CHAPTER 2 ABOUT THE STUDY

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JOB SATISFACTION INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation. It is more if an attitude, an internal state of the person concerned. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement. Job satisfaction is an individual‟s emotional reaction to the job itself. It is his attitude towards his job.

Definitions:
“Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”.
-Robert L. Kahn “Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one‟s job: the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.” -P. Robbins Job satisfaction defines as “The amount of over all positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have toward their jobs.” -Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C. Feldman “Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction.” By Andrew J DuBrins, The practice of supervision, New Delhi

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Job satisfaction is one part of life satisfaction. The environment influences the job. Similarly, since a job is important part of life, job satisfaction influences one‟s general life satisfaction. Manager may need to monitor not only the job and immediate work environment but also their employees attitudes towards other part of life.

JOB

FAMILY

POLITICS

LIFE

LEISURE

RELATED ELEMENT OF LIFE SATISFACTION

Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern society the needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When the people are ever increasing and ever changing, when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become dissatisfied. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job satisfaction of industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully. Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as backbone of any industrial development. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good working conditions to boost their job satisfaction. Any business can achieve success and peace only when the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved, problem of efficiency absenteeism labour turnover require a social skill of understanding human problems and dealing with them scientific investigation serves the purpose to solve the human problems in the industry. a) Pay. b) The work itself. c) Promotion d) The work group. e) Working condition. f) Supervision.

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PAY
Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. More over, pay can serve as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a reflection of organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as direct wages.

THE WORK ITSELF
Along with pay, the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging; they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most important aspect of the work itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. In general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and „burnout‟.

PROMOTION
Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a higher level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision, job content and pay. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom, more challenging work assignments and high salary.

SUPERVISION
Two dimensions of supervisor style: 1. Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them. 2. The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making, employee who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation.

WORK GROUP
Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The working groups also serve as a social support system of employees. People often used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort.

WORK CONDITION
The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort. The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of work. If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt for their families, friends and recreation outside work.

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Determinants of job satisfaction:
While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that: all individuals do no derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are.

Individual factors:
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual‟s level of education, age and other factors.

Level of education:
Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peter‟s principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.

Age:
Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this. When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to drive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions. At the last, particularly at the fag end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome.

Other factors:
Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favourable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.

Nature of job:
Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job content.

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In job oriented supervision. A higher content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. First. the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation. it reduces satisfaction. these provide means job performance. particularly physical work environment. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. Some of the important factors which affect job important factors which affect job satisfaction are given below: 1. If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance. Equitable rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. 6 . If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable. it affects job satisfaction adversely. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion is lacking. a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction. the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. Opportunity: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work environment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that these job offer. In employee-oriented supervision. it offers higher satisfaction. like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. job enlargement.Occupation level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. For example. Second. and job enrichment. This situation decreases job satisfaction . individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction. professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory workers are least satisfied. and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision. If these factors are favourable. 2. 3. there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. These work in two ways. there is more concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them more satisfaction. provision of these conditions affects the individual‟s perception about the organization. Job content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it. 4. Working conditions: Working conditions. Formal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the organization. For example. Situational variables: Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context – formal and informal.

The another view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. productivity. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction. since a job is an important part of life. Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual‟s physical and mental health. For example. productivity decreases. Productivity: There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity: 1. when satisfaction decreases. The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. this may not be true in all cases. this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts for job performance. and turnover. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker. 2. A happy worker is a productive worker. For example. a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Therefore. Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse. alcoholism and mental and physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling. job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction.Effect of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. absenteeism. Various research studies also support this view. 7 . These effects may be seen in the context of an individual‟s physical and mental health. its favourableness or unfavourablesness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. when job satisfaction increases. productivity increases. Further. However.

etc. Any increase in these factors does not hep to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction. 1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. 1. The basic factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to operate under certain technological constraints and. Further. Perceivedequity of rewards Intrinsic reward Performanc e Extrinsic reward Satisfaction THE RELATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION 8 . There are two types of rewardsintrinsic and extrinsic. therefore. challenging job. However. Thus. etc. bonus. he cannot go beyond certain output. A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity. the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of performance. this constraint affects the management‟s expectations from the individual in the form of lower output. it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact o productivity. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential.This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance.

If he is not able to do so. This absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a „lack of will to work‟ and alienate a worker form work as for as possible. in general case. the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization. HIGH TURNOVER JOB SATISFACTION ABSENCE TURNOVER AND ABSENCES LOW HIGH RELATIONSHIP OF JOB SATISFACTION.Absenteeism: Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable reasons. However. Thus. job satisfaction is related to absenteeism. he opts to leave the organization. employee turnover is related to job satisfaction. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. For example. job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover. EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ABSENCES Employee turnover: Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given period of time. he tries to overcome this through the various ways of defense mechanism. these professionals leave their organizations not simply because they are not satisfied but because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign companies located abroad 9 . the other cause being better opportunity elsewhere. in the present context. Thus.

social. supervision and styles of leadership. Job satisfaction study importance can be understood by the answer of the following question 1) Is there room for improvement? 10 . working conditions. technology and work organization. industrial relation. IMPORTANCE TO STUDY JOB SATISFACTION The importance to the study of job satisfaction level is very important for executives. orientation to work.  Environmental factors:-Economic. personnel policies and procedures.  Cultural factors:-Attitudes. age. intelligence and abilities. informal relations etc. opportunities for interaction. organizational factors as stated below:- DIMENSIONS INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL FACTORS ORGANIZATIONAL FACTOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR CULTURAL FACTOR  Individual:.Nature and size. cultural. social. Some workers may be satisfied with certain aspects of their work and dissatisfied with other aspects .Personality. nature of work.Thus. These factors affect job satisfaction of certain individuals in a given set of circumstances but not necessarily in others. marital status. group working and norms. beliefs and values.DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATIFACTION Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure objectively. overall degree of job satisfaction may differ from person to person.  Organizational factors:. formal structure. technical and governmental influences. The level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual. management systems.  Social factors:-Relationship with co-workers. education.

5. Follow up surveys allows management to evaluate the actual response to a change and study its success or failure. If planned properly and administered. which gives employees a reason to feel better towards management. It gives management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company. neutral or negative results. It leads to valuable communication brought by a job satisfaction survey. Job satisfaction surveys are useful for identifying problem that may arise. 11 . they will usually produce a number of important benefits. take it and discuss the result. 2. The survey is an intangible expression of management‟s interest in employee welfare. A chance to things gets off. such as1. As a survey is safety value. an emotional release. 3. Surveys also indicate specific areas of satisfaction or dissatisfaction as compared to employee services and particular group of employee.2) Who is relatively more dissatisfied? 3) What contributes to the employee satisfaction? 4) What are the effects of negative employee attitudes? Benefits of job satisfaction study Job satisfaction surveys can produce positive. Job satisfaction surveys are a useful way to determine certain training needs. Upward communication is especially fruitful when employee are encouraged to comment about what is on their minds instead of merely answering questions about topics important to management. 4. comparing the response to several alternatives and encouraging manager to modify their original plans. Communication flow in all direction as people plan the survey.

and selfdevelopment. flexible.. Unhappy employees. Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers. and loyal. turnover. self-esteem." No wonder Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying: "Take away my people. work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth and produces anxiety. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. self-respect. it is also a temporary one. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. who are motivated by fear of job loss. and soon we will have a new and better factory" 12 . will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. monotonous jobs can erode a worker's initiative and enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover. Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction. job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude.Importance to Worker and Organization Frequently. and termination. For the organization. but leave my people. and as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. absenteeism. At the same time. To the worker. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative. Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction in complaints and grievances. Increased productivity the quantity and quality of output per hour worked seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. and soon grass will grow on the factory floors. Though fear is a powerful motivator. but leave my factories. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent. as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. thus protecting the "bottom line. Take away my factories. innovative.

SATISFIED EMPLOYEE 13 .

and opportunities for growth. Also. As much as possible. and a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson. and the nature of the work itself. For example. learning. a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector. high productivity. For example. Apart from the factors mentioned above. Job enrichment is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility. and achievement. managers should match job tasks to employees' personalities. a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many more satisfying elements in the work environment. experiences. and challenge in the work itself. and skills utilization. as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers. how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. when creating work teams. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: Flexible work arrangements. promotional opportunity. These job characteristics can be carefully managed to enhance job satisfaction. task clarity and significance. the manager's personal characteristics and management style.Creating Job Satisfaction So. or needs in the same workgroup. One such step is job enrichment. possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to "put his or her signature" on the finished product Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work A stable. Of course. and a sense of purpose and meaning for the organization and its employees. such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Good management has the potential for creating high morale. job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility. have significant effects on job satisfaction. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction. recognition. secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members Flexible benefits. scope. Empirical findings show that job characteristics such as pay. managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds. Managers who want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask themselves the following questions:           14 . Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work.

     When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? What did it look like? What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? 15 .

This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities. listening. Accept the diversity in people. This helps to give meaning to one's existence. and speaking skills. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job.         16 . Develop excellent communication skills. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed. with attendant increases in pay and other recognition.Workers' Roles in Job Satisfaction If job satisfaction is a worker benefit. Employers value and reward excellent reading. Develop teamwork and people skills. Learn to de-stress. Know more. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management techniques. writing. See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to satisfaction with the work itself. thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. Demonstrate creativity and initiative.

requires careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. and her coworkers are friendly. her promotional opportunities are good. challenging. it is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. supportive. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg's(1957) and Maslow's (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting. in essence. her pay is fair. there is some level of job satisfaction MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION 17 . over the longterm. and rewarding work environment is vital. if the pleasures associated with one's job outweigh the pains. job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. So.Assuring Job Satisfaction Assuring job satisfaction. her supervisor is supportive. then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" Very simply put. Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system.

When a person values a particular facet of a job. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. compared to one who doesn‟t value that facet. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one‟s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem. recognition. proposed by Timothy A. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren‟t met. or the work carried out. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction. Locke‟s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. and other working conditions 18 . Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory]. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general selfefficacy (the belief in one‟s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg‟s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. regardless of one‟s job. company policies. supervisory practices. the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay. general self-efficacy. Having an internallocus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life. & Wrench. promotion opportunities. An employee‟s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction[]. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met). Porter. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model. Finally.g. Further. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform. Judge in 1998. respectively. and provide people with satisfaction. for example achievement in work. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organization goals (Hoskinson. and neuroticism.THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION Affect Theory Edwin A. locus of control. To illustrate. if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy. as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction.

Hygiene factors are : • Company policy & administration. c) Need for influence : A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. & • Status. the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. a) Need for personal achievement : Desires for personal career development. • Personal life.] Finally. better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one's own work performance. • Work itself. & • Responsibility.While Hertzberg's model has stimulated much research. Needs may be need for personal achievement. this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of. social achievement & for influence. b) Need for social achievement : A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. • Advancement. • Technical supervision. the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. • Inter-personal relations with supervisors. According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators: • Achievement. or is positively related to the degree to which one's personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation. In the works situation. it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making. • Possibility of growth. Need Fulfillment Theory : Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him. Furthermore. 19 . increased national prosperity. • Salary. • Job security. better life community & safety for everyone. • Working Conditions. with Hack man & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg's original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. peers & Subordinates. the theory does not consider individual differences. researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity. improvement in one's own life standards. • Recognition. In summary.

Social References . he will not like it. according to this theory that if a job meets the interest. A good example of this theory has been given by C. Hulin. desires and requirements of a person's reference group. He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor. Such groups are defined as the 'reference-group' for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including himself). He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices.L. Hulin. thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one's social groups and general social environment. It would be predicted. 20 . he will like it & if it does not.Group Theory : It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance.

To check the Degree of satisfaction of employees.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVES – The objective of the study is to find out the satisfaction level of employee in EVEREST METAL WORK.      To find that whether the employees are satisfied or not. Educational qualification.) 21 .BALLIA. Designation. To find that they are satisfied with their job profile or not. Gender. To analyse the company‟s working environment. To study the relationship between the personal factors of the Employee (Income.. etc.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 22 .

Research is an art of scientific investigation. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is a research. In fact . The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research method. it constitutes the blue print of the collection. Research is a systemized effort to gain new knowledge. It may be understood has a science of studying how research is done scientifically. RESEARCH DESIGN A research is the arrangement of the conditions for the collections and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In it we study the various steps that all generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. Research Design can be categorized as: TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN DESCRIPTIVE & DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH DESIGN EXPERIMENTA L RESEARCH DESIGN 23 . It is a careful inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. measurement and analysis of the data.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. the research is design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. Meaning of Research Research is defined as “a scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic”. The design is such studies must be rigid and not flexible and most focus attention on the following 2. As search the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implication to the final analysis of data.

Government Reports.    Primary Data Personal Investigation Observation Method Information from correspondents Information from superiors of the organization Secondary Data Published Sources such as Journals. 24 . Not only the Human Resource department can use the facts and figures of the study but also the marketing and sales department can take benefits from the findings of the study. Data collection plays an important role in any study. It helps in bringing into focus some inherent weakness in enterprise regarding which in depth study can be conducted by management.tat they are satisfied or not.The present study is exploratory in nature. Research design is flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of problem under study. So the personnel department can use the information to make efforts to avoid such complaints. Unpublished Sources such as Company Internal reports prepare by them given to their analyst & trainees for investigation. It can be collected from various sources. as it seeks to discover ideas and insight to brig out new relationship. Websites like EVEREST METAL WORK official site. Scope for the marketing department The marketing department can use the figures indicating that they are putting their efforts to plan their marketing strategies to achieve their targets or not. Without data there is no means of study. some other sites are also searched to find data Scope Of The Study The scope of the study is very vital. Scope for personnel department Some customers have the complaints or facing problems regarding the job. Newspapers and Magazines etc. Scope for the sales department The sales department can have fairly good idea about their employees. I have collected the data from two sources which are given below: 1. DATA COLLECTION For any study there must be data for analysis purpose.     2.

At the end all information was compiled to complete the project report. BALLIA. Data collection was also done with the help of personal observation. After completion of survey the data was analyzed and conclusion was drawn.Sample Size :Questionnaire is filled by 100 employees of EVEREST METAL WORK. 25 . The questionnaire was filled in the office and vital information was collected which was then subjects to:-     A pilot survey was conducted before finalizing the questionnaire.

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 26 .

Table No: 1 Working hours are convenient for me PERCENT Strongly agree 34 Agree 32 Neither agree nor disagree 18 Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL 13 3 100 CHART 1 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree agree neither agree nor disagree disagree strongly disagree PERCENT Total Interpretation: From the above chart and table it is clearly evident that 34% of the respondents strongly agree that working hours are convenient from them and 32% agree with that and 18% neither agree nor disagree and 13% disagree with the working hours and 3% are strongly against working hours. 27 .

Table No: 2 I'm happy with my work place PERCENT 30 39 18 8 5 100 Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree Chart 2 100 80 60 40 20 0 percent Strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 30% respondents strongly agree and 39% respondents agree that they are happy with their work place only 13% disagreed and 18% have no idea towards their work place. 28 .

18% admits they have too much work and 23% have no idea towards this question. 37% of the respondents disagreed with the question” I feel I have too much work” and another 22% strongly disagreed. 29 .Table No: 3 I feel i have too much work to do strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree PERCENT 7 9 25 37 22 100 Chart 3 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree PERCENT Total Interpretation: From the above table it is quite clear that the work load is not high.

30 .Table No: 4 Safety measures provided by the company strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 28 31 24 11 6 100 CHART 4 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree PERCENT Total Interpretation: From the above table it is evident that the safety measures provided by the organizations are good as 28 and 31% of the respondents agree with that and only 11& 6% disagreed and 24% neither agreed nor disagreed.

TABLE NO. 5 My relationship with my supervisor is cordial strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 30 41 16 6 7 100 CHART 5 100 80 60 40 20 0 PERCENT strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that relationship between employees and their supervisors are cordial because 30% of respondents strongly agreed to it and 41% agreed to it and only 13% disagreed and 16% of respondents have neither agreed nor disagreed. 31 .

TABLE NO 6 My supervisor is not partial strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 18 30 15 19 18 100 CHART 6 100 80 60 40 20 0 PERCENT 3-D Column 1 Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is evident that the supervisors are not partial to the employees as 18% strongly agreed and 30% agreed to the question but 19% disagreed and 18% strongly disagreed this level is quite high compared to other questions. 32 .

33 .TABLE NO 7 My supervisor considers my idea too while taking decision strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL CHART 7 100 80 60 40 20 0 PERCENT strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total PERCENT 26 43 26 2 3 100 Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 26 and 42% of the respondents agree that supervisors consider their employees ideas also and only 5% disagreed and 26% neither agreed nor disagreed.

TABLE NO 8 I'm satisfied with the support from my co-workers strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 21 47 16 9 7 100 CHART 8 100 80 60 40 20 0 PERCENT strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that relation with co-workers is quite good as nearly 68% of the respondents agree that they are satisfied with support from co-workers and only 15% disagreed and 16% have no answer to this. 34 .

35 .TABLE NO 9 People here have concern from one another and tend to help one another strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 26 41 19 9 5 100 CHART 9 100 80 60 40 20 0 PERCENT strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that in this organization people have concern over each other as 26% strongly agreed and 41% agreed and only 14% disagreed and 19% neither agreed nor disagreed.

TABLE NO 10 I'm satisfied with the refreshment facilities strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 26 20 30 15 9 100 CHART 10 100 80 60 40 20 0 PERCENT strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that 26% employees are strongly satisfied with the refreshment facilities offered by the company as 15% of respondents disagreed and 9% strongly disagreed and 30% neither agreed nor disagreed and only 20% agreed. 36 .

TABLE NO 11 We are provided with the rest and lunch room and they are good PERCENT 16 34 22 20 8 100 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree PERCENT Total strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL CHART 11 100 80 60 40 20 0 Interpretation: From the above table it is quite evident that 8% strongly disagreed and 20% of the respondents disagreed and 22% neither agreed nor disagreed and only 50% of the respondents are satisfied with the rest and lunch room provided. 37 .

38 .TABLE NO 12 The parking space for our vehicles are satisfactory strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 4 9 24 32 31 100 CHART 12 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total PERCENT Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that respondents are not satisfied with the parking facilities provided by the company as 31% of respondents strongly disagreed and 32% of respondents disagreed and only 13% of respondents are satisfied with the parking facilities and 24% have neither agreed nor disagreed.

25% neither agree nor disagree. 39 . Only `3% disagree and 8% strongly disagree.Table no 13 I fell I'm paid a fair amount for the work i do strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 15 39 25 13 8 100 Chart 13 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree percent Total Interpretation: From the above table it is evident that the respondents are satisfied with their salary as 39% agree and 15% strongly agree.

13% neither agree nor disagree. Only 9% disagree and 8% strongly disagree.Table no 14 I'm satisfied with the chances for my promotion PERCENT 27 43 13 9 8 100 strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL Chart 14 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total percent Interpretation: From the above table it is quite clear that employees are satisfied with their chances for promotion as 43% agree and 27% strongly agree. 40 .

Table no 15 I'm satisfied with the allowances provided by the organization PERCENT strongly agree 19 Agree 42 Neither agree nor disagree 21 Disagree 11 Strongly disagree 7 TOTAL 100 Chart 15 100 80 60 40 20 0 Frequency strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is clear that the employees are satisfied with the allowances and other benefits provided by the organization as 42% agree and 19% strongly agree. 41 . 21% neither agree nor disagree. Only 11% disagree and 7% strongly disagree.

22% disagree this is quite high compared to other factors and 9% strongly disagree and 25% neither agree nor disagree.TABLE NO 16 I feel my boss motivate me to achieve the organizational goals strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 11 33 25 22 9 100 CHART 16 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total PERCE3NT Interpretation: From the above table it is evident that employees boss are motivating to achieve organizational goals as 33% agree and 11% strongly agree. 42 .

43 .TABLE NO 17 My supervisor motivates me to increase my efficiency at times when i'm not strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 18 44 18 13 7 100 CHART 17 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree PERCENT Total Interpretation: From the above table it is evident that employees boss motivates the employee when he is unproductive and help him to be productive as 44% agree and 18% strongly agree. 18% neither agree nor disagree. Only 7% strongly disagree and 7% disagree.

. 9% respondent disagree from the statement and 6% respondent strongly disagree from the question. TABLE NO 18 I feel that my job has little impact on the success of the company PERCENT strongly agree 35 Agree 40 Neither agree nor disagree 10 Disagree 9 Strongly disagree 6 TOTAL 100 Chart 18 100 80 60 40 20 0 strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree PERCENT Total Interpretation: From the above chart it is clear that 75% respondents are think that they contribute in the success of a company. 44 .

45 .Table no 19 Overall I'm satisfied with my job strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree TOTAL PERCENT 28 35 20 12 5 100 Chart 19 100 80 60 40 20 0 percent strongly agree Agree neither agree nor disagree Disagree strongly disagree Total Interpretation: From the above table it is evident that Overall satisfactions of the respondents are good as 35% agree and 28% strongly agree. Only 5% strongly disagree and 12% disagree and 20% neither agree nor disagree.

 The respondent‟s relationship with the superiors and colleagues are quite good .  The Pay and promotion activities in this organization is also good .  The Respondents are not provided with proper welfare facilities.  The refreshment facilities are also need to be improved 46 .  The communication and motivation of employees by their superiors in this organization is reasonable.  The Respondents are overall satisfied with their job  The Parking facilities provided by the organization are not good that‟s why most respondents disagree with this question.FINDINGS From the study. I have come to know that most of the employees were satisfied with the welfare measures provided by EVEREST METAL WORK. The employees of EVEREST METAL WORK get more benefits compare to other companies. job satisfaction of each respondent seems to be the maximum. the researcher has come to know that most of the respondents have job satisfaction.  The respondents are satisfied with the environment and nature of work factors . the management has taken the best efforts to maintain cordial relationship with the employees. Due to the working conditions prevailing in this company. From the study.

But there are some employees also who are not satisfied with the company.SUGGESTION AND RECAMANDATION In the organization most of employees are satisfied with all the facilities provided by company. 47 . Management should try to convert unsatisfied employees in to satisfied employees. Because if employee is not satisfied than the he is not able to give his 100% to his work and the productivity of employee decrease. So management should try to satisfied his employees because employees are the assets of the company not a liabilities.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Limitation are as follows-  Data collected is based on questionnaire.  The information collected by the observation method is very limited.  Some respondents hesitated to give the actual situation. they feared that management would take any action against them  The findings and conclusions are based on knowledge and experience of the respondents sometime may subject to bias.  The number of e mployees in EVEREST METAL WORK is more. so sample size is limited by 100.  The result would be varying according to the individuals as well as time. 48 .

ninth edition. . Human Resource Management (third edition). Human Resource Management. N.  Chhabra. New Age International Publication. Research Methodology.R.  Kothari C. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publication Company Ltd.. New Delhi. T. India. second edition. 49 .BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS:  Ashwathapa K. Dhanpat Rai $Co(P)Ltd..

strongly agree 2. agree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4. disagree 5. strongly agree 2. Designation……………. strongly disagree Ques5. strongly disagree Ques10. disagree 5. strongly agree 2. agree 3.I am satisfied with the refreshment facility1. disagree 5. disagree 5. Agree 3. strongly disagree Ques6. Gender: Male Female 4.People here have concern from one another and tend to help1. strongly disagree Ques4.Working hours are convenient for me1 strongly agree 2 agree 3 neither agree nor disagree 4 disagree 5 strongly disagree Ques2. Age: ……………… 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.neither agree nor disagree 4.My relationship with my supervisor is cordial1.I am happy with my work place1.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly agree 2. disagree 5. strongly agree 2.I am satisfied with the support from my coworkers1.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly disagree 50 . disagree 5.My supervisor consider my ideas while taking decision1.I feel I have too much work to do1.neither agree nor disagree 4. agree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4. disagree 5. strongly disagree Ques3. agree 3. strongly agree 2.We are provided with the rest and lunch room and they are good1. strongly disagree Ques8. Ques1.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly agree 2.QUESTIONNAIRE “A study on Job Satisfaction of Employees in EVEREST METAL WORK : ………………………………………………………………………………… … 2. agree 3. strongly agree 2. strongly disagree Ques7.neither agree nor disagree 4..neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly agree 2. agree 3. strongly agree 2. strongly disagree Ques11. agree 3. agree 3.My supervisor is not partial1. disagree 5. strongly disagree Ques9. disagree 5. disagree 5.Safety measures provided by the company are good1. agree 3.

Overall I am satisfied with my present job1. disagree 5. agree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.Ques12. agree 3. strongly agree 2. strongly disagree Ques18. disagree 5. strongly agree 2. strongly disagree Ques16.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly disagree Ques14. disagree 5. strongly agree 2.I feel I am paid a fair amount for the work I do1. strongly disagree Ques13. agree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly agree 2. disagree 5. agree 3. strongly agree 2. strongly agree 2. strongly agree 2. disagree 5. strongly agree 2. disagree 5. strongly disagree 51 . agree 3.The parking spaces for vehicles are satisfactory1.My supervisor motivate me to increase my efficiency at a time when I am not1.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly disagree Ques17.I am satisfied with the chances for my promotion1.I feel my boss motivate me to achieve the organizational goals1. disagree 5.I feel my job little impact on the success of the company1. strongly disagree Ques15. disagree 5. agree 3.I am satisfied with the allowances provided by the organization1.neither agree nor disagree 4. strongly disagree Ques19. agree 3. agree 3.neither agree nor disagree 4.neither agree nor disagree 4.

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