28/Jan/2011

Basic Permanent Mold Casting

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Basic Permanent Mold Casting

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Basic Permanent Mold Casting is a generic term used to describe all permanent mold casting processes. They main similarity of this group being the employment of a permanent mold that can be used repeatedly for multiple castings. The mold also called a die is commonly made of steel or iron, but other metals or ceramics can be used. Parts that may be manufactured in industry using this casting process include cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, pistons, connecting rods, parts for aircraft and rockets, gear blanks, and kitchenware.

The Process
When planing to manufacture using a permanent mold manufacturing process the first step is to create the mold. The sections of the mold are most likely machined from two separate blocks. These parts are manufactured precisely. They are created so that they fit together and may be opened and closed easily and accurately. The gating system as well as the part geometry is machined into the mold. A significant amount of resources need to be utilized in the production of the mold, making setup more expensive for permanent mold manufacturing runs. However, once created, a permanent mold may be used tens of thousands of times before its mold life is up. Due to the continuous repetition of high forces and temperatures all molds will eventually decay to the point where they can no longer effectively manufacture quality castings. The number of castings produced by that particular mold before it had to be replaced is termed mold life . Many factors effect mold life such as the molds operating temperature, mold material and casting metal.

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In addition applying the refractory coat as a regular part of the manufacturing process will increase the mold life of the very valuable mold.28/Jan/2011 Basic Permanent Mold Casting Before pouring the casting the internal surfaces of the permanent mold are sprayed with a slurry consisting of refractory materials suspended in liquid. Figure:59 thelibraryofmanufacturing. This coating serves as a thermal gradient helping to control the heat flow. and acting as a lubricant for easier removal of the cast part.com/basic_p… 2/7 .

This will act to increase mold life. Most likely the mold will be heated prior to the pouring of the metalcasting. thelibraryofmanufacturing. A possible temperature that a permanent metal casting mold may be heated before pouring could be around 350F (175C). Once securely closed and heated the permanent mold is ready for the pouring of the cast part. Pouring a metalcasting in a heated mold will also reduce the thermal shock encountered by the mold due to the high temperature gradient between the molten metal and the mold. using some sort of mechanical means.com/basic_p… 3/7 .28/Jan/2011 Basic Permanent Mold Casting The two parts of the mold must be closed and held together with force. Figure:60 After pouring the casting solidifies within the mold. The heating of the mold will facilitate the smoother flow of the liquid metal through the molds gating system and casting cavity.

com/basic_p… 4/7 .28/Jan/2011 Basic Permanent Mold Casting Figure:61 In manufacturing practice the cast part is usually removed before much cooling occurs to prevent the solid metalcasting from contracting too much in the mold. Figure:62 thelibraryofmanufacturing. This is done to prevent cracking the casting since the permanent mold does not collapse. (see Shrinkage ) The removal of the casting is accomplished by way of ejector pins built into the mold.

com/basic_p… 5/7 .28/Jan/2011 Basic Permanent Mold Casting Figure:63 Cores And Semipermanent Mold Casting thelibraryofmanufacturing.

This will result in a smaller grain structure producing a casting with superior mechanical properties. Due to the need to open and close the mold to remove the work piece. Properties And Considerations Of Manufacturing By Basic Permanent Mold Casting Generally this manufacturing process is only suited for materials with lower melting temperatures. part geometry is limited.com/basic_p… 6/7 . magnesium. The sand cores are not permanent. These cores are likely made of the same material of the mold and are also permanent. however. If the semipermanent casting method is used internal part geometry may be complex. Sand cores have a lot less limitations and can be used in conjunction with permanent molds. is another advantage of this manufacturing process. The mold may be cooled by water or heat fins to help the dissipation of heat during the casting process. and must be broken up and replaced with every casting. Closer dimensional accuracy as well as excellent surface finish of the part. In industrial manufacture permanent mold casting results in a lower percentage of rejects than many expendable mold processes. like the mold. allow for more freedom in the manufacture of internal geometry. There is a limitation on the size of cast parts manufactured by this process.28/Jan/2011 Basic Permanent Mold Casting Cores are often employed in a permanent mold casting process. In manufacturing industry using a disposable core with a permanent mold is called semipermanent mold casting. The geometry of the these cores has to allow for the removal of the casting or the cores need to be able to collapse by some mechanical means. More uniform properties throughout the material of the cast part may also be observed with permanent mold casting. copper. Cast iron parts are also manufactured by this process but the high melting temperature of cast iron is hard on the mold. Sand cores. The initial setup cost are high making permanent mold casting unsuitable for small production runs. such as zinc. Due to the nature of the mold the metalcasting will solidify rapidly. Permanent Mold Casting can be highly automated. Sand cores are placed within the permanent mold prior to pouring the metalcasting. Steels may be cast in permanent molds made of graphite or some special refractory material. thelibraryofmanufacturing. and aluminum alloys.

Where once set up. it can be extremely economical with a high rate of production. NEXT PREVIOUS TOP thelibraryofmanufacturing.com/basic_p… 7/7 .28/Jan/2011 Basic Permanent Mold Casting This manufacturing process is useful in industry for high volume runs.

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