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1.

Preamble

1.1 Introduction To The Project

All business organization’s prime motive is to satisfy the customer requirement


and attain a distinguished position in the world market. During the last few years, the
automobile market has been witnessing an increased competition and rising demand for the
sophisticated seating systems due to globalisation. Due to this ever changing demand and
competition among the companies in these industries, there is tremendous pressure built to
look for newer designs, cost reduction techniques, improving the product quality and process
the products on Just In Time (JIT) manufacturing system, in order to be competitive.
Therefore, it is vital to improve the availability, utilization and quality of the product and meet
the demand of the customer on time without fail.
To manage all the tough situations and be a leader in the market, organisations
should concentrate on the following
Productivity
Quality
Cost
Delivery
Morale &
Waste elimination
The main objectives behind this is to achieve the business growth, customer
delight becomes the prime focus for which the above said 6 parameters need to be improved
to world class levels to make the company to move to great heights in the competitive market
1.2 Problem on hand
In the growing business scenario, where recession has affected some of the major OE’s,
the need for cost cut & cost saving becomes a prime responsibility of any organization
Realization of the actual business against the required growth plays a major role for the
development of any organization. Harita seating being a prime company in the manufacturing
of seats supplies more than 8000 seats to TVS motor per day for their two wheelers.
Thus it gave me a hint for project to be undertaken in the following area where VA/VE
in the two wheeler seat assembly will definitely give a cost saving there by benefiting the
organization.

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1.3 Importance of the problem
TVS Motor (TVSM) confirmed their production ramping up plan during
the third quarter of 2011- 12. TVSM has demanded for the cost reduction of the products due
to the increase in the quantity of production also.
1.3.1 Need for study
We are supplying two wheeler seats to our prestigious customer TVS
motor company located in Hosur & Mysore with 100% business share for the year 2000
onwards .The supplies are made on just in time (JIT) basis every hour .The business with them
has been consistently growing since then from 2,700 seats per day in the year 2002-03 to 6,400
upto 2009-10. The projected volume for 2011-12 is 8,400 seats per day .So from the projected
volume we got a hint that DOE in this area will definitely give a cost optimization there by
benefiting the organization. `

Table 1.3.1: Model wise Seat requirement by TVSM / Day

Sl.No Products Demand/Day

1 Star Sport 2000


2 XL heavy duty 1500
3 Star Dlx 900
4 U68-Apache 600
5 N45-Star sport 600
6 XLN-Super 700
7 N90-Flame 400
8 Max 100 500
9 Scooty-Pep 500
10 N17-Victor 400
11 U41-Scooty 2S 300
Total 8400

2
TV S M R e q u ir e m e n t / d a y

9000 8400

8000

7000
6000
6000

5000
Seats in nos

4423
4038
4000 3462
2692 2885
3000

2000

1000

0
Y ear 2005- 06Y e ar 2006-07Y ea r 2007-08Y ear 2008-09Y ear 2009- 10Y ear 2010-11Y ear 2011-12

fig 1.3.1.a Year wise Seat requirement by TVSM / Day

Model wise Seat requirement per


day

200
Qt
y

0
160 200
150
0 0
120 0
0 900
700
800 600 600 500 500 400 400
300
400

0
Ma
Star XLHD Star XLN U68 N45 XL - N90 N17 U41
x
Sport Dlx 100 HD
Model wise

Fig 1.3.1 .b : Two Wheeler Demand Graph

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1.4 PRIMARY OBJCTIVE
The main objective of this project is to find the optimal method of two-wheeler seat
assembly using Design of Experiment (DOE).

1.5 SECONDARY OBJECTIVES


• To identify the existing methodology of material composition.
• Introducing Design of Experiment (DOE), in order to obtain the best method.
• To make a comparative study of existing and proposed methodology.
• Conclusion

1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT


The scope of the project is to find the optimal method of two-wheeler
seat assembly using Design of Experiment (DOE).
The objective of this project is to retain the basic functionality of Cushion
manufacturing and reduction of the manufacturing cost.

1.7 EXPECTED DELIVERABLES


a. This project yield gains in terms of cost, quality, delivery, time etc.
b. Increase in the contribution of products
c. Reduced in- house as well as customer end line rejections.
d. This project can result in substantial benefits to the customer.
e. Similar study can be extended to the other products in the organization where
there is a real need of the cost optimization.

2.0 DETAILS OF THE ORGANISATION:

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Harita Seating Systems Limited (HSSL) (Formerly known as Harita
Grammer Limited) is an automotive ancillary unit situated at Belagondapalli village near
industrial town of Hosur, (A Suburb of Bangalore) Tamilnadu.

2.1 Company Profile

Shri T S Srinivasan, youngest son of Shri T V Sundaram Iyengar, the


founder of TVS group of companies, conceived the Harita Group,
which is promoted by his family. He foresaw enormous potential in
the beautiful and green, yet underdeveloped area closes to Hosur town.
Harita is the Sanskrit word for verdant prosperity and he envisioned creating prosperity here
through establishing an auto component industrial network.

Shri Venu Srinivasan, elder son of Shri T S Srinivasan, as a tribute to


his father’s vision, developed Harita into an industrial suburb. The
collaboration between Harita Group and GAG was finalised in 1986,
to incorporate Harita Grammer Limited (HGL) to provide customised
seating solutions, taking into account the difficult Indian road conditions. Commercial
production was started in 1988 and the company soon went public. Since then, the company
introduces a range of new products every year to meet demanding customer’s requirement.

Grammer AG’s (GAG) success story can be traced back to 100 years
(1880), when Mr Willibald Grammer opened a saddlery in Amberg,
Germany. Mr George Grammer, his grandson, expanded the saddlery
to an industrial manufacturing plant. Starting in 1954 with cushions
for tractor seats, by 1964 GAG entered the era of modern seating systems, supplying
suspended seats for agricultural tractors, construction machines, and material handling
equipment. Today, GAG is one of the leading suppliers of seating systems world over. GAG
group comprises 40 facilities in 19 countries around the globe, with group turnover exceeding
1.3 billion-DM.

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Harita Seating Systems Limited (HSSL) is a complete solution provider for seats
and seating systems for both automotive and non-automotive applications. HSSL
manufactures, driver seats for commercial vehicles, buses, tractors, off-road vehicles, cars,
multi-utility vehicles, two wheeler and three wheeler segments; passenger seats for buses,
cars, multi-utility vehicles and three wheeler segments; and seating systems to the railway and
auditorium segment. The company also offers products for automotive industry through
polyurethane composites Established in 1986; HSSL commenced its commercial production
in 1988. Today HSSL has established itself as the leader in development & manufacture of
innovative seats & seating systems for the commercial vehicles, buses, tractors & off-road
vehicle industry. HSSL recorded turnover of Rs 194 Cr in 2007-08.

During the year 2008-09, the company acquired Polyflex Group of companies. Through this
acquisition, the company has paved the way for entry as a Tier-2 polyurethane foam supplier
to reputed customers like Hanil Lear in Chennai, Tata Johnson Controls and Lear in Pune and
Chennai, and Toyota Boshoku in Bangalore. The foam pads supply will go into the cars of
Hyundai, Tata Motors, Ford, Mahindra Renault and Toyota Kirloskar

2.2 Organisation profile

2.2.1 Products and Customers

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Segment / Product Customers

Fig 2.2.1a
Telco, Hindustan products
Motors, and customers
San Motors, Reva Electric Car Co ,Internationl cars
Cars & MUV seats
and multi utilility vechiles.
TAFE, M&M, Escorts, New Holland, Same Greaves, L&T John Deere,
Tractors
Eicher,
HMT, International Tractors

Sate Transport Undertakings , Body Builders and major fleet operators across
Bus Passenger seats
The country , VOLVO , Mercedes Benz , Tata Marcopolo , Swaraj Mazda

Commercial Vehicles Telco, Ashok Leyland, Hindustan Motors ,

Construction B E M L, Caterpillar, L&T Komatsu,Tatra Udyog , AMW , Hyundai


Machinery & Forklifts Escorts,Telcon,Godrej,Voltas

State Transport Undertakings, Bus / Truck body builders and


Driver Seats
Transport fleet operators7

Two Wheeler TVS Motor Company , Yamaha , Royal Enfield


Table 2.2.1 : List of products and major customers

2.2.1 Manufacturing Process


The main processes in the organisation are
1. Polyurethane foaming
2. Powder coating of metal parts
3. Welding
4. Assembly of the seats and seating systems

2.2.2 Manufacturing Facilities

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Unit IV Nalagarh

Land: 12000 sq.


m
Building: 2500 sq. m

Unit III
Jamshedpur
Unit II Ranjangaon - Assembly unit

Land: 53,074 sq.m


Building 3,582 sq.m

Chennai
Unit I- Hosur - Registered office

Land : 88,652 sq.m


Building 7,175 sq.m

Fig 2.2.2: Manufacturing facilities

HSSL has its registered office at Chennai. Infrastructure functions viz.,


Marketing, Personnel, Quality, Finance and R&D operate at the manufacturing location.
HSSL started with tractor and two-wheeler seats to begin with. Over the years, the new
product development has covered the entire range of automotive seating Systems. With clear
focus on customer service to the western market, HSSL, in 1996, set up its second factory at
Ranjangaon, 60 kilometers from Pune.

.
Manufacturing facilities at Hosur and Ranjangaon includes

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1. Modernized Polyurethane Cushion manufacturing unit.

2. Automated Pre-treatment and Powder coating plant

3. MIG welding shop

4. Mould manufacturing shop

5. Plastic Vacuum forming

6. Assembly cells

2.2.3 Organizational Structure

President

Research
Manufacturi Personnel Business
& Purchase Marketing Finance Quality
Development ng & TQC Planning

Fig 2.2.3. : Organisation structure

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2.3 Sales Trend of Organization

The Sales trend is shown in the below chart


250
250

191 192
200
Rs. in Crores

150 130
114.1
98.3
100 76.6
58.3 60
50.2 50
41.7 42.4 43.2
50 27.5

0
'00- 01

'01- 02

'02- 03

'03- 04

'04- 05

'05- 06

'06- 07

'07- 08

'08- 09
95- 96

96- 97

97- 98

98- 99

99- 00

'09- 10 Est
Fig 2.3 : Sales trend of organisation

The company has planned to exceed Rs 250 Crores sales in the next financial year
2009-2010. The company has added products, technology and closely nurtured culture of Total
Quality Management (TQM) pillared by Policy deployment, Kaizen, TEI, Training and
Standardization. The management focus this year on cost reduction under the circumstances of
stiff competition and price war in the market through alternate material, alternate processes,
and waste elimination and productivity improvement projects and also through stringent cost
control measures.

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2.4 Milestones

2009
Water management
Excellent water efficient

2007
unit
Energy management
Energy conservation

2005
award
Occupational Health and
Safety

2004
OHSAS 18000

ous nt Energy management


u e Energy conservation
in em
2003
t
n v
award

Co pro
Manufacturing systems
ACMA manufacturing
im
2003

excellence
Quality management
systems
2001

ISO/TS 16949
Quality
management
2001

ACMA Quality
award
Environmental
management
2000

ISO 14001
2007

Management
systems
1999

EFQM – CII EXIM


Water Management
Quality management
2006

systems
Energy management
QS 9000
1996

Energy conservation
Manufacturing systems award
ACMA – Productivity
award ACMA – Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India
CII – Confederation of Indian Industries

Fig 2.4: Milestones

2.4.1 Commitment to quality


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HSSL is committed to provide safety, comfort and aesthetics by supplying
Quality products at right time, in right quantity and at agreed price. With Total Employee
Involvement (TEI) and through consistent innovative actions, these objectives are sure to be
rewarding realities. Total Employee Involvement is achieved through Suggestion Scheme,
Quality Control Circle, and Supervisory Improvement Team, Cross Functional Teams and
TQM activities.
HSSL Believes in:
- High productivity level through cellular manufacturing and Kaizen
- Quality ownership with the operators
- Close interaction with experts for latest technology assimilation
- High level of plant and machinery utilization through practice of TPM concepts
- Priority to environment, health and safety through practice of 5S, and atmosphere of
greenery
We also believe that the TQM practices have helped us to tide over all adverse situations and
continue to guide us towards achieving excellence in business.

2.4.2 Awards and Recognition


The company has obtained TS 16949 certification in September 2003 and
achieved Commendation for significant achievement in business excellence (EFQM Model)
from CII-Exim Bank in November 2000.
Company won ACMA Quality Award for the year 2001The company has also
obtained ISO 14001 Certification during October 2003 towards environmental performance.

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3.0 Identified problem
3.1 Introduction
In the present period of recession prevailing in all parts of the world, the company
has to manage all the tough situations and be a leader in the market by concentrating on the
following
Productivity
Quality
Cost
Delivery
Morale &
Waste elimination
Also, Indian Economic Reforming policies demand companies to improve their Quality,
Productivity, Cost, and Delivery requirements continually. Continuous Improvement should be
present in the every aspect of the business, without which the companies cannot survive in the
present competitive market.
Particularly after globalization and liberalization, Indian companies are facing stiff competition
and threat from companies of other Countries.
To achieve the business growth, customer delight becomes the prime focus for which the
above said 6 parameters need to be improved to world class levels.
HSSL is the major source to TVSM and the share of business is 100 %. The supplies are made
on Just –In-Time (JIT) basis every hour.
The customer requirement has been consistently growing every year.
Overall Two wheeler segments in India are growing year to year and recorded a growth of
minimum of 20 % consistently. But the contribution values of the two wheeler seats are very
low. This was the main reason to concentrate in this project.
Based on the projected volumes for the year 2009-10 to the tune of 250 Cr, our company has
formulated the following objectives and guidelines.

Policy Objectives for 2011-12


Achieve sales from Rs 191 to 255 Cr
Achieve profit from 6.2 Cr to 9.0 Cr
Improve quality of the products and achieve 50 PPM rejection levels at customer end.

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Guidelines for 2011-12
 Improve productivity through constant/ continuous re-engineering the manufacturing
processes
 Design of Experiment (DOE) for materials cost reduction
 Apply value engineering (VE) technique for low contribution products
 Explore alternate materials for cost reduction
 Implement low cost automation (LCA) projects
 New technologies for product and process.
 JIT supplies to customers
 Flexible Production
 Bench marking
 Lean manufacturing
 3 M elimination
 Standardisation
 Implement waste elimination projects through TEI
Based on the guideline no. 1 & 2, this project is taken up for implementation.

3.2 Description of the problem


3.2.1Automobile sales trend in segment wise
In the below graph the sales trend in each segment for the last quarter of financial year 2011 is
shown. In that Two Wheeler Seat Production is topping the list with 65.4

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% of the quantity.

140000 120
119800 100.0
120000 91.4 91.6 100
86.6
80.7
100000
80
65.4
80000
Quantity

% Cum
60
60000
40
40000
27980

20000 15421 20
10813 8777
404
0 0
TW LCV Tractor BPS Car Others
Segments

Fig 3.2.1a: Sales details - Segment wise

HSSL has started supplies of two wheeler seats to TVS Motor Company (TVSM),

Daily Demand Vs Capacity

10000
8400

7500
6000
Nos / day

5324
5000

2500

0
HSSL Current capacity TVSM Current demand TVSM Projected dem and

Fig 3.2.1 b: Demand v/s Capacity

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Hosur and Mysore in a big way since March 2000. The business with TVSM has
been consistently growing since then from 2,700 seats per day in the year 2000 – 01 o 5,000 up
to 2007-08. The projected volume for 2011-12 is 8000 seats per day.
At present, with the increasing trend of the production volume, the contribution of the two
wheeler seats are low due to the increasing prices of the raw materials. Various proposals have
been made to reduce the cost of the seats by using value engineering techniques and usage of
alternate materials in line with our policy objectives and strategies.

3.2.2 Two wheeler sales trend in model wise


The chart below shows the product wise sales trend of the two wheeler seats.
This chart clearly shows the product wise volume of the two wheeler seats / month.
TW Sales details
20000 120.0
19010

99.3 99.9 100.0 100.0


16243 96.6 98.1
94.1 100.0
90.3
14664 85.6
15000 80.1
73.9 80.0

62.0
Quantity

% Cum
9634
10000 60.0
43.8

40.0
4992
5000 23.6 4400
3816
3097
20.0
1992
1200 960
482
56 24
0 0.0
TS

R
Y

LX

X
68

40

90

27
45

41

TO
IT

lH

AM
R

N
G
M
C

IC
H
R

V
TA

S
R
S

TA

Model
S

Fig 3.2.2.a: Two wheeler sales details – Model wise

The objective of this project is to develop the optimal method in the material composition of
Two wheeler seat assembly using design of experiments which reduce the material cost by 1 -
3 % and improve the contribution value from 20% to 22%.

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3.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE PROJECT

25
22 22 22
20
20
18
17

15

10

0
Star Sport Star city XLHD

Contribution - Existing Contribution - Plan Column 3

Fig 3.3. a: Contribution of Running products

Our customer TVS Motor confirmed their production ramping up plan during the First
quarter of 2011 – 12. TVSM has demanded for the cost reduction of the products
Due to the increase in the quantity of production also. We have drawn a bar chart showing the
existing and planned contribution of 4 running products as per the policy matrix.
From the above graph it is clear that we have to bring down the material cost / manufacturing
cost of the products like Star Sport, Star city and XL - HD

3.3.1 Reason for selecting Star Sport model :

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A comparative study has been done based on the weight of the cushions running
in the Two Wheeler Foaming Line. Based on the study, we have prepared a chart with the
weight of the components have found that Star Sport model was contributing around 25 %
of the total chemical consumption. Taking this for improvement will contribute in high cost
benefits.

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21 20.16

17.64
Tons

14

10.37

7.8

7 5.3
4.32

0
Star Sport Victor Star CityProduct
Scooty Pep Victor GLX Sccoty Teenz

Fig.3.3.1.a –Chemical Consumption – Product wise


We have studied the foam production process of the Star Sport cushions and in order to
reduce the cost of the end product, we have arrived at reducing the weight of the cushions.
This can be done by adopting DOE process in cushion manufacturing using different
chemical composition and bring down the weight by 10 % without affecting the property and
hardness of the cushions.
In order to eliminate the above, we have worked out using DOE techniques to
optimal method in foaming process by changing different chemical consumption. From the
above chart, we have taken Star Sport Seats which tops with the high ratio of 25 %.
From the above table it is very much relevant that Star Sport model consumes more
chemical monthly, hence we concluded that DOE in the said model will give some cost
benefit. This triggered us to go for an idea simulation
3.3.2 Idea Simulator – Star Sport Cushion

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To optimize the weight of the PU Foam, the company has adopted a technique called
Idea Simulator.
Table 3.1. Idea Simulator for Star Sport foam

Sl No Idea Stimulators Results


A ELIMINATE - Combine
1 Can it be eliminated entirely? NO
2 Can part of it be eliminated? YES
3 Can two parts be combined into one? NO
4 Is there duplication? NO
5 Can the number of different lengths, colors,types be reduced? NO
B STANDARDIZE - Simplify
1 Could a standard part be used? YES
2 Would a modified standard part? YES
3 Does the standard contribute to cost? YES
4 Is it too complex? NO
5 Can connections be simplified? YES
C CHALLENGE - Identify
1 Does it do more than is required? NO
2 Does it cost more than it is worth? NO
3 IS someone else buying it a lower cost? NO
4 What is a special about it ? YES
D MAINTAIN - Operate
15 Is Is it justified?
it acceptable YES YES
2 Are service calls excessive? NO
3 Would you like to own it and pay for its maintenance? NO
4 Is labor inordinate to the cost of materials? NO
5 How often it is actually used? YES
6 Does it cause problems? NO
7 Have users established procedures to get around it? NO
E REQUIREMENTS - Cost
1 Are any requirements excessive? NO
2 Can less expensive materials be used? NO
3 Is it proprietary? NO
4 Are factors of safety too high? NO
5 Are calculations always rounded off on the high side? NO
6 Would lighter gauge materials work? NO

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Based on the discussion held by various department heads for idea simulators it gave us a
positive approach to look for alternate ideas. In the case of Star Sport model, we are optimise
the weight of the PU Foam triggered a good potential for cost benefit as well as customer
complaint elimination.
Taking into account of idea simulation the Star Sport foam hinted a good potential of
material removal without disturbing the basic functionalities benefiting the organization cost
wise.

4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
4.1 Design of Experiments
In order to benefit the organization by DOE where the problem is dealt with the
following techniques to eliminate the seat rejection; the techniques will definitely show a
positive trend in PPM as well as rejections. Overall the objective of the organization is taken
care in all aspects in terms of delivery, quality and cost.
DOE is a structured, organized method for determine the relationship between factors
(X) affecting a process and the output of that process (Y) while using minimum number of
experimental runs.
Types of DOE
1. Factorial Experiment Design
a. Full Factorial
b. Half/one fourth / one eighth Factorial Design
c. Screening Design
2. Taguchi Approach
3. Central Composite Design
During the improvement of products and processes, there are different “knowledge levels”
starting from a scarce knowledge to a deep knowledge.

Relevant literature review


Reference: 1
http://www.moresteam.com/toolbox/index.cfm

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Introduction
Experimental design can be used at the point of greatest leverage to reduce design
costs by speeding up the design process, reducing late engineering design changes,
and reducing product material and labor complexity. Designed Experiments are also
powerful tools to achieve manufacturing cost savings by minimizing process
variation and reducing rework, scrap, and the need for inspection.
This Toolbox module includes a general overview of Experimental Design,
instructions and templates for conducting simple experiments, and links and other
resources to assist you in conducting more complex experiments. A glossary of
terms is also available at any time through the Help function, and we recommend
that you read through it to familiarize yourself with any unfamiliar terms.
Preparation
If you do not have a general knowledge of statistics, review the Histogram, A class
main link heft"http://www.moresteam.com/toolbox/t404.cfm "Statistical process
Control, and Regression and Correlation Analysis modules of the Toolbox prior
to working with this module.
Although you can use the MoreSteam.com DOE spreadsheet templates to analyze
several experimental designs using Excel or lotus, you will need statistical analysis
software to go beyond these basic experiment design templates. Several free
packages can be downloaded through the MoreSteam.com Statistical software
module of the Toolbox. In addition, the book DOE Simplified, by Anderson and
Whitcomb, homes with a sample of excellent DOE software that will work for 180
days after installation.

Purpose
Designed experiments have many potential uses in improving processes and products, including:

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Comparing alternatives. In the case of our cake-baking example, we might want to
compare the results from two different types of flour. If it turned out that the flour
from different vendors was not significant, we could select the lowest-cost vendor. If
flour were significant, then we could select the best flour. The experiment(s) should
allow us to make an informed decision that evaluates both quality and cost.
Identifying the Significant Inputs (Factors) Affecting an Output (Response) -
separating the vital few from the trivial many. We might ask a question: "What are the
significant factors beyond flour, eggs, sugar and baking?"
Achieving an Optimal process Output (Response). "What are the necessary factors,
and that are the levels of those factors, to achieve the exact taste and consistency of
Mom's chocolate cake?
Reducing variability. "Can the recipe be changed so it is more likely to always come
out the same?"
Minimizing, maximizing, or Targeting an Output (Response). "How can the cake be
made as moist as possible without disintegrating?"
Improving process or product "Robustness" - fitness for use under varying conditions.
"Can the factors and their levels (recipe) be modified so the cake will come out nearly
the same no matter what type of oven is used?"

Experiment Design Guidelines


The Design of an experiment addresses the questions outlined above by stipulating the
following:

The factors to be tested.


The levels of those factors.

The structure and layout of experimental runs, or conditions.

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Reference : II

http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~apte/CV_PRA_TAGUCHI_INTRO.htm
TAGUCHI Method:
Dr. Taguchi of Nippon Telephones and Telegraph Company, Japan has developed a method
based on “ORTHOGONAL ARRAY” experiments which gives much educed “variance” for
the experiment with “optimum settings” of control parameters. Thus the marriage of Design
of Experiments with optimization of control parameters to obtain BEST results is achieved in
the Taguchi Method. Orthogonal Arrays" (OA) provide a set of well balanced (minimum)
experiments and Taguchi's Signal-to-Noise ratios (S/N), which are log functions of desired
output, serve as objective functions for optimization, help in data analysis and prediction of
optimum results.

Taguchi Method treats optimization problems in two categories,


1.STATIC PROBLEMS:

Generally, a process to be optimized has several control factors which directly decide the
target or desired value of the output. The optimization then involves determining the best
control factor levels of that the output is at the target value. Such a problem is called as a
"STATIC PROBLEM".

This is best explained using a P-Diagram which is shown below ("P" stands for Process or
Product). Noise is shown to be present in the process should have no effect on the output!
This is the primary aim of the taguchi experiments - to minimize variations in output even
though noise is present in the process. The process is then said to have become ROBUST.

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2. DYNAMIC PROBLEMS
If the product to be optimized has a signal input that directly decides the output, the
optimization involves determining the best control factor levels so that the "input signal /
output" ratio is closest to the desired relationship. Such a problem is called as a "DYNAMIC
PROBLEM".
This is best explained by a P-Diagram which is shown below. Again, the primary aim of the
Taguchi experiments - to minimize variations in output even though noise is present in the
process- is achieved by getting improved linearity in the input/output relationship.

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STEPS IN TAGUCHI METHODOLOGY:

STEP-1: IDENTIFY THE MAIN FUNCTION, SIDE EFFECTS, AND FAILURE MODE
STEP-2: IDENTIFY THE NOISE FACTORS,
TESTING CONDITIONS, AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS
STEP-3: IDENTIFY THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION TO BE OPTIMIZED
STEP-4: IDENTIFY THE CONTROL FACTORS AND THEIR LEVELS
STEP-5: SELECT THE ORTHOGONAL ARRAY MATRIX EXPERIMENT
STEP-6: CONDUCT THE MATRIX EXPERIMENT
STEP-7: ANALYZE THE DATA,
PREDICT THE OPTIMUM LEVELS AND PERFORMANCE
STEP-8: PERFORM THE VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT AND PLAN THE FUTURE
ACTION

4.2 DOE process map :

Define the Objective

2 Choose Measures of performance


(Output Variables)
Brainstorming
Cause and Effect
Diagram Identify Possible Factors
3 (Control Variables)

Full Factorial
4 Design Programme of Fractional
Replication
Randomization Experiments Factorial
Repetition Screening
Taguchi
5 Collect Data

Graphs
6 Analyze and Interpret Results Regression
ANOVA

7 Verify Results

8 Return to 3 as necessary

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Table 4. 1: – Design of Experiments Approach

Approaches No of variables DOE

Screening Fractional Factorial


>7
Low Resolution (III)
(Scarce know-how of the
process and many

Level of Knowledge
variables)

Characterization Full Factorial or Fraction


4-7
(Reduced number of Factorial with High
variables and their Resolution (IV or V)
interactions)

Optimization
2-4 Full Factorial
(Deep investigation for few
variables and their
interactions)

4.3 METHODLOGY
In this project, the following methodologies are adopted to find the optimal
method of two –wheeler seat assembly (Foam cushion area) using Design of Experiment.
• Study of the current process
• Usage of Design of Experiment Techniques
• Adaptation of DOE concept
• Literature survey on DOE process in change process
• Prepare questionnaire to understand the issues involved in the change process.
• Implementation and Standardization
• Trail running with the change process to measure the outcomes
• Collection of data by experiments
• Analyze the data collected thro quality tools
• Conclusion

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5.0 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
5.1 TYPE OF DATA NEEDED
In order to achieve cost reduction by DOE in the two wheeler seat to improve the contribution,
we have collected the following data.
• Customer complaints pertaining to Star Sport
• In-house rejection trend of Star Sport
• Current process parameters of Star sport cushion manufacturing.
• Quality standards for cushion manufacturing.

5.1.1 Customer complaints


A detailed history of the past year trend has been taken on the seat rejection
by customer due to High Hardness. On an average there were rejections around 130
Nos/annum. For the year 2009-10 the average rejections per month was12 nos.
The below data are collected based on the customer complaint from April
2009 to March 2010.

Table .5.1.1: Customer Complaints – High hardness

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

'09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '10 '10 '10
12 22 15 9 16 18 20 25 18 10 11 13

28
Fig 5.1.1.a: Customer complaint due to Seat High Hardness–Year wise

Fig 5.1.1.b.: Customer complaint due to Seat High Hardness– Month wise

30
25
Fish Bone Diagram for High hardness

20 29
There are many various reasons for High Hardness in foaming process. Brain
storming session conducted with employees and the reasons are correlated each other
using Fish Bone Diagram.

MAN MACHINE
Machine setting
Untrained Operator improper
operator negligence
Input Chemical
Importance not variation
known
High
Hardness
Effect: 100%
Improper
Chemical
Mixing Ratio No proper
Input Chemical traceability
problem No proper pouring
method

MATERIAL METHOD

Fig 5.1.1.c: Cause and effect diagram

Criticality of the problem (High Hardness)


The problem of Seat High Hardness is having an average trend of 180 nos
getting rejected annually. There are certain affects to the Quality rating, Delivery commitment
causing line stoppers at the customer’s end. An increased trend of PPM is always alarming to
the company’s growth perspective.

The rejection value of seats getting rejected :


Cost of each seat : 380
No. of seats rejected /year: 180
Total rejection value : Rs.68400
Intangible cost : Rs.5000
Total cost : Rs.73400.

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Hence to eliminate seats getting rejected it is always necessary to go for a
DOE project, thus giving a potential for benefiting the organization

5.1.2.In-house rejections
Cushions are checked for its properties like hardness, profile, shape and
other surface defects. The parameter hardness predominantly contributes towards the seat’s
comfort level.
Testing of hardness is done as per IS 7888 for 4 wheeler cushions and JIS
6401 for Two wheeler cushions. Hardness testing will be carried out regularly to ensure
conformance to the specification.
If the manufactured cushions are not meet the quality standards it is
booked as In house rejection and moved to scrap area.
The below In house rejection data which is taken from SAP from April 2009 to March
2010.

Table 5.1.2: In house Rejections – High hardness

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

'09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '10 '10 '10
8 12 6 9 15 11 16 9 13 10 8 13

Past years trend


Quantity

250
220

200 180
155
150

100

50

0 31
07 - 08 08 - 09 09-10
Year
Fig 5.1.2.a.: In House Rejections–Year wise

Fig 5.1.2.b: In house rejections due to Seat High Hardness– Month wise

20
5.2. SOURCE OF DATA
Various sources for the types of data identified above are
a. Process flow diagrams can be collected from the Cushion Production on the basis of the

15
Process layout.
b. Operation standard formats can be received from the Plant Engineering
c. Customer complaint and in-house rejection details from our QAD.
d. Chemical consumption and production volume details from our SAP system
e. Test report from Quality Testing Department

5.3 DETAILS OF DATA COLLECTED

10
Following are the collection of data for
ty

32
1. Customer complaints
2. In House rejections
3. Production Quantity
This Production quantity data has been collected from our Foaming Production
department from April 2009 to March 2010.

Table 5.3.1 : Star Sport Cushion Production quantity

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar

'09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '09 '10 '10 '10
12571 9695 15574 16138 15368 20524 19724 16226 9451 8620 12226 16600

In addition the following data also collected for supporting the analysis.

Process flow diagrams of the Hennecke PU Foaming Machine.


Operation standards for the Star sport Foaming Machine.

6. PU Foaming Process
The term "POLYURETHANE" is used to describe any polymer that has been chain extended
by reaction with di or poly-isocyanate. In other words "POLYURETHANES" are polymers
formed by the polyaddition of polyfunctional isocyanates with compounds containing at least
two hydroxyl groups.
The term polyurethane is derived from the "URETHANE" group that is predominantly
formed in the reaction. A urethane group is formed by the chemical reaction between an
alcohol and an isocyanate. The isocyanate group (-NCO) can react with any compound
containing 'active' hydrogen atoms. (Active hydrogen atoms are those which react with a
Grignard's reagent, generally methyl magnesium iodide to give methane.)
The typical reaction that depicts the formation of polyurethane’s (PU) is given below:
Polyol + water and/or Polyisocyanates or POLY

Blowing agent + catalyst(s) Diisocyanates URETHANE


33
FOAM

The two wheeler cushion production unit consists of the following machines and equipment

1. High pressure reaction moulding machine – 1 No

2. Linear carousel carrying 14 mould stations

3. 14 individual moulds each with 2 cavity

4. Injection head fitted on a rotary arm

1. High pressure reaction moulding machine:


This high-pressure reaction moulding machine is of “Hennecke” make from imported
from Germany. The machine consists of storage tanks to hold Polyol and Isocyanate in a
maintained temperature of 21 – 25 degrees centigrade, the control unit, computer controlled
programmable unit, metering units to control the quantity of both the chemicals

High pressure reaction moulding machine

34
Fig 6.1 High pressure reaction moulding machine

2. Linear carousel

The linear carousel is nothing but a closed loop telescopic conveyor chain
fitted with a caterpillar drive and used to move the mould carrying fixtures. The movement &
the speed of the conveyor are controlled through a control panel and an automated lubricator
unit ensures the smooth movement of the conveyor. There are 14 moulds carrying stations or
otherwise called as Mould Fixtures (MF), individually operated through hydraulic power
pack. The mould carrying stations are locked with the towveyor chain conveyor through
towing pins. The power supply is given the MFs through an overhead 4-line bus bar.

Fig 6.2: Linear carrousel with mould fixtures

3.Moulds

35
Moulds are used to produce PU cushions. The moulds are CNC machined to obtain
the contour of the cushion and made up of Aluminium. Different varieties of mould cavities
are used for various products. We have about 20 varieties of two wheeler moulds.

Fig 6.3: Aluminium mould cavity

There are 14 moulds with each with twin cavity are mounted in the mould carrying
stations. Each mould consists of top and bottom cavity. The top cavity is mounted in the top
frame of the MF by means of T bolts and the bottom cavity is fixed to the base frame of the
MF by means of conical locators. Hot water connection is given to the moulds to maintain the
mould temperature always between 55 – 60 degrees centigrade.

4.Injection head and the rotary arm.

The injection head is the important part of the machine where is both Polyol
and Isocyanate are mixed thoroughly inside the chamber at a high pressure of 160 – 180 bar
and the laminar flow is created inside for homogenous mixing through the injection nozzle.
Then the homogenous mixture is injected into the mould. The rotary arm consists of a pillar
support, rotary base, pivoted arm with a counter weight and the moving arm where the mixing
head is mounted. The movement of the mixing head is achieved by means of a robot.
Each type of cushion requires certain type of machine setting depend on the size, hardness,
weight and other requirements. These settings are stored in the PLC of the machine .
RFID will activate the signal to the foaming machine thro the sensors, The machine has the
input details and gives the signal to the control panel of the Robot , Each individual moulds
having individual program stored in the control panel of the machine. The Robot gets the
input details from the Control panel of the machine and pouring of the chemical in the mould
cavity.

36
Cushions are checked for its properties like hardness, profile, shape and other surface defects.
The parameter hardness predominantly contributes towards the seat’s comfort level.
Testing of hardness is done as per IS 7888 for 4 wheeler cushions and JIS 6401 for 2 wheeler
cushions. Hardness testing will be carried out regularly to ensure conformance to the
specification.

6.1 Conclusion
Following points are taken care during the data collection.
1. Data collected is done from normal sales taking place in the organization ensuring the
desired range of sales trend is covered.
2. In house rejection trend is formulated from the actual data entered in the in house
software for daily monitoring.
3. Much care has been taken to ensure unbiased data collection during the entire study in
order to achieve reliability.
The collected data has been formatted and are further used for analysis.

7.0 ANALYSIS OF DATA


7.1 CHOICE OF TECHNIQUES
DOE technique is used in this project as where applicable. The tools are selected suitable to
the analysis and study requirements.
Following techniques are used during the course of this project
• Brainstorming is done to collect ideas.
• Cause and effect diagram is used for causal analysis.
• Trend charts has been used to formulate Production trend.
• DOE techniques used for cost reduction and standardization.

7.1.1 DESIGN OF EXPERIEMENT IN STAR SPORT CUSHIONS


We have taken the present process parameters, specification and observations of the
Star Sport cushions
In order to optimize cost in the Star sport Cushion, we have identified the the index of
potential to achieve maximum benefits. The following sub parts are recommended.

37
1. Reduction in weight of the base chemical in Star Sport Cushion by DOE
We have taken the present process parameters, specification and observations of the Star Sport
cushions.
7.1 Present Process Parameters of Star sport cushion

Inj time : 3.55 Seconds

Polyol qty/ Sec : 128 gms

ISO Qty / Sec : 78 gms

Cushion weight : 705 gms

Hardness : 11 - 15 Kgf

Hysterisis : 26 - 28 %

Supplier : Dow Chemicals

ISO : NE 134

Polyol : NF 755

7.1.1 Selection of Factors for DOE


As a first step of DOE, we have analysed on the process parameters with respect to the local
control factors and the factors that can be taken for DOE.

Table 7.1.1– Selection of Factors for DOE – Star Sport Cushion

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Process Parameters
Local control Factors for DOE
1. Injection Time
- 
2. ISO Qty
- 
3. Injection Pressure ISO/Polyol
 -
4. Mould temperature
 -
5. Release agent application
 -
6. Mould
- -
7. Component Temperature
 -

We have arrived at the different levels of experimental combinations by


varying the injection time and the ISO quantity. The combinations are shown in the below
table.

Factors Levels

1. Injection Time 3.5, 3.45, 3.35, 3.25, 3.15 secs


2. ISO Qty 78, 80, 82, 84, 86 Gms

39
Table 7.1.1.a – Experimental Combination of
injection time & ISO quantity

7.1.3 Experimental Combination - Full Factorial

3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x


78 78 78 78 78
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
80 80 80 80 80
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
82 82 82 82 82
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
84 84 84 84 84
3.15 x 3.25 x 3.35 x 3.45 x 3.55 x
86 86 86 86 86

We have used the ANOVA table to find the significance between the different setting and the
cushion hardness.

We have compared the average response of the following parameters


1. Weight
2. Hardness and
3. Hysterisis
The ability of Flexible Polyurethane Foam (FPF) to maintain original
characteristics after flexing. Indentation Force Deflection (IFD) is generally measured as
the force in pounds required to compress a 50 sq inch circular indenter tool into four inch
thick sample. Common IFD values are general at 25 and 65% of the initial height.

40
Cushion hardness is checked using the Hardness Test as per the Quality Standard
of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS 6401). As per the Specifications the hardness should
be 11 – 15 kgf.

Table 7.1.1.b – ANOVA Table

ISO Qty
78 80 82 84 86
3.15 8.8 9.2 10.8 12.4 14.8
3.25 10.2 10.8 11.2 12.7 15.2
Injection
Time in

3.35
secs

11.4 12.1 12.7 14.8 16.2


3.45 14.8 15.7 16.2 17.9 18.5
3.55 12.5 13.7 14.2 15.8 17.9
ANOVA
F
Source of Variation SS df MS F
122.97 crit
Injection time 94.444 4 23.611 4 3.006917
ISO 104.48
Qty 80.244 4 20.061 4 3.006917
Error 3.072 16 0.192

Total 177.76 24
Both Injection time & ISO Qty are significant for Hardness. (F value > F critical)

Average Response on Weight


Existing
720
708

700
705

680
Weight in gms

669 670
660
661
640
641

620

600
3.15 x 84 3.25 x 84 3.35 x 80 3.35 x 82 3.55 x 78 3.55 x 80

Trial Combination
Figure 7.1a – Average Response of Weight – Star Sport Cushion

41
Average Response on Hardness

17

14 13.7
13.1
Hardness

12.7
12.5 12.4 UCL
12.1

11

LCL

8
3.45 3.45 3.55 3.35 3.45 3.55 3.45 3.25 3.15 3.35 3.45 3.55 3.55 3.35 3.25 3.55 3.15 3.35 3.35 3.25 3.15 3.25 3.25 3.15 3.15
x 86 x 84 x 86 x 86 x 82 x 84 x 80 x 86 x 86 x 84 x 78 x 82 x 80 x 82 x 84 x 78 x 84 x 80 x 78 x 82 x 82 x 80 x 78 x 80 x 78

Trial combination

Figure 7.1b – Average Response of Hardness – Star Sport Cushion

Av e rage re sponse on Hy ste risis

Parameters
Existing
identified
process
30.4 during
experiments
parameter
30
29.8
Hysterisis in %

28.5
27.2 27.1
27

24
3.15 x 84 3.25 x 84 3.35 x 80
Figure 7.1.3c– Average Response3.35 x 82
of Hysterisis 3.55 x 78 3.55 x 80

Trial Combination

Figure 7.1.c – Average Response of Hysterisis – Star Sport Cushion

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7.1.5. Trial Result
After the following trials, we found that the Hardness, hysterisis property
which is the main parameters was satisfied at the weight of 670 Gms. So, we have set the ISO
quantity at 82 Gms / sec and Injection timing at 3.35 and done the process capability and
found the hardness was within specification.
By the application of DOE process we found the optimum method of
Injection time 3.35 sec with the chemical combination of ISO quantity of 82 Gms/sec
By implementation of the project, we were able to reduce the weight of the
Cushion by 5 %

7.1.6 Testing and Proving

Figure 7.0h – Methods of Testing

43
Figure 7.1.4– Testing and Proving

7.1.7 Test Report


Table 7.1.7 – Test Report – Star Sport Cushion

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7.2. Standardisation
List of activities carried out towards standardisation of this Project.

• Drawing modification through Engineering Change Note ( ECN )

• Bill of Material ( BOM ) modification

• Intimation to production and updation of the Operation standards

• Norms updated in the system

• Process parameters updated

• Updation of the control plan

• Training imparted to all individuals.

• Approval from customer

8.Results and Benefits


During 2009-10 the contribution of the two wheeler seat on the overall cost was
around 16 – 20 %. Projected volumes for the year 2012-13, are 9,600 seats per day, we
have planned to improve the contribution of the Two Wheeler Seats and also improve the
profitability of our company as per the policy plan.

45
To meet the above demand, following activities were implemented.

1. Design of Experiments in Star Sport Seat.

Star Sport Cushion Weight

750 5 % Reduction in
weight

705
Weight in gms

700
675 670

650

600
Actual Plan Achieved
Figure 8.0– Plan Vs Actual

46
After standardizing the above activities in the regular production, we could achieve the
following benefits

A. Achieved cost saving of Rs 5.12 Lakhs per annum (Break up details given below)

Cost Savings through DOE in Star Sport Seat -Rs. 5.12.00 Lakhs

8.1 Improvements planned in the year 2011 – 12

This improvement has been planned to be horizontally deployed to all similar products. The
target for implementation is during MAY ’11.

9 Conclusions

9.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

This project work has given very good information on the usage of the major tools
like Design of Experiment, ANOVA, Idea simulators etc., It has also provided me knowledge
on the PU Foaming Process.

9.2 GAINS OF THE PROJECT

This project yielded gains in terms cost, quality, delivery, time, etc., which we
have discussed in detail in section 8. Apart from the above, this project also provided an
opportunity to understand the PU Foaming Process and also implementation of projects in
practical at field and overcoming the difficulties and consequences faced. Benefit and
improvement gained out of this project has also motivated to improve my skills in problem
solving techniques.
9.3 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

These techniques used can be horizontally deployed to other products. We could


not go about in taking trial of the four cavity mould, due to a short time span, the increased
investment and the chemical properties.

9.4 SCOPE OF FURTHER WORK

47
Similar study can be extended to the other products in the organization where
there is a real need of the cost optimization

10. CONCLUSION

This project has given me immense confidence to handle similar projects in the other
areas.
It has enhanced my knowledge on usage of Design of Experiment.
This project has benefited the organization in terms of cost reduction to the tune of Rs. 5.12
lakhs / annum.
“Insect eye view” to any problem or an activity always improves the performance and
utilization.
Tools followed like ANOVA, idea simulators has helped to detect early failures of the system
and also provided opportunity to focus on accident prevention. This also helped in team
building by involving many people in the organization to use those tools.

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11. REFERENCES

1. Design of Experiments – Taguchi


2. Design and Analysis of Experiments – Douglas C. Montgomery, Third Edition
3. G. Woods, 1990, “The ICI Polyurethanes book, 2nd Edition: ICI Polyurethanes,
Everberg, Belgium jointly published with John Wiley & Sons.
4. Value Engineering for Cost Reduction and Product Improvement – M.S. Vittal;
Systems Consultancy Service, Bangalore.
5. Getting more at Less Cost-The Value Engineering Way-G. Jagannathan ;
6. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely thank Mr.P.SHANMUGAVEL, Manager-Manufacturing- Harita Seating


Systems Limited for giving me an opportunity to do a project in this organization and
valuable advice and continuous guidance in completing the project.

I express my immense gratitude to Mr.M.K.KANNAN, General Manager–


Manufacturing, for permitting me with free hand to complete the project. I wish to convey
my heartfelt appreciation to those countless friends who gave me moral support and
encouragement.

I also wish to thank all my colleagues in my department for their valuable inputs during the
project.

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