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Aerospace Engineering Sciences

Capstone
Senior Design Projects
ASEN 4018/4028

How they prepare students for the workforce

Jean N. Koster
University of Colorado
December 15, 2008
REAL WORLD STATUS 2008

• 20% Of the Workforce Is Eligible To Retire


Today
• One-third Of the Workforce Eligible To
Retire In 5 Years
• One-half Of the Workforce Eligible To
Retire In 10 Years

Greg Enders, LMCO 2


Capstone - Senior Projects
• Two-semester 4+4 credit hour course.
– Typically 8 teams with 7-10 members
– Senior Projects I (ASEN 4018) focuses on the synthesis of undergraduate
knowledge and the design process,.
– Senior Projects II (ASEN 4028) focuses on the fabrication, integration, and
verification of the designs produced in ASEN 4018.
• Requirements-based systems engineering.
• Synthesis and application of the fundamental core sciences,
mathematics, and engineering theory.
• Design, Fabrication & Testing, Verification and Validation of
a complex component or system
– CDIO: Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate
• Project Advisory Board (PAB) of 9 Faculty and 2 Staff
members advise student teams

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AES Senior Projects Structure
Course
Machinist
Coordinator
Matt Rhode

Electronics
Trudy Schwartz

2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB 2 PAB


Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors Advisors

TEAM 1 TEAM 2 TEAM 3 TEAM 4 TEAM 5 TEAM 6 TEAM 7 TEAM 8

Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer Customer


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Maximum 8 Teams

7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10 7-10


Students Students Students Students Students Students Students Students

Project Advisor Board (PAB) – Total 9 faculty (1 course credit) and 2 staff
1 Course Coordinator (Jean Koster, 2008)
8 Faculty Team Advisors; advising 2 different teams each
Each advisor team is different
Staff advisors: Matt Rhode and Trudy Schwartz

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Senior Projects Team Structure
Teams operate like small entrepreneurial businesses

2 PAB
Customer Advisors

Project Systems
Manager Engineer

CFO Manufacturing Safety


Engineer Engineer

Common Subsystems:
Mechanical
Subsystem 1 Subsystem 2 Subsystem 3 Subsystem 4 Electrical
Lead Engineer Lead Engineer Lead Engineer Lead Engineer Software
Aerodynamics
Structures
Thermal

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Course Milestones
Progress Evaluation Process:
1. Starting Point: Customer Project Proposal (Requirements)
2. Project Definition Document (PDD)
3. Conceptual Design Document (CDD)
4. Preliminary Design Review (PDR)
5. Critical Design Review (CDR)
6. Fall Final Report
7. Spring Manufacturing Interim Reviews (IR1, IR2)
8. AIAA Student Regional Conference Paper
9. Final Project Review (FPR)
10. Spring Final Report (SFR)
11. ITLL Public Expo

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Team Formation,
Requirements
Course Schedule
PDD

CDD

CDR
PDR

Editing

FFR
Break
Fall

W01 W02 W03 W04 W05 W06 W06 W08 W09 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17

Preliminary Design Detailed Design

Last Machining Day

ITLL EXPO
IR #2
IR #1

FPR

Editing

SFR
Break
Spring

W01 W02 W03 W04 W05 W06 W06 W08 W09 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17

Manufacturing Integration and Test

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Deliverables 1 (PDD)
Customer Requirements → Project Definition (PDD)
–Background, Goal, Objectives, Functional Block Diagram,
Concept of Operations
–Top level Project Requirements (0.PRJ.x)
–Top level System Requirements (0.SYS.x)
–Minimum Requirements for Success
–Deliverables
–Technical and Financial Risks
–Team formation and Team Expertise
–Resources

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Deliverables 2 (CDD)

Project Definition → Conceptual Design (CDD)


– Team information
– System Architecture (3 design options)
– Requirements (3-5 most important reqs., rank)
– Feasibility (for top ranked architecture option)
– Testing and Verification requirements for key systems
– Assess key risks and mitigation options
– Assess team qualifications
– Respond to criticism received on PDD
– Resources update
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Choosing System Architecture

•Wheeled •Snake
•Spider •Roller
•UAV •Tracked

System concept baseline study – selected wheeled architecture

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ASEN 4018
Deliverables 3 (PDR)
Conceptual Design → Preliminary Design (PDR)
–Development and assessment of system design options;
arguments for chosen architecture
• Flow-down from functional needs to identified requirements
–System Design-To specifications. Development and
assessment of subsystem design options and design-to
specifications
• Preliminary itemization of required performance parameters
–Project Feasibility Analysis and Risk Analysis
• Define high risk sub-system for prototyping
• Back-of-the-envelope, Matlab, preliminary analysis or test
• Define optional “off-ramps”
–Project Management Plan (preliminary)
• Myers-Briggs analysis 11
Oral Presentations PDR, CDR
• Presentation to 11 PAB members and entire body of students
• Presentations: 50 minutes: 25 min presentation and 25 min Q&A
• Every student must present at least once at PDR and CDR
System Breakdown Structure
Project: MARVLIS - 2007

6’’ Dimension, 10 min Endurance, Image Capture/Transmission with location,


Launch Capability

Aerodynamics Structures
Aerodynamics Propulsion Electronics Launcher

Airfoil Airframe Propeller Camera Spring

Telescoping
Planform Materials Motor/Gearbox Receiver
Leg
Launch
Tail/Stabilizers Batteries GPS
Electronics
Control Speed
MAV Interface
Surfaces Controller

Servos
Legend
System Subsystem Sub-
Requirements s Subsystems

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December 16, 2008 MARVLIS
Design-To Specifications
Mother Rover Design-To Specifications
1. Baseline weight of 100 lbf.
2. Baseline dimensions of 3.5 ft. wide x 3.5 ft. long x 2.0 ft. high
3. Base of Mother = 4.25 in. from ground level
4. Mounted camera must see Children at all times

Child Rover Design-To Specifications


1. Baseline weight of 15 lbf.
2. Baseline dimensions of 10 in. wide x 10 in. long x 8 in. high

Ramp Design-To Specifications


1.Length of ramp is greater than length of
Child rover
2.Ramp is 3x wider than Child rover
3.Ramp is placed on front or back of Mother
rover only
4.Ramp will have ¼-in. ground clearance
(representative model only) 14
Preliminary Design Review
Aerodynamics Risk

Justifications:
Improperly
Insufficient • Wings too small
directional
sized tail
stability – Cannot take off in 75 ft, use batteries
too fast
– Mitigation: Prototyping
Improperly
Wings too
sized control • Improperly sized tail
Consequence

small
surfaces
– Plane is unstable & uncontrollable
– Mitigation: Margin & prototyping
• Improperly sized control surfaces
– Aircraft is uncontrollable
– Mitigation: Extra analysis & margin
• Insufficient directional stability
– Aircraft stability is unknown and not
considered
– Mitigation: Adding a vertical fin &
Possibility
deflecting single rudder in turn, use drag
to turn

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Deliverable 4 (CDR)
• System Architecture is fully documented at CDR
• All subsystems are checked for feasibility and are given a “go”
• Sub-system decomposition and integration is understood
– Mechanical, electrical, and software elements are analyzed
– All blue-prints are ready to enter the fabrication process
• Interfaces between sub-systems are working well
– Integration of sub-systems into units is understood
• Manufacturing and System Integration Plan
• The Testing and Verification Plan is finalized
– Test concepts of operation are documented
• Project Management Plan (PMP) is finalized
• The System Engineer signed off on the proposed design
• Manufacturing of components starts after successful completion of
CDR.
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B. S. Blanchard, W.J. Fabrycky, Systems Engineering and Analysis, Prentice Hall,2006.
System
System Design Architecture

1. Primary Vehicle (PV)


• On-board PIC controls the Deployment
Mechanism (DM) through Command and
Data Handling (CDH)
• Pilot controls the control surfaces

2. Deployment Mechanism (DM)


• Consists of mounting point for the SV and
linear actuator for pin-movement
• Attached to the PV with bracketing system

3. Sub-Vehicle (SV)
• CUPIC autopilot controls the control
surfaces and motor settings through CDH
• Payload is supplied with its own power

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Critical Design Review
Deployment
Design MDE Mechanism

Deployment Mechanism Design-To Specs

• The SVs shall be deployed on demand.


• The DM shall weigh no more than 13 g
• The DM shall be mounted on a rod (the bracket) capable of
withstanding the expected loads.
Deployment Mechanism Design Prototype & Testing Results
• Actuator pulls a pin • Under vibrations from 0 Hz to 150 Hz, successful
• Pin removes attachment to SV deployment 121/124 trials
• DM weighs 9g • Confidence of 95 % in vibrations
• DM mounted to an aluminum beam • During simulated aerodynamic loading, successful
deployment 20/20 trials
• Confidence of 99 % in aerodynamic loading

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Critical Design Review
Matlab Model

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ASEN 4018
Experimental Verification & Prototyping
Tail Boom Test Load versus Displacement
0

Experimental
-1
Theoretical
-2

-3

Displacement (in)
-4

-5

-6

-7 3.65" At Estimated
Max Load
-8
Failure at
23lbs
-9
8.75"
-10
0 5 10 15 20 25

Load (lbs)

Need thicker boom due to deflection at max load.


Based on experimental data: OD = .312” for 1.5” deflection (+1.3oz)
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ASEN 4018
Educational Support

Lectures: Workshops:
• Project Selection • System Engineers
• Conceptual design • Program Managers
• Defining Requirements • Team working
• Systems Engineering • Fabrication (9)
• Mission Failures • Measurements
• Project Management • Electronics
• Running Meetings • Power Systems
• Patent Law, IP • Composite Fabrication
• Ethical Decision-Making • Safety
• Entrepreneurship • Fire
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Example of ITLL Poster Presentation

http://www.colorado.edu/ASEN/SrProjects

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Senior Design Student Paper Awards
AIAA Reg. V Student Paper Conferences

2008
• First Place, Team Division (KRAKEN senior project team)
• Second Place, Team Division (MARVLIS senior project team)
• Second Place, Graduate Division (Laurren Kanner)

2007
• First Place, Graduate Division (Laurren Kanner)
• First Place, Team Division (SOARS senior project team)
• Best Student Paper, JANNAF Conference, Team MaCH-SR1

2002
• First Place, Undergraduate Division (Otto Krauss – MaCH-SR1)

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CU-AES Senior Design Webpage:
http://www.colorado.edu/ASEN/SrProjects

AES Senior Design Network


http://aesseniordesign.ning.com/

http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=159152

Contact:
Jean.Koster@Colorado.edu
+(303)492-6945
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History of Recent Projects - 1
BIRDIE Biologically-Inspired low To create an experimental apparatus that can
Reynolds number Dynamic trace out a given wing motion similar to a
Imagery Experiment hummingbird in hovering flight
DIABLO De-rotated Imager of the Provide a spinning satellite with a de-rotated
Aurora Borealis in Low- imaging system
Earth Orbit
D-SUAVE Deployable Small UAV To design, fabricate, integrate and verify a RC
Explorer controlled UAV capable of being remotely
deployed from the ARES aircraft and flying a
specific flight pattern
PRV Peregrine Return Vehicle To provide the Colorado Space Grant
Consortium with a reusable vehicle that can
return student built science payloads to a
selected target
SOARS Self Organizing Aerial Design, build and test an autonomous aerial
Reconnaissance System system (UAS) capable of imaging multiple
targets within a 1 km circle as quickly as
possible with 99% probability of object detection
(according to Johnson criteria)
SWIFT Supersonic Wind and Supersonic wind tunnel (Mach number 1.5 – 2.5)
Imaging Flow Tunnel and flow visualization system operable by
undergraduate students
History of Recent Projects - 2
VITL Vehicle for Icy Terrain Design and build a prototype for locomotion
Locomotion system of a vehicle exploring a Europa-like surface
capable of traversing 1 km of icy terrain in 7 days
with characteristic obstacles
BREW Bolt-on Racecar Conceive, design, fabricate, integrate, test, and
Enhancing Wing verify a device that allows the measurement of the
downforce and drag of any rear wing for present
and future CU FSAE cars
CALAMAR-E Cavity Actuated Low- Conceptualize, design, fabricate, test, and verify
speed Actively synthetic jet actuators for a highly maneuverable,
Maneuverable Aquatic low speed under water vehicle
Rover Experiment
Flap and Aileron Produce a wing that demonstrates roll control
Replacement System without mechanical linkages by integration of
smart materials as actuators
MaCH-SR1 Multi-disciplinary Conceive, design, fabricate, integrate, and verify a
self-sufficient hybrid rocket engine
MARS Meteorological Aerial Conceive, design, fabricate, and test a deployable
Research Sonde dual-mode sonde system that will provide multi-
unit communications ability capable of sustained
flight times and controlled flight
History of Recent Projects -3
HARRV High Altitude Research Design, build, test a return vehicle for scientific
Return Vehicle payloads released from high altitude balloons
to proximity of balloon launch site
SPEC Space Elevator Climber Design a model space elevator system to compete
in the Spaceward Foundation “Elevator 2010”
competition.
Short TakeOff Wing Design, fabricate , and characterize a FanWing
device
HAVUC Heavy-lift Aerial Vehicle for the Conceive, design, fabricate, integrate, test, and
verify an un-inhabitated aerial vehicle (UAV) with a
heavy-lift capability that has an empty weight no
greater than 10 lb; heavy-lift being defined as the
payload contributing a minimum of 60% to the total
takeoff weight
SHARC Stable Handling Aerial Radio- Develop a low-cost, easy to operate, and reliable
controlled Cargo-testbed aerial vehicle for testing of sensor payloads
CUBDF Design-Build-Fly Design, build, fly a high-volume payload
competitive aircraft after AIAA competition
guidelines.
History of Recent Projects -4
APTERA Aero-Braking Project To Design, build, and test a deployable device
Effectively Reduce Altitude which will increase aerodynamic drag with the
intent of changing the orbit of the DANDE
satellite from 600km to 350km within 300 days.
Mach-SR1 Multi-disciplinary Hybrid Student design, build, test, integrate feed, injection and
Rocket Project ignition subsystems into a flight configuration for a
hybrid rocket to deliver a 0.5 kg payload to an
altitude of 4,500 m.
KRAKEN Kinematically Roving Design, build, competitively test an unmanned
Autonomously controlled Electro- underwater vehicle equipped with vortex ring
Nautic thrusters
MARVLIS Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle Design, fabricate, and test a micro air vehicle
Launch and Imaging System capable of capturing an image and transmitting it
with a time and position stamp
ADAMSS Aerially Deployed Autonomously Design and build a system that can remotely place
Monitored Surface Sensors low-cost disposable sensors, collect science data,
and then retrieve this data all without on-site human
interaction
ARCTIC Arctic Region Climate Tracking The goal is to develop a payload that provides arctic
and Instrumentation Cargo climate data measurements at otherwise
inaccessible earth-fixed locations. The payload will
be constructed for an InSitu Insight A-20 UAV.
History of Recent Projects -5
MADS Miniature Aircraft Deployment Goal is to develop a system that can attach to
System the radio-controlled (RC) primary vehicle
capable of in-flight deployment of 4 secondary
vehicles that are capable of self-sustained flight.
ReMuS Re-deployable Multi-rover System The goal of this project is to provide a proof-of-
concept for an interacting multi-robot system.
Two child robots will detach from the mother,
perform tasks and reattach to the mother.
SUAV Solar Unmanned Aerial Vehicle The goal is to modify a high performance
sailplane by the addition of a structurally
integrated photovoltaic System in order to
extend the standard endurance of the aircraft by
250%.
SWARM Systematic Waypoint based Design an autopilot, communication
Autonomous Reconnaissance infrastructure, and coordination algorithm
MAVs compatible with Micro Air Vehicles. Integrate
autonomous launch and flight in swarm with rigid
algorithm control.
VALASARAPT Vertical Ascent and Landing Design and build modifications that will outfit an
OR Aircraft for the Study of existing remote controlled UAV with VTOL and
Atmospherics in Recording hovering capabilities and carry a NOAA
Acoustic Propagation of Terrestrial designed probe.
and Oceanic Radiation