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Certified that the Project titled “DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMAL METHOD IN THE


DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS” is the bonafide work of Mr. S.ANNAMALAI, who carried

out the work under my supervision. Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the

work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis

of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other


Signature of Guide


Roll No: 0905 MBA 0286 Assistant Professor

Reg No: 68309100281 Department of Industrial Engineering,

College of engineering,


Chennai – 600 025.

Signature of project –in- charge




This project work has been taken to the development of optimal method in the material

composition of Two Wheeler seat assembly using Design of Experiments which reduce the

manufacturing cost of Two Wheeler seat. This work gives an idea of the various

methodologies, which are adopted to bring down the cost of Two Wheeler seat and to improve

the contribution value of the seats and in turn achieve the improved profit.

The report gives the details of steps in Design of Experiment (DOE). We have used these

techniques in order to optimise the cost of the seats. Further scope on cost reduction in other

products also has been identified by using the same techniques horizontally deployed.

By implementing the project, the benefits obtained are

1. Saving will be about Rs. 5.0 Lakhs per annum.

2. Increase in the contribution of products

3. Reduced in-house as well as customer end line rejections.


Chapter No. Introduction Page No

Chapter 1. Preamble 1
1.1 Introduction to the project
1.2 Problem on Hand 2
1.3 Importance of the problem 2
1.3.1 Reason for selecting the project 2
1.4 Scope of the project
Chapter .2 Details of the organisation 5
2.1 Company profile 5
2.2 Organisation 7
2.2.1 Products and customers 8
2.2.2 Manufacturing Facilities 9
2.2.3 Organisational structure 10
2.3 Sales trend of organisation 10
2.4 Milestones 11
2.4.1 Commitment to quality 12
2.4.2 Awards and recognitions 12
Chapter. 3 Problem on hand 13
3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 Description of the problem 15
3.2.1 Automobile sales trend in segment wise 15
3.2.2 Two wheeler Sales Trend in model wise 16
3.3 Importance of the project 17
3.3.1 Reason for selecting star sport model 18
3.3.2 Idea Simulator – Star Sport Cushion 19
3.3.3 Criticality of the problem 24
3.4 Conclusion 24

Chapter 4 Relevant literature review 26

4.1 Design of Experiment 26
4.2 DOE Process Map 28
Chapter 5 Data collection and analysis 29
5.1 Type of data needed 29
5.1.1. Customer Complaints 29
5.1.2 In house Rejections 32
5.2 Source of Data 34
5.3 Details of Data Collected 34
Chapter 6 PU Foaming Process 35
6.1 Conclusion 39
Chapter 7 Analysis of Data 39
7.1choice of Techniques 39
7.1.1DOE in Star sport cushion 40
7.1.2 Selection of Factors for DOE 40
7.1.3 Experimental combination –Full factorial 42
7.1.4 Experiment results on Cushion hardness 42
7.1.5 Trial Report 45
7.1.6 Testing and proving 46
7.1.7 .Test report 47
7.2 Standardisation 48
Chapter 8 Results and benefits 48
8.1 Improvements planned in the year 2011-12 49
Chapter 9 Concluding Remarks 50
9.1 Summary 50
9.2 Gains of the project 50
9.3 Limitations of the study 50
9.4 Scope of further work 50
Chapter 10 Conclusion 51
References 52



Table No Title of the table Page No

1.3.1 Model wise seats requirement by TVSM / Day 3

2.2.1 List of products and major Customers 8
3.1 Idea simulator for star sport foam 20
4.1 Design of experiments approach 29
5.1 1 Customer complaint –High hardness
5.1.2 In house rejection – High hardness 32
5.3.1 Star sport cushion production quantity 34
7.1.1 Selection factors for DOE –star sport cushion 41
7.1.1. a Experimental combination of Inj time and ISO qty 42
7.1.1.b ANOVA Table 43
7.1.7 Test report for star sport


Figure No Title of the figure Page No

1.3.1a Model wise Seat requirement by TVSM / Day 3
1.3.1b Two Wheeler Demand Graph 4
2.2.1a Products and customers 7
2.2.2 Manufacturing Facilities 9
2.2.3 Organization structure 10
2.3 Sales trend of organization 10
2.4 Milestones 11
3.2.1a Sales details – Segment wise 15
3.2.1b Demand vs. Capacity 15
3.2.2.a Two wheeler sales details – Model wise 16
3.3.a Contribution of Running products 17
3.3.1. a chemical consumption – Product wise 18
4.1.1 Design of Experiment 27
5.1.1.a Customer complaints trend – High Hardness year wise 30
5.1.1.b Customer complaints trend – High Hardness month wise 30
5.1.1.c Cause and effect diagram 31
5.1.2.a In-house rejection – High Hardness year wise 33
5.1.2. b In-house rejection – High Hardness month wise 33
6.1 High pressure reaction moulding machine 36
6.2 Linear carrousel with mould fixtures 37
6.3 Aluminium mould cavity 37
7.1a Average Response of Weight – Star Sport Cushion
7.1b Average Response of hardness – Star Sport Cushion 44
7.1c Average Response of Hysterisis – Star Sport Cushion
7.1.6 Testing and Proving 46
8.0 Plan Vs Actual 49


TQM Total Quality Management

TEI Total Employee Involvement
NVA Non Value Added Activities
FW Four wheeler
VE Value Engineering
FAST Function Analysis System Technique
QA Quality Assurance
AGM Assistant General Manager
R&D Research & Development
MUV Multi Utility Vehicles
LCV Light Commercial Vehicles
HCV High Commercial Vehicle
SIT Supervisory Improvement Team
CFT Cross Functional Team
JIT Just In Time
CII Confederation of Indian Industry
TPM Total Productivity Maintenance
QS Quality System
PPM Parts per Million
VE Value Engineering
PDCA Plan, Do, Check, Act.
DOE Design of Experiments
QP Quality Proving
EMS Environmental Management System
PpK Preliminary Process Capability Index
PMD Plant maintenance Department
CNC Computerized Numerical Control
SPM Special Purpose Machine