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Introduction. Causes of poverty Major poverty alleviation programmes Analysis of the programmes Data for Expenditure allocation under major programmes.
Submitted by : Nancy Sebastian(09-Pec-031) Submitted to : Prof. Amaldhas
INTRODUCTION: Since the 1950s, the Indian government and non-governmental organizations have initiated several programs to alleviate poverty. However, As of 2010, more than 37% of India¶s
against the total allocation of Rs.050 crore given under stimulus package has been released till March 31. The actual expenditure of Rs. There is a surplus of labour in agriculture. 80% of the total allocation is being utilized for the construction of new houses and the remaining 20% for conversion of unserviceable kutcha houses into pucca houses.population of 1.77 crore earmarked for release to DRDAs under IAY for construction of 21. nonSC/ST rural households.07 lakhs has been incurred during 2008-09. From 1999-2000. The scheme is funded on a cost-sharing basis of 75:25 between the Centre and the States.1000. although demographers generally agree that this is a symptom rather than cause of poverty. High Illiteracy Regional inequalities Protectionist policies pursued till 1991 that prevented high foreign investment . 65% of rural forward castes are below the poverty line. 2009 and 21. High population growth rate. According to a World Bank estimate by 2015. An amount of Rs. The outlay of Rs. 5. widows and physically handicapped persons living in the rural areas.700. agriculture growth rate has dropped from 4. Using the UN definition of poverty. freed bonded labourers.8% to 2%.00 lakhs during 2009-10 is anticipated to be utilized in full. an estimated 53 million people will still live in extreme poverty. During 2008-09. 3. y y y y y Poverty reduction has been an important goal of development policy since the inception of planning in India.632. MAJOR ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMMES IN INDIA INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA : The objective of IAY is to provide financial assistance for construction/ upgradation of houses to BPL rural households belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.645.27 lakh houses. .05 lakh houses had been constructed during 2008-09. While services and industry have grown at double digit figures.00 lakhs is proposed for theAnnual Plan 2010 -11 as a State¶s share.35 billion still lives below the poverty.795. Rs8.00 lakhs has been projected as State Share for the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12). An outlay of Rs. Over-reliance on agriculture. About 60% of the population depends on agriculture whereas the contribution of agriculture to the GDP is about 18%.79 crore including Rs. CAUSES of poverty in India y Caste explanations of poverty fail to account for the urban/rural divide. Farmers are a large vote bank and use their votes to resist reallocation of land for higher-income industrial projects.5400.
47 crore households were provided employment in 2008-09.48.In Gujarat. provision of irrigation systems. NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME : It was initially called the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) but was renamed to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Emploment Guarantee Scheme on 2 October 2009.00 lakhs. an outlay of Rs. or flood control) is vulnerable to being taken by over wealthier sections of society.The target for the 11th Plan is to provide 45222 new houses and to upgrade 24872 numbers of houses. land development. 30. afforestation. 2006. The actual expenditure during 2008-09 was Rs. water conservation.as high Rs 50 are paid in order to receive the job cards. While 4309 new houses and 1310 for upgradation has been achieved during 200809. The approved outlay during 2009-10 is Rs. National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme. 2004 (NREGP):For the 11th Plan 2007-12. Out of the 215. 29 per cent and 25 per cent were in favour of SC and ST population. NREGS. 16. More than 4. it is targetted to provide 10870 numbers of new houses and 6240 for upgradation. 750. the public works schemes' completed product (e. This is a significant jump over the 3.g.39 crore households covered under the scheme during 2007-08. 8.00 lakhs has been projected based on the Planning Commission¶s instructions. against which Rs.00 lakhs.000. Further concerns include the fact that local government corruption leads to the exclusion of specific sections of society . The original version of the Act was passed with Rs 60/ day as the minimum wage that needs to be paid under NREGA. .000 crore in 2008-09 for NREGS. in 200 most backward districts in the first phase. and the scheme has now been extended to all the districts of the country. During the annual Plan 2010-11. the target of 8363 numbers of new houses and 4800 for upgradation during the annual Plan 2009-10 is anticipated to be achieved. 2008. a scam of Rs 10 million has taken place.63 crore person-days created under the scheme during this period. was expanded to 330 districts in the second phase during 2007-08. construction of roads. The remaining 266 districts were notified on September 28. However a lot of states in India already have wage regulations with minimum wages set at more than 100 per day. respectively and 48 per cent of the total persondays created went in favour of women.100 crore has been made in the interim budget for 2009-10 as against Rs. 923. NREGA's minimum wage has since been changed to 100 per day. which was launched on February 2. An allocation of Rs.
f 15-09-2008. 27.05 lakhs no.00 lakhs as State¶s share under the funding pattern of 90:10 w. This programme was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in compliance with the provisions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2004 passed by the Parliament. Target: Rural poor with SCs/STs accounting for 50 per cent.43 lakhs has been incurred during 2008-09. The objective of the programme is to bring the poor families above the poverty line by providing them with income generating assets through bank credit and Government subsidy.50 lakhs mandays during Annual Plan 2009-10 is expected to be achieved. women 40 per cent and the disabled 3 per cent of the beneficiaries. For the Eleventh Plan (2007±12). deforestation. For the 11th Plan period.03 crore. The Projected Outlay for this sector during the 11th plan is Rs.75 lakhs mandays. of mandays have been fixed. soil erosion. Existence of suitable technical and economic infrastructure is essential for the success of the programme.00 lakhs approved during 2009-10 is expected to be utilized in full. The target fixed for 2010-11 is 243.e. 34 lakh self-help groups (SHGs) had been formed and 120.08. The choice and location of works are made after the identification of causes of chronic poverty like drought. The amount of Rs. 236. The objective of the programme is to enhance the livelihood security of the people in rural areas by generating wage employment through works that develop the infrastructure base of that area. SWARNJAYANTI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA : SGSY was launched in April 1999 after restructuring of the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and allied programmes. It is the only self-employment programme currently being for the rural poor. Up to March 2009. The achievement during 2008-09 was 86.31 lakhs mandays and a target of 187.00 lakhs is proposed for the Annual Plan (2010 -11) to meet the State Share of 10%.00 lakhs is anticipated to be utilized.89 lakh swarozgaris have been assisted with a total outlay of Rs.00 lakhs is proposed for the Annual Plan 2010-11. An amount of Rs. The funding pattern for the scheme is 90:10 since 15.183. 2250.1500. The sharing pattern of the scheme between the Centre and the State is approximately on 90:10 basis. The scheme is being implemented on cost sharing basis of 75:25 between the Centre and states. An expenditure of Rs.09. 300. infrastructural . a target of 461. An outlay of Rs. 5500. The programme envisages to ensure guaranteed employment of not less than 100 days in a financial year to adult members of rural household in the rural areas who are willing to volunteer and undertake unskilled manual works.200.
(b) the Urban Women Self-help Programme (UWSP) which targets urban poor women self-help groups for setting up of group enterprises and providing them assistance through a revolving fund for thrift and credit activities. (c) Skill Training for Employment Promotion amongst Urban Poor (STEP-UP) which targets the urban poor for imparting quality training so as to enhance their employability for self-employment or better salaried employment.12 crore had been utilized till December 31.development will be given due priority. With regard to the number of beneficiaries during 2008-09. As against the Eleventh Plan Target for assisting of 7500 SHGs and 4000 individual Swarozgaries.613 urban poor have been assisted to set up individual enterprises.47. While a total of 1875 SHGs and 1250 Individual Swarozgaries is anticipated to be achieved during the Annual Plan 2009-10. 13.463 urban poor women have . the actual achievement during the Annual Plan 2008-09 was 527 SHGs and 2 individual Swarozgaries. 9. 2009. 28. 2009.453 urban poor women have been assisted in setting up group enterprises. 27. Creation of more facilities and services are necessary for enhancement of their income related economic activities which will be beneficial to them. SWARNA JAYANTI SHAHARI ROZGAR YOJANA : Implementation of SJSRY begins from 1st December 1997 under funding pattern of Centre and State in 75:25 basis. During 2009-10. The revamped SJSRY has five components: (a) the Urban Self-Employment Programme (USEP) which targets individual urban poor for setting up of micro enterprises. (d)the Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP) which seeks to assist the urban poor by utilizing their labour for the construction of socially and economically useful public assets.390 urban poor were assisted to set up individual/group micro enterprises and 14.84. The Government has recently revamped the SJSRY with effect from April 1. in towns having population less than 5 lakh as per the 1991 census. as reported by States/UTs. a target for the Annual Plan 2010-11 is fixed at 2440 SHGs and 1625 Individual Swarozgaries.209 urban poor were imparted skill training under SJSRY as per the progress reports received up to the end of March 31.00 crore of which Rs 363. and (e) the Urban Community Development Network (UCDN) which seeks to assist the urban poor in organizing themselves into self-managed community structures so as to gain collective strength to address the issues of poverty facing them and participate in effective implementation of urban poverty-alleviation programmes. Budget allocation for the SJSRY scheme for 2009-10 is Rs 515. by encouraging the setting up of selfemployment ventures by the urban poor and also by providing wage employment and utilizing their labour for construction of socially and economically useful public assets. 2009. The scheme provides gainful employment to the urban unemployed and underemployed poor.
There is 75:25 funding between the Centre and the States.1650. There is 75:25 between the Centre and States. 515 crore during 2008-09 and Rs. A maximum of two adults per family are provided wage employment.2209. The wage employment under the programme is given to Below Poverty Lines (BPL) families. being implemented in all the 5448 rural blocks of the country.00 crore has been earmarked for JGSY for the year 2000-01. During 1999-2000. The scheme has become allocative scheme instead of demand driven and a fixed annual outlay is to be provided to the States. JAWAHAR GRAM SAMRIDHI YOJANA (JGSY) The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) has been recast as the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) with effect from 1.The funds are directly released to the Gram Panchayats by the DRDAs/Zilla Parishads. 5. The secondary objective is generation of supplementary employment for the unemployed poor in the rural areas. Preference is given to SCs/STs and parents of child labour withdrawn from hazardous occupations who are below the poverty line.The programme is implemented through the Zilla Parishads (DRDAs in those States where Zilla Parishads do not exist).f. The secondary objective is the creation of durable community.1999 .1841.e.24 crore. desert. The fund allocation for the scheme was Rs.4.57 lakh works. 1999-2000 to make it the single wage employment programme. An expenditure of Rs.185 urban poor have been imparted skill training. Presently. .been assisted through a revolving fund for thrift and credit activities and 85. social and economic assets for sustained employment and development. 540. 1993 1772 identified backward blocks of 257 districts situated in drought prone. EMPLOYMENT ASSURANCE SCHEME (EAS): It was launched on 2nd October. The EAS was restructured w.80 crore was incurred during 1999-2000 as against a total allocation of Rs.67 crore has been released up to March 31. A Central outlay of Rs. There is creation of demand driven community village infrastructure including durable assets at the village level and assets to enable the rural poor to increase the opportunities for sustained employment. 2009.84 lakh works were completed as against a target of 8. tribal and hill areas where the Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) was in operation. There is creation of additional wage employment opportunities during the period of acute shortage of wage employment through manual work Target: rural poor living below the poverty line.
10. ANNAPURNA Launched in 1999-2000.100 per cent Centrally Sponsored Scheme . prepare and display a list of such persons after giving wide publicity. An amount of Rs.000 is provided in the case death of primary breadwinner due to natural or accidental causes. National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS) A lump sum cash assistance of Rs.54 crore has been released in 2009-10 (upto 31.2009).24 crore was released to the State Governments during 2008-09.00 crore has been earmarked for the scheme in 2000-01.4260.4442.63 lakh . The family benefit is paid to such surviving member of the household of deceased who.500 is provided to pregnant women of households below the poverty line up to the first two live births provided they are of 19 years of age and above. The main features of the three components of the NSAP namely National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS) Old age pension of Rs. 1995 .1300. `Annapurna¶ will provide 10 kg of food grains per month free of cost to all such persons who are eligible for old age pensions but are presently not receiving it and whose children are not residing in the same village. is determined to be the Head of the household.A Central outlay of Rs. It provides food security to those indigent senior citizens who are not covered under the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and who have no income of their own and none to take care of them in the village. A Central allocation of Rs.75 per month. NATIONAL SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (NSAP) Launched on 15th August.46 crore was made under EASan expenditure of Rs.00 crore has been provided for EAS for 2000-01.It provides social assistance benefit to poor households in the case of old age. The maternity benefit is to be disbursed in one instalment. During 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12) the above plan schemes like . per beneficiary is provided to person of 65 years and above who is a destitute in the sense of having little or no regular means of subsistence from his/her own sources of income or through support from family members or other sources. The Gram Panchayats would be required to identify.12. Based on recommendations received from M/o Rural Development.1998. death of primary breadwinner and maternity.100. 12-8 weeks prior to the delivery.2431.26 crore was incurred as against the target of 4091. after local enquiry. National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS) A sum of Rs.During 1999-2000. an amount of Rs. a total allocation of Rs.
Since its inception in 1980.94 lakh Construction of Village Grain Bank .2. the administrative costs of the DRDAs were met by way of setting apart a share of the allocation for each programme. Achievement of 2008-09 and 2009-10 Persons benefit under Annapurna Yojna .123 no. subside on domestic LPG. 1999 with funding on a 75:25 basis between the Centre and States. It facilitates the implementation of the programmes.46.0. establishment Village Grain Banks will continue while some new schemes enhancing of PDS commission on Kerosene oil and APL foodgrains taken up.179 lakh Distribution of foodgrains to BPL families . while new poverty alleviation programmes were introduced. Administrative cost per district applicable from 1999-2000 has been fixed as given below: Category A District (less than 6 blocks) Rs.017 lakh Distribution of Iodized salt at subsidized rate to BPL families .00 lakh Persons benefit under Antyodaya Yojna . Godown construction.23.57.00 lakhs Category D District (more than 15 blocks) Rs.9.65. over the years.Annapurna Yojana. Distribution of iodised salt at subsidized rate to BPL families.5.67. to supervise/oversee and . Subsidy on domestic LPG Cylinder to families . A new Centrally Sponsored Scheme for `Strengthening of DRDA Administration¶ was launched with effect from April 1.23.94 lakh DISTRICT RURAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES (DRDAS) They have traditionally been the principal organ at the district level to oversee the implementation of different anti-poverty programmes. However.00 lakhs . Mukhaya Mantri Khadyan Sahayata Yojna (BPL scheme). establishment of Jharkhand State Food Corporation Limited. Construction of Godown .761 lakh Distribution of free LPG Chulha to BPL families .00 lakhs Category C District (11-15 blocks) Rs. there was no uniformity amongst the programmes with reference to administrative costs and it was found that the provisions available for DRDAs were not sufficient even to meet the minimum costs. Antyodaya Anna Yojna.583 no.00 lakh Distribution of Levy sugar to BPL families .00 lakhs Category B District (6-10 blocks) Rs.14.
rural roads.220. Apart from basic necessity of food clothing and shelter its essentially an investment in human resource development.Its objective is augmenting food security through wage employment in drought affected rural areas in 8 states: Gujarat Maharashtra M. receive and send progress reports and account for the funds.Since april1. During the year 2000-01. an outlay of Rs.Workers are paid the balance of wages in cash such that they are assured of the notified minimum wages. 2002 in respect of notified ³natural calamity affected districts´ JAWAHAR ROZGAR YOJANA : Launched on April 1989.Program extended upto march 31. at a workplace near his residence. FOOD FOR WORK PROGRAM Launched on Feb 2001.It is a Social security benefits to agricultural workers in age group of 18 to 60 yrs.P Orissa Rajasthan Uttaranchal. The DRDAs are also entrusted the task of developing the capacity to build synergies among different agencies involved to bring about effective results. rural water supply.It was an integration of NREP and RLEGP.Wages by state govt to be paid partly in kind and partly in cash.Its objective are Generation of employment opportunities for under and unemployed in rural areas.Village panchayat allots projects to reach the target efficiently.00 crore has been allocated for the Strengthening of DRDA administration KRISHI SHRAMIK SAMAJIK SURAKSHA SOJANA: Launched on July 2001.Improvement in overall quality of life in villages. MINIMUM NEEDS PROGRAM It was introduced in 5th five yr plan.rural health. education . environment improvement of urban slums. rural electrification. housing assistance to landless rural labourers.To provide appropriate quantity of food grains free of cost to each of the drought affected states as an additionality under the scheme.monitor the progress.Creation of productive community assets. 1999 it has been recast as jawahar gram samridhi yojana. nutrition PRIME MINISTERS INTEGRATED URBAN POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAM(PMIUPEP) . Target: BPL families Wage employment to atleast 1 member of each family for 50-100 days a year.
46. Launched on oct 11.A CSS of 75:25.21 crore. Up to March 2009. It aims at creating 1 million jobs annually. Shelter upgradation .Its objective are Effective achievement of social sector goals.1989: Urban counterpart of JRY. Opportunities for self employment as well as generate wage employment.14. water harvesting. Target: Urban poor(BPL) It has been merged into Swaran jayanti shahri rozgar yojana (golden jubilee urban employment scheme). c)Rural drinking water project A min 25% of total allocation is to be utilised by respective state/UTs on projects for water conservation. a)Pradhan mantri gram sadak yojana: Launched on December 25. Wage employment through creation of durable assests . 2000 as a 100 per cent Centrally-sponsored scheme with the primary objective to provide all-weather connectivity to all the eligible unconnected habitations in the rural areas.Environment improvement with a multi pronged and long term strategy PRADHAN MANTRA GRAMODAYA YOJANA: Launched in 2000-01 . recharge and sustainability of drinking water in areas under desert development program/drought prone area program. PRIME MINISTERS ROZGAR YOJANA OCT 2. Community empowerment. primary education drinking water housing and rural roads with overall objective of improving the quality of life in rural areas.During 2001-02 allocation of 168 cr has been provided for various components of this program.Inroduced in 1995-96.45 kilometres of roadworks has been completed with cumulative expenditure of Rs. Employment generation.281.Setting up to self employment ventures by urban poor. NEHRU ROZGAR YOJANA. 1993 . a total length of about 2.It is basically Village level development in 5 areas health. 1 dec 1997. Skill upgradation.807. b) Grameen Awaas A sustainable habitat development at village level to meet growing housing needs of rural poor.
Employment by setting up micro enterprise in industry service and business.27 lakh tonnes of foodgrain. against an allocation of 41. welders. No outlay was earmarked during 2008-09 since the scheme has been merged with NREGP.A budget of Rs. etc VALMIKI AMBEDKAR AWAAS YOJANA Launched in Dec 2001. fabricators.It Facilitates construction and upgradation of dwelling units for slum dwellers and provides a healthy and a enabling urban environment through community toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan. scooter mechanics. which includes provision of 50 lakh tonnes of food grains.335 dwelling units and 381 toilet seats.4cr had been released covering 60. The scheme has been further expanded in June 2003 by adding another 50 lakh BPL families. washerman.A CSS of 50:50. SELF EMPLOYMENT SCHEME FOR URBAN POOR(SESUP) Launched in 1sep. 38. 35. An amount of Rs. The actual expenditure during 2007-08 was Rs. 386. Under the scheme. Max loan of Rs 5000 is given to self employed like Rickshaw pullers. ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA Launched in 25 dec 2001. and during 2003-04. It involves creation of durable community.56 lakh tonnes INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: .39 lakh tonnes have been lifted by State Governments. newspapaer sellers.000 crore has been allocated for the scheme.16 crore had been released as central subsidy for construction upgradation of 4.25kgs of foodgrains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidised rate of Rs 2 per kg for wheat and Rs 3 per kg for rice.It is a wage employment scheme in rural areas and also food security. Again the investment is shared between the centre and the states in the 75±25 ratio.36 lakhs.Quantity enhanced from 25 to 35kgs with effect from April 2002 for 1 year upto march 31.1986. a component of the scheme.247 toilet seats under the scheme. during 2002-03. 10.500. SAMPOORNA GRAMEEN ROZGAR YOJANA: Sep 2001.24 lakh tonnes of food-grain have been lifted against an allocation of 45.EAS+ Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana integrated with the scheme from 1 April 2002. 2003.1 crore poorest families out of the BPL families covered in TPDS are identified.Education unemployment youth. shoeshine boys. cobblers.478 dwelling units and 64.11. Coverage: rural and urban area.10.Upto 31 dec 2005 866. For 2005-06 out of the tentative central allocation of 249 cr upto 31 dec 2005 an amount of 96.00 lakhs has been projected for the Eleventh Plan as State¶s share. carpenters. social-economic assets.
6 lakhs. In the Seventh Plan it was extended to more districts and at the end of the Seventh Plan period it was in operation in 161 districts.000 with A membership of 4. 15.To remove multiplicity of different programs operated through multiple agencies.000 as a onetime grant to be used as a revolving fund. Creating employment opportunities. in 50 districts. as a pilot project.000 groups could be formed against the target of 35. Outright subsidies and loans are given to the target . The role of voluntary organisations would be crucial in organising women to take up group. During the Seventh Plan about 10 lakh youth were trained under TRYSEM. the number of households able to cross the poverty line was relatively small.based economic activities which are viable within the context of an area development plan. Raising standard of living level of income and consumption. It may be.Launched on 2 oct. Increasing production and productivity. A CSS of 50:50. to enable the rural youth to take up self employment ventures in different spheres across sectors by giving them assistance under IRDP. In 1987 the scope of the programme was enlarged to include wage employment also for the trained beneficiaries. to take up viable economic activities with Rs. Target: SC ST. of which 47 per cent took up self. DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS (DWCRA) In 1982-83 an exclusive scheme for women was launched in the IRDP. of which 70 per cent got employed.6 lakh women. partly due to the low levels of initial investment TRAINING OF RURAL YOUTH FOR SELF EMPLOYMENT (TRYSEM) Introduced in 1979 to provide technical skills and to upgrade the traditional skills of rural youth belonging to families below the poverty line. Experiments in some States to form women's thrift and credit societies first. In the Seventh Plan about 28. During 1990-91 the number of youth trained were 2. small and marginal farmers and BPL. NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME (NREP) .1980 in all 5004 blocks of the country Improve means of livelihood. However.employment and 12 per cent wage employment. and then start them on economic work have been successful. A group of women are granted assistance. IRDP was quite successful in terms of providing incremental income to poor families.
. 1-4-2004. RURAL LANDLESS EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE PROGRAMME (RLEGP) This was a totally Centrally financed programme introduced in 1983. There are now 136 projects under implementation.e. marginal farmers. 12. and the population of agricultural labourers. On a 50:50 basis.6 per cent expenditure on rural roads and 19. 6.9 per cent on schools. Only 16 per cent had been spent on social forestry but 22 per cent had been spent on housing. with guaranteed employment of 100 days.00 per manday.4 per on panchayat ghars. The programme was restructured and renamed as Command Area Development & Water Management (CADWM) Programme w. with 24. minor irrigation. soil conservation etc. THE HILL AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. The scheme is now being implemented as a State sector scheme during the XI Five Year Plan (2008-09 to 2011-12). ecodevelopment and eco preservation. Development of landuse plan for forest area as well as cultivated areas.with over 5 lakh houses created for SC/ST and freed bonded labourers.95 Million have been included under the programme.21.Improving the utilization of created irrigation potential and optimizing agriculture production and productivity from irrigated agriculture through a multidisciplinary team under an Area Development Authority. water and increase productivity of land. This translated on the field consist of the following components: 1. 60 major and medium irrigation projects were taken up under the CAD Programme. COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT (CAD) PROGRAMME Launched in 1974-75 .The entitlement of each State to the Central fund was based on the incidence of poverty.3 per cent to wells for drinking water. Rural roads accounted for 22 per cent while other construction. Introduced in Nilgiris District since the year 1975.1 per cent on social forestry. 2. covering a Culturable Command Area (CCA) of about 15.Initially. economic upliftment of tribals in an isolated settlements and also to ensure peoples participation in all developmental activities.00 million hectare. Rs. From 1974-75 till now 314 projects with a CCA of 28.It involves eco-restoration. each had a small share. To preserve and conserve sholas and grasslands of Nilgiris.2412 crores were spent and 115 crore mandays were generated with an average expenditure of Rs. A concurrent evaluation of NREP revealed that several types of assets were created.1 per cent on houses and 6.to develop land use planning for forest areas to cultivable areas to conserve soil. Construction was a main activity with 11. In the Seventh Plan.f.5 per cent was directed to minor irrigation and 3. It was limited only to the landless.
settlements. Conserve soil and water to increase productivity of theland by using vegetative methods and changing the cropping pattern. To provide improved seeds. government or private retailers. on additional finance given to small farmers and land development at 3% for loans advanced to small farmers. marketing and processing of their produce. Promote non-land based economic activities to uplift the poor people and to ensure environment Protection.3. Help them in securing facilities of storage. approaches and procedures which could be adopted in similar areas of the country. To help individual farmers in securing loans from cooperative banks for sinking wells on their own.e.. 7. Provision of easy and cheap credit to small farmers on all productive acititvities. Increase in agriculture production through adoption of a package of improved practices and to suggest successful and adoptable innovations.e. Economic up-liftment of tribals in isolated locations.To identify small farmers and to implement suitable measures for them. Arrange for irrigation in the area. etc. SFDA(SMALL FARMER DEVELOPMENT AGENCY) In operation since 1971 covering 1818 blocks in the country. .The selection of favourable areas maximum irrigation facilities and minimum of natural hazards. 6. 8. Hydro. transportation. The need of integrating the sectoral activities in selected as well as other watersheds are also carried out. fertilizers and other inputs at the right time from the local sales depots of cooperatives. 9. 4. "Area based Approach" adopted and integrated plans to be prepared for all watersheds and high priority watershed shall be chosen for treatment. SFDA gives out grants at 6% and 3% rate of interest to primary credit societies and cooperative banks respectively. Bio-gas. Promotion of Non-Conventional Energy sources i. THE INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE DISTRICT PROGRAMME (IADP) It was launched as the first major experiment in intensive agriculture development in the year 1960. Application of Remote sensing.25% of the total amount is sanctioned as subsidy and rest as loans.. To evolve a comprehensive human settlement policy and discourage migration.Arrange services and supplies of various inputs required by the small farmer. Use of scientific interventions will be encouraged i. 5. Promote activities such as digging wells and private tubewells.providing simultaneously all the essential elements of production such as adequate supply of fertilizers credit etc. etc. Solar.
financial and administrative arrangements for implementing various programs. Midday meal and Safe Drinking water since last decade. In its effort to eradicate poverty it has been working in the fields of Child rights. the instrument of sub plans was developed to ensure flow of benefit from all sectoral programs and to provide integrated delivery of service in the tribal areas. processing. 2 union territories .establish common facilities like godowns.protecting children from classroom hunger.68 lakh hectares under soil conservation. Achievements: 5. construct minor irrigation work. and social empowerment through provision of employment to women. to evaluate the program from time to time.72 lakh hectares of additional area was brought under minor irrigation. To identify marginal farmers. Sustainable livelihoods.For the scheduled tribes. it can undertake organisation of labor contract agencies. to promote creation of common facilities for production. storage and marketing. promote rural industries. addressing malnutrition. Separate tribal sub-plans were formulated in 16 states. MID DAY MEAL It makes provision of lunch free of cost to school-children on all working days. 1. It assists other insitutions like cooperative societies . to evolve adequate. about 8000 hectares of land was brought under horticulture. which is the largest school lunch programme in the world. more than 8ooo villages received water supplied and 6528 villages were electrified. Education.They were divided into 180 Integrated Tribal Development Project for operational purposes (ITDP). institutional. improved socialisation among children belonging to all castes.etc. investigate their problem and formulate economic problems for providing gainful employment to participants.Naandi in partnership with the Government of Rajasthan . TRIBAL AREA DEVELOPMENT Launched in Fifth five year plan. Naandi Foundation.MFLDA (MARGINAL FARMER AND LANLESS AGRICULTURISTS DEVELOPMENT AGENCY) It was as set up along with SFDA. because of their population concentration in specific area. increasing school enrolment and attendance. Allocation for this programme has been enhanced from Rs 3010 cr to Rs 4813 cr in 20062007. However with prior approval of the Government. is one of the largest and fastest growing social sector organisations in India working to make poverty history. 12 cr children are so far covered under the Mid-day Meal Scheme.cattle-feed mixing units.
Arable Land Treatment.42 lakhs. 5. but the programme was transferred for implementation to the Soil & Water Conservation Department since 2005-06.00 lakhs for State Share and the expenditure during 2008-09 is Rs. The anticipated expenditure during 2009-2010 is Rs. with a funding pattern in the ratio of 91.5000/. Nursery seedlings :1618126 nos. 100. It is expected to receive more before the end of the financial year. 1873.50 ha 3. There are 112 projects under Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP) for treatment of 439 micro Watersheds covering a total area of 221225 hectare at a total cost of Rs.per hectare to Rs.10 lakhs for Central Share and State Share respectively.00 Lakhs for Central Share and Rs.28 Lakhs for which sharing will be @ 91.06 lakhs State Share respectively. 800.e. Productive System :1068 nos.12 lakhs from the Govt. 2475. The proposed outlay for 2010-11 is Rs.27 lakh for Central Share and Rs.: 3464. 200.3000/. of India and an amount of Rs. The physical achievement during 2008-09 is as follows:1..D Department. of India for 112 nos. the Department has received only Rs. . : 2358 nos. 250.(GoR) started the Hunger-Free programme on 1 May 2006 by providing cooked meals to the poorest of the poor at a very nominal price apart from its Midday meal programme. Earlier. The typical watershed covers about 500 hectares of area of a village and the cost ranges from Rs.67: 8.19 ha 2.27 lakhs for 2006-07.40 lakhs and Rs.16 Lakhs and Rs. IWDP was implemented by the C & R.45lakhs was already released during 2009-10 till date.00 Lakhs for Central Share and State Share respectively. 1135. IWDP is implemented through watershed approach as per the stipulated guidelines.33% by State Government i.33 between the Centre and the State. 1051. Land Treatment.816. Arable Land Treatment:. 569.per hectare.: 4. Govt. During 2008-09.67% by Government of India and 8. 1055.00 lakhs for State Share. 127.The total amount received from the Government of India during 200708 was Rs. 13053. of projects. Rs. INTEGRATED WASTELAND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (IWDP):The Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) is funded by the Ministry of Rural Development Department. Non. The expenditure incurred during 2007-08 is Rs. 12002.22 lakhs Central Share and Rs. 1055. 5809. which includes an amount of Rs.
National Rural Drinking Water Programme : Rs. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana : Rs. Employment Guarantee Scheme : Rs. Quality of assets provided and created is poor and their impact on income level is dubious. 9000 Crore .and those which have networks there the coverage is not limited to poor. 10000 Crore 4. Programs tend to emphasise loans and subsidies and provision of current wage employment rather than ensuring that they are used to augment productive capacity for achieving a higher level of employment and income on a sustained basis. There is considerable overlap as well as between them and development included under normal state plans There is rigidity of central guidelines for fragmentation and duplication of schemes. creating institutional conditions for greater accountability. 40100 Crore 2. Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana : Rs.100 crore for Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana.ANALYSIS: Poor targeting is reflected in large number of non-poor and other non eligible beneficiaries.content and funding remain mostly in the hands of central government. organisation and priorities of the PA(poverty alleviation) programs rather than on cutting back the outlays. large parts of the country donot have a distribution network to reach the supplies where they are most needed. The no of PA programs can and should be drastically reduced and streamlined to minimise duplication and fragmentation. Focus should be on rationalising the approach. a Sub -Component of National Rural Livelihood Mission) 3. 2984 Crore (This also includes Rs. EXPENDITURE ALLOCATION for various poverty alleviation and development programs in 2010:1. Lack of accountability remains a major problem. Leakages due to inappropriate works and inefficient implementation and corruption is high. Coordination is difficult so is monitoring of accomplishments in terms of efficacy of targeting. scope for improving the efficacy of poverty alleviation programs by better targeting. Under PDS. Assets and schemes are not appropriate to the needs of and potentials of particular region or group. The structure . Indira Awas Yojna : Rs. reduce wastage and corruption. 12000 Crore 5. Much scope for patronage and corruption in selection of beneficiaries and distribution of loans. making programs more meaningful in terms of relevance to local needs and priorities.
Agricultural Research and Education: Rs. National Agricultural Insurance Scheme: Rs. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana: Rs. 500 Crore 10. 2006 Crore 11. 1000 Crore 19. Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana: Rs. 1167 Crore 16. 15. Prime Minister's Employment Generation Programme: Rs. Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Yojana(Ministry of Panchayati Raj) : 50 Crore . Integrated Child Development Services: Rs.000 Crore 13. Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls: Rs. 950 Crore 9. Adult Education and Skill Development: Rs.6. 1385 Crore 15. Integrated Oilseeds. National Programme of Mid Day Meals in Schools: Rs. 390 Crore 18. Total Sanitation Campaign: 1580 Crore 7. Integrated Watershed Management Programme: Rs. Pulses & Maize Development: Rs. 5500 Crore 20. 8700 Crore 17. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Rs. 906 Crore 12. 9440 Crore 14. 2458 Crore 8. Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti: Rs. Oil Palm.
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