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Education is wider in scope and general in purpose whereas training is organization specific and practice based. Core competencies and expertise give the organizations an edge over their competitors and training plays a vital role in developing and strengthening these competencies. Change of technology demands that employees update their knowledge, skills, abilities and technical expertise. Jobs are becoming more interdependent demanding high interpersonal and problem solving skills, which can be acquired only through training. Training is a continuous and perennial activity. Human evolution itself is a part of history of training. The Stone-age people got themselves trained to fulfill their basic needs. The metalage people learnt the art of use of metals and cooking. Thus every page and stage of human civilization will contain training in the backdrop. Even in the monarchical era, the kings used to send their wards to gurukul, which is nothing but a form of residential training. Even today, in the area of skill training we can see apprenticeship as a form of training. As Alvin Tofler puts it ‘only change is permanent’. In our century the great issue facing not only the developed nations but also the developing nations is the problem of change and adapting to change is the main concern of present day. Change that is induced through science and technology development demands rapid individual and social adjustment. The above two challenges are met mainly by manpower training and development programmes. The quest for knowledge for enlightenment is universal. So change is fundamental for the progress of a dynamic society. Every change is a challenge to be met and knowledge provides the strength to convert these challenges into opportunities. But to do so, knowledge needs to be transformed into skills and this is a function of training. Training is an investment in ‘knowledge capital’. This capital resource is subjected to obsolescence. It needs to be continuously updated an expanded. Training is a continuous process and has become an important function in the development and management of human resources. Edwin B. Flippo defines training as the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job The word ‘training’ consists of eight letters, to each of which could be attributed significant meanings in the following manner: T – Talent and Tenacity (strong determination) R – Reinforcement (something positive to be reinforced into memory and system again and again, until it becomes a spontaneous affair) A – Awareness (with which one can easily take long strides of progress) I – Interest (which is invariably accompanied by excitement and enthusiasm) N – Novelties (the new things the like of which would sustain our interest) I – Intensity (the training instilled into the trainee’s mind must acquire experience oriented intensity) N – Nurturing (it does refer to continuous nurturing of talent, which otherwise would remain dormant) G – Grip (a fine grip over the situation solves multiple problems and enables one to acquire a practical and programmatic approach)
Evolution of Training and Development There are many examples of effective functioning of HRD throughout the history. A glance into the history of the profession will help to understand the HRD field in a better way in the present day context. The evolution of HRD can be discussed in two stages: 1) a global perspective and 2) an Indian perspective. Reasons for HRD evolution in global perspective are: 1. Emergence of apprenticeship training program and collective bargaining mechanisms; 2. Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools; 3. Training programs for semi-skilled and unskilled workers; and 4. Emergence of training as a profession. 1. Emergence of apprenticeship training program and collective bargaining mechanisms: During the 18th century in America, small shops were operated by skilled artisans. They produced almost all household articles like utensils, furniture, shoes, clothing etc. it was a one man show at the beginning. Later, when the demand for the products increased, these shop owners appointed additional workers. As there were no schools available to train the workers the shop owners themselves had to educate the workers. Thus the skilled artisans, who were the shop owners, also turned into trainers and trained the trainees or apprentices who learned the craft for very little wages. Apprentices who mastered all the crafts were considered as “yeomen”. At this stage, they could leave the shop owners and start their own shops if they wished. The growth in business led to the development of number of yeomen by the craftsman. In order to tackle the growing number of yeomen master craftsmen established “craft guilds” to regulate aspects relating to working hours, wages, and apprentice testing procedures, etc. These craft guilds also grew in power, making it still more difficult for the yeoman to establish their own craft shops. Yeomen, on the other hand, counter – balanced the powerful craft guilds by establishing “Yeomanry’s”. The yeomanry served as a collective voice in negotiating higher wages and better working conditions from the craftsmen. 2. Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools: Dr. W.H. Clinton, in 1609, established the first recognized privately funded vocational school in New York to provide occupational training to unskilled young people who were either unemployed or had criminal records. These schools were the prototype for the vocational education of the present day. Later, in the late 19th century, with the advent of industrial revolution machines began to replace the hard tools of the artisans. Scientific management principles gained importance in this period. The products produced by semi-skilled workers using machines were more in quality and quantity than that of products produced by skilled workers in a small craft shop. Due to the growth of factories, there was demand for skilled workers, engineers, mechanics and skilled mechanics to design build and repair the machines. The supply of skilled workers from the vocational schools was not sufficient for the growing demand for the workers from the factories. So to meet the growing demands, factories created factory schools that offered mechanical and machine training programs.
In 1942. Training programs for semi-skilled and unskilled workers: In the year 1913. Ford motor company came up with mass production using an assembly line to manufacture affordable to a larger segment of public. In the early 70’s. This resulted in greater demand for these cars. feedback and counseling. T. This expansion required more number of semi skilled workers. Another significant event which helped in the training of semi-skilled and unskilled workers was the outbreak of the First World War. director of training of the US shipping board. This demanded the factories to support the war effort. two consultants Prof. The recommendations were taken up and L&T created a separate HRD department. Factories Act 1948 was introduced making it mandatory for factories to have welfare officers in factories. thereby forcing increased production. Udai Pareek and Prof. They realized that their role is not only to train employees but also to coach and counsel employees. career planning and training and development get distinct attention as unique parts of an integrated system which we call the Human Resource Development System. Later the system is adopted by State Bank of India and its associates.V. They recommended that performance appraisal. Emergence of training as a profession: First World War gave rise to the JIT programs for the semi and unskilled workers. potential appraisal. the American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) was formed to establish some standards within the emerging training profession. Later this technique was called “Job Instruction Training” (JIT). there was transformation during 1960’s and 1970’s in the role performed by the professional trainers. Rao from the Indian Institute of Management were approached by L&T for a review exercise of their performance appraisal system. 4. This is resulted in development of HRD function. This can be considered as the beginning for HR as a field in India. Slowly. introduced a four step instructional training method called as “show. Tata group implemented employee welfare measures like provident fund and leave rules. . tell.3. With the out break of Second World War US government established Training Within Industry (TWI) service to coordinate training programmers across defense related industries. Charles Allen. This additional enhancement of role led to the renaming of the society as American society for Training and Development (ASTD). Emergence of Trade Union movement and finally Trade Union Act of 1926 gave a formal recognition to the worker union and labour welfare activities introduced in factories. Reasons for HRD evolution in Indian perspective are: In India. career development. This led Ford to design more assembly lines. do and check”. state intervention to protect the welfare of workers was felt necessary soon after the completion of First World War.
This was the first family tree of HRD in India. It is corporate prudence and cost effective practice to retrain workers for new jobs than releasing them and hiring new ones. A large number of different kinds of activities will be positively impacted if training systems are well designed. Training can facilitate employee retention and faster customer service. processes. Training can pave way for increased quality both in the production and service sectors. formulas and specification. it will result in increased morale. Considerable amount has been spent by employers on formal training. However. But to learn tacit knowledge requires interpersonal interaction and experiences that are usually not found in training programs. . Tacit knowledge refers to personal knowledge based on individual experience that is difficult to explain to others because tacit knowledge is difficult to communicate. Explicit knowledge refers to knowledge that can be formalized. training has been seen as an event or program to develop specific explicit knowledge and skills. But mangers and trainers and human professionals have begun to recognize the potential contribution to business goals of knowledge that is based on experience and that is impossible to teach in a training program. Well designed traditional training courses can successfully help employees learn explicit knowledge. Training of a company’s workforce results in an increase of productivity and reduces wastage. Learning refers to the acquisition of knowledge by individual employees or groups of employees who are willing to apply that knowledge in their jobs in making decisions and accomplishing tasks for the company. The National HRD Network was conceived to develop networks among HRD professionals to facilitate learning from one another. it can be found in manuals. tacit knowledge developed through experience and shared through interactions between employees still is impossible to imitate. Scope of Training Traditionally. This was established as an academic centre for training. and thy have broadened the role of training to include learning and designing ways to create and share knowledge. In the year 1985. i. A single training event or program will not provide a competitive advantage to the company because explicit knowledge is well known and programs designed to teach it can be easily developed and imitated. codified and communicated. The organizations find themselves compelled to organize some training activities because many new entrants lack basic skills.e. As training enhances the competency of the workforce. Knowledge refers to what individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do as well as company rules. If designed and delivered well it will facilitate achievement of organizational objectives – the main purpose of organizational existence. This later gave birth to the Academy of Human Resources Development in the year 1990. Knowledge is of two types Tacit knowledge and Explicit knowledge. tools and routines. it is passed along to others through direct experience.The establishment of a separate ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) in 1986 was a logical symptom of the realization of the importance of developing human factor by the Government of India. research and extension services in the field of HRD.
Some organizations regard training as an unnecessary and time wasting activity. Company’s selection and promotion policies have a definite bearing on training. wastage and accidents. However. They take up training with a limited objective and discontinued once the problem is solved. etc. attitudes of people. negotiation techniques. In these organizations training happens only when there is a problem which needs to be solved. To develop inter-personal relations. certain recent changes in perception have done a lot of good to corporate training. 1. To train the employees in the companies’ culture and ethics. The change of technology is advancing at faster pace making skills of today obsolete tomorrow. To reduce supervision. telephone skills. To train the employees in order to improve the work methods and skills so as to increase quality and quantity of output. To prevent obsolescence. 4. To ensure economical output with high quality. To facilitate succession planning i. 11. The major objectives of the training may be enumerated as follows: 1. compelling employees to get trained in various skills like foreign languages.e. To foster individual and group morale with positive attitude and cordial relations. 2. thus making training and re-training imperative. There are some organizations where training is used as a tool to deal with specific problems. working environment. 7. 2. 8. More and more sills are taught and learnt and fewer skills are regarded as inborn. To prepare the employees both newly recruited and already employed to meet the present as well as the future requirement of the job and the organization. Globalization has resulted in diversity in lifestyles. 9. . 3. 3. To prepare employees for higher level responsibilities.In treating training there are three types of organization. methodology or behavior. 10. 6. to build up a second line of competent employees. To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of employees by updating them on latest concepts and techniques. The second type of organizations treats training as a continuous activity. Objectives of Training The training objectives are formulated in line with the companies’ goals and objectives. They make every superior in organization responsible for training which invariably results in learning updates either in technology. They feel that the cost of training is high and is not commensurate with the benefits derived from it. 5. etc.
2. attitude and knowledge. It is a systematic process of altering the behavior of employees in a direction that will achieve organization goals. leave rules. As specified in the above example. skill and abilities (KSA) of the individual. the person after repeated usage masters the skill of driving and so drive without thinking about steps or process. A formal training programme is an effort by an employer to provide opportunities for the employee to acquire job related skills.Importance / Significance of Training Training is a systematic process of changing knowledge skill and behavior of employees to improve their performance on the job as per the goals and objectives of the organization. Training involves a process of providing KSA’s specific to a particular task or job. A person who masters the skill and uses it often reaches the automaticity stage. 3. Facts are those that are verifiable blocks of information. Training is important for new as well as old employees. union and . Strategic knowledge consists of a person’s awareness of what he knows and the internal rules learned for accessing the relevant facts and procedures to be applied towards achieving some goal. Skill is a proficiency at doing something beyond just knowing about it. Sometimes a gap may exist in knowing about things and from actually being able to do them. Training is an attempt to improve current or future performance. Here the process needs to think about what he is doing while performing the task. Ex: If a person learnt to drive car recently will have to think of the steps and procedures while driving. Knowledge: Knowledge consists of these elements: Declarative – The information we acquire and place into memory Procedural – How information is organized for use into what are already known Strategic – Our understanding of how. Development activities in contrast have a long-term focus on preparing for future responsibilities while increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs. Factual learning exists when the learner is able to recall blocks of information. Training and development focus on the improvement of the knowledge. when and why information is used and is useful Declarative knowledge is the store of factual information about a subject matter. Skill: It is the general capabilities to perform a set of tasks developed as a result of training and experience. When skill is learned recently then he is said to be in the compilation stage. The belief and opinion the person holds about objects or events (such as management. operating a machine and implementing a strategy. Attitudes: Attitudes are the employees’ belief and opinion that support or inhibit behavior. etc. Acquisition of a skill can be said to have two stages. 1. At the first stage it is called as compilation (lower level) and second stage is called as automaticity (higher level). An individual understanding about how and when to apply facts already learnt by him is a procedural knowledge. Skills are dependent on the knowledge in the sense the person must know ‘what to do’ and ‘when to do it’. such as procedures for hiring employees in organization. A person skill is reflected by how well he is able to carry out specific action like interacting with customers.
Global business expansion has been made easier by technology. 5. If training is not the best solution it will not address the root cause of the problem and organization may loose time. While initiating training efforts the difference between results based training and activity based training is to be recognized. Beside. Training is not a panacea (sanjeevini) for all organizational ills.Globalization .High performance models of work systems . Problems of Training 1. Many companies are entering international markets by exporting their products overseas.training) create positive or negative feelings about these objects / events. This may defeat the very purpose of the training programme. Thus.Changing demographics and diversity of the workforce . Competition for local managers exceeds the available supply. Instead training should be focused on what learners must learn and use on the job. Mismatch between objectives and needs may make the training programme useless. train and develop employees with managerial talent.Economic changes Globalization: Every business must be prepared to deal with the global economy. Sometimes training is conducted on what’s “nice to know”. 2. If the intervention methodology is chosen properly the training will be ineffective and incomplete.Customer service and quality emphasis . effort. Sometimes programmes that no longer meet work related needs are conducted for the sake of numbers. Trainer’s competencies are not properly assessed while mounting a training programme. Factors arising need for training / Factors influencing working and learning . Such programmes are to be avoided. training and development many companies are sending employees and managers to work in international location. As a result companies have to take steps to attract and retain mangers. and engaging in e-commerce.Increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital . Need for leadership: The aging of workforce and globalization mean that companies will need to identify. Cross-cultural training is important to prepare employees for overseas assignments. Executive. 7.New technology . Sometimes trainers fall into the trap that many problems can be solved by a training solution. 4. entering into alliances with foreign companies. changing the person’s belief / opinion can change the desirability or feeling of the person towards the said object / event.Focus on link to business strategy . money. image and credibility. building manufacturing facilities in other countries. 6. administrative and .Need for leadership . 3. as delivery may not lead to learning.Attracting and retaining talent .
Focus on link to business strategy: Given the important role that intangible assets and human capital play in a company’s competitiveness. its plans for meeting broad goals such as profitability. .Patents . This will result in a significant loss of managerial talent. Human capital refers to the sum of the attributes. knowledge.Brands . To manage the global economy successfully.Tacit knowledge . life experiences. that is.Work relate competence Customer capital refers to the value of relationships with persons or other organizations outside the company for accomplishing goals of the company.managerial occupations will experience the greatest turnover due to death or retirement. For example 85% of Fortune 500 companies believe that they do not have enough employees with global leadership skills. Increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital: Today more and more companies are interested in intangible assets and human capital as a way to gain an advantage over competitors.Distribution channels Social capital refers to relationships in the company. . create global management and marketing practices. innovation.Management practices .Trade secrets Intangible assets have been show to be responsible for a company’s competitive advantage. and quality.Work related know-how . . market share. Training and development has a direct influence on human and social capital because it affects education. work related know-how and competence and work relationships. Many companies do not have employees with the competencies necessary to mange in a global economy.Management philosophy .Customer relationships . .Copy rights . and interact and manage employees form diverse cultural backgrounds.Informal networking systems . manages are beginning to see a more important role for training and development as a means to support a company’s business strategy.Coaching / Mentoring relationships Intellectual capital refers to the codified knowledge that exists in the company. A company’s value includes three types of assets: • Financial assets (cash and securities) • Physical assets (property.Knowledge .Corporate culture .Customer loyalty . plant and equipment) and • Intangible assets Intangible assets consist of. . Training and development can have an indirect influence on customer and intellectual capital by helping employee’s better serve customers and by providing knowledge to create intellectual property. Training and development can help a company’s competitiveness by directly increasing the company’s value through contributing to intangible assets. Managers expect training and development professionals to design and develop learning activities that will help the company successfully implement its strategy and reach business goals. energy and enthusiasm that employees invest in their work. managers need to be self-aware and be able to build international teams.
This presents a challenge for employees who interact with customers. employee attitude survey results suggested that the reason for turnover was lacking of training. At well point. Changing demographics and diversity of the workforce: Companies face several challenges as a result of increased diversity in the workforce. High performance models of work system: New technology causes changes in skill requirements and work role and often results in redesigned work structures. So advances in technology demand for potential training applications. Talented employees are looking for growth and a career path. Economic changes: Global competition. computer – integrated manufacturing uses robots and computers to automate the manufacturing process. Customer driven excellence includes understanding what the customer wants and anticipating future needs customer driven excellence includes reducing defects and errors. Work teams may assume many activities. Companies are facing not only the issues of race. temporary workers. companies are struggling with the rise in health care costs. and changes in work place. the top two reasons for staying at a job are 1) exciting work and challenge and 2) career growth. changes from a manufacturing to a service economy. skill deficiencies. consumers are very knowledgeable and expect excellent service. Technology also allows companies to use contingent workforce such as independent contractors. The internet has created a new business model – e-commerce in which business transactions and relationships can be conducted electronically. on call workers.Attracting and retaining talent: Retention is an important part of talent management. but they must also develop training programs to help immigrants acquire the technical and customer service skills required in a service economy. Work teams involve employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service. ethnicity and nationality to provide a fair workplace. and pension costs. Customer service and quality emphasis: Customers can judge quality and performance. gender. cross training is required. increased merger and acquisition activity. and company downsizing all means that many employees who were able to earn high wages in low skilled factory jobs may have to turn to service jobs with less security and fewer benefits. plan our lives (eg: electronic calendars) and where we work (eg: laptop). For example. Cross training refers to training employees in a wide range of skills so they can fill any of the roles needed to be performed on the team. Training and development is a key to attracting and retaining talented employees. A recent survey on changes in the American workforce in the context of ongoing social change identified that a large group of workers are more concerned with opportunities for mentoring and growth than job security and stable employment. Also. The political unrest across the globe causes on economic uncertainty and affects investment decision in physical and human . New Technology: Technology has reshaped the way we play (eg: games on internet). retirement benefit costs. meeting specifications and reducing complaints. learning and development. Communicate (eg: cell phones). Due to increased availability of knowledge and competition. To give teams maximum flexibility. Customer service is a strategic training and development initiative. According to survey conducted by career systems international. a California based health care company.
capital. According to study conducted by Yadapadithaya P. Most of these organizations use costly technology and equipments. grater representation t the employees . All India management association (AIMA) is an association of leading management schools. HRD in these organizations assumes greater importance to improve their efficiency. 3. Hyderabad. HRD is a process by which an individual learns and develops creativity and help the organization it also includes mechanism like performance appraisal feedback and counseling assessment of training and development needs. Therefore. privatizing and globalizing the Indian corporate sector. The national institute of industrial engineering (NISE) was established in 1963 by the government of India. skills and attitudes • Promotion of value towards quality • Transformation of organization vision. Some of major objectives of training and development reported by sample organizations are. Training expenditure is slowly being recognized as an investment in human capital. It conducts customized in-company training programs. • Prevention of organizational obsolescence • Modification of desirable knowledge. HRD in private enterprises: The private sector is on the growth path in India. Administrative staff college of India. New technology combined with economic uncertainty will lead to training that is developed on an as needed basis. evaluation of programme and feedback. Training and development policies and practices vary across industries depending upon their nature. designing suitable programmes. A number of central and state level institutions Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of National Academy. mission and goal • Adoptive strategic adjustment with social and technological changes There are a few institutions and organizations which play a major role in the development of training and development. some of the findings bring out the trend in Indian industries. It engages in conducting short-term executive development programmes in the area of industrial engineering and management. Indian society for training and development (ISTD) started in 1970 is a national professional non-profit society with membership of institutions involved in training and development. 4. size. Current Training and Development Practices in Indian Perspective The Indian corporate sector did not evince much interest in training and developing in human resources until 1991. The new industrial policy resolution brought out in 1991 liberalizing. Academy of administration. management development programs and workshops. Hyderabad. Institute of public enterprise.S on HRD policies and practices in Indian industries. 1. HRD in public sector: Public sector plays vital role in India which contributes most towards national economy. Organizations have shifted their focus from target-based to need-based training. Bhopal have started conducting HRD programmes for civil administrative and public sector organizations. The private sector is now going for employee stock ownership scheme. 2. As a result HRD function as a whole received greater recognition and importance in newly emerged market.
But it is to be admitted that the status of management development and training in private enterprises is not better than public enterprises. . Workers in Japanese automobile plants receive an average of 90 hours of training annually. Wipro. Zee Tele etc.on the board and professionalization. Training in Japan: Employers in Japan are well regarded for their significant and long-term commitment to developing the skills of their employees. Current Training and Development Practices in International Perspective Training in Singapore: Singapore is probably the best known prototype (example) of a nation that has successfully up skilled its workforce over the last 40 years. On both education and training dimensions and national human resource development. as does vocational training. Some big business houses such as Tatas (Tata management centre). Though there is a technology boom in India and the TMT (Technology Media-Telecom) business is on the rise. Once employed. therefore. Training in Canada: Canada’s training and education system is quite similar to the US primary and secondary education. Birlas (Birla management centre). It has not led to any increased commitment to the management development and training. including the availability of skilled people. Singapore’s achievements are excellent. company sponsored training. For the fifth consecutive year. Company sponsored training focuses on managers and technicians but the quality varies. Japanese employee development is a key factor in its economic advantage. Training in Germany: Germany’s major strength is that primary and secondary schooling is closely integrated with subsequent training programs and in general educational programmes have high quality but Germany is best known for its apprenticeship programme. US automobile plants provide an average of 30 hours of training annually. Companies provide relatively little training. have no academies of their own. ongoing. More than half of the German workforce has completed apprenticeship programme. attitude of the work force and competitive values. Bharathi Telecom. The global competitiveness report 2000 rated Singapore’s education system first in terms of its ability to meet the needs of a competitive economy. Even Infosys. Japanese workers receive extensive. Factors contributing to the success of the Singaporean skills development system: • The linkage between skills development and economic development • The EDB’s evolving model of technology transfer • Foreign investment and skills development • Skills development fund • Long term skills development: Education policy Training in United States: US primary and secondary education varies greatly in quality. equal opportunity. industrial disputes. worker motivation. and Reliance (Reliance management academy) have their own academics. And various executive-opinion surveys reported that Singapore is ranked first amongst all developing nations in terms of a number of human resource dimensions. the world economic forum has rated Singapore’s labor force first in terms of computer literacy and second in the world in terms of availability of skilled people as well as worker motivation.
direct relationship and career development. The development is for managers and executives. . company sponsored training programmes are scarce. 10. Training is mostly for non-managers. the staff members have experience perception of the relationship between learning and knowledge. The training is job oriented process and is 6. Development focuses long-term gains. Development is concerned with related enhancement of general knowledge and understanding of non-technical organization functions. Development prepares for future jobs. dedication and loyalty amongst executives. a clear. Training may result in enhancement of a 8. No evaluation is possible for development. Training is the result of organizational 9. Development is a continuous on going process. 3. 11. 5. Development programmes. The staff members may have no clear 12. Training can be classified into 2 major 10. No such classification is possible. 4. Training is one shot deal. between self development and career success. and their quality is generally poor. Training is concerned with specific job skills and behavior. 2. 5. However. 7.Training in Korea: Korea’s training and educational system has made great strides in the last few years. such as those supplied by management. types a) on the job training b) off the job training. Development may result in personal growth particular job skill. 4. 13. Training focuses on current jobs. mechanical oriented operations. difference Training 1. Development 1. 7. 9. 12. 8. Here. 3. Evaluation for training is considered to be 13. 11. A strong primary and secondary school system has increased the quality of workers’ basic skills and vocational education has become remarkably strong in Korea. 6. Development focuses on theoretical skill and conceptual ideas. are generally voluntary. Training is usually imposed. and development of overall personality. creativity. 2. The development is general in nature and vocational in nature. enterprise. essential. In development motivation is intrinsic. initiative and hence motivation is extrinsic. strives to inculcate initiative. Development activities. Training focuses on technical. Training focuses on short term gains.
he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or management responsibility. Under this heading we are excluding promotions. 3. PROMOTIONS Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings. 5. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENT Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works. TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANY These are people who are moved from one job to another. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management. and the career and advancement opportunities available. or to dissimilar work under a different management. the terms. conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular employee.e. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities and personnel policies and provisions. 2. which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility. 4. i. The change is usually too important and difficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance. either within the same work area.BEST TIME TO IMPART TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE 1. NEW PROCEDURES Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also . the same department or function. as well as for technical service production control and others.
NEW STANDARDS. although there is no movement of staff between the sections (i. there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances. and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility. such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed. there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new set up. and where to direct problems and . 6. 7. In examples. Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now believes to be ‘messing about’. invoicing and customer records.e. as a result of management decisions. or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late.for those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for. say the withdrawal of materials from stores. no transfers). but there are cases. when more thorough training is needed. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIES These can arise. RULES AND PRACTICES Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the manager to his subordinates. in a number of ways. the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the section leaders of credit control. a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient. Although the change in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures. which is responsible for what.
work opportunities money management . communications. employee appraisal. there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists. for it must be remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare.enquiries as they arise in the future. 9. 11. of course. taking varied forms even for the on group of employees. there is not much agreement on the next frequency and form that such retraining should take. employee empowerment and so on. Add. 10. of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from time to time. Initial training in these skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. culture. does act as both a reminder and a stimulus. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company organisation. despite the common knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature. RETIREMENT AND REDUNDANCY Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit from learning about health. whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases where people spend a long time without change. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS & STANDARDS Skills in supervising. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITY Again. there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. leadership etc are important in all companies. social life. 8. and without the need to learn. MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training.
When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim. However. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: LECTURES – A Method of Training It is one of the oldest methods of training. Methods of Training (on the job missing) There are various methods of training. etc. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. Lecture is telling someone about something. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. There are some variations in Lecture method. the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method. . In this method. attitudes through lecture. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. written or verbal information. it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. in a few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required. goal. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. which the trainee attempts to absorb.etc. processes. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior. which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information. demonstrate relationships among concepts. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. agenda.
In order to be more effective. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic. To carry out an effective demonstration. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer’s intonation. demonstration method should be should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method. the more the trainee is involved. body language. The financial costs that occur in the demonstration method are as follows: • Cost of training facility for the program . etc. notes. In the lecture method. based on the signals from the trainees. and visual image of the trainer. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script. Main Features of Lecture Method Some of the main features of lecture method are: • Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings • Less expensive • Can be reached large number of people at once • Knowledge building exercise • Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Demonstration Training Method This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. trainer: Demonstrates the task by describing how to do. Then. easily learned parts. a trainer first prepares the lesson plan by breaking the task to be performed into smaller modules. purpose of the lecture. While performing the demonstration. while doing • Helps the focusing their attention on critical aspects of the task • Tells the trainees what you will be doing so they understand what you will be showing them • Explains why it should be carried out in that way The difference between the lecture method and the demonstration method is the level of involvement of the trainee. trainer shows the trainees how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job.A lecture may also take the form of printed text. As an example. and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. the trainer sequentially organizes those modules and prepares an explanation for why that part is required. whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. control of speed. such as books.
Cost of materials that facilitate training Food. can achieve higher level knowledge objectives. • • • • • Discussion Training Method This method uses a lecturer to provide the learners with context that is supported.e. material Cost related to the organization of the training After completing the demonstration the trainer provide feedback. followed by discussion and questioning. If the Discussion method is used with proper sequence i. lectures. and then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer. the trainer may need to spend more time on that particular area by presenting the information again in a different manner. When the trainees ask questions. If yes. the trainees and the trainer. The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i. The interaction and the communication between these two make it much more effective and powerful than the lecture method. both positive and or negative. then definitely it would help out the trainees to implement it at their workplaces and if not. travel. such as problem solving and principle learning. give the trainee the opportunity to do the task and describe what he is doing and why.e.e. elaborated. Questioning can be done by both ways i. Asking and responding questions are beneficial to trainees because it enhance understanding and . or expanded on through interactions both among the trainees and between the trainer and the trainees. Understanding is conveyed in the form of verbal and non-verbal feedback that enables the trainer to determine whether the material is understood. lodging for the trainees and the trainers Compensation of time spent in training to trainers and trainees Cost related to creating content. A trainer who asks questions stimulates thinking about the content of the lecture. knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees. explains. they explain their thinking about the content of the lecture.
is putting pressure on HR department to provide training at lower costs. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are : INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) o PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) o VIRTUAL REALITY o Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. about 75% of the organizations are providing training to employees through Intranet or Internet. The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are: GAMES AND SIMULATIONS o BEHAVIOR-MODELING o BUSINESS GAMES o CASE STUDIES o EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS o IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE o ROLE PLAYS . This activity helps in improving recall. but has become the technique of delivering training. Internet is not the method of training. the demands for knowledge and skilled employees have increased more than ever. This method is so varied in its applications that it is difficult to describe in concise terms. These methods are best used for skill development. discussions. The growth of electronic technology has created alternative training delivery systems. Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals Some of the benefits of Computer-Based Training are: According to a recent survey. CBT does not require face-toface interaction with a human trainer. and interactions allow the trainee to be actively engaged in the material of the trainer. Computer-Based Training (CBT) With the world-wide expansion of companies and changing technologies.keep the trainees focused on the content. Besides that. which in turn.
the personalized approach assists the manger focus on . and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. At the job. skills. and attitudes. PROCEDURE OF THE COACHING The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive counseling and meetings at the executive’s convenience by the coach. through e-mails. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF). he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. coaching is more likely done by the supervisor. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. more than 4. Repeat step 4 until performance improves. For the people at middle-level management. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. when a person reaches the top. Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD – COACHING Coaching is one of the training methods. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. the knowledge. Understand the participant’s job. show the participant how to achieve the objectives. A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because It is one-to-one interaction It can be done at the convenience of CEO It can be done on phone. meetings. These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. chat It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front.Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance review. 1. Again.000 companies are using coach for their executives. but through different means. however experts from outside the organization are at times used for upandcoming managers.
job rotation takes on different perspectives. In cases where the executive is new to the organization. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. By dealing with diverse mentee’s. culture. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee’s performance. and the area that needs to be worked upon. weakness. a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. In some vertically integrated organizations. job . the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background. Once the mentor identifies the problem. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. for example. Some key points on Mentoring • Mentoring focus on attitude development • Conducted for management-level employees • Mentoring is done by someone inside the company • It is one-to-one interaction It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement Job Rotation For the executive.definite needs and improvement Mentoring Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. the mentor can advise relevant training. where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary. and language and personality types Executives also have mentors.
Benefits of Job Rotation Some of the major benefits of job rotation are: • It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge. and countries • Identification of Knowledge. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. The few popular methods are: SENSITIVITY TRAINING TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES SIMULATION EXERCISES Case Study on Training Methods . and countries. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. For managers being developed for executive roles. they must have this type of training. cities. rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out. and abilities by working in different departments. business units. skills. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. functions. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. If someone is to be a corporate leader. and attitudes (KSAs) required • It determines the areas where improvement is required • Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position OFF THE JOB TRAINING – There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job.rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. business units. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments. skills.
“what results do we want from salespeople after the training program is over?” Answer to this question becomes the objective of the training program. different units. partner offices. The videos took 3 to 6 months to produce. etc • Sales Process i. Video contains live production plants. comparison with competitor’s products. The organization’s strategic plans. objectives. such as. annual bonuses. system description. winners receiving the best salesperson award to motivate the sales force Representatives then watch video. and other locations. applications. When salespeople feel they have mastered the Around thousands of sales persons were getting a specific video training. and computer integrated manufacturing applications. suppliers. market updates. how to deal in the situation of conflicts with customer. The sales people were getting training material along with the video.SALES TRAINING AT ABC COMPANY Few years ago. Videos were used to train sales people in various areas.e. and functional tactics would drive t this plan. videos were made. ABC Company developed a training strategy for training its global sales force. The input from these stakeholderswould be summarized and transferred into a master training Plan. they would take an exam and call a toll-free number to transmit responses to . about customer profile. Sales material. The major question that was asked by the designers of training program was. follow the directions. Then training content was designed. etc • Policies and procedures. such as: • Market information i. clients’ offices. product description. i. Once an initial procedure was designed it was then evaluated and critiqued the top management. manufacturers’ locations. incentive plans on achieving targets. about sales contests.e. product usage. An important feature of the strategy was to create a master training plan for each year. coaching on undesirable behavior. supplement skills developed during live courses • Product information.e. and training council. and refer to the material if faces any problem.
Employees. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. there is a need to impart ethical orientation. learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. In addition to these. particularly supervisors and executives. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. is imparting skills to employees. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening. tying a shoelace. and act accordingly. as was stated earlier. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. A worker needs skills to operate machines. Skills Training. the reporting manager was notified. These questions are: • In today’s technological world. riding a bicycle. Common motor skills include walking. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Those who couldn’t pass the exam were asked to go through the material and video again before retaking the exam. There is also the need for motor skills. emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. If the salesperson failed an exam again. throwing a ball and driving a car. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. . cost of delivery. This case gives rise to few important questions. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Salespeople who successfully passed an exam were factored into performance and merit reviews as well as promotional opportunities.exam. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. and other constraints play in selection of video delivery system? INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills. persuading. is video still the best way to deliver training? • Is video the most effective way to achieve training objectives? • What role did cost of development. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. and showing an understanding of others’ feelings.
There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg.Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Unethical practices abound in marketing. Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. If the production. Among management frauds. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds. collect and analysis information. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs. attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998. false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. satisfaction and job commitment. are motivated for better performance. Knowledge about business environment. Attitude affects motivation. Learning related to decisionmaking and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems. human relations. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless. specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. According to the study. management principles and techniques. and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. They have prior commitments 3. 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Employees refuse to changes 2. window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. finance and production function in an organization. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. and patent infringements. generate alternative solution and make an optimal .
Training and development programmes. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Even dissatisfaction. and meeting future employee needs. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. making employees stay long. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies.decision among alternatives. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. minimized accidents. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. There is greater stability. This is particularly true when . At the same time. Ultimately. complaints. supervisors and professionals. trained employees tend to stay with the organization.(1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. . the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. They seldom leave the company. as was pointed out earlier. Growth indicates prosperity. and capacity for growth in an organization. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered. scraps and damage. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. They are absorbed after course completion. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. All rounders can be transferred to any job. help remove performance deficiencies in employee. absenteeism. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. flexibility. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. Further. Flexibility is therefore ensured.
Similarly. If deficiency is due to lack of KSA then training is the way to solve it. Task analysis Analysis of the activities to be performed in organization to determine the KSA needed. or person analysis Organization analysis Analysis of environment. .THE TRAINING PROCESS Training Process Model Need analysis Design Phase Triggerin g event Developmen t Phase Implementati on Phase Outcome evaluatio n data Evaluation Phase Process data Analysis phase: Organizations that are able to meet the changing needs of the customers and the markets are the ones that are effective. Problems like motivation or equipment may be solved through training. Here the customers are the organization and the employees. Needs may be identified in the form of performance deficiency. It would be indicated by lesser profitability. strategies and resources to determine when to emphasize training. Also. Once performance deficiencies are identified. anticipated performance deficiencies may be identified for future handling of the employees. This TNA is normally carried out in three phases namely organization analysis. task analysis. So performance deficiency to be addressed by training is then prioritized. an effective training process is one which begins with the determination of customers needs in the Need Analysis phase. The process of doing such analysis is termed as Training Needs Analysis (TNA). Next at the employee level if he is not able to perform as per the expectations then also deficiency exists. more wastage or more idle time of machine or employees etc. this deficiency may be the current state of the organization. lowering of customer satisfaction. the cause must then be determined.
their learning. Development Phase: Instructional strategy like order timing and combination of elements used for training programme are carried out to meet the training objective. the training is ready for full implementation. Constraints placed on training and areas of expected support like organizational plan. time. Outcome evaluation when combined with process evaluation data will serve as a powerful tool in improving programmes. Implementation Phase: A pilot training group consisting of small number of trainee’s representative of the large population can be tried so that many opportunities may be available to influence the effectiveness of the training programme. . Once these refinements are made.Person analysis Analysis of knowledge and skills in order to determine who needs training. Input from the theories of learning which will help in designing the training programme for effective training and proper transfer of learning. This can be used to improve the training process. like job and the organization using the training objectives as the standard. The output of the implementation phase is the actual training that is conduced. Process evaluation data All these allow trainees to identify areas of self-improvement. How much they learn 3. money and staff all are input for training evaluation. They form the input for the evaluation phase. Training objectives are formulated as part of the design phase by examining the training needs in relation to the identified organizational constraints and support. including the method of instruction. for this collecting and analyzing process data can provide warning of potential problems in the training programme. Two types of evaluation are carried out namely process evaluation and outcome evaluation. 1. The output of the development phase forms the input for the implementation phase. Evaluation of the process is concerned with the determination of how well a particular process has achieved the objectives. 2. Outcome evaluation is conducted at the end of training to determine the effect of training on the trainees. their behavior and the effect on key organizational outcomes. the trainee’s responses. Design Phase: Organizational and operational analysis are carried out to get additional inputs on aspects like 1. Evaluation Phase: Evaluation objectives that are the output of the design phase organizational constraints. Also. These become the inputs for the development phase of the training system. pilot group evaluation input will also be helpful. resources and business cycle etc. Trainee reaction to training 2. The second part of the design process is identifying the factors needed in the training programme to facilitate learning and transfer back to the job. Process Evaluation: Each phase of the training process model constitutes a process with input and output. The training objective specifies the employee and organizational objective that should be achieved as a result of training.