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FAIZAN MIR MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY NORTHERN CYPRUS CAMPUS INTERNSHIP REPORT(MECH 400) 1586692
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………….04-05 SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL..............................................................06-08 EQUIPMENTS Centrifugal Pumps………………………………………………………..09 Heat Exchanger (with figure) ..………………………………………10-11 Furnace……………………………………………………………………..12 Burner (with figure)……………………………………………. ……….. 13 Soot Blower…………..…………………………………………………….13 Stack, Insulation & Cooling towers (with figure)………………….....14 Fractionating Column (with figure)………………………………… 15-16 Electric Desalter……..……………………………………………………..17 UTILITIES Boiler(with figure)…………………………………………………………..18 Electric Generator(with figure) ………………………………………….19 Instrumental Air……..……………………………………………………...19 QUALITY CONTROL (with table)………………………………………………...20-22 STORAGE FACILITIES(with table)………………………………………………23-24 PROCESS FLOW…………………………………………………………………...25-35
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010
MAINTAINENCE DEPARTMENT………………………………………………….36 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………37 ABBRIVIATIONS………………………………………………………………………38 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………39
Sub Tehsil Gadani. Power plant (HUBCO).Balouchistan . EHS(Environment. MANAGING OFFICE Bosicor Pakistan Limited Oil Marketing Unit 6th Floor. Near Hub Power Company Ltd. 12 technicians) 4 . District Lasbela.omu@bosicor.Business Plaza.com. Mumtaz Hassan Road. Following is a brief profile of the company: Profile: COMPANY NAME OWNED BY ESTABLISHED REVAMP ADDRESS Bosicor Pakistan Limited (MKP-1) BOSICOR GROUP January 1995 Sept – Oct 2003 PLANT ADDRESS Mouza Kund Plant. Karachi Phone: 021-111-222-081 (EXT: 519) email: info.pk STATUS DEPARTMENTS Bosicor Pakistan Ltd is the fifth Oil refinery in Pakistan. Health and Safety) Laboratories(7 chemicalcengineers.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 INTRODUCTION The aim of doing internship in the Bosicor company limited was to experience the work environment of a mechanical engineer in an oil refinery.
HSD . Sub-Sea Pipeline Project 3. 5 technicians ) Decanting and Shipping(no engineers or technicians) CRUDE TYPE Imported (QATAR MARINE CRUDE OIL) Q M C O.Gasoline .Kerosene PLANT CAPACITY % CONTRIBUTION STATISTICS 30. 20 technicians) Operation(10 chemical engineers.000 barrels per day 5% to the total Crude Production of Pakistan Sales(2007) 9999 Million Rs Million Rs Net profit(2007) 633 FUTURE PROJECTS 1.LPG . Additional Storage Facility 2.Port Qasim PRODUCTS -Naphtha . Collected from Ships at ZOT(PSO).SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Maintainence(8 machenical engineers. Isomerization Unit 5 .000-35. 25 technicians) Oil Moment(3 engineers.
e. Types of fire: There are four types of fire: Solid /Combustible Liquid/Flammable Gas/ Electric Metal Quenching the fire: Following are the ways through which we can remove the fire: Smothering Starvation 6 . Safety against fire: The biggest danger which BOSICAR can face is fire.reduce risk related to losses). injury or damage to property.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL Safety: Safety is generally interpreted as implying a real and significant impact on risk of death. Safety measures are activities and precautions taken to improve safety (i. As it is an oil refinary which deals with the fuel which in any condition can burn steadily and can destroy the plant area and even the workers working there.
lighters mobile phones or batteries). 7 . The objectives of this department are as follows: To ensure there is no fire at the plant area. Practicing the capabilities: Apart from all the safety provided by the department. this department also tests there`s and worker`s skills at times: Fire drills are held time to time to train workers of different departments. Safety alarms are rung to prepare workers for any emergency situation. To ensure no body is carrying anything which can burn or can help in burning. and taking it out if any. To check emergency equipments from time to time.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Cooling Few types of equipment are used which help us controlling fire: Dry chemical Powder Carbon dioxide Foam Water Safety department: Byco has it department for safety called EHS (Environment. To ensure that fire extinguishers are placed at the plant in good and working condition where ever it is needed.More than that it is also capable of tackling any emergency situation at the plant area or at the whole covered area. The work of this department is to monitor all the plant area and take all precautions to protect the plant and even to protect all the workers at the plant . (e. To provide electronic equipments with IS(intrinsically Safe ) batteries. Health and Safety).g match boxes.
00% maximally 8 .9% minimally. Cold Work Permits: Activates involve working in plant areas. Excavation work Permits: Including civil work Confined Space Entry Certificate: Work inside Confined Spaces. .LEL (low explosive level) must be 0. Air Filters. Goggles.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Precautions: Byco uses following sources or equipments for safety: PPE’s(Personal Protective Equipments) Safety shoes Safety Cover Gloves. be H2S level must - Oxygen level must be 20. Work Permits (PTW) These permits are classified by the work that is required to be done: Hot Work Permits: This includes the work in which sparks are produced. Conditions: Following conditions should be maintained in order to have the confined permit. at sensitive areas Body Safety Harness at height (Above 6 feet).
it is impossible to understand the processes. which act as a backbone of an oil refinery. Centrifugal Pumps: A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of the fluid. As the fluid exist the impeller. A centrifugal pump works by converting kinetic energy into potential energy measurable as static fluid pressure at the outlet of the pump. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through a piping system. This action is described by Bernoulli’s principle. 9 . The fluid is drawn from the inlet piping into the impeller intake eye and is accelerated outwards through the impeller vanes to the volute and the outlet piping. With the mechanical action of an electric motor or similar. from where it exits into the downstream piping system. if the outlet piping is too high to allow flow. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller. If the outlet piping is open at a lower level. the fluid kinetic energy is converted into static pressure. flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing). the fluid will be released at greater speed.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 EQUIPMENTS In this section the brief detail of some most important equipments. the rotation of the pump impeller imparts kinetic energy to the fluid through centrifugal force. without the knowledge of which.
both the medias are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix. Shell & tube heat exchangers Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. • • • Cooling the product streams to ambient temperatures. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required.t. They are extensively used in petroleum refineries over a wide range for various purposes. Shell and tube heat exchangers are 10 . One set of these tubes contain the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes : plain.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Heat exchanger: A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. As a condenser for condensing the vapors. longitudinally finned etc.c. As a re-boiler for maintaining the columns bottom temperature. such as: • Heating the crude streams up to desired temperature before entering the desalters. e.
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 typically used for high pressure applications. Over-sizing of the heat exchanger. Not cleaning the Heat Exchanger regularly. Reducing the velocity of the fluids moving through the heat exchanger. 11 . This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape. There are several thermal design features that are to be taken into account when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers Following are the few main parts of the heat exchanger: • • • • • Shell Tubes Floating head Channel head Baffles Condition that affects heat transfer: • • • • Proper Mixing of Medium Transfer Area Evaporation of Medium Arrangement of Shell and Tube Fouling: Deposition of undissolved particles in the exchangers that reduces the flow is called fouling can be caused by: • • • • Frequent use of the Heat Exchanger.
The flames heat up the tubes. Efficient operation of furnace is vital. After the flue gas leaves the firebox. How it works is that. The heating fluid passes through the tubes and is thus heated to the desired temperature. and the tubes are finned to increase heat transfer. most furnace designs include a convection section where more heat is recovered before venting to the atmosphere through the flue gas stack. 12 . first. The gases from the combustion are known as flue gas. Following are some of the main parts of the furnace: • • Radiant Section: The radiant section is where the tubes receive almost all its heat by radiation from the flame. which in turn heat the fluid inside in the first part of the furnace known as the radiant section or firebox. Heat transfer takes place by convection here. Convection section: The convection section is located above the radiant section. the heat is transferred mainly by radiation to tubes around the fire in the chamber.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Furnace: An industrial furnace or direct fired heater is equipment used to provide heat for a process or can serve as reactor which provides heats of reaction. Furnace is that part of petroleum refinery which controls the economics of whole plant. fuel flows into the burner and is burnt with air provided from an air blower. and is used in all petroleum refineries. In this chamber where combustion takes place.
Soot blowing is normally done when the efficiency of the convection section is decreased. outside air is heavier. soot tends to accumulate here. Most pilot flames now a days are lit by an ignition transformer (much like a car's spark plugs). As this section is above the radiant section and air movement is slower because of the fins. hotter flue gases up the stack. The burner is made of high temperature refractory and is where the flame is contained in. Furnace draft: This draft or difference of pressure is caused by the difference between the weight of the vertical column of the hot flue gas in the furnace stack and the weight of the column of the cooler outside air of the same height. it’s greater weight causes it to rush through these opening and push the lighter. When using liquid fuels. The pilot flame in turn lights up the main flame. A furnace can be lit by a small pilot flame. otherwise. The cooler. In this manner the movement of air through the furnace becomes continuous. 13 .SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Burner: The burner in the vertical cylindrical furnace is located in the floor and fires upward. an atomizer is used. the liquid fuel will simply pour onto the furnace floor and become a hazard. Soot blower: Soot blowers are found in the convection section. As outside air enters the opening around the furnace burners. Air registers are located below the burner.
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Stack: The flue gas stack is a cylindrical structure at the top of all the heat transfer chambers. Insulation: Insulation is an important part of the furnace because it prevents excessive heat loss. which is re-used after cooling. Refractory materials such as firebrick. 14 . Cooling towers: Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. The breeching directly below it collects the flue gas and brings it up high into the atmosphere where it will not endanger personnel. In BOSICOR there two cooling towers: • • THE OLD TOWER: The old cooling tower consist of six fans and it is of counter current type. It is an important part of any refinery it is used to cool hot water circulated from the refinery. castable. THE NEW TOWER: The new tower consist of one fan which is cross flow type. refractories and ceramic fiber. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. are used for insulation.
or fractions. In refineries. • The components are miscible. 15 . There is a significant difference between the boiling points & vapor pressures of the components to be separated. the crude oil feedstock is a very complex multi-component mixture that must be separated called fractions and that is the origin of the name fractional distillation or fractionation.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Fractionating column: A fractionating column is an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts.Conditions necessary to make distillation works are: • The components in the system are chemically & thermally stable. All materials that enter the column as feed leave as products in either the make or tails this material balance is an application of the principle of conservation of mass. based on the differences in their volatilities.
The temperature profile across a distillation column operating at a fixed pressure represents the boiling points thus the concentration of components. Reflux is also a means of controlling the temperature profile in the column. Head temperature is a critical control in distillation process. • There are no solids formed in the system as high boilers are concentrated.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 • The desired concentration of low boilers in the make & high boilers in the tails are achieved through use of a practical number of separations (trays or stages) in the column. on each tray. 16 . Changing the temperature by reflux rate is simply the result of changing the concentration of high & low boilers. up & down the column. Head temperature is controlled through the reflux. Therefore the head temperature is used to monitor the composition of the make. Decreasing the reflux flow raises the column temperature. Reflux: The vapor velocity up the column can be stabilized at different feed rates by recycling a portion of the OH condensate. Temperature control: Head temperature is the lowest temperature in the column and is the boiling point temperature of the stream leaving the column. This in essence is a way to maintain a constant feed rate to the column. An increase in temperature at constant pressure represents an increase in high boiler concentration and decrease in temperature at constant pressure represents an increase in low boiler concentration. This stream is called the reflux and serves a second purpose of increasing low boiler concentration overhead by sending high boilers back down the column. Increasing the amount of reflux flow lowers the temperatures in the column.
Silts. Water Heat of Vaporization reduces crude Pre-Heat capacity. Electrical desalting process consists of two steps. A typical desalter comprised of a vessel. Salt deposit and Foul Heat Exchangers..e. i. oil outlet header. The first step consists of forming an emulsion of crude oil & water. not in the crude oil itself. inlet header. electrodes. If these compounds are not removed from the oil several problems arise in the refining process. which in turn allows formation of hydrochloric acid. water effluent header. Arsenic and Other Metals can poison Catalysts. etc. The salt is dissolved in the water in the crude oil. 17 . Environmental Compliance.The vessel is a horizontal gravity settling vessel in which brine water is separated from the crude oil. The high temperatures that occur downstream in the process could cause water hydrolysis. mud wash header and mixing valve . electric transformer. Why desalt crude? • The salts that are most frequently present in crude oil are Calcium. Second step is a demulsification process in which the emulsion of crude oil & water formed in the first step is broken by means of an electrical field. Sodium and Magnesium Chlorides. • • • • Sand. Sodium..SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Electrical desalter: An electrical desalter is a process unit on an oil refinery that removes salt from the crude oil by meals of electrical field. By removing the suspended solids. which might otherwise become an issue in flue gas opacity norms.
Following are few of the utilities used in BOSICOR. Then it is passed through Deaerator where salts of PO4-3 and SO3-1 are injected where oxygen is removed from the water. Boiler: The steam requirement of the industry is fulfilled by two boilers in BOSICOR. After that it is injected to Economizer and then to the Boiler. 18 . Types of both of them are: • • Fire Tube Boiler Water Tube boiler Water from reservoir is soften first by the help of chemical injection and all salts of Mg+2 and Ca+2 which produce hardness are converted into the salts of Na+ which don’t produce hardness. Where water is converted into steam and then it is used further.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 UTILITIES Utilities play an important role in process of any Industry.
The other standby is 345 m3/hr.5 MW capacity producing 60Hz of electricity. Instrumental air: Nearly all of the instruments are pneumatic.1 in working 1 stand-by producing 500KVA 50Hz.6 .SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Electric generation: BPL has its own dependable electric power generation facility consist of 6 generators out of which 4 meets plant requirements.8. The compressor has its capacity 650 m3/hr and its working pressure is 7.5 . So pressurized air is required for there working. It can produce 6.5 bar pressure 19 . Apart from that 2 for electrical official requirement .8. Each having 1. The air is supplied by the compressors one of which is in working condition and other is stand-by.1 stand-by.4 bar. 3 in working condition .
Following are the tests which are performed at the lab: Materials Tests Specific Gravity Color Light Naphtha Reid Vapor Pressure Doctor Test Distillation Specific Gravity Color Heavy Naphtha Doctor Test Reid Vapor Pressure Specific Gravity Color High Speed Diesel Before Injection Flash Point Cloud point Pour Point Distillation Specific Gravity Color 20 . The quality is tested time by time and is reported to the engineers where they compare the results with the standard. If the result is not of the standard they take steps to maintain their standards. Standards are set and maintained which is an important thing.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 QUALITY CONTROL Quality is controlled in the industry to make their products marketable.
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 High Speed Diesel After Injection Flash Point Cloud point Pour Point Distillation Sulphur test Specific Gravity Furnace Fuel Oil Before Injection Flash Point Viscosity Pour Point Furnace Fuel Oil After Injection Flash Point Viscosity Pour Point Alkalinity TDS(total dissolved solids test) Boiler Blown Down Water pH Sulfite Phosphate Iron Wash Water pH Chloride Boot Water pH Specific Gravity 21 .
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 LPG Cu Corrosion Weathering pH TDS Zinc Iron Cooling Water Free Chloride Cooling Water Alkalinity Hardness 22 .
SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 STORAGE FACILITIES Tank farm: Tank farm area is basically the storage facility for the rundown streams coming continuously from plant area. The oil from top is then pumped to the slop oil tank wherefrom it goes to the booster pump through pipeline and mixed with the feed line of crude oil to plant. PRODUCT FURNACE OIL HIGH SPED DEISEL HEAVY NAPTHA LIGHT NAPTHA SOUR NAPTHA SWEET NAPTHA PMG(Petrol for vehicles) LPG(liquefied petroleum gas) JP(Jet fuel) SLOP NUMBER OF TANK 4 6 2 1 1 1 5 4 MAX CAPACITY (barrels) 48000 38000 10000 50000 5000 15000 25000 3050 2 1 10000 5000 API separator & slop oil tank: The oil from different sampling points before every new sampling is drained from the lines which then through pipe lines go to the API separator. Also if any product becomes out of desired set points goes to this slop oil tank. Further detail of area is given below. also any leakage of plant is forced to go to this separator. 23 . There are 22 storage tanks in total and 4 LPG storage vessels. This separator is simply the tank where water is allowed to settle down under the gravity action and is drained to water pond located nearby through pump. This area also serves for the pumping of products to shipping area for filling the bowsers when required.
24 .SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 This process takes place to separate oil from the drain so that the drain entering the sea is less harmfull to marine life.
There are 16 gantries. The settling time of 3-4 hr.process flow of BPL(MKP-1). after which water is drained out through drainage line. After inspecting the level bowsers are allowed to move towards oil gantries. These pumps provide part of necessary head required to move the crude oil through the crude charge system. After this mixer is turned on for homogenizing the crude mixture & mixing the sludge (mainly the heavier particles of crude). Booster pumps: Crude oil from storage tanks flows into the suction of crude booster pumps. which settle down at bottom during settling time. Crude bowsers have nearly 50.). Pre-refining flow: In this division various operations.000-60. Before receiving the crude oil bowsers are inspected for the crude level by dip rod for any loss during transportation. Decanting section: This section serves for unloading crude oil being transported through bowsers.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 PROCESS FLOW This portion includes the brief discussion of . detail of various equipments has been covered in the last portion. The whole process flow is divided into three segments. so at a time 16 bowsers are unloaded. 25 . is provided for settling the water down by gravity. but further explanation of technicalities involved in process is also discussed wherever necessary. It takes nearly 45 minutes to withdraw the crude from bowsers. Also the PFD's of different unit's are given for better understanding of process. Capacity. are discussed.nearly all the aspects are covered including the decantation up to shipping.000 Ltr. Storage tanks: There are four storage tanks for crude oil having the total storage capacity of 200000 bbl (approx. which are performed before refining area. where crude is pumped from bowsers to the storage tanks located nearby.
for recovering the heat (energy) from hot product streams & attaining the temperature necessary for desalting & again exchanging heat separately with various streams for achieving the temperature necessary for pre-flash tower operation. (Note: exchanger trains are sub-classified as A & B on the basis of pre-desalter & postdesalter streams) 26 . FEED RATE/RATIO 10-20 ppm 0-10 ppm Charge pumps: The crude pumped by booster pumps divided into two streams ahead of crude charge pumps & then flows separately into the suction of crude charge pumps.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Refining: This section includes various operations & processes performed with crude. These pumps provide remainder necessary head required to move the crude oil through the crude charge system. CDU: This unit performs the basic distillation process and seperates the crude feed into different fractions. Chemicals & their relative details are given in the table. This section is further sub-divided into different sections. PF tower. for diverse purposes.distillation column. Chemical injection: Two chemicals are injected into crude oil line ahead of crude charge pumps by PD pumps. Crude from the discharge of charge pumps then separately flows into heat exchanger trains (named old & new). naphtha splitter& strippers. CHEMICAL NAME Caustic solution Demulsifier PURPOSE Controlling the pH Breaking the emulsion. This section includes mainly desalters. After fractionation the different fractions goes to different units for further processing. furnace.
by exchanging heat with fresh water inlet stream of desalters. This stream then goes to desalter 1. In the desalters the water with salts is separated from crude oil. the two streams leaving the exchangers recombine & then again splitting into two stream. and sent to oily sewer. then splitting into two streams one flowing through the tube side of crude v/s FFO exchanger & other flowing through tube side of crude v/s exchanger. At the inlet of desalters fresh water is injected at the rate of 4-5%vol. of crude into these two streams.The two streams then recombine and flowing to the tube side of crude v/s TPA exchanger. one flowing to the tube side of crude & other flowing to the the tube side of heat exchanger both streams leaving the exchangers recombine and flows to tube side of crude & then flow to the tube side of crude exchanger. New train(a): Crude from discharge of charge pump divided into two streams. Old train(b): Crude from desalter-2 enters the shell side of crude v/s HSD exchanger and than passes from tube side of crude v/s HSD exchanger.The stream from here goes to the desalter 2. 27 . one flowing through tube side of crude v/s kero exchanger & other flowing through crude v/s FFO exchanger.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Old train(a): Crude from charge pump divided into two parallel streams. one flowing through shell side of crude v/s TPA exchanger & the other flowing through crude v/s HSD exchanger. Desalters: Streams from old & new exchanger trains separately flows to desalter-2 & desalter-1 respectively. which then passes along with crude through the static mixer to form the emulsion. drawn up from vessels by means of interface level controllers and then flows through the shell side of desalter water exchanger where it is cooled. The two streams then combine and then flow through HE & goes to pre-flash tower.
Crude before entering the heater divided into two streams. one flowing through the shell side of HE& other flowing through the tube side of crude v/s HSD exchanger. a part of which returns back to the tower as a reflux & remaining part is sent to the naphtha splitter. after attaining the required temperature the crude streams leave the heater and combines then goes to crude tower. The two streams then combine and goes to born heater.Pre. Pre-flash tower: Crude through new train & old train by a PCV-680 & PCV-670 combines andenters at the tray#16 of pre-flash tower .flash tower recover most of the light ends and a part of the light naphtha. the two streams then combine and again splitted into two streams. Crude oil from convection section then enters into tubes located in radiation section and heated up to temperature of 350~360 oC. fuel oil comes through PCV------& 28 . crude oil entering the crude tower has the vapor-liquid composition of 60% &40% respectively. or with both at a time. These two streams enter the convection section of heater. PF tower OH via fan cooler goes to PF OH drum. where it is heated by the hot flue gases. which is in turn use for injecting into crude tower. one flowing through PF bottom v/s HSD exchanger & the other flowing through PF bottom v/s FFO exchanger. Heater has 10 burners and is dual fired thus having the both options of firing with fuel oil or fuel gas. The two streams then recombine and pass through shell side of crude v/s FFO exchanger and then goes to pre-flash tower. one flowing through shell side of HE & the other flowing through tube side of HE.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 New train(b): Crude from desalter-1 enters the tube side of crude v/s HSD exchanger then splitting into two streams. PF tower bottom is pumped by the pump. then divided into two streams. Saturated steam also enters the convection section & gets superheated. the flow of both streams is controlled by FCV-604 & FCV-605. Where uncondensates (gases) are removed from top & from bottom naphtha is obtained. Born heater: Crude from bottom of PF tower after exchanging heat in various heat exchangers flows to the born heater which provides the temperature necessary for desired distillation.
Atomizing steam is also provided for proper dispersion of fuel oil which is necessary for good & complete combustion of fuel oil. The cooled TPA returns to crude tower plate#06. Naphtha splitter: Naphtha from PF tower & crude tower OH system through pumps respectively is pumped to PF tower. Top reflux flow controls the tower top temperature. For proper atomizing the SH steam & FO mixture in the ratio of 1.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 fuel gas through PCV-118. Which then flows through the tube side of splitter feed v/s bottom reboiler and 29 . Also the SH steam is injected at the bottom of tower for stripping (removing) the lighter ends from reduced crude. The liquid hydrocarbon from OH reflux drum are pumped by reflux pumpas top reflux to tower.above the designed capacity steam feed rate will add to the heat liad of the tower. The remaining liquid from drum under level controller is sent as feed to naphtha splitter. Top pump around reflux(tpa): To provide reflux for the middle / upper section of the tower. TPA pumps pumps this stream to shell side of crude v/s TPA exchanger & then passes through shell side of HE where it preheats the crude. The crude tower OH vapors along with stripping steam is condensed first in HE. then in air cooler and finally in trim cooler & then accumulated in OH reflux drum.10 psig. otherwise fuel will not burn completely &falls on floor. Pressure in reflux drum is controlled 8 . Crude tower: The vapor liquid mixture of crude oil from crude heater enters the flash zone of crude tower for desired distillation. a hot stream from plate#08 is taken out. Both the streams combine ahead of splitter tower to form a single stream. TPA is further cooled in air cooler. Steam rate below the designed rate will allow excessive amount of middle distillates to be included in the reduced crude from the bottom of tower.5:1 is good choice. Crude tower top reflux: The top reflux controls the tower top temperature.
Strippers: All side streams drawn from crude tower first flow through the strippers for the removal of lighter ends from respective streams. HSD obtained from the bottom of column is sent to storage. simply by removing propane & butane from L/N & thus this unit also serves as naphtha stabilizing unit. The flashed hot liquid vaporizes the light ends from the heavy naphtha flowing down in splitter.is drawn from the tray#19 of crude tower. the stream then enter the splitter tower. The reflux drum is installed in vertical position and is operated at maximum liquid level to avoid separation of LPG from liquid.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 through the tube side of hot oiv/s naphtha feed reboiler temperature of feed is controlled through TCV. One stripper strips the lighter ends from kero. While kero.steam is injected at the bottom of strippers for stripping the lighter ends. hot oil flow is controlled by TCV-233 to control splitter bottom temperature. part is sent back to splitter as reflux. HSD is drawn from tray#24. the lighter ends removed from HSD are returned back to tray#26. L/N from the top of naphtha splitter is the feed of this unit. This can be routed to merox unit for sweetening. is sent to merox unit for sweetening Lpg separation unit: This unit separates the LPG from light naphtha. light naphtha from OH flows to the fan cooler & then through the trim cooler and ultimately goes to reflux drum . The second stripping column strips the lighter ends from HSD.262 by controlling the hot oil flowing through the reboiler . Reboiler stream is flashed back into splitter. There are two strippers in function at present. Light naphtha from including LPG from reflux drum os drawn off by pump. The heavy naphtha is further cooled in air cooler and then in trim cooler wherefrom it is sent to HDT feed tank. Heavy naphtha from the bottom of splitter is pumped by pump to shell side of HE where it is cooled by splitter feed. It passes through the shell side of splitter reboiler where it is heated by hot oil passing through the tube side of reboiler. In which light & heavy naphtha fractions are seperated . 30 . Kero. and remaining portion is sent as a feed to LPG unit for the separation of LPG. an independent stream is drawn from the bottom of the splitter. which comes to LPG feed tank 21-T-1.
propane. R signifies an organic group such as a methyl. a part of this stream goes back to the top of the column. It is a catalytic chemical process used in oil refineries and natural gas processing plants to remove mercaptans from LPG. where it is heated by hot oil circulation.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 wherefrom it is pumped to depropanizer column . Processes within oil refineries or natural gas processing plants that remove mercaptans and/or hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are commonly referred to as sweetening processes because they results in products which no longer have the sour. The stream drawn from the bottom of debutanizer column passes through reboiler from where a part is sent back as boilup and reamaining part after passing through HE is sent to light naphtha merox unit for sweetening. one goes back to the column for maintaining the column bottom temperature. Merox unit: Merox is an acronym for mercaptan (RSH is a mercaptan.c) oxidation. a part of this stream goes back as reflux & remaining part is the butane which is sent to LPG storage. One stream is drawn from the bottom which goes to kettle type reboiler. In this column butane is removed. In this column propane is removed from L/N. one side stream is drawn from the top side which after passing through HE goes to reflux drum where one stream is drawn from the bottom and pumped by pump. the bottom stream is pumped by (21-P-5-A/B).t. and the other stream is sent as feed todebutanizer. foul odors of mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide. light naphtha. The Merox process requires an alkaline environment which is provided by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The catalyst is impregnated onto charcoal granules. the overall oxidation reaction that takes place in converting mercaptans to disulfides is: 4 RS H + O 2 2RSSR + 2H2O 31 . Two streams are drawn from reboiler. ethyl. commonly referred to as caustic. Top flow is controlled by FCV11. e. butanes. a strong base. One stream is drawn from the top side which after passing through HE goes to reflux tank. and remaining part is sent to storage which is propane. kerosene and jet fuel by converting them to liquid hydrocarbon disulfides.
a sulfur compound present in some petroleum products. Hydrogenolysis is a type of hydrogenation and results in the cleavage of the C-X chemical bond. hydrodesulfurization is a hydrogenolysis reaction. Reformer unit: This unit accounts for increasing the octane rating of gasoline and HOBC(reformate) is the product of this unit.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 lpg merox: The LPG feedstock through LCV-13 enters the prewash vessel and flows upward through a batch of caustic which removes any H2S that may be present in the feedstock. as an example. The coalescer at the top of the prewash vessel prevents caustic from being entrained and carried out of the vessel. The feedstock then enters the mercaptan extractor and flows upward through the contact trays where the LPG intimately contacts the downflowing Merox caustic that extracts the mercaptans from the LPG. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions in which the net result is the addition of hydrogen (H). where C is a carbon atom and X is a sulfur. Using ethanethiol (C2H5SH). the hydrodesulfurization reaction can be simply expressed as 32 . nitrogen (N) or oxygen (O) atom. typically in the presence of a catalyst consisting of an alumina base impregnated with cobalt and molybdenum. there merox units are nearly same for all these with few alterations. Thus. heavy naphtha & kerosene are also present. The dry sweetened LPG exits the Merox unit. this unit consist of following units. HYDRODESULFURIZATION: The hydrodesulfurization reaction takes place in a fixed-bed reactor at elevated temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 °C and elevated pressures ranging from 30 to 130 atmospheres of absolute pressure. The facilities for sweetening of light naphtha. a water wash vessel to further remove any residual entrained caustic and a vessel containing a bed of rock salt to remove any entrained water. The net result of a hydrogenolysis reaction is the formation of C-H and H-X chemical bonds. The sweetened LPG exits the tower and flows through: a caustic settler vessel to remove any entrained caustic.
The preheated feed then flows through a fired heater where the feed mixture is totally vaporized and heated to the required elevated temperature before entering the reactor and flowing through a fixed-bed of catalyst where the hydrodesulfurization reaction takes place. then flows through fan cooler and then flows through a trim cooler. Any excess gas from the gas separator vessel joins the sour gas from the stripping of the reaction product liquid. The liquid from the gas separator vessel flows to the suction of pump routed through a reboiled stripper distillation tower.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Ethanethiol + Hydrogen Ethane + Hydrogen sulfide C2H5SH + H2 C2H6 + H2S The liquid feed is pumped by pump up to the required elevated pressure and is joined by a stream of hydrogen-rich recycle gas. The resulting mixture of liquid and gas enters the gas separator vessel at about 35 °C and 3 to 5 atmospheres of absolute pressure. The bottoms product from the stripper is the final desulfurized liquid product from hydrodesulfurization unit. 33 . Catalytic reforming: Before entering the reactors two chemcials are injected into the feed: • • PERC Methanol The purpose of there chemicals is to maintain the chloride level and to support metallic reactions thus increase the rate of reaction. The pressure of gas is controlled by PCV-235. Most of the hydrogen-rich gas from the gas separator vessel is recycle gas which is routed through an amine contactor for removal of the reaction product H2S that it contains. The hot reaction products are partially cooled by flowing through the heat exchanger where the reactor feed was preheated. the pressure of gas is controlled by PCV-340 The resulting liquid-gas mixture is preheated by flowing through a heat exchanger. The H2S-free hydrogen-rich gas is then recycled back for reuse in the reactor section.
To maintain the required reaction temperature and the rate of reaction. three reactors are all that is required to provide the desired performance of the catalytic reforming unit.up to the reaction pressure (5 to 45 atm) and is joined by a stream of hydrogen-rich recycle gas.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Following reaction takes place in the Reformer Unit : • Naphtene Dehydrogentaion • Naphtene Isomerisation • Paraffins Dehydrogentaion • Paraffins Isomerisation • Hydrocracking • Demethylation • Aeromatic Dealkylation The liquid feed from hydrodesulfurization unit is pumped through pump . As the vaporized stream proceeds through the three reactors.this cooled stream goes to the gas separator. The liquid 34 . the reaction rates decrease and the reactors therefore become larger. Usually. The resulting liquid-gas mixture is preheated by flowing through a HE. the vaporized stream is reheated in the second fired heater before it flows through the second reactor. The preheated feed mixture is then totally vaporized and heated to the reaction temperature in fired heater before the vaporized reactants enter the first reactor. The hot reaction products from the third reactor are partially cooled by flowing through the heat exchanger where the feed to the first reactor is preheated and then flow through a fan cooler & then through water-cooled heat exchanger. Most of the hydrogen-rich gas from the gas separator vessel returns to the suction of the recycle hydrogen gas compressor and the net production of hydrogen-rich gas from the reforming reactions is exported for use in hydrodesulfurization. The temperature again decreases across the second reactor and the vaporized stream is again be reheated in the third fired heater before it flows through the third reactor. As the vaporized reactants flow through the fixed bed of catalyst in the reactor. At the same time. the amount of reheat required between the reactors becomes smaller. the major reaction is the dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics which is highly endothermic and results in a large temperature decrease between the inlet and outlet of the reactor.
propane and butane gases produced by the hydrocracking reactions as explained in the above discussion of the reaction chemistry of a catalytic reformer. and it may also contain some small amount of hydrogen. The bottoms product from the stabilizer is the high-octane liquid reformate that will become a component of the refinery's product gasoline. The residual gas after such processing becomes part of the refinery's fuel gas system. ethane. 35 . That offgas is routed to the refinery's central gas processing plant for removal and recovery of propane and butane.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 from the gas separator vessel is routed into a fractionating column called a stabilizerThe overhead off gas product from the stabilizer contains the byproduct methane.
Mechanical seals of the pump to be changed which are also normally called couplings. Oil caustic dosing pump was removed and relocated in tank farm area for jet fuel graduation. 36 .SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT The following jobs were observed during my stay in this department. Gland leakages for the pumps were to be rectified due to the abnormal sound. Burner flexible hose pipe to be changed. Oil cooling tower to be boxed up(Make it ready for service). Seals of the pumps were to be rectified because they had leakage problem in them.
37 . The refinery experience gave me a lot of practical knowledge in the field of operations and maintenance and would help me in taking my decision to choose my career path. who introduced me to the department heads and explained me everything which I couldn’t understand. I would also like to appreciate the help of my supervisor.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 Conclusion In the end I would like to appreciate the helpfulness of all the department heads and the engineers under them. Mr Muzaffer Malik. who helped me in understanding the most important department in the oil refinery.
flash tower SH: Steam Super Heated Steam TCV: Temperature Control Valve TDS: Total Dissolved Salt TPA: Top Pump Around RON: Research Octane Number 38 .SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 ABBREVIATIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • API: American petroleum Institute BPA: Bottom Pump Around BPL: Bosicor Pakistan Limited BS&W: Base Sediments and Water CDU: Crude distillation Unit FCV: Flow Control Valve FFO: Furnace Fuel Oil FO: Furnace Oil HDT: Hydro Theater HE: Heat Exchanger HOBC: High Octane Blending Component HSD: High speed Diesel JP: Jet Fuel Kero: Kerosene L/N: Light Naphtha LCV: Level Control Valve LPG: Liquid Petroleum Gas OH: Over Head Reflux PCV: Pressure Control Valve PD Pump: Positive Displacement Pump PFD: Process Flow Diagram PMG: Premier Motor Gasoline PR tower: Pre.
COM.COM 39 . • WWW.Nelson.AMSWERS. Mc.SUMMER PRACTICE 2010 REFRENCES Books: Petroleum refinery engineering by W.WIKIPEDIA.COM • WWW.Felder.BOSICOR.PK • WWW. F. Unit Operations of Chemcial Engineering by Warren L. Petroleum processing hand book by William. Web-sites: • WWW.GOOGLE. Process technology by Thomas.COM • WWW.API. Bland. D .COM.I. Cabe.
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