHYIO (C Pa3MbI-

PYIOT TbIMII

KaK cIITyaTIIBHYIO,

rpaaauaxm),

HeO,ll;HOpO,ll;HYIOII aMop<pHYIO cosoxyrr-

HOCTb IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;OB, CrrJIOqeHHbIX e,ll;IIHbIM

uaccoeuu
xnrpa

C03Ha60JIbIIIlIX

uueu,

rrpe,ll;CTaBJI5IIOru;IIM C060M

KapTIIHy

91

rpyrrrr. BmUlTeJIbHOCTb C5I, B qaCTHOCTII, JIIIpOBaTb COl(IIaJIbHbIX cyfisexron TaK IIJIII

B IIX CrrOC06HOCTII CMIl.

npoasnaernnane KOHTpOBJIII5IHIIe JIII,ll;epOB ofipa-

,ll;e5lTeJIbHOCTb

COrJIaCHO CMIl

3q)(jJeKmy

pe30HaHCa
(Ta6JI.

npasroe 15).

na

aY,ll;IITOpIIII

,ll;OrrOJIH5IeTC5I B03,ll;eMCTBIIeM

MHeHII5I 30M, KaK

na

qJIeHOB

«Mu-rpynu»
CMIl <pIIrypaMII

TaKIIM

rry6JIIIKal(IIII

O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO (HaII60JIee II 60raTbIMII

BOCrrpIIHIIMaIOTC5I CTaTYCHbIMII, 06-

pedieperrnrsnnr
TaK

pa30BaHHbIMII, cy6beKTaMII), KOTOPbIX BeHHO, OHII

YBa)KaeMbIMII II BceMII

COl(IIaJIbHbIMII ,ll;JI5I

OCTaJIbHbIMII

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;aMII, II,

51BJI5IIOTC5I JIII,ll;epaMII aKTopaMII.

MHeHII5I

COOTBeTCT-

Kpe,ll;IITHbIMII qJIeHaM

TaBJI5IIOT l(IIIO

CBOIIX II B

rry6JIIIKal(IIM

CY)K,ll;eHII5I rr05lBJI5IeTC5I ,ll;OHOCIIT 3TO MHeHIIe CTBY51 na eTC5I. AY,ll;IITOPIIII o COl(IIaJIbHOM ero conepzsanne no

,ZJ,aJIee 3TII nnnepsr npenoc«Mu-rpynu» CBOIO mrrepnperape3YJIbTaTe nrryrparpyrmonoro 06epynnoeoe uneuue. Jlnnep rpyrmsr )KypHaJIIICTOB, TeM caMbIM ll,IIKJI B03,ll;eMrrOBTOp5l-

Me,ll;IIarrpOCTpaHCTBa.

paCCMaTpIIBaIOT

rr05lBJIeHIIe

rry6JIIIKal(IIM KaK CBII,ll;e-

cy6beKTe/rrp06JIeMe/c06bITIIII 3HaqIIMOCTII qTO CMIl

TeJIbCTBO

COl(IIaJIbHOM

(3q)(jJeKm «2OJly6020
,ll;06pOCOBecTHo <PYHKl(IIIO cyfn.etcr, BbIIIH<POp-

3KpaHa»),
rrOJIH5IIOT MIIpOBaHIIe.

IICXO,ll;51 II3 'roro,

CBOIO IIHCTIITYl(IIOHaJIbHYIO

Eo.nee

'roro,

COl(IIaJIbHbIM

CTaB

HblOC-

ueiiuepou, rrOCT05lHHO rrpIIBJIeKaeT BHIIMaHIIe )KypHaJIIICTOB, xoropsre HaqIIHaIOT CJIe,ll;IITb sa Ka)K,ll;bIM ero IIIarOM (3q)(jJeKm nanapauuui. O,ll;HaKO HeIICKYIIIeHHbIe aY,ll;IITOpIIII He zroransisaiorC5I 0 TOM, qTO C06bITII5I, He OTBeqaIOll(IIe KpIITepII5IM C

H080a COOT-

cmH020 rjJopMama
CMIl BeTCTBYIOll(IIe HOCTII ,ll;OHeCTII

IIJIII Y)Ke C<P0pMIIpOBaHHOMY

nonoursro
B03MO)K-

06U/ecm8eHHOMY MHeHUlO,
COl(IIaJIbHbIe

3aMaJIqIIBaIOTC5I, JIIIIIIaIOTC5I

cy6beKTbI no

csoe

MHeHIIe

IIIIIPOKOM 06ll(eCTBeHHOCTII

92

(3q)(jJeKm cnupanu YMOJllJaHUR). Ta6JIHQa 15. 3c1>cI>eKT pesoaanca. AKTOP
I1Hc-rpYMeHTaJIbHM )l;eHTeJIbHOCTb

Cnyxa
IIa6JIHcHTH

rt
1----1

IIy6JIHKaU:HH

CMIl

PeKJIaMa

B

CMIl

Mennanosecrxa
IIoJIHTWIeCKM

1

)l;HH

JIo66HpOBaHHe

rrOBeCTKa )l;HH 06ru:eCTBeHHM rrOBeCTKa )l;HH -

Cnyxa
IIpHMM rrOqTOBM

Aapecar
Jlanep MHeHHH

1

paCCbIJIKa

Kopnoparasaoe

H3)l;aHHe

i

._

«MbIrpyrrrra»

Ileprpopuaac
JIWIHbIe scrpe-rn

06ru:eCTBeHHoe MHeHHe

1

OTMeTlIM

erne 'rpn

ueoua-otptpexma:
3q)(jJeKm:
cpencrsa MaCCOBOM IIHBHIIMaHlie na IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;a OT peMe,ll;IIa-

HapKomU3UpylOU/UU
<popMal(IIII

nepexmonaror

aJIbHbIX COl(IIaJIbHbIX rrp06JIeM C06bITII5I.

nnpryansnsre

3q)(jJeKm

npueamusauuu:
C006rn;eHIIM

HeraTIIBHbIX

eMIl

nozt

B03,ll;eMCTBlieM xpaiine IIH,ll;IIBII,ll; nepecraer IIH-

TepeCOBaTbC5I «,ll;aJIbHIIM KpyrOM»(B pnpyer BbI6opbI) II

qaCTHOCTII, IIrHOxpyre»

3aMbIKaeTC5I B «6JIII)KHeM

rrOBCe,ll;HeBHbIX3a6oT.

Htupomeiinuenm:

npenno-nrraa

pa3BJIeKaTeJIbHYIO

93

<P0PMY nona-m

JIl060M

IIH<popMal(IIII,

eMIl

QaCTO IIC-

Ka)KaIOT CYTb II 3HaQIIMOCTb C06bITIIM ,ll;JUIcoofimecrsa.

Bonpocu
1.

U 3aOaUU.Jl

'Ie» omnuuatomcst
nocmuoii

co06U/eHU5l, npeonasnauenuue

on«

uaccoeoii KOMMYHU1Wlfuu, om cootnueuuii
KOMMYHuKalfuu?

on« MeJICJlUlJ-

otipasou ocyiuecmensemcs noocmpoiiua K ayoumopuu uaccoeoii KOMMYHuKalfuu? 3. Ilponaeauoa - omo pasnoeuouocms uaccoeoii KOMMYuuxauuu. Bu COZJlaCHblc 3mUM ymeepocoeuueu? 4. Hcnonssytomcn JlU e uaccoeoii KOMMYHuKalfuu axuuu? ECJlu oa, mo KaK? 5. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa uynsmuuooansuux cootnuenuii. 6. Kaxue eu suaeme uemoou uccneooeanust eoCnpU5lU1U5l
2.
KaKuM cootnueuuii pamuoii

uaccoeoii KOMMYHuKalfuu?
06-

7. 0605lCHUme, umo nOHUMaemC5l nod «omcpoueuuoii
Ce513blO».

8. B03MOJICHbl JlU uaccoeue
uaccoeoii uiupopuauuu?

KOMMYHuKalfuu 6e3 cpeocme e ce6e CMlf?

9. Kaxue rjJYHKlfUU coeuetuatom
no omnotuenuto K CMlf?

10. Kaxoeo pooa cauxuuu ayoumopuu

uoeym npuuenums

11. B KaKOM cuucne MaCCOea5lKOMMYHuKalfu5l5leJl5lemc5l onocpeooeanuoii ? 12. Ilaume KaK MOJICHOtionee nOJlHOe onpeoeneuue uaccoeoii KOMMYHuKalfuu.

13. B KaKYlO otinacms unmeepansuoeo npocmpaucmea eu nouetuaeme utupopuauuonuoe npocmpaucmeo? 14. Kaxue rjJaKmopbl onpeoensuom ouauemp «6JlUJICHeZO xpyea» uuoueuoa? 15. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa cuuynnmueuux mexuonoeuii.

94

16. 06513ameJlbHO JlU e eupmyansnux cotiumusx npuuuua10m yuacmue eupmyansnue cytn.etonu? 17. II epeuucnume nOJlOJICUmeJlbHbZe ompuuamenstuae noU
cneocmeust COlfUaJlbHOUeupmyanusauuu.

18. B KaKOM «eaopanme unmeepansuoeo npocmpaucmea «uaxooumcn» uaccoeoe C03HaHue, a e KaKOM - uacca? 19. KaK MOJICHOucnonssoeamu 3q)(jJeKm pesouauca e Maccoeux KOMMYHuKalfu5lX? 20. Tpytio eoeops; cytuecmeytom eceeo oea euoa nytinuxauuii - HoeocmHbze u ... Kaxue?

21. Hasoeume rjJaKmopbz petpepeumnocmu COlfUaJlbHOZO cytn.exma e «nypnypuux», «xpacuux», «CUHUX», «opauoceeux» U «3eJleHbZX»cootnuecmeax. 22. Ilpueeoume mpu-uemupe npuuepa UCnOJlb30eaHUR3rjJrjJeKma «eonytioeo »xpana».

23. Kmo maKOU «HblOCMeUKep» U KaK cmams tu.tocueiixepOM?

24. KaK Ce513aHbZ opye c dpYZOM napauempu 25. Ilepeuucnume
KaK MOJICHOtionuue

uoeocmnoeo

rjJopMama U 3rjJrjJeKm cnupanu YMOJllJaHuR?

ueoua-odxbexmoe.
AHS'I IIC-

II1H<popMaIlVlOHHbllll

nOBOA He

VI MeAVIanOBeCTKa

eMIl
CIIIO -

e npuuuune

cnocofiasr

B rrOJIHOM Mepe COl(lIaJIbHYIO

rrOJIH5ITb CBOIO qaCTO

zrexnapapyesryro

MIICrpyn-

rrpe,ll;OCTaBJI5ITbBceM OCTaJIbHbIM COl(lIaJIbHbIM

rraM II opraHlI3al(1I5IM

ucuepnueatotuyto

U 6ecnpucmpacm-

uyto UHrjJ0PMalfUlO 0 rrpOIICXO,ll;51ll(IIX B MlIpe C06bITII5IX. Bo-nepnsrx, meXHOJlOZUlJeCKU HeB03MO)KHO cofipars
BCIO IIH<popMal(IIIO HbIMII cy6beKTaMII. 060 scex C06bITlI5IX co BceMII COl(lIaJIbnonpa-

II soofime,
C60pOM

qTO B TaKOM cny-rae

3YMeBaeTC5I nozt TepMIIHOM «IIH<popMal(1I5I»? BO-BTOPbIX, H5ITbI KOHKpeTHbIe II 06pa60TKoM IIH<popMal(1I1I 3a-

IIH,ll;IIBII,ll;bI He MoryT

penatcropsr), xoropsre

(penoprepsr, )KypHaJIIICTbI, He 6bITb npucmpacmuuuu. 95

B pe3YJIbTaTe IIJIII, naofopor,

eMIl

qaCTO cymecrsermo

npeyaemr-msaror

HeKOTopbIX C06bITIIM, TIIBHbIMII

npeysreasuraror cyfisexron
cnezryer OTpa)KaIOT

COl(IIaJIbHYIO 3HaqIIMOCTb II rrp06JIeM. 're

eMIl»

rrOHIIMaTb

Ilozt «ofisexeMIl, xoropsre B

CBOIIX rry6JIIIKal(lI5IX O,ll;HOrOII 'roro

pasasre

MHeHII5I rro nosozry

)Ke C06bITII5I, T.e. rrpe,ll;OCTaBJI5IIOT aY,ll;IITOpII-

51MMHO)KeCTBOuumepnpemauuii Ta6JIHQa

oeiicmeumensnocmu.
MHeHHe.

16.

IIoBecTKH

il:HSI H 06LQeCTBeHHoe

MeLl:HanOBeCTIm Ll:HSI
PeLl:aIa.(HoHHM IIorrHTHKa CMH

IIoJIHTHqeCKaSi nOBeCTKa Ll:HSI
CTaTHCTWIeCKoe IIOLl:TBep)!(,.[(eHHe 3HaQHMOCTH

OOIQeCTBeHHaSi nOBeCTKa Ll:HSI
IIOBCeLl:HeBHbIe

(HH<popMaI.(HOHHbIH IIOBOLl:)

npofinema
IIorrHTWIecKM l.(erreCOO6pa3HocTb H HHBeCTHI.(HH QaCTHbIX pecypcos

npofinema aaceneana
<l>opc- M(l)KOpHbIe 06CTOHTerrbCTBa (CTHxHHHbIe BlliI H 6eLl:CT-

HOBOCTHOH <popMaT

rexaorenasre

KaTaCTP°<pbI)

Tpe60BaHlliI TeXHorrorWIeCKoro

Anpooaposannsre
TeXHorrorHH

Conaansnsre
KaTaKJIH3MbI

nponecca

OOIQeCTBeHHoe MHeHHe

B-TpeTbIIX,

HeJIb351 3a6bIBaTb

0

l(eJIeHarrpaBJIeHHOM

KOMMYHU1wmueHoii
ztpyrnx nne-n, II COl(IIaJIbHbIX BHIIMaHIIe

(uiupopiuauuonnoii)

oesmenenocmu
CTpeM51TC5I pnn (B TOM qIICJIe, OTBJIeqb

cyfisexros, xoropsre IlIIIPOKOM ofinrecrsennocra
K rr03IITIIBHbIM II,

)KYPHaJIIICTOB)

naofopor,

BHIIMaHIIe C06bITIIM.

OT HeraTIIBHbIX

C TOqKII 3peHII5I IIX IIHTepeCOB

B-qeTBepTbIX, TOPII5IM CBOII II rrp06JIeM, orrIICaHII5I

eMIl

He MoryT

He HaB5I3bIBaTb aynnC06bITIIM, cytit.exros KaK

cxesrsr

IIHTeprrpeTal(IIII

rrOTOMY qTO B OCHOBe JII060M rry6JIIIKal(IIII ,ll;eMCTBIITeJIbHOCTII JIe)KIIT KOHKpeTHbIM

couuo-

96

xynumypnuii cueuapuii. IIpII oroope C06bITIIM,
TOMHbIX OCBeru;eHII5I B Q:>IIJIbTpauoeocmnoeo

cyfn.exroa

II

rrp06JIeM,

noc-

eMIl, )KypHaJIIICTbI
rjJopMama
(Ta6JI.

IICrrOJIb3YIOT TpII

16):
rrOJIIITIIIIH-

1. Peoasuuouuan nOJlUmUKa CMlf
qeCKIIMII, 'repecaxta 3KOHOMIIqeCKIIMII co6cTBeHHIIKoB

onpenenaerca

II KOMMYHIIKaTIIBHbIMII

II rJIaBHOrO 3TO ouenxa

peziaxropa,
UH-

2. Hoeocmnas ueuuocms rjJ0pMalfuoHHo20
MO)KHO pasnemrn,

C06bITII5I KaK

noeooa.
rrpOII3BO,ll;CTBa

3. lIo meXHOJl02UlJeCKOU cneuuipuxe
na

eMIl

ne-tamsre,

3JIeKTpOHHbIe II BIIPTYaroro B Ka)K,ll;OM czraxa B

ansnsre

(HHTepHeT-II3,ll;aHII5I.

IIOMIIMO

II3,ll;aHIIII cymecrsyer rrpOII3BO,ll;CTBO. PaccMoTpIIM

KpaMHIIM CpOK ( deadline)

KpIITepIIII

HOBOCTHOMl(eHHOCTII. )KypHaJIIICTbI BbI6II-

B

xa-recrse

TeM ,ll;JI5Irry6JIIIKal(IIM

paIOT TOJIbKO 're C06bITII5I, CKIIMII CBOMCTBaMII (Ta6JI.

xoropsre 06JIa,ll;aIOT cneuadia-re17). B o6ru;eM cnysae utupopuaconepzcarern.no Co6bITIIe. IIpII BbI3TOM C06bIT.e.

lfUOHHbZU noeoo
nyxnoe

-

3TO Q:>II3IIqeCKII II

,ll;JI5I )KYPHaJIIICTa/pe,ll;aKl(IIII

BbIIIYKJIOCTb 3aBIICIIT TII5I, HO II OT

He TOJIbKO OT CBOMCTBcaxroro

nnomuocmu

co6bzmUUH020 «onmexcma,

KOJIIIqeCTBa II BbIIIYKJIOCTII O,ll;HOBpeMeHHO rrpOIICXO,ll;51ru;IIX C06bITIIM. OqeBII,ll;HO, qTO xpynnaa JII060M BaKYYM» TeXHOreHHa51 xaracrpoCKaH,ll;aJI, a «IIHQ:>a«nepexpoerx Q:>opMal(IIOHHbIM penoprepos

rrOJIIITIIqeCKIIM JIeTHIIX

OTrrYCKOB BbIHY)K,ll;aeT rrpecc-

rrepepafiarsraart,
0630PbI. )KypHaJIIICT nexoroporo II

xopnoparnsnsre
nocrynox cyfn.etcra

peJIII3bI B aHaJIIITIIqeCKIIe HTaK, TeJIbHOCTb)

BocrrpIIHIIMaeT COl(IIaJIbHOrO

(neaKaK IIH-

Q:>opMal(IIOHHbIM nosozt nperaumo aroro

paanemaer

B

,ll;eMCTBII5I, a aY,ll;IITOpII5I

eMIl CBOIO IIHTepeMIl (nacrs KOKaK axropa), ,ll;eMCTBIIe KaK 3Ha-

TOPOM BXO,ll;IIT B l(eJIeBYIO rpyrrrry Ol(eHIIBa51 onacsmaexroe

cyfisexra

B rry6JIIIKal(IIII

97

qlIMOe C06bITlIe,

B

TOM

IIJIII IIHOM CTerreHII YCBalIBaeT OC-

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Herarnaaoe repoit onpene-

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(rasersr, TeJIeKaHaJIa, pannoII CO,ll;ep)KaTeJIbHOM

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xsanparm.rx caHTII-

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98

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