Eastern Michigan University Department of Music & Dance

MUSC 281 Basic Woodwinds: Clarinet COURSEPACK Fall, 2010 Room 105 Alexander Music Building Tuesday/Thursday 8:00 am

TONE And SOUND QUALITY

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SUPPORT: ““SUPPORT is the action of the player pushing down on the diaphragm muscle as it is naturally returning to the inverted bowl shape. Imagine your lungs as balloons. COMMON PROBLEMS: a. then fill the balloons from bottom to top. c. 3. Feel that the ribs are expanding and/or ““floating”” instead of staying fixed into place. e. No dips in sound. not using diaphragm to help support sound (lack of density and/or velocity. Maintain constant ““outward”” pressure against diaphragm and abdominal and back muscles at all dynamics. Shallow breathing=weak tone. the VELOCITY and/or DENSITY should most often remain constant. embouchure isn’’t correctly formed BEFORE starting. Expansion of DIAPHRAGM. dynamic range is controlled by VOLUME: the amount of air pushed out of the clarinet. f.) c. d. . support not steady. ““Superman”” air (from the scene in the movie when he makes the world spin backwards. For instance. Soft reed--not able to use good air support. Difficulty controlling soft dynamics: Not big enough breath (Inhalation). and expand all around. Think of pushing out or expanding abdominal muscles as you are running out of air. lack of good air support ii. Air inside should be DENSE: tightly packed! d. ““Ballooning”” notes--inconsistent air flow on exhalation. Kimberly Cole Luevano I. Focus air into reed! Think ““hee”” to help get tongue into optimal position. . Exhale with force! Much more than ““normal”” breathing. Correct breath=expansion around abdominal. THINK VELOCITY: air is FAST. Stone!) a. back and chest. having swells/bulges on individual notes. e. Deep breaths which fill the lungs completely and push out the diaphragm are essential to proper support. b. NOT ““AH””. THINK of the air having DENSITY. air backs up (hyperventilating). However. Make sure your lower lip is nice and firm and chin is nice and taut. Try thinking/whispering ““hee”” to get it in the correct place. This provides adequate support to ““pressurize”” the air. Poor high register: Not fast or focused enough air. INHALATION: a.SOUNDS GOOD!!! Fundamentals of Tone Production Eastern Michigan University Dr. Keep your throat relaxed when you breathe in so that you take quiet breaths and so that the rest of you stays relaxed! EXHALATION: (aka. BREATHING/BREATH SUPPORT: The foundation of solid sound! 1.) d.”” This description thanks to Dr. flattens pitch f.Use the rests to get rid of all bad air and fill up with good air. this slows the exhalation of the air so that the player may achieve longer phrases. c. 2. Steady exhalation! Steady push/pressure. Undertones——Usually caused by one of the following: i. not slower air. laser beam air. b. b. reed that is too soft iii. tongue isn’’t in the correct shape inside mouth. Good images include blowing out birthday candles from a distance. Shoulders stay DOWN. soft sound is only less air. iv.

CHIN: Flat. Mouthpiece CENTERED on clarinet and to your body. check the horn angle and make sure head is up! Building exercise: Embouchure sprints. c. and blow. EMBOUCHURE While many students can tell me what the elements of a good embouchure are. Now form embouchure. The only way to make sure you’’re doing them is by constant attention. NO SIDE SADDLE PLAYING! a. this much reed can likely be inserted inside the bottom lip without ““squeaking. Say ““ew”” or ““piu””. Formation: Once formed. ii. Approximately ½”” of mouthpiece/reed inside mouth. No ““smiling””.II. Often. You can also think of pointing your corners ““downward. Upper teeth remain on mouthpiece when breathing! Breathe through corners of mouth rather than lifting teeth off mouthpiece. Though it takes more time initially. Should see the natural curve of the chin exaggerated. this is a good placement for the amount of reed inside the mouth. again paying attention that embouchure doesn’’t change. Firm and tight against teeth. This should help you feel the muscles you should use in forming your embouchure. c. FORM your embouchure and hold it for one minute. Also. Carefully insert a small sheet of paper between the mouthpiece and the reed to the point that it stops. then repeat. I start with the mouthpiece and barrel only using the following process: a. UPPER LIP: also firm and smooth! Widow’’s Peak rolled slightly under and firm. seal lips. f. both when seated and standing. feel. b. b. e. Too much mouthpiece will result in wild. Angle to body: Clarinet should be at a 30 to 45 degree angle to the body. No bunches. b. b. or slurping a piece of spaghetti. Don’’t rest the clarinet bell on your legs: It will also affect your head angle.”” d. Mouthpiece patches help guide teeth. Think of thumbs pushing ““up and out”” to snug mouthpiece against upper teeth. consider a ““soda straw””. d. LOWER LIP: covers lower teeth. not as many can actually do what they say. not disappearing. Helps maintain corner firmness. Make sure clarinet is centered in mouth. and firm. BAD EMBOUCHURE affects EVERY element of clarinet-ing and prevents satisfactory progress! 1. If there is saliva in the sound. CHEEKS: NOT puffed. Upper teeth resting firmly ON top of mouthpiece. (some people think of having ½ of their lower lip over teeth. consider placing electrical tape on top of the patch to assist in guiding students’’ teeth.) Lower lip is slightly rolled over lower teeth.”” iii. 2 . 3. Rest 30 seconds. Hold mouthpiece sideways and look for the place where the reed separates from the mouthpiece. continually review each element and correct yourself at every chance. To help students develop embouchure. Take a 10 second 2. Stretched and ““pointing”” down. and looking in the mirror. Again. not flabby. Practice inserting mouthpiece several times. pinched sound. Instead. Use the following guides: i. 4. May or may not work for you depending on the size of your lips. Blow as long as they are able: up to 20 seconds. Just enough to cover. Use thumb to check and feel those muscles. uncontrolled sound and ““overblowing””. Make sure embouchure doesn’’t change. e. Amount of mouthpiece a. c. Here’’s my list of essential embouchure elements. Think of upper lip muscles pushing down into mouthpiece. forward. a drawstring bag: equal pressure distributed around mouthpiece. Next. the embouchure SHOULD NOT MOVE!!! a. smooth. CORNERS: ““in””. again making sure embouchure doesn’’t change when mouthpiece is inserted. KEEP HEAD UP and LEVEL! Watch head angle especially when seated and consider that stand height can affect head angle. Should be somewhat firm: a firm cushion. Too little mouthpiece will result in a small. form your embouchure then insert mouthpiece and seal lips around mouthpiece.

Private Lessons. pale and colors like: azure. c. Elsa Ludewig-Verdehr. tense. listen and analyze what makes other instruments sound pleasant and inviting. Harold Wright. friendly. Results in a small. Some inspiring artists include: Sabine Meyer. d. Common problems associated with embouchure: a. e. HEAR one and get it into your head so that you can try to assimilate it. Frank Cohen. Beauty: What is the quality of your tone? Is it pleasant to listen to? Is it matched and even in quality in all registers? Is it even and match in quality at all dynamics? Is it focused? Is it covered. and the many. Richard Stolzman. Charles Neidich. Usually pitch is sharp. and dark? Is it full? Is it centered even in soft dynamics? Are you getting all the fuzz out of your sound? Control: Just as it sounds: are you controlling your tone.) 2. ““Biting”” or ““pinching””: excess jaw pressure to control sound and reed. Muscles not developed. since I think it’’s a great way to check what you’’re doing. This can be accomplished by: 1. soft yellow. bright. Take private lessons and play along with your teacher!! 5. neon green. Best to start on ““E”” (LH thumb and first finger). 3 . Bottom lip too loose: sound is spread. many years. Larry Combs. consider the words given us on the adjudication form for MSBOA Solo and Ensemble. pale blue. high register difficult to play. David Shifrin. chocolaty. ROLE MODELS Do you KNOW what a good sound is? How do you find out? LISTEN——get a concept of good sound . warm. and Robert Marcellus (among many. no control III. If embouchure pressure and air speed are correct. then see if you can’’t try to do the same in your own playing. Shape Body Edge Intensity Depth Glow Richness Mellowness Cover Resonance Brilliance Cushion Feel free to add your own adjectives like: velvety. round. too much upward pressure into reed.5. pitch often flat. Listen to other instrument/vocal examples: Listen. magenta. royal blue. violet. b. Professional Artists: GO TO CONCERTS!! We’’re blessed to have lots of great clarinet playing in this area from the Detroit Symphony. I will list them here. warm. many other professional orchestras throughout the state. then repeat. CONCEPT OF SOUND: And speaking of concept of sound. smooth. pause. Michigan Opera Theater. 3. No use of corners and/or corners pulled back. IV. Incorrect amount of mouthpiece in mouth. mouthpiece and barrel combination should sound a concert F#. d. Recordings: play several different artists so you hear that there are many wonderful but different sound qualities. or do you tend to overblow in loud dynamic passages? Do you have a good balance between the velocity (speed) and amount of the air you are putting through your instrument? Are you supporting? There’’s a book called The Art of Clarinet Playing written by Keith Stein who was the Professor of Clarinet at Michigan State for many. He lists many words to help students understand how to describe their tone. and/or forced sound. A note of low resistance: not so much back pressure on embouchure. Add the rest of the clarinet now and ““sprint”” on various notes. how do you get a concept? For starters. Bunched chin: often occurs with biting/pinching. listen. gray. shimmering. many others. burgundy. thin.

Another good exercise is to try to match the BEST sounding note on your instrument (usually a clarion ““F””) IN EVERY RANGE AND AT EVERY DYNAMIC LEVEL. Robert Scott.e. Some models that are rather inexpensive yet effective are: Luyben and Bonade Inverted. especially ““biting”” and bunched chin. a good. Here are some simple ideas to explain: 1. so it is best to order some of each bore to try them. V. 3. is standard length for Bb clarinets. A reed that is too thick or ““hard”” will sound airy and be difficult to blow. . Also consider Vandoren. i. Barrels: Though this is often the last item to which I have students upgrade. Gigliotti P facing mouthpiece. The Scott and Pyne barrels come in different bore sizes. MAKING IT IMPOSSIBLE TO PLAY WITH GOOD FUNDAMENTALS. Different makes to consider include: Robert Scott. and Selmer. and in your playing in general. the one that automatically comes with your clarinet. 1. The reed tip should line up with the mouthpiece tip and should be centered on the table of the mouthpiece (attention to the butt of the reed as well as the tip). Similarly. NEVER play with the ““stock”” mouthpiece. mouthpiece. 66 mm. A reed can be moved up on the mouthpiece to make it feel ““harder. there are several good quality ““intermediate”” wood clarinets made by Buffet. However. it’’s wise to make an investment in a ““professional”” model clarinet: Buffet R13 or R13 Festival. Take care of your mouthpiece——use your mouthpiece cap when you aren’’t playing.”” 2. Leblanc. then go for it! It’’s a good idea to use a tape recorder/mini disc/recording device to ensure you’’re actually sounding the way you THINK you are. Ligatures: An upgraded ligature can make a big difference in the way a reed responds. A reed can be moved down on the mouthpiece to make it feel ““softer. 65 mm. and Yamaha. Mouthpieces: A good mouthpiece is a starter. 4. either to the left or right. Use a mouthpiece patch to prevent teeth from ““denting”” the mouthpiece. unless the music store ““upgrades”” the mouthpiece. REEDS There is. consider a slightly shorter barrel. if not impossible. wooden clarinet always makes a HUGE difference in tone quality. b. The Chadash and Moennig are all unique. top of the line. or embouchure. a. These are less expensive and are a fine quality. i. careful not to knick the mouthpiece tip or to scratch the mouthpiece table. Make sure the reed strength is the appropriate strength for your mouthpiece and you!. if you think you’’ll keep playing for awhile. Jewel mouthpieces. a. A reed that is too thin or ““soft”” will sound bright and buzzy. VI. 4 . EQUIPMENT: Good equipment does make a difference in tone quality. Pitch will be flat in general. Leblanc Concerto or Opus. This can cause tremendous embouchure problems. it is still an important addition both for improvement in pitch. in tone quality. or 5 RV. tone difficult to center. Richard Hawkins mouthpieces.”” ii. Make sure your reed is aligned correctly. and Moennig. Guy Chadash. in your sound quality. Yamaha. If you tend to play ““sharp”” due to instrument. Try several of each to make sure you choose the best for their instrument. a reed’’s effectiveness can be improved simply by its placement on the mouthpiece. Gregory Smith mouthpieces. altissimo notes difficult. for A clarinets. Appropriate strength is dependent upon mouthpiece facing and student makeup. to produce. James Pyne. STUDENTS OFTEN USE REEDS THAT ARE TOO SOFT. if you play ““flat””. get a slightly longer barrel. much of which is difficult to discuss briefly. Selmer. and Charles Bay. c. and in matching the different registers of the instrument. 2. Instrument: Of course. Good brands to consider: Vandoren M13. obviously. M13 Lyre. However. Most reeds are not symmetrical and may play better if moved SLIGHTLY off center. much information about reeds. Aim for homogenous and uniform sound at all times. b. BG. If you can’’t afford a professional quality instrument. Pyne Sinfonia (or Custom) Mouthpieces.Think of how you want to be able to describe your sound.

Have several reeds to choose from and rotate those reeds instead of playing one constantly. Reeds last much longer if they are broken in. 5.3. 4. Conversely. There are many different methods to do this. you get what you pay for! It’’s possible to purchase reeds by the box from many companies (including mail order) for significant savings! I recommend Vandoren. though they vary a strength from Vandoren. Remove the reed and store it each time you play rather than leaving it on the mouthpiece! Learn how to ““break”” in reeds. Have your private instructor teach you. Pick a good brand of reed. In general. (Vandoren 3=Mitchell Lurie 4). Mine is listed at: 5 . 6. though these are not too consistent! Mitchell Lurie is a consistent brand. just because your friend is using a Vandoren #5 doesn’’t necessarily mean this is best for you! Depends on your physical makeup and your mouthpiece.

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Too little mouthpiece inside the mouth can also produce sharp pitch among more advanced players. Relaxed corners contribute to spread tone in the middle resister. sharp sound. weak air stream does not have the same shape as a fast air stream. The result may be a"fuz4" sound due to lack of air speed and a relaxed diaphragm. a_ necessary bi-product of sufficient air. Bottom Lip is Too Loose Tell the student to firm the bottom lip. Use the analogy of a garden hose. . The clarinet gets its best sound with quickly moving air. Too much mouthpiece inside the mouth squeaking. Avoid saying "make your chin flat" as this may encourage a 'smiley-face' embouchure which can lead to a thin. If the sound Top Teeth are not Gripping the Mouthpiece Firmly Enough This is common among beginners and younger players. will cause Tongue position is too low The tongue should be high (HEE) and forward inside the mouth.Not Enough Mouthpiece Inside the Mouth on the barrel and mouthpiece is unfocused and below F#. Students with air support problems are often using slow air instead of fast air. Use the analogy of drinking a milkshake through a straw or putting on chap stick. Students may be surprised to find that they have never felt 'baek. The clarinet embouchure is firm and the student must learn to not let the mouthpiece move around inside the mouth. Tell them to blow until they feel resistance from the instrument.. Let everything at forte for one week. again much like the 'straw' analogy or as in saying 'ooh. Improperly Shaped Air Stream A slow.pressure' from the clarinet. Tell the student to bring corners down and in. Corners are Too Relaxed The comers play a vital role in a correct embouchure. take in more mouthpiece until the pitch comes up. Describe the shape and speed ofa 'jet' setting on a hose nozzle. Not Enough Air students practice Air is'always an issue. Fast Air .

The reason for shetching the chin muscles is that the reed needs to vibrate against a firm surface. and tongue).-} 4=. jaw. and chin tightness (50% upward. Before being able to move the chin muscles with ease and precision.wrap the lips around the mouthpiece in an "o" shape. embouchure permits control of the most subtle colour changes in the sound.. Diligent practice should detennine the best diskibution ofpressure on the reed for each individuai. \ [5d% . so its vibrations will not be hindered or exaggerated. A correct distribution of lip. Example A ftelow) illusn'ates a proper angie. l_*u*_\ tr \ / /\ rl\ \ { . one must be aware of how these muscles work. the iower lip and teeth. The lower Iip shouid lie near where the curve between the mouthpiece and the reed starts. This avoids squeezing the reed against the mouthpiece. causilg the sound to choke (examFle B). Biting too much narrows the tone and gives it abwzy qualify. leaks As the lips follow the contour of the mouthpiece to prevent air Figure 2: Left: The chin is stretched (correct). tl A tt\ A {.l ^\ \.SPOTLIG|{T ONWOODWINDS / LES BOIS DE PLUS PRES [lorinel Michdle Gingros he Secrets following excerpts from Michdle Gingras'new book.?k -' . cheeks. the resulting tersion rs the key to a resonating tone. clarinet students are taught to flatten the chrn and. the chin muscles are more dfficult to move independently. Fol/ouiomne 2005 H. '1 I Y/ / /t 150. - 52 Petformance Strategies for the Advanced Clarinetist Embouchure is crucial to producing a good tone.The Chin Exercise Try this exercise: while keeprng yow jaw firmiy closed. + (t ^ . A helpfirl hint is to gent$ push the right thumb (under the thumb rest) toward the upper teeth in order to avoid the and to equalize the embouchure. Generally.$ .e. Venls conodiens .gwn. On Intonation: Secref 13 . therefore dampemng the sound. Right: The chin is relaxed (incorrect). Figure 3. A soft chin embouchure allows the lower hp to become too loose and makes the reed vibrate uncontrollably. the chin is stoetched downward. The upward motion is naturally easier without movtng the closed jaw possible This exercise should be done until control of the chin muscles is easily achieved. and chin tightness./\ \ Figure 4: Correct distribution of lip. 50% downward) is shown in Figwe 4 6elow). Clarinet Secrets (with a CD) are reprinted here by kind permission of Scarecrow Press in Toronto. i. jaw. The upper teeth should rest near the tip of the mouthoiece. resulting in a flat and colourless tone. Note the opposition ofpressure at the * sign. The goal is to find an ideal middle ground where the chin's tension is divided equal1y. while relaxing too much takes the centre of the tone away and adds an aii noise to the sound. tendency to bite while playing in the upper registers. +/ v IJ Figure 3: Proper (A) and improper (B) placement of the lower lip against the reed./l .n> rg2 + A (-. Moving the chin muscles up and Q.. C0n0di0n Winds . A good and effective clarinet Figure 1. The chin might also be touching the reed. Concentrate on stretching the chin's skin and muscles as much tr"y moving as the chrn muscles up and down. While most muscies are easily controlled (such as fingers.

o A'squeaking'higb D is . PIay each note with the same tone qualify.Quarter Note = 60. Slur everything.Register Shifts Register Shifts Example Two Register Shift Exercises Keep tempo slow . the back of the tongue adjusts to a slightly lower position to facilitate tone production. As you go above 'Thumb C'. Do not change the anything when the register k-ey is added.

INTONATION .

(though even playing a note at a straight-on ““0”” still doesn’’t guarantee it will be ““in tune. often referred to as BITING. Instrument: It is best to play a good quality instrument. Additionally. I believe that one should always try to use a ““blending”” type of sound when matching pitch of others.”” What I mean by that is that you need to learn what the pitch tendencies of your instrument are. As stated. Aim for a warm. covered. Biting typically results in poor intonation as well! b. ““chocolate””. ALWAYS consider tone quality first. Think of saying ““hee”” or hissing like a cat to feel what shape your tongue should be in. ““velvet””. If your reed is too soft. however. proper breath support. are tuned and adjusted fairly well at the factory to modern pitch standards. (sharp). Assuming these items are well in place. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University First and foremost. you then need to learn to ““play in tune with yourself. it is important to recognize that good intonation in playing clarinet is dependent upon several ““fundamentals. To develop an overall sense of reference. older instruments were sometimes tuned to different pitch centers. the more well known brands: Buffet-Crampon. you will have to apply undue pressure to the reed in order to get it to play. those that you might inherit from your relatives or find in the want ads of the newspaper. even those made by the same person. Older instruments. 3. the three items above are the very first to consider (and continue considering!) when learning to play in tune. and consequently your sound. Shape of oral cavity: You want to be sure you are focusing the air into the mouthpiece with an arched tongue. 2. You can start with a more inexpensive tuner and upgrade whenever possible. and cover and causes it to be harsh and shrill. and good intonation and the ability to play in tune will come much more easily to you. Make sure you are playing with a steady and constant stream of ““pressurized”” and supported air.”” In your quest to improve your intonation and listening skills. 1. and this adversely affects the tone and intonation of the instrument. are exactly alike. round. Make sure these elements are the best they can be. might not have as good overall intonation. Leblanc. Mouthpiece with appropriate reed strength: A mouthpiece’’s internal shape can greatly affect your intonation. you’’ll want to consider the following principles before anything else. and focused tone that is fully supported at all dynamics and in all registers of the clarinet. The best are those that have a needle/digital display AND sound output.) Similarly. You should make sure that you are keeping your bottom lip firm. Upgrading from the ““stock”” mouthpiece to a higher quality mouthpiece is a relatively easy and cost effective way to improve your tone and intonation. . it’’s good to try to keep each note on your clarinet close to the ““O”” mark on your electronic tuner. Avoid letting your tongue stay flat inside your mouth as in an ““AH”” sound. Generally. and using equal and adequate jaw pressure. Unfortunately the best ones are also the most expensive. Lack of breath support can cause pitch to be either flat or sharp! Beginnings of notes and ends of phrases are places to pay extra attention to your breath support and ensure it is remaining steady and constant. Work to hold your support. It’’s always better to have SOMETHING than nothing. warm. The bores of wooden clarinets tend to shrink over longer periods of time. and Selmer. Which other elements are essential to good tone quality? a.THE QUEST TO PLAY IN TUNE Dr. Biting prevents the sound from being blend-able. This will likely make your overall pitch a bit high. A reed should be resistant enough to provide a good core and cover to the sound (so the sound isn’’t bright or edgy) but not too hard to blow or fuzzy. your chin nice and smooth. steady at all dynamics and in all registers.”” Keep reading!) What are some considerations for this? 1. as no two mouthpieces. if it is too hard. Get an electronic tuner to help you in your quest. make sure you are playing the correct strength reed for the mouthpiece. Tone quality: TONE QUALITY ALWAYS AFFECTS INTONATION!!! When trying to solve intonation problems. (flat. Next. a well-developed embouchure. Ask your private instructor or your ensemble conductor for recommendations of reputable brands. Yamaha. your pitch will likely be low. c. Beware of using excess pressure.

You may pinch a bit harder or ““bite”” with your embouchure……. Typically. So now you’’ve figured out the tendencies and tuned overall. Tune to the note played (Usually A440 or Bb) first and adjust. MOUTHPIECE. you may need a 66 millimeter barrel if you are consistently sharp and a 64 millimeter barrel if you are consistently flat. You may tense up your throat which also affects pitch. Similarly. 3. Remember to breathe deeply! Don’’t worry about mistakes. you’’ll need to determine the pitch of your own instrument rather than relying on anyone else’’s finding. you can also adjust at the mouthpiece joint or at the bell joint. then tune to each octave of the note and adjust accordingly. you would adjust at the BARREL joint. A more reliable approach is to adjust at the MIDDLE joint in tuning your initial concert A (played as a B on a Bb clarinet) or a concert Bb (played as a C). if you are in tune at the beginning of a rehearsal and don’’t play much. However. your pitch may likely be lower than the initial pitch center. you will PULL OUT. you might want to consider a different length of BARREL. 4. 4. on a Bb clarinet. Nerves affect pitch! Consider what can happen when you get nervous. It is best to tune/adjust all octaves of these notes rather than just the singular concert A440 or Bb that is played because you want to get a good overall sampling. The first step to correcting these natural tendencies of your instrument is to know what they are! I recommend making a chart of each note of the clarinet. because of the shape of the bore of the clarinet and the placement of the register key. You must adjust at the joint of the clarinet closest to the note you are tuning. Although you might think you are in tune at the beginning of a rehearsal or concert. (more on this below. that is. in extreme cases. Remember.THE QUEST TO PLAY IN TUNE 2. the clarinet is inherently out of tune……. but you still have problems. it is fine to pull out your instrument at the appropriate joint to accommodate. using an electronic tuner.) If you have a section in a composition that is really soft (in contrast to a really loud section). focused sound. not just a one note sampling. and trying to blend and are still are constantly and consistently flat or sharp in all registers. I notice that students pull out from the barrel joint ONLY. for instance. or a 65 millimeter barrel if you are consistently flat. You will need to keep listening and adjusting to maintain the same initial pitch level. you will push in. If you are low to the tuning note. 3. the barrel for a Bb clarinet is 66 millimeters in length and 65 millimeters in length for an A clarinet. In tuning an open G. On an A clarinet. While there are some general tendencies of the instrument. your pitch will go up if you are playing constantly or if there are bright. play each note at a medium dynamic level and with a nice. The obvious solution to this is: learn to control your nerves. You can also add/subtract fingers or use alternate fingerings to help. You may forget to take breaths which means your support won’’t be as solid. . When a clarinet is warming up. you may need to use a 67 millimeter barrel if you are always sharp. you would adjust from the BARREL. hot lights. These tendencies can be corrected by proper breath support and SLIGHT adjustment in embouchure pressure and/or firmness. Barrel? If you are playing with good. So. Dr.Biting will raise the pitch and restrict your tone quality! You may tense up in your shoulders and abdomen. if you are sharp. high to the tuning note. its pitch will rise. Note what the tendency of the note is WITHOUT making any adjustments.which is to say that the different registers have their own particular intonation tendencies. Just remember to push back in when you play at louder dynamics again. and PERSON are different. just worry about conveying the spirit of the music you want to convey. How to fix and improve those tendencies? What are some further considerations? 1. 2. we adjust only at the barrel and in the middle. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University Unfortunately. again prohibiting a deep breath and corresponding breath support. Typically. your pitch will DROP when you play louder and will GO UP when you play softly. REMEMBER THAT EACH INSTRUMENT. You want to learn the honest placement of each note on your instrument. In tuning the notes an octave above. Dynamics affect pitch! Assuming that you are playing with solid embouchure and correct oral cavity shape. EACH REGISTER of the clarinet must be tuned. focused sound. Temperature affects pitch! When a clarinet is cold. its pitch is always LOWER than normal. Too often. Next.

the note may be slightly high. If your band happens to have a piano. 1. marimba. . you’’ll need to listen to those instruments to tune because the pitch on these instruments is relatively FIXED. if you play in unison as a section of 1st clarinetists or a section of clarinetists.THE QUEST TO PLAY IN TUNE 5. Usually. 5. it’’s the job of the principal clarinetist to listen down and set the pitch. Tuning rings! Do you find that you are almost always pulling out the same amount from either your middle joint or barrel joint? Consider getting tuning rings. a note will be slightly low (often the tone is also stuffy.or if you’’re a 3rd clarinetist. Each note in an interval has a place where it will SOUND in tune with the chord or interval. By using them. Tuning rings are thin rings that you insert into the tenon to fill the gap left by pulling out. you don’’t have to worry about finding the placement each time——it will be uniform! Also. In tuning. it’’s best to seek the advice of a professional repairman to verify that this is actually the problem and to have the problem fixed. Interval of a minor 3rd (3rd note of a minor scale): raise significantly. Do some notes stick out because they are always ““out”” in relationship to others close by? It could be that the height of the key opening isn’’t quite right. if you play in octaves with another section in the ensemble. Make sure to ““internalize””. LISTEN to the tuning note and sing or whistle it back to yourself. hear the pitch inside your own head before tuning and matching the tuning note given. Interval of a Major 3rd (yes. 6. In tuning. tuning rings help ensure more uniform pitch since they fill in the gaps left when you pull out. if a key or pad cup is opening too far. You should try to match whatever pitch the principal clarinetist is setting. Make sure you’’re matching it exactly before playing. In general. xylophone in it. you’’ll listen down to the bass clarinets or tenor saxophones or horns or tubas. Interval of a Perfect 5th (5th note of either scale): raise slightly. 6. Interval of a Major 2nd (2nd note of the scale. you’’ll have a more accurate reference. you will have to slightly adjust every note to make it sound in tune with whatever chord you’’re playing or whichever people you’’re playing with. so you just want a good overall impression. Dr. it’’s best to listen to the lowest voices for your pitch reference. Here are some guidelines and helpful hints for LISTENING. However. Interval of a Perfect 4th (4th note of either scale): lower slightly. It can’’t be changed in the middle of a composition. and such a place isn’’t necessarily at ““O””. That’’s because these lower pitches are often more stable and often contain the primary notes of the chords. The following is a general guideline to help you ““place”” the notes so they SOUND in tune: Interval of a minor 2nd : raise significantly. 3. the 3rd note of a MAJOR scale): lower significantly. that is. Then when you do play. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University The adjustment of your clarinet can affect pitch. Interval of a tritone: lower. In these cases. Won’’t considering all this ensure I’’m playing in tune? NO! All these above issues are merely helpful hints…… Remember that I said earlier that just because you can put every note at ““O”” on the tuner doesn’’t mean you play in tune? That’’s because playing in tune has to do even more with LISTENING and training your ears to fit with what’’s going on simultaneously. Know where to place your note in relationship to the key signature in which you play and in relationship to the main note of that key signature. That means as a clarinetist you’’ll often find yourself listening to the 3rd clarinets……. 2.) Similarly. We’’ve discussed MANY issues with playing in tune. if a key or pad cup doesn’’t quite open enough. 4. Similarly. for instance): raise slightly. tune at a medium dynamic. Remember that extreme dynamics affect pitch. tune to the lowest note.

““Playing in tune”” and developing your listening skills are LIFELONG quests. consider adding some (or all in some cases!) of the fingers down in your right hand. The left hand sliver (fork) key. the left hand pinkie c#/g# key. e. For notes that use only fingers in your left hand. the right hand side keys. you can (and most often should!) keep your right hand close to the tone holes to cover them a bit. For throat tones. A good exercise is to play with a tuner with an OUTPUT feature……. you’’ll need to CLOSE a tone hole.) Listen for ““beats””……. Which fingers can I add or subtract to help? To raise pitch. The right hand sliver (fork) key. The right or left hand pinkie F#/C# key. Interval of a Major 7th (7th note of a major scale or ascending melodic minor): lower significantly. This will also assist in going over the break. Try to eliminate the beats and waivering by slight adjustments to your embouchure or by adding/subtracting fingers. d. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University Interval of a minor 6th (6th note of descending melodic minor or a natural minor scale): raise significantly. The right or left hand pinkie E/B key. b. The right or left hand pinkie F/C key. To lower pitch. . c.one that will play pitches. c. the right hand pinkie Ab/Eb key. you’’ll need to OPEN a tone hole. usually the bottom 2 side keys.THE QUEST TO PLAY IN TUNE Dr. Consider: a. Set the tuner output on the first note of a scale then play the given scale SLOWLY (in slow whole notes. Interval of a minor 7th (7th note of a natural minor scale or descending melodic minor): raise significantly. Consider: a.waivers in sound that occur when you are not placing your intervals exactly. Hopefully these tips can help you begin your quest and answer some of your initial questions. b. Interval of a Major 6th (6th note of a major scale or ascending melodic minor scale): lower significantly.

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ALTISSIMO .

2. The Altissimo Register: A Partial Approach. 3. not any firmer embouchure. Articulation in altissimo register requires much less tongue motion than lower registers. Consider taking in a touch more mouthpiece. only faster or more focused air is needed to play altissimo notes. GENERAL REMINDERS: If embouchure is correct. the place on the mouthpiece where the mouthpiece and reed separate is the place where the lower lip should rest. 3. Biting: too much upward lower lip pressure. Paul. ““Voicing””: Tongue should be arched inside mouth. 1978. 4. Fast enough air: make sure to blow a steady. to be sure the lip is at a place on the reed which can support the amount of pressure necessary for altissimo note response. Wisconsin: Leblanc. a. Lower lip ““mushy””. though NO BITING/PINCHING. B. 3. Results in: a. 1978. c. 2. COMMON PROBLEMS: 1. Reminder: generally. C. c. b. For most students. 1. Listed below are some of the most common choices. 5. 6. a. a. Again. If the altissimo is sharp. Rochester. Even think of exaggerating this syllable. pitch problems. For other fingerings. Embouchure does need to be firm. subtones. Rehfeldt. overblows altissimo notes. Choice of fingering depends of notes preceding or following the altissimo note as well as intonation and dynamic level required. b. 1990. Thomas. b. 7. fast air stream. pitch sharp. FINGERINGS: Many fingerings are available for altissimo notes. a. 2. Berkeley: University of California Press. several books are available including: a. Reminder: Have students think of pushing up with the right hand thumb and out with the left hand thumb. Clarinet Fingering: A Comprehensive Guide for the Performer and Educator. New Directions for Clarinet. Kenosha. Phillip. subtones. NY: Shall-umo Publications. . the ““hee”” syllable. the Ab/Eb ““helper”” key should be depressed on all altissimo notes except c#. 4. 1. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University A. Ridenour. Results in: a.A Brief Introduction to the Altissimo Register Dr. no altissimo register: subtones. Not fast enough air stream. 4. pinching reed Not focused enough air stream. Drushler. simply take off the Ab/Eb key or check to see that no biting (upward pressure from the lower jaw) is occurring. b. a. pitch flat. b. Angle of the instrument: make sure your chin is level and the clarinet brought in close enough to your body.

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ARTICULATION .

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1. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University Good tonguing is dependent upon steady. poor tone. and the articulation occurs ““on top of”” the airstream. The tongue only stops the reed from vibrating: it doesn’’t ATTACK the reed. Bring mouthpiece into mouth keeping tongue in place on reed. 1. solid air support/stream and a stable embouchure. but tone will be poor. 2. not the tongue. altissimo notes will NOT LIKELY speak. 2. b. embouchure will look good. Tip of the tongue to the tip (more or less) of the reed. No bottom lip/embouchure movement. Flat tongue: Will cause spread. Encourage legato articulation for relaxed. OR have students actually speak the articulation. Form embouchure. Instead. Tongue is likely moving too much: c. If this is the case. lazy. 3. No jaw movement. The RELEASE of the tongue actually creates the articulation. 3. Have students imagine their tongue is a feather or a small paintbrush that barely touches the reed. 2. d. 2. Indicates tongue is moving to the reed from too far away in the mouth OR tongue is in incorrect position. NO EXCESS MOVEMENT! 1. There should be NO visible throat motion during articulation. or uneven fingers are the culprit in articulated passages. D. Harsh tongue: TONGUE IS WORKING MUCH TOO HARD! a. . Sluggish tongue: Incorrect part of tongue to incorrect part of reed: a. the sound quality will change during articulated passages or there will be MUCH excess motion. c. Staccato style evolves out of good legato style! 1. Also.ARTICULATION FUNDAMENTALS Dr. Make sure students have the technique mastered first (slow to fast approach!) and that the passage is clean and even when SLURRED! Then have students consider moving fingers SLIGHTLY ahead of tongue. 5. Rub tongue along inside bottom teeth. 4. ““Attacks”” reed instead of brushing reed. TONGUE PRESSURE SHOULD BE NO MORE THAN IS NECESSARY TO STOP THE REED FROM VIBRATING. COMMON PROBLEMS: 1. Tongue should stay front/forward and close to the reed. uncontrolled. If incorrect tongue placement. Lack of coordination between tongue and fingers. Only the front of the tongue moves. They will easily ““hear”” that there is tension in their tongue. Back of tongue should be slightly arched inside mouth AT ALL TIMES for optimal positioning: ““hee””. the air stream should stay steady. tongue could be too heavy and not relaxed enough. Take a breath and build support and pressure BEHIND the reed. b. close tongue stroke. No throat movement. g. crisply and evenly. Release reed. b. Contrary to many students’’ belief. Lack of proper support/support of individual notes rather than the entire line. and/or heavy tongue. To ““find”” tip of the tongue: a. A. 3. f. Poor legato: Not enough support and/or air to help the tongue or supporting the notes only rather than the line. C. 2. B. Scratch tip of tongue with fingernail. c. Make sure students don’’t stop the air for each individual note to create articulation. Place tip of tongue to tip of reed OUTSIDE mouth. If not. E. e. not the movement of the tongue to the reed. difficulty in high register. No anchor tonguing.

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Her teachers include Dr. and Dr. a question and answer forum. and for Coda Music. Is the air support strong and sufficient? Inabilify to Articulate Clearly The inability to articulate clearly may be caused from tonguing the bottom lip." Paula has been a featured ciinician for the Texas. Most students try too hard and move the tongue too much.targets skill development for advancing clarinetists . or tonguing only one side of the reed. James Gillespie. the roof of the mouth. Lightly touch the lip of your tongue to the lqp of the reed . She i. Harsh Articulation A bad articulated sound is generally caused by excessive motion of the tongue. Over time. Examples in this handout are from Daily Workouts for Clarinet by Paula Corley available at music retailers. Use Option Three to address this problem. o Breath start each whole note with the svllable . The tongue motion is the same for staccato as legato.com -. Pay close attention to how the exercise sounds when spoken. It is very difficult to move the embouchure at fast speeds.rnd features audio clips of student groups.clarinetcity. and has done postgraduate study at the University of North Texas. a graduute of Mississippi State Universiry (BME) and Southern Methodist University (MM). is motion of tongue to reed surface. John Scott. importers of Buffet Clarinets. Use Option One or Option Two to re-introduce tongue to reed surface. Lpic Opera Orchesti-a and is an educationai consultant for Her website . Paula Corley is a career music educator with 19 years of teaching experience in the Texas public school system where she tauglrt begrnning clarinet classes and developed her beginning clarinet method entitled "So You Want To Play The Clarinet.11 Heavy. Stephen Girko. o 'Hee'. and North Carolina Music Edgcators Associations as well as for the Texas Bandmasters and for The University of North Texas. conference notes and clarinet teaching materials. work backwards to slower speeds until movement stops. In June. Altemate speaking the exercise with playing the exercise. Keep your tongue high and forward inside the mouth. 2005 she will make her second appearance at the University of Oklahoma Clarinet Symposium and her sixth at Indiana University's Clarinet Teaching Workshop recognized teacher and performer.'tee' syllable. Howard Klug. Please send questions and clinic requests to: paulaclar@hotmail. Start the exercise at the absolute fastest speed that the student can go. developers of SMARTMUSIC intelligent accompaniment.w-rvw. The tip of the tongue (to the top ofthe reed) takes care of articulation. Use Option One to re-introduce a more gentle Scooped or Spread Sound on Articulated Notes A scooped or spread sound on articuiated notes often caused by Embouchure Movement. Arkansas.com . Dr. witl internationaily Currentllr Paula is Instructor of Clariiet and Music Education at Mars Hill College. Warren Lutz. She is Principai Clarinet u'ith tfre Asheville The Music Group.

Errors are more apparent when yariables are reduced. OPTION TWO Option Three can be used to help develop speed as well as to correct'rchewing" .embouchure movement directly related to the diitan"" oi. stsrt on the barrel and moutbpiece (F#) wuen ciagnosing tonguing problems. To re'introduce tonguing to experienced students with articulation problems try Option TWo.th" totrgue from the ieed.close to the reed Breath Start each r'o"r'*tilr" to establish a good sound first. The focused sound should not disappear when tonguing. Longer burstr hetp to develop enduranee. Option One is a good way to introduce tonguing to beginners: OPTTON ONE HEE. Use the same instructions as in Opfion One. Ktrep the tongue as close to the reed as possible to go fastgr... the tip of the tongue touches the top of the reed to interrupt the whole note. White sustaining the whole note.tee tee tee Tongue should use minimal efforl Tongue high and forward in thO mouth ... AIso See articulated patterns under Non Tonic-to-Tonic Scale pattirn examples" .is OPTION THREE Shorter Bursts of "5r' note will alss work well.10 Articulation: Exercises to Correct and Improve Tonguing Daily tonguing practice is essential for dweloping the ability to articulate. Sper-d.

TECHNICAL FACILITY AND DEXTERITY AND TECHNICAL EXERCISES .

Only index finger moves for Ab. Let them tilt upwards slightly. While it may seem tedious. c. Use 1st joint bone to help place. no flat fingers. not a shift of the wrist. Should hit that key just above 2nd joint and to the side of the finger.An Introduction to Technical Facility Dr. Rest of fingers fall curved. They should look ““natural””. Release all tension. No collapsed joints. Tends to end up at an angle to your clarinet.”” 5. a. Rolling action from F# to Ab. 8. Points downward. . Index finger: at 45 degree angle to the Eb/Bb key. 3. Drop hands to side and pull them up to see this. Index should be lightly touching both keys simultaneously at all times. not ““C”” shape. Prominent but not tight. A. not a shift of the wrist. i. Try to pick up from elbow only as much as possible. Should detect a ““line”” slanting downward. Index curvature set by Ab/A keys. (shoulder tension usually causes arm/hand/finger tension. a. ““Rectangle”” or ““U”” shape created between the thumb and index finger. Push the index slightly further forward to help. c. Hit the Ab key automatically when you depress the A key. 5. 3. 6. LEFT HAND POSITION Thumb hole towards first joint of thumb. Elbows close to body. 7. Hands as close to their ““natural”” position as possible.) Arms relaxed and naturally close to body. then let the other fingers fall into place. not tense or gripping. It should be the least curved. Knuckles out. b.”” a. ““Line”” through knuckles goes below. not a backwards ““C. a. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University Emphasize and reinforce CORRECT position and action from DAY ONE. a. 1. Use ring finger as guide. 4. NOT HOOKED UNDERNEATH SIDE KEYS!!!!!!! b. Knuckles out but not tight. 4. 9. 3. NO GRIPPING!!! Palms: Relaxed. a) Let it move with the ring finger. A. 2. not tips. d. not perpendicular. 6. not through or over the clarinet. Thumb: ““double grip”” on bone and side of fingernail. 8. 9. or Bb. Ab to A is simply a ““straightening out”” of the finger. Use ring finger to help guide others. RIGHT HAND POSITION 1. it will prevent many problems from developing. 2. not pressed together. Shoulders relaxed. GENERAL ARM/HAND POSITION 1. as it serves dual function of covering thumbhole and depressing register key. Wrist rotates in and down which creates: 4. Pads/fleshy part of fingers cover holes. A. Motion from low Bb to RH side key Eb is a straightening out motion of the first two joints of the index finger. 7. 2. b. B. e. ii. not perpendicular. b. no bear claws. Fingers: Easy ““3-way arch. Get Ab/A keys bent slightly upwards to help. or Bb. not arched or tense. Pinky finger uses F#/C# or F/C key as a home key. Rest of fingers stay in position over keys. C. Wrists in and down. Stays curved. Thumb almost at a 45-degree angle to clarinet. Hand tilts upwards toward the Eb/Bb side key. Rectangle/open space/””u”” shape between index and thumb.

Minimize wrist motion. Scales/arpeggios in a multitude of forms/patterns. Control height above keys. (or C#/G#) 6. Pinky finger stays curved. SLOW to FAST approach. one does not necessarily develop precision. Points down to work keys. E. ““Up”” snap should be equal to ““down”” snap. Let natural weight of fingers take over on return to key (““down”” snap. Use mirror to help ii. one develops technique. Retain natural. D. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University 5.). Consider the elements that must be developed: a. ALL FINGERS MOVE FROM THE BACK KNUCKLES ONLY. not straight.An Introduction to Technical Facility Dr. Speed comes gradually by working on precision and relaxation: ““By developing precision. Don’’t let fingers ““fly””--they’’ll lose their shape. NO SQUEEZING. ii. 4. DEVELOPING TECHNIQUE: 1. Not too much pressure. 3. b. FINGER ACTION: 1. 5. SLOW to FAST approach. knowledge of patterns i. 2. 7. but by developing technique. b. 6. Work SLOW to FAST. finger action and height i. 2. a. 3-way curve of finger at all times.”” . NO GRIPPING. F#/C# is the home key for the pinkies. Total cleanliness and evenness.

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. hold the clarinet while "nainta ning the flnal.. or slraigl-lered. _o.__ a zhal _steep or . however. this may feel as though the hands and fingers are going through complete retraining. three. . o-. Practise slow scales in front of the mirror._ . making sure the fingers do not becone stiff. . After pradising the three hand motions on both hands several times. rctr:tcd rioht it ic easy to see now tne Continue the exercise by playing increasingly faster scales (stiil in front of the mirror). move each finger from the first joint (at the base of the hand) and imaoine thet rhe rest of the finqer is some\. and vary technical pafterns (such as fingers naturally curve and become rounded.Although clarinet playing may not necessarily always involve natural body movements. thirds or octaves) by lifting fwo.(diagram 3) Similarly. curved hand post:or. lf one holds out a relaxed hand and bends the wrist as illr / A. extended. slow and patient work wrll y eld a much more flu d technicue and perhaps Drevert future injury. or more {ingers simultaneously. move accordingly on the clarinet keys. The initial discomfort might cause you to taKe a 'short cut' and rerurn to you' previous hand and finger positions. A relaxed and natural approach will reduce the tendency to tighten the hand and arm muscles during rapid technical passages.. each individual finger naturally curves and should Try playing various trills to test how relaxed each finger is while moving rapidly Remember to relax the arms and shoulders as well as the fingers._ extremely relaxed.FI i While practising slow scales in front of the mirror. it is important to study and analyse natural hand motions to adapt them to the instrument. ..A 47{ t. In thrs way the flrst finger joint will guide the rest of the finger and the natural werght of each {inger will be used to cover holes or close keys. especialiy during trills. At times.. This technique will help avoid excess pressure on tone holes and keys. The light feeling you will experience afler a few days of practice will grve you the impressron that each finger gently gets detached from the hand while playing.

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all are important ror smoothness of techrin.EE tsb J) K sk -od- -@- @ -q ** sk (t R) Eb -@-F@ iot \R L) -@- \ (ot Ab @.id sk RLR R LR E@+.e'fAlo*.-eE 11L ._=rij*.ar.@e e-€ \L R/ \ -s+_ E -e-eE sk *-a dto PI R RLK ? Er -@* sk L R *-*-**_* RL RL RLR at *o -& Er LR €-a LID @-6 v .. slur' Do not concentrate on scales L_ie{t side ..TF{IRDS for ci-ARINET._ each hand gr -@ ** tr u. "nJirri. z"Jnji.a RLR e. A*pEGGxcs Compiled &. 5eflss?er SUGGESTIoNS: Practice slowiy' accurately: let speed develop. scAi-ES.o NOTE: R:right side sk:side key qright. IJse a variety of articulations.naturarly./5:_1st /4:1stfinger r fr. plus full it the expenie or ""p'"ggio.s by NII-O F{OVEY. Educationai Director...1:i&ft:" _ 1 .

9#2. F3. G chr.Gb2. M (Contra. Bb2. eb1. 2 D2. D1. c2 a2.2 Treble Clef Tuba c1. c2. Z Db1. e3. eb1. cb2.b2. b2.G2 a2.{b2.82. d1. Eb2.t1. 82 bb2.C2. cb2 g#2.t#2. Gb3. 9#2. d\ #\ Bb chr.E2. C $r2 Flute Bb2. Db2 D1. G chr. Al c2.92. bb2. gl . Ab1. C2. 11 . g#1 . Trombone . Db2 g#2. 2 d2. bbz. cl.altoltenor clef srrdcd lnln1 . 82 bb1. A chr. 2 Db1. Abz. F chr. F1. Abz.2 Eb1. e2. c2 a2. 2 b2. 92. a2.Alto and Bass c2. f2. Db2.82 b2.M. C chr. e2. M. G chr. c2. C chr. 2 Chord pro. d1.G2 92.Bb2 e2. Gb1.82.Eb chr. g#2. Bari) G1. eb1 . d1. b2.D2. D2 f2. F.3. a2. b1. g#2. c2 bb2. Eb1.R. d\ Oboe Bb1. Eb1. C1 d1.MrcrtIGAI\t scHool. e2. eb2. f#2.F chr. D1 El. C chr. 92. E1. 92. Dl.D2 f2. g#2. C chr. 2 c2.C2 92. d2. eb2. G chr 2 tso ulannet (Eb Soprano) .82.F2.F2 92. 2 eb1. e2.Dbz. 2 Bb1. G chr. e1. d2. Bb2. Bb chr.bbl.F2.2 Ebi.D chr 2 M. F1.. t#2.E2. 2 Melody Percussion c2.l#1. a1.82. There are Hom - bass clef. Bb chr. Cl. 2 uornet Trumpet French Horn c1.2 ill Abz. Bb2. 2 Trombone dl. 93. D1.F2 92. indicated chromatic. E chr 3 Eb2.B. IV. Gb2 t#2.F2. c2. dl. 2 Db1. Ab2. c2. P. 2 Bb1. t2. c1. ebl. Eb2. d2. lV. 2 Db2. c1 . c2. al . G chr.82 bb2.t#2. g#2. You are attoweo oo seconds to look over music for the sight reading part of the examination.. C chr. 2 M Dbz. eb2. Db1.2.F2.A2 f2. F chr.&2. c3 a2. Ab2.E2. Ab chr. d1 . Tenor.Ebz. F chr.b2.. Upper case (B) indjcate major scates. V.. 2 c2. a2. and chr. d1. e2. 3 Chord pro.eb?. Cl. d2. eb2. Bb1. Gb2. a2. c2 bb2. Ab chr. g#2. g#2. i. Proficienry ll includes all scales listed in both I and ll and proficienry lll includes scales listed for l. A2 G chr.8b chr. . Number after scale indicates nunider of octaves. e2. 2 Ab2.A. E3. e2.F2 92. d2.Eb chr. a1. Eb1. V. E chr. E2. Bassoon - tenor clef.D2. bb2.2.G2.G2. c2. I 42. Bb2. 82 bb2. 2 Eb1. t#2. t#2. 82 d1 . C2. Bb chr. f2.b2. Ab chr. e2. D2. 2 Eb1. e2. a2.2 M. Dl. Cl. Gb2. t2.2 Eb2. E3. Ab2. C & F l. Gb2. and lll. Ab2. b2. d2. b2. #/ #\ I NOTE: Sight Reading contains some altemale clefs.B2 d1 .2 Abz.. F#2 g#1.41.F#2 t#2. 3 l#2. G & Bb l. Bb chr. Ab2. eb1. Gb2 t#2.E2. F2. d2. bb2.82.e. 3 D1. c2 bb2. d#2. d2. eb2.E2.t#2. 2 Ab2. towJr case 1u1 inoi"rt"o melodic minor. c1. c2. F1.92.E2. F2. e2. d1 F chr. Gb2.f'l. 3 Db2. SCALES Piccolo tl Bb2. d2. C chr. Bb chr. *2. eb2.2 F2. Gb2.bb2. 3 Saxophone (Alto.2 I. E2. b2. All scalee must be meniorized.82. a2. 2 Db2. el. BAIYD and ORCITESTRA AssocIATIoN SOLO and ENSEMBLE pROFICmNCy SCALES WIND gnd MELODY PERCUSSION INSTRITMENTS Required Scale Rhythm: Chromatic: Even Rhvthm Tefnpp: maximum crintrolled soeed Articulauon: All sluned or all tongued (adjudicato/s choice) _ Note: Proficiency examinations are cumulative. b2. Eb1. G chr. t#1 . d2. dl . E2. Ab1 b2.2 Baritone Bass Clef Baritone Bb1. Bb chr. cl .. Eb2 a2. C1 92. f#3. 42 Bb2. Db2. F chr. ll. Bb chr. c1 91. F chr. C chr. E chr.b2. Q.) Clar Bassoon c2. bb2. A2 c2. e1 .

REEDS And MAINTENANCE .

Box 357 Mt. CA 90069 310.8161 William Brannen 908 Hinman Evanston.735.338. La Cienega Blvd. mouthpieces Instruments and accessories Instruments/Mouthpieces/Barrels/accessories Synthetic Reeds . CA 91359 805. ONT CANADA L4N 7J6 705.0313 Clark Fobes 130 Beverly San Francisco. IL 60202 847. Los Angeles.585.com Mouthpieces/barrels/ligatures/accessories Repair Repair/instruments Music Repair. O.846. O. IA 52244-2570 319.1559 legerereeds@aol. Charles Bay P.4671 International Musical Suppliers P. Repair.1116 Légère Reeds 39 Weatherup Crescent. Music.7576 Timothy Clark 86 Pocono Rd. Gilbert 943 N. instruments. barrels.652. CA 94132 415.866. Accessories. West Worthington. OH 43235-1407 614. Box 2570 Iowa City.497. Etc.762.Selected Sources for Equipment.4888 Eble Music Co. IL 60056 800. Barrie.0636 Robert D. Box 3935-C Westlake Village. Prospect.

333.753.347. Buhl Farm Rd. MI 48911 517. 50 N.2-LUYBEN (Visa/MC orders only) 816.1929 repairband@aol. OH 43235 800. barrels.2095 800.com www.6415 704.8509 James Pyne 1672 Rushing Way Columbus. MI 517.333. Hermitage. 1400 E.com Robert Scott 2930 Sunderland Rd. ligatures Repair/Accessories Repair.Luyben Music Co. Box 1274 Boone.6879 FAX order@luybenmusic.7111 816. O.9098 Music Instruments and accessories Instruments/Mouthpieces/Barrels/accessories Accessories Mouthpieces. NC 28607 800.753. Inc.339. MO 64111 800. 4318 Main St.luybenmusic. PA 16148 412.8990 FAX muncywinds@aol.com Marks Music Co.com ProWinds.7629 Muncy Winds P. Lansing. 3rd Street Bloomington.963. Ligatures .789.JPYNE-440 Eric Satterlee Buttonwood Haslett.882. Kansas City. IN 47401 812. Barrels.

224.5003 Woodwind Service. Inc.4257 Frederick Weiner 9216 37th Ave. IN 46637 800.6647 Music Instruments/Mouthpieces/Barrels/accessories Instruments/Mouthpieces/Barrels/accessories Music .348. Box 206 Medfield.Stanton’’s Sheet Music 330 S.622. OH 43215 614. Jackson Heights. Fourth St.527. MA 02052 800. NY 11372 800.CORK Woodwind/Brasswind 50741 US 31 North South Bend. Columbus.

Clarinet Care and Maintenance Dr. Kimberly Cole Luevano Eastern Michigan University GENERALLY: 1. Keep in mind the importance of keeping your mouthpiece and reed in clean and sanitary condition. 2. Always keep pads and key mechanism dry. Water ruins pads, causes corrosion within key mechanism, and is detrimental to wood instruments. 3. DO NOT USE FORCE! If force seems necessary, it is an indication that the instrument is in need of adjustment/repair. Take it to a trained music repairman. 4. Always REMOVE reed from mouthpiece and store separately. Fine to store ligature on mouthpiece, but ALWAYS store mouthpiece with a mouthpiece cap. AFTER EACH PLAYING: 1. Remove reed, wipe excess moisture, and store in a manner which will keep the reed flat and discourage warping. 2. Remove mouthpiece and wipe clean with a clean handkerchief or soft cloth. DO NOT RUN SWAB THROUGH MOUTHPIECE REGULARLY. 3. Swab the remaining joints (bell, upper and lower joints, barrel) thoroughly. 4. Make sure to clean excess moisture out of tenon joints. 4. Check tone holes for any remaining moisture, and remove moisture accordingly. 5. Wipe fingerprints and moisture off key mechanism and instrument exterior. EVERY WEEK: 1. Wash mouthpiece in LUKE-WARM (NOT HOT——preferably on the cold side, actually.) water with a gentle soap such as Ivory soap or Castille soap. Be especially careful of the mouthpiece tip and rails——do not scratch or nick these areas in particular. 2. Check corks. Lubricate sparingly as soon as they are dry. EVERY SIX to EIGHT WEEKS: 1. Oil key mechanism wherever one metal part moves against another as on posts, hinges, etc. 2. Apply key oil sparingly. One drop is more than sufficient! 3. Prevent rusting by touching up all springs and screws that go through the head of a post (pivot screws) with key oil. 4. Wipe off excess oil carefully. Too much oil collects dust and ruins pads. Keep all lubricants off the pads. 5. Consider oiling the bore of your clarinet, particularly in dry conditions. Lubricate a separate swab with a natural oil such as almond oil. Run the oiled swab through the bore once or twice. Rub slight amounts of oil into the exposed wood on the exterior, taking care to keep the oil away from pads and key mechanisms. Daily maintenance will keep your clarinet in good working order for lengthy periods of time.

Part five

Care and maintenance habits ore on important part of music education
Director of Performance Education G. Leblanc Corporation
I ulie D eRoche is Leblanc' s newly appointed director of performance education. Prior to

this valuable training. T I he method of assembling a clarinet can seem obvious, but in fact, if done incorrectly, it can be the source of many problems. Forcing tight tenons together or holding the clarinet incorrectly during assembly can cause bent keys and stuck joints. There are two important things to teach young students to keep in mind while assembling the clarinet. The first is to place the upper and lower joints together without bending the barrel on in the right direction. I have seen young students force the joints of an instrument to do things that were not intended-and the result was not good! When placing the upper and lower joints together, allow the upper joint of the clarinet to rest in the palm of the left hand, with the lower tenon near the wrist. The front of the clarinet will be facing up, and the palm of the hand will be gently cradling the back of the joint just below the register key. The fingers will then be able to curve around the front of the joint and will
press the keys so that the bridge mecha-

the bridge key, and the second is to place

by

lulie

DeRoche

joining Leblanc,
sewed

she

wind department and
clarinet facuhy
P aul

mc,ny le(trs as coordinator of the wood-

for

at De

U niq., er sity, Chic a go. She serued as acting sec' ond clarinet wirh the Chicago Symphony Orchesrra

connection, and do this only when it becomes difficult to slide the tenons
together.

you need in order to get a smooth, easy

during the 2000-2001

| !.€EF;"'

perform and tour fre, quently with the CSO. In addition to her
inuolu ement with numerou s chamb er and orchestral groups, she now seTves as imme-

season and continues kt

nism opens or lifts. This allows the student to slip the lower-joint bridge
key under the upper-joint bridge key. Hold the lower joint in the right hand, toward the lower end of the joint, without excessive force on the keys or rods. Make sure that all corks are sufficiently

diate past president of the International Clarinet Associntion.

our students' clarinet cases to find broken or moldy reeds, missing screws, dirty, dusty tone holes or bent keys. Often, these problems are the very reasons that our students have trouble learning to perform well.
Clarinets that are not well treated and

M I lost of us who teach have opened

lubricated with cork grease. Twist the joints together in a back-and-forth motion, rather than by turning the lower joint in a circular motion. The joints

Uisassembly should follow the opposite order. Be sure that your student continues to hold the clarinet as during assembly, described above, raising the bridge key before twisting the joints apart. Whether playing a wood clarinet or a plastic model, it is best to disassemble the clarinet as soon as possible so that the corks do not get pressed continually, which can cause loose, wobbly tenons and eventual leaks and stuffiness. Swab each joint thoroughly with a cotton handkerchief swab or silk swab. The swab should be pulled through the

n

well maintained can cause numerous difficulties, such as lack of response,

rings in the front should be in line. (Instruments with the PRAG system will simply slide into proper alignment.) After putting the upper and lower joints together, twist the bell into place and then the barrel. The barrel has a

should slide smoothly together, and the

squeaking, excessive resistance, poor key coordination and so forth. There" fore, learning to care for a clarinet propteaching students how to care for their instruments can create lifelong good habits. Unfortunatelv. this is sometimes a neglected aspect of instruction. I still assemble and disassemble my clarinet just as my elementary-school band director taught me, and I care for it in the way that I was taught many years ago by the greatly respected repair

erly is extremely important,

and

small and large end, and although it is probably obvious to you, be sure that your youngest students place the barrel on in the correct direction, with the larger side of the barrel fitting onto the upper joint. (I have witnessed young players trying to do the opposite with great effort.) Finally, place the mouthpiece on the barrel, and then the liga-

artists, Bill and Linda Brannen. In this
segment of Clarinet Basics,

I will

share

greased with good, clean cork grease, but do not allow too much grease to build up on the cork. Instead, wipe excess grease off the cork before applying more so that it does not get sticky. Use only the amount of cork grease that

ture and reed, in that order. Remember to keep the tenons well

clarinet from bottom to top-or from the bell to the barrel-but should not be pulled through the mouthpiece. Make sure that all water is thoroughly removed from the tenons by wiping these areas with the swab. Remember to shake out the swab so that it is as long and flat as possible. Do not put it through the clarinet when it is in a knot. If the swab sets stuck in one of the joints, it is impoitant to take it to a good repair shop to have it removed. Never poke sharp objects into the clarinet (screwdrivers, flute rods, pencils or pens, batons), as they can scar the tone holes and inner surface of the instrument. Dry the mouthpiece by gently wiping the surface with the swab, but do not pull the swab through the mouthpiece frequently, as repeated swabbing can

"Fffi

-rnu t'BLANC BELL

wr N'ER 2oo3

Part five

Care and maintenance habits ore on important part of music education
Director of Performance Education G. Leblanc Corporation
I ulie D eRoche is Leblanc' s newly appointed director of performance education. Prior to

this valuable training. T I he method of assembling a clarinet can seem obvious, but in fact, if done incorrectly, it can be the source of many problems. Forcing tight tenons together or holding the clarinet incorrectly during assembly can cause bent keys and stuck joints. There are two important things to teach young students to keep in mind while assembling the clarinet. The first is to place the upper and lower joints together without bending the barrel on in the right direction. I have seen young students force the joints of an instrument to do things that were not intended-and the result was not good! When placing the upper and lower joints together, allow the upper joint of the clarinet to rest in the palm of the left hand, with the lower tenon near the wrist. The front of the clarinet will be facing up, and the palm of the hand will be gently cradling the back of the joint just below the register key. The fingers will then be able to curve around the front of the joint and will
press the keys so that the bridge mecha-

the bridge key, and the second is to place

by

lulie

DeRoche

joining Leblanc,
sewed

she

wind department and
clarinet facuhy
P aul

mc,ny le(trs as coordinator of the wood-

for

at De

U niq., er sity, Chic a go. She serued as acting sec' ond clarinet wirh the Chicago Symphony Orchesrra

connection, and do this only when it becomes difficult to slide the tenons
together.

you need in order to get a smooth, easy

during the 2000-2001

| !.€EF;"'

perform and tour fre, quently with the CSO. In addition to her
inuolu ement with numerou s chamb er and orchestral groups, she now seTves as imme-

season and continues kt

nism opens or lifts. This allows the student to slip the lower-joint bridge
key under the upper-joint bridge key. Hold the lower joint in the right hand, toward the lower end of the joint, without excessive force on the keys or rods. Make sure that all corks are sufficiently

diate past president of the International Clarinet Associntion.

our students' clarinet cases to find broken or moldy reeds, missing screws, dirty, dusty tone holes or bent keys. Often, these problems are the very reasons that our students have trouble learning to perform well.
Clarinets that are not well treated and

M I lost of us who teach have opened

lubricated with cork grease. Twist the joints together in a back-and-forth motion, rather than by turning the lower joint in a circular motion. The joints

Uisassembly should follow the opposite order. Be sure that your student continues to hold the clarinet as during assembly, described above, raising the bridge key before twisting the joints apart. Whether playing a wood clarinet or a plastic model, it is best to disassemble the clarinet as soon as possible so that the corks do not get pressed continually, which can cause loose, wobbly tenons and eventual leaks and stuffiness. Swab each joint thoroughly with a cotton handkerchief swab or silk swab. The swab should be pulled through the

n

well maintained can cause numerous difficulties, such as lack of response,

rings in the front should be in line. (Instruments with the PRAG system will simply slide into proper alignment.) After putting the upper and lower joints together, twist the bell into place and then the barrel. The barrel has a

should slide smoothly together, and the

squeaking, excessive resistance, poor key coordination and so forth. There" fore, learning to care for a clarinet propteaching students how to care for their instruments can create lifelong good habits. Unfortunatelv. this is sometimes a neglected aspect of instruction. I still assemble and disassemble my clarinet just as my elementary-school band director taught me, and I care for it in the way that I was taught many years ago by the greatly respected repair

erly is extremely important,

and

small and large end, and although it is probably obvious to you, be sure that your youngest students place the barrel on in the correct direction, with the larger side of the barrel fitting onto the upper joint. (I have witnessed young players trying to do the opposite with great effort.) Finally, place the mouthpiece on the barrel, and then the liga-

artists, Bill and Linda Brannen. In this
segment of Clarinet Basics,

I will

share

greased with good, clean cork grease, but do not allow too much grease to build up on the cork. Instead, wipe excess grease off the cork before applying more so that it does not get sticky. Use only the amount of cork grease that

ture and reed, in that order. Remember to keep the tenons well

clarinet from bottom to top-or from the bell to the barrel-but should not be pulled through the mouthpiece. Make sure that all water is thoroughly removed from the tenons by wiping these areas with the swab. Remember to shake out the swab so that it is as long and flat as possible. Do not put it through the clarinet when it is in a knot. If the swab sets stuck in one of the joints, it is impoitant to take it to a good repair shop to have it removed. Never poke sharp objects into the clarinet (screwdrivers, flute rods, pencils or pens, batons), as they can scar the tone holes and inner surface of the instrument. Dry the mouthpiece by gently wiping the surface with the swab, but do not pull the swab through the mouthpiece frequently, as repeated swabbing can

"Fffi

-rnu t'BLANC BELL

wr N'ER 2oo3

and take care that no oil comes into contact with the plastic body of student instruments.) Cracks can be repaired. If you blow hot air through a cold instrument. and instrument back into the case correctly. l'lake is level with the post. soak the tip of the mouthpiece in lemon iuice. The answer is not n actually change the mouthpiece's delicate inner dimensions. To keep keys moving efficiently and noiselessly. and then the mouthpiece cap should be mouthpiece by hitting it with the cap. not a toy. til it know how to place the parts of the The upper and lower joints must fit into the case in the correct direction in order for the case to close properly. is best to take the reed off the mouthpiece before storing it. The same can be said of temperature. sure that your youngest students tensions.) Drying the clarinet effectively will keep it clean and will help prevent a wood-bodied instrument from cracking. warm it up slowly. (Long ago we used cigarette paper. Lost screws will mean lost keys. but easily. Reeds left It field. flat surface. If the screw is too far out. apply have never oiled my clarinet I have never had a crack. Make sure you take your instrument to a qualified repair person right away to solve these problems be- fore cracking occurs. never use a wooden instrument on the marchine Finally. lf students believe they are in possession of a precious object. of course. However. especially when placing it into the case after playing. bores. Either way. and cracking is possible. the pressure on the wood is inconsistent.) tion or leave of the case. but do not overwind the screw. Oiline the bore will not affect your clarinei's tone or fesponse. they have a clarinet peg). Approximately once a week. The mouthpiece should be placed in the case with the ligature on it. the case should never be forced shut like an overstuffed suitcase. Check to see that the screws are in place and have not twisted themselves out of the post. Left: were sold will not stay depress the upper-joint keys to raise the bridge mechanism.n clarinets are sometimes subject to cracking. or more often mates. you must then do it regularly-once every two weeks or climates. 'ffi WINTER 2OO3 . Wet reeds kept in the paper cases To protect reeds. which will make them play badly in very little time. the wood has expanded. To oil the bore. lay it on a music stand. Use a needle oiler. some people have a body chemistry that causes the clarinet bore to dry out considerably. A good reed case will be made of a hard material (plastic or with a glass Aboue: IJ sing a needle oiler. of the reed and will keep where the rods meet the posts. run tepid water through the mouthpiece. make sure that your students never stand a clarinet on the floor by the bell (unless. the case should close securely Wood. will protect the tip 'With the left hand. Remove all water from tone holes by using pad paper. and deserves good and they will value the work they do with it all the more. E IHE LEBLANC BELL will learn to value it. protecting the cork as much as possible. remember. M. Une of the most lrequent questions I receive concerning maintenance is whether or not to oil the bores of woodbodied instruments. and I available as pad-drying paper so that young students may get it easily from music stores. so during the winter months in cold in very dry cli ments thoroughly when they eventually step up to wood. carry it through the halls without regard to protecting the mouthpiece from hitting the walls or their friends. If in doubt. seek out a qualified repair person to fix. To remove white deposits. leave it on an unstable chair or lying on the floor. Therefore. about once a month. leave the mouthpiece cap off while waiting in line to take an all-state audi it unattended-in or out placed over both. reeds left floating in the case will most certainlv be damaged. tighten it with a small screwdriver un- live in a very dry climate. a situation we all hope to avoid. Teaching this to students who have plastic clarinets will help ensure that they continue to dry their instru- fore applying key oil. changes over time and with fluctua- them in a reed guard of some kind that will keep the reeds flat. Be sure all dirt is removed be- the reed held securely on a drv. The same paper is now a small drop of specially formulated key oil where the key rods meet the posts. the best way to avoid cracking is to try to maintain consistency in the wood's temperature and moisture level. the temperature difference can cause the bore to expand while the outside remains cold and contracted. (I prefer plastic caps for this reason.to dry on the mouthpiece can warp. the wood has become too dry and has in good playing shape. Cracking can occur if part of the wood absorbs moisture and expands while other sections are too drv: the difference in pressure may cause a crack. (For this reason. apply a small drop of key oil plate). as they will not be able to dry in a flat position. If the joints are stuck. tions of humidity and weather. keep it stored away from heat or cold sources. However. lf the pieces are in the case in their proper positions. store Keep the instrument as dry as possible. which is formulated from light mineral oils that will not turn rancid. Wood is a material that treatment and respect. they Teach every student to care for and It is an instrument. Do this only during cold months (when your heating system dries the air) or if you easy. maintain and adjust screw Do not use anything except bore oil that you find in music stores. If the tenon rings are loose. it is a good idea to oil it. as the key may bind. If your instrument has a very dry bore. place a few drops of bore oil on an old swab and pull the swab through the instrument. with care being taken not to nick or crack the facing of the protect his or her clarinet. so don't panic. The important thing is that if you do it once. The clarinet should be kept free of dirt and grime by dusting under the keys with a soft brush on a regular basis. or boxes in which they shrunk.

.

.

TEACHING BEGINNERS and GENERAL PEDAGOGY .

a. Steady aptitude can often be determined by the success of the student in producing a steady. and chin formation can learn to play successfully. bassoon. c.CLARINET STUDENT QUALIFICATIONS AND APTITUDES 1. A double-jointed student is likely to achieve more success on an instrument requiring less technical facility (such as brass instruments or percussion.) 4. oboe) without many difficulties. 2. Crooked teeth can be overlooked or compensated for if not too severe. Must cover holes without straining. (Some even prefer overbite!) 3. lip. and sustained for five to ten seconds. 5. a student can easily transfer to other woodwind instruments (saxophone. In general. Student must be physically large enough to hold the instrument with proper hand positions. . Overbite and underbite can be compensated for. This should be clear. b. d. Once a student develops facility on the clarinet. strong. they progress more slowly and often become discouraged. Any student with normal teeth. Braces may lead to initial embouchure problems which can usually be compensated for and corrected later. The clarinet is the most common beginning woodwind instrument. students who are too small tend to develop poor hand position which can become extremely difficult to correct. Thicker or thinner lips pose no problems. natural tone. a. Consequently.

Mouthpiece cap in use? Comments . Parts disassembled in the correct order? 14. Parts assembled in the correct order? 13. Were corks examined to see if they were well greased? 2.CHECKLIST FOR ASSEMBLY (Frederick Westphal) Observe the student in the operation of assembling and disassembling the instrument and check the following items. Flat part of mouthpiece properly aligned? 9. Lower joint held properly? 4. Bell joint held properly? 5. Parts placed properly in case? 15. Barrel joint/neck held properly? 6. Reed placed correctly on mouthpiece? 11. the entire process should be repeated until perfect. Ligature tightened to the proper degree? 12. Mouthpiece held properly? 7. Yes No 1. Bridge keys properly aligned? 8. If any mistake is made. Upper joint held properly? 3. Ligature placed on mouthpiece before reed? 10.

Tip of left thumb touching register key? 4. Right pinkie finger touching home key? 7. Head up/level? 4. what effect it has on his/her playing. Right hand kept in position when index finger plays a side key? 14. Feet in place? NO Comments HAND POSITIONS YES 1. Left hand index roll to ““A”” key? 11. Right thumb contacting thumb rest properly? 2. HOLDING POSITION YES 1. Shoulders back and relaxed? 5. Students make a more serious effort to correct mistakes if they thoroughly understand the reasons for them.CHECKLIST FOR HOLDING AND HAND POSITIONS (Frederick Westphal) The following list of items provides a thorough check of holding positions and hand positions. Left pinkie finger touching home key? 8. with the deviation explained to the student. Height of music stand correct? 7. The check should be performed while the student is playing. Register key operated by vertical movements of the first joint? 12. Wrists in and down? 10. Instrument in center of body? 2. preferably when he is not aware that the check is being made. Pads/balls of fingers covering/closing holes? NO Comments . Left side g# played with bottom of straight finger? 13. Fingers naturally curved? 5. Guide position consistently maintained? 15. Thumbs/index fingers form a ““U””? 9. Body posture good? 8. Elbows relaxed and free? 6. and why the correct position is important. Fingers across instrument at proper angle? 6. and is limited to the seated positions for all instruments. Left thumb at diagonal across instrument? 3. Angle with body correct? 3. Any items which are checked ““NO”” should be corrected.

.

.

.

b. bent. Remember that the reed can be very unpredictable. chips or a tip which is too thin. and temperature. The reed must be adequately soaked with water before playing. d. preferably 3 minutes or so of soaking in water.Squeaks: The Ever Present Danger Keith Lemmons The University of New Mexico For clarinet and saxophone students. and tongue (articulation) to maximize control and enhance the vibration of the reed. The angle of the clarinet is wrong. Improper covering of tone holes with fingers. and the way it responds depends on weather. Too much tension/upward jaw pressure against the reed. Improper tongue placement. consider: a. throat position (voicing). humidity. We often try to blame the reed as the culprit. articulation should be almost tip of tongue to almost tip of the reed and LIGHT. c. Make sure the reed is not warped and make sure the tip is flat as well. h. look for these situations first: a. Be sure to use the fleshy part of the fingers. Any change or fluctuation of the embouchure. . consider checking for cracks. it should only be 30 to 45 degrees at the most. If none of these seem to be the problem. too big. If squeaks STILL occur. It seems single reed players have this as a built-in nemesis and an ever-present possibility. there is almost everyday occurrence of squeaking. tuning problems: Is the clarinet pulled out too far at any/each joint? Try to be aware of the causes of your squeaks. Tongue should be slightly arched. leaks in the pads/poor pad seating. everything will be hard to control. especially in the corners. Not enough tension with the lips.) g. breath support. If squeaks are common. f. Overall tightness within the oral cavity or throat. or too small. bad tenon corks. Also. (Remember. Overblowing OR Lack of adequate breath support. but the cause of the squeak is usually the player. malfunctioning ligature. Remember to consistently use embouchure pressure. d. check the reed. c. they will disappear. The reed may also be too hard……if it is. and gradually. e. b.

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.

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but tongue likely not quite as high Same as Bb but use . ½ hole mechanism. Similar to Bb but tone holes farther apart. Check for bridge between bell and lower joint. Make certain to have enough mp/reed inside mouth. Same as Bb. Larger than Bb. Check peg height/neckstrap adjustment. Check height of peg/neckstrap. Same as Bb.Holding position Posture Eb Soprano Clarinet Same as Bb Same as Bb Alto Clarinet Same as Bb Similar to Bb. Player should bring bass clarinet to self. Reeds Embouchure Written pitch Use Eb reeds or cut Bb reeds at butt of reed. Make certain to have enough mp/reed inside mouth. neck instead of barrel. Written C sounds an octave and a step below. Check bridge keys. Hand Position Key mechanism Similar to Bb but tone holes closer. Same as Bb but with low peg. Same as Bb. Same as Bb. Extra key for low Eb and key mechanism for ½ hole. Sometimes necessary to imagine more ““ah”” than ““hee. focusing tongue still necessary.) Tone holes covered.”” Same as Bb. Similar to Bb but bit less firm. Same as Bb. Similar to Bb but tone holes farther apart. Same as Bb but body typically only in one piece. Same as Bb but use Altissimo Bass Clarinets Modified from Bb due to angle of neck of bass clarinet. not self to bass clarinet. Smaller than Bb. Arched. Similar to Bb. Arched. Sounding pitch Voicing/Oral Cavity Written C sounds a m3 above. Larger than Bb. Minimum extra key for low Eb (and down to low C possible. Written C sounds a M6th below. focusing tongue still necessary. Assembly Mouthpiece Same as Bb but body consists of only one piece. but tongue likely not quite as high. Similar to Bb but a bit less firm. Use bass clarinet reeds or tenor sax reeds. Use alto clarinet reeds or alto sax reeds. Bass clarinet parts sometimes written in bass clef.

. Think ““hee”” as for Bb. Same as Bb. ½ hole feature. Same as Bb. Think ““hee”” as for Bb. MORE air than Bb. ½ hole feature. Same as Bb. Similar to Bb.Articulation Breath Support/Air Use Different tuning considerations. MORE air than Bb. Listen carefully. less resistance. less resistance.

REPERTOIRE And BIBLIOGRAPHY .

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g}ggg!:I3$EE S X X j Fl jj 5Eiigi3Egi ttiFf i?EEii6flf Ei3t ...iilFE iSiFg'.::::.=3iE i. . .4.::i..q fJ.I .t. ..:'..:. : : .. ""'.:.:::..::.g : " :: : ' :g : ' ': : .:.':i::6..?t:-EE::.:.aEfi=ii.:c'qB ::.=. :: :: . i l s.I+ ld .t5:.':F'E'-::?ieiEit Eiig i :.:::. . ::-: :: ': ::.'5* :.r.g 22aa?.^.p.a.:: : I rA: :E .'F::::: :::::.. Efl.1 :--: q N >l p O i...?. >'.. : : ' ' '?i. 4. .8.iiai:aE z^:\o !gi:::. i i .g EEi . ..' . 5 :E.: ::.q ..::.: s *:: ::::: ..3iE!E E i! E :... .*'6 :! d !:dXe :.E. i.fli : : 'A: : : : : : : :E I .i :. $E€ *glg t f $iF*$ € i5 =q '!> qri ni X X Fl z (n z F1 .F :> :e : :E a3. . .::.. .ia :g " ..i ig-iga :i .] a F dp? Hqda 24 ?EA. : : :E : i : :6EI : i :E..!..!:! : :.g :F'iE:. :i ':s.i F O 5:= l:€ 9d: P..A >i Ei I >1 l E 'ci I EE.t .:a:::......-o.i."':c.?*:?. i:tE : :q :1:1E:1ts : : : : : : : : : : : : i : : : .s r E i ? ? F? EEEEsF! E i t E . '. . . i sgi:t.S1l:'C^:.*.QZz$sAE.ir1B ..--ELi?9^i:9<fE'96'.l'.i $3 *TlE o.:' : i : .. .r o z A 1$s* --: sJ553SXAESFFf oo o o ct o Qo a ct) il Fl Fl :sEEgHHi.: . : : : :q ' : : : : : ' : : ' : : :^: : : : : : : : ' .t.. 'qF z F1 .*?q€aF.e's{..€t::s?E i.. .qEJsgssgE EEEP.:. H :ioiq . . : : i.Z . :+E ..o :l.'.iaA Be : qE..€^ . is+ ...8 = '=:= E ::E "'. ..$g$..:' V:.:.g.' :EHE .::.i€E .: i. !4..t*.:_ .. iJirj:^: - '..::: .:f 'c._g. !3 :Eui?..:. iB!.::i.g .s.iT .E $? E6 +€E =qq E: ?.l :r.EtEiigXgE . E:*E-?{EEi.3-.:.? i. .j€ i: s"..' :A ..Egg"i€ i. i : .?lgfggu.*:r : :aEil :a.. ' : ' : : : : : : : . : i : i : : .'Z'.a"' ii-gF i* iigg.: ' :.!11:. iiEE \z -'l v6 Ot: U) tl q F rl s!. : : : : : : : : : :H : i : : : : : cl F1 : I t< O tl o.i:: ::.d .:::'. .g :Eg3?gE€*e H: i'.* :..::. .:'. 0.i.Zt €ai!Er3+ .! : ."" '''. ::.::::::.. 'X...: :: .E.':::::::: :...::.. . .T:.'.i . i : : : : : :: : l.a i. .ii. .i€EEEEi b*o .t I:tfgE:iE€ fE: € E...: '::::::::::i:::::::::.ilX. l::::::. T . ' . :.o.:..E€$sriiiis:E iiE3 5Eq+iE.::::'":::. i!s?EEE:=+ Ey lHEs 'fl gE€g EaEsEt: !s€. :?3^.i ..F^??iqBe5... : . .ti I I :E i : : : : i :: : ::E : : .::::. .:..: :. 2= s \o ..5 :.EEF=qE=EEEAFpilEt3iiq .E tni! . . : ':tS.. : : : : : ..=c:.3!8338 33EEE3i3€EEEgB#iiEEggE!EEE3EH3 FF EC oo oo rl a a z .l:":':i::. i ... .+:i ' . f.= Bcod.{ ::g: r:3. l.: c. ':: ::.E.iEi.'..E ..:.l :: .. 9'.H33..i r. .EEE## E Frs ...E?.'.rr>* .: :: .!*i iSll.

rahm Galper@oosey & Hawles) James Collis (Ilenri Elkan Music) David Flite (Southenr) David Hite (Southem) David Hite (Southem) David Hite (Southern) H.2.rj noot I Gower/Voxman (Rubank) David Hite (Southern) Cyrille Rose peduc) A\.) Daily Excrcises and Scales for Clminet Skornica/lr{illo (Rubank) G.) Paul Harvey (Wise Publications) Benjamin Spieler (Player press) Clarinct Student Books 1.2l wlCD . 24 wlCD Gsttrng' it Together vol.€vd: Advanced Method for Clarinet Melodious and hogressive Studies Book I &2 26 Studies for the Clarinet Clarinet-Scales and Arpcggios Modern Coune For the Clarinet Scales and Arpeggios Artistic Studies from the French fthool (Ro. Ayola Robert Star€r (MCA Musie) Norman Heim Melodic Etudcs for Beginniug Clarhet Technical Studies for Beginning Clarinet Development of the Altissimo Rcgister for ClarinetThe NewExtended Wor{ring Range forClarinet Clarinet Handbook ClrinetNste Speller \ 60 Rambles for Odd Meter Enrdes Odd MeterDuets NomranHeim Norman Heim Clarinet Iklmen Oppermsn Norman Heim Fred Weber Ltnn Lestbr Everet Gates dv6retGafes Janey Aebenold Jamey Aebusold Major and Minor vol.2.Practical Studies for Clarinet $unnleqeptarv Method Bof *ti John Davies & Paul Hanis (Fahr Mirsic) Robert Lornry Nilo Flovey NiIo Hovev Nilo Hovey Belwin Mills Edward L.Clarinet Method Books Beqfutiuklgtermedirte lryeli Fred WeberlRobert Lowry @elwin) Ruth Bonefti (Ordor$ George Waln (Warner Bros.&3 Tunes for Clarinet Technique Internediate Method for Clarinet l&2 JobnKinyon(AIH) tselwin C. & 3 Enjoy Playing the Claringt Clarinet Msthod The Complete Clarinel Player Books The Shrdent Clarinetist Books 1 & 2 Yamata Clarinet Student A Tnne aDay Books I. Pares Ailvrnced Eigh School [. Klose (Carl Fischer) Leon Lester (Carl Fischer) Leon L$ter (Carl Fischer) Artistic Artistic Studies from the lalian School (Cavallini) Shrdies from the Gernan School (Baennann) Foundation Studies for Clarinet @aermann III) Celebrated Method for Clarinet The Progressing Clarinetist The Advancing Clarinetist Day Winning Rhythms Rhythmic Training a A Rhythr Essential Clarinet Techniquc Stntlies and Melodious Etudes for Clainet Section Studies for B-flat Clarinet First Book of Practical Studies for Clarinet Second Book of. Paul Herftrth @oslon Music Co.

Cantilene Adagio and Taraatella Festival Solo Tom Sawyer Suit€ Sonata Petite Piece Fantasy $uite 5 Bagatelles Baermann (Schirner) Bergson (Rubank) L. Endresen(Rubank) James Collis @oosey and Hawkes) Wiltied Berk (Anton Benjamin) Puccini/Cowles (Ricordi) Bernsteix/Elliot @oosey and Hawkes) Wise Publication (Dorsey Brorhers Music) Amsco {Amsco Publishing) Grainger (Schirmer) Rossini/Cowles {Ricordi) EngliS Folk Songs for Clarinet Selected Clarinet Solos Album for Clarinet and Piano Advanq. Buchtel (Neil A. Cahuzac Cavallini arr.Intefmcdirte Level: Ancient Minuet Arioso from CantataN. 156 Chansonette Arman/tlite (Southern) J.ios) Dixie Pixie Chaoson Modeme Chrysalis Aria Caatando Menuetto K. 82 . Bassi (Rubank) J.ed Hig$ School Lcvel. Barret (Rubank) L.S. Hite (Carl Fiscber) Collis (Boosey and Hewkes) Ccllis @oosey and Hawkes) Danzi (Scbott) Debussy alr.ning in the Country When the Satins Go Marching In Serenade Bmken Reed Blues (unnacompanied) A. Webster (Schirmer) BartoM{srris (Ludwig) Forrest L.n axr. K.43 Fantasie Allegretlo Lanento et Tarantclle Gaubert (Southenr) Gaubert (Southefn) Grovlez (Leduc) .334 Timepigcg Piece in G minor Wess€x Pasorale Fonest L. Hite (Irubl?) lrnhill (Boosey and HawkesJ Finzi (Boosey and Hawkcs) Gade (Souftern) Phailasy Pieees op. Bach (Carl Fischer) Noctrme Romance Sonata in D Eve.Solo Repertoire Ep4nning. Kjos) Paul Harvey (Cool Music) Paul Harvey (Cool Music) Hovcy (Belwinl G. BeckerA/oxrnan @ubank) C &C Collection Beethove. Langenus (Carl Fischer) Hovey @elwin) Mozart Eubank) Leonie Niehaus (Kendor Music) Pieme (Southern) Stooks (Southern) Little Serenad€ Paerandthe Cat Clarinata Pepperino Concert Caprice Tom Sawyer Suite Clarinetto Arioso Famous Melodies Famous Melodies Leonad Bcrnstein for Clarinet Purcell/Worlcy &udwig) ProkotrevlFms€r Whihey (Spratt) R M. Adagio Scene andAirop. Bushtel (Neil A.

Jazzy Clarinet vol. Concerto in E-flet Duo Concertante

| &2

Paul Harvey Krommer (Soutbeor)

Milhaud (tcduc)
G. Pieme (Rubank, Southern) Rabaud (Southern) Rimslqy-Korsa&ov (Sartorella) Schumann (Schirmer) Carl Stamift (Peten) Tatini/Jacob (Schirmer) Jarres Walker (Schirmer) Weber (Schimrer)
Wanhal Qnternational) Weber (Intemational) Weber $nternational) Weber (tntcrnational) Weber (Schirmer) Webcr (Schirmcr) Jaromir Woinberger (Carl Fischer)

Canmnetta op. 19
Solo de Concours Flight of tbe Brnblebee Fantasie Pieces Concedo no. 3 in B-flatMaior

Corcertino
Sonatina

Variadons
Sonste

Concertino Concerto no.

Concerto no. 2 in E-flat

I in fminor l@jor

Variations op. 33 Grand Duo Concsrtante
Sonatine Splo Reoertoirc Comoilrtiqps/Co4ectign$l

Mashrworks for Clarinet and Piano The Recital Cladnetist
Sixteen Grand Solos forClarinet Soloist Folio for B-flst Clarinet and Piano
Solos

ed. Eric Simon (Schinner)

Armato (Carl Fischer) arr. Booade (Southern) Rubank
ed.
.

fot thc Clarinet Player

Fmtastic Faudliar Folk Songs Concert and Contest Collcstion for B-flat Clarinet French Pieces for Clarinet and Piano €lessig Festival Solcs for Clrinet Vol. 1 &Z Clarinst Eluets

{rthur Christman (Schirmer)

Feldstein/O'Railly
H. Voxman (Rubank)

edDonaGilliao snd MizyMcCrskitt (Mel Bay)
sd. William Eisenhauer

Clsiwt ftrcert Clrinct Solos
Joplin Ragtim€

(dted)

Pieces

ed. arr. Pamela Weslon ed: an Thea King (Chester Music)

Albumfor Clarinet Six Stdies in English Folk Song
fthumann for Clarinet
Satie Album

an. Colin Cowles (Fentone) Grainger (Schirmer) Vzughn-Wiiliam (Stainer & BelVcalaxy)

King

Satie

Trangposine Solo Litenturc for Chrinet in r. There is guite a bit of seaodard solo and orcMal reprertoire uaitten for the clarinst in A. [.fo$ intermediate ancl possibly advanced high school players would not yet own this instrlment. The problem ttlat could arise ir that the transposition from orc to the other can bo confirsing and cbaltenging fol the yoiyg or inexperienced fiansposing player.For cxanple, in order tripJay in concc* B-flat &c A clarinet setslo Blay in C Major and the Fflat elaringt would have to play in B Major. The B-flat clarinetist will have to dwelop the skill oftransposing down a 6atgjep which can get quite messy when fast tempos and accidentals arc involved, not to mention some of the technioal challenges that could arisc from awkward key signatures. This is not mcmt to discourage the clarinetist fronn developing this skill. This is actuaily sonething thery sboutd have the ability to do dong with e ftnsposition as they maturc into highly advaaced clarinetists. Most

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