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# PPB 25403 Strength of Materials

Lecture 1: Stress Analysis

Mechanics of Materials: An Introduction What? Why? Applications? .

Applications:  Complete picture of mechanical behaviour such as forces. machines.e building. bridges. airplanes. motion  Safe design in all type of structures i. motors.Introduction  Mechanics of materials is a study of the relationship between the external loads on a body and the intensity of the internal loads within the body. ships. .  This subject also involves the deformations and stability of a body when subjected to external forces.

Learning Outcomes  Stress Review of Free Body Diagram Equilibrium of a Deformable Body Stress Concept Normal and Shear Stresses Factor of Safety .

Free Body Diagram  Pictorial representation often used by physicists and engineers to analyze the forces acting on a body of interest Beam .

Body Forces .caused by direct contact of other body’s surface 2.Equilibrium of a Deformable Body External Forces 1.Surface Forces .other body exerts a force without contact .

Equilibrium of a Deformable Body Reactions Surface forces developed at the supports/points of contact between bodies. .

. z coordinate system with origin O. My 0. Mz 0 Best way to account for these forces is to draw the body’s free-body diagram (FBD). y. Fz 0 Mx 0. Fy 0. Fx 0.Equilibrium of a Deformable Body Equations of Equilibrium Equilibrium of a body requires a balance of forces and a balance of moments F 0 MO 0 For a body with x.

T d) Bending moment. there are 4 different types of resultant loadings: a) Normal force. N b) Shear force.  In general. M .Equilibrium of a Deformable Body Internal Resultant Loadings  Objective of FBD is to determine the resultant force and moment acting within a body. V c) Torsional moment or torque.

Stress  Distribution of internal loading is important in mechanics of materials. .  This intensity of internal force at a point is called stress.  We will consider the material to be continuous.

Stress Normal Stress σ Force per unit area acting normal to ΔA Fz z lim A 0 A Shear Stress τ Force per unit area acting tangent to ΔA Fx zx lim A 0 A Fy zy lim A 0 A .

 Stress is assumed to be averaged over the area. it is only subjected to normal stress.Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar  When a cross-sectional area bar is subjected to axial force through the centroid. .

Average Normal Stress in an Axially Loaded Bar Average Normal Stress Distribution  When a bar is subjected to a constant deformation. . dF dA A σ = average normal stress P A P = resultant normal force P A = cross sectional area of bar A Equilibrium  2 normal stress components that are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

. Solution: By inspection. Determine the maximum average normal stress in the bar when it is subjected to the loading shown. different sections have different internal forces.Example 1 The bar has a constant width of 35 mm and a thickness of 10 mm.

the largest loading is in region BC. PBC 30 kN Since the cross-sectional area of the bar is constant.Solution: By inspection.7 MPa (Ans) A 0. the largest average normal stress is PBC 30 103 BC 85.035 0.01 .

Average Shear Stress The average shear stress distributed over each sectioned area that develops a V shear force. A avg τ = average shear stress P = internal resultant shear force A = area at that section a) Single Shear b) Double Shear 2 different types of shear: .

S.Allowable Stress Many unknown factors that influence the actual stress in a member.S allow fail F . The factor of safety (F.S Fallow fail F .S allow .) is a ratio of the failure load divided by the allowable load F fail F . A factor of safety is needed to obtained allowable load.

What we have learned today Free Body Diagram Equilibrium of a Deformable Body Stress Concept Normal and Shear Stresses Factor of Safety .