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All pictures ©2004 TopFoto unless specified.


Detail of “God Save the Queen”, British Railways (Western Region) poster produced as a
tribute to Queen Elizabeth II on the occasion of her coronation in 1953 by artist, Charles
©National Railway Museum / HIP / TopFoto

Back cover:

The crown of Queen Mary of Modena, c1685. Wife of King James II.
©Museum of London / HIP / TopFoto

Contents page (clockwise from top left):

Tintagel Castle, Cornwall, Dark Ages. Tintagel Castle was the legendary birthplace of King
©English Heritage / HIP / TopFoto

Part of The 120ft canvas, painted by Richard Barrett Davies depicting the Coronation
Procession to Westminster Abbey of King William IV.
©PA / TopFoto

King George VI with his elder daughter, the future Queen Elizabeth II, 13 December 1936.

The royal seal of King Edward II.

Henry VIII’s pavilion at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520.
©The British Library / HIP / TopFoto

12th Century King, probably King Richard I

The Coronation Chair containing the Stone of Scone.

Bretwalda Kings The Anglo Saxons .CONTENTS Introduction Roman Rule The Dark Ages The Anglo Saxons .Kings of Wessex & England The Normans The Angevins The Plantagenets The Lancastrians The Yorkists The Tudors The Stuarts The Hanoverians The Windsors .

Two years later. Although charged with guiding the boy until he was old enough to rule on his own. it was their youngest brother Henry who seized the Queen Boudicca. Edward’s grandson and successor fared even worse. Richard seized Edward and executed his companions. leaving Robert out in the cold once more. there has rarely been a dull moment for England’s rulers. insisting that he had acted only to thwart the influence of the boy’s maternal family. Indeed. the putative Protector declared himself Richard III. In the 12th century. In April. In June. lifted the lid on the sibling rivalry between his third and favourite son William Rufus. when not battling foreign forces they seemed to fill the time by fighting each other. It didn’t get any easier for the Plantagenets. on William II’s death in 1100. whom he named as his successor to the English throne. and the beginning of the Hundred Years War with France. Uncle Richard had very different plans for the throne. and regicide. Soon afterwards. crowned in 1327. when the courageous Boudicca led the Celtic Iceni in a doomed revolt against the invading Roman army. No one knows whether Richard II died of natural causes or was murdered. who eventually forced his abdication and death in Pontefract Castle in 1399. probably murdered by the usurper or his Robert Mortimer agents. King of England. civil war. his uncle was appointed as his Protector. who had to make do with Normandy. Henry II spent the final few years of his reign in open warfare with his rebellious sons. Although he managed to rule for 22 years and dealt ably enough with the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381. through Roman rule and the arrival of William the Conqueror in 1066. Poor Robert led several uprisings against his brother before giving up and embarking on the Crusades. while 14-year-old Edward III. Richard III got his comeuppance when he © The British Library / HIP / TopFoto . 12-year-old Edward V became King of England. Unfortunately for the young king. Richard’s young nephews disappeared. religious upheaval and abdication – the kings and queens of England have certainly written a dramatic and intriguing history for their subjects. to the mysterious death of Princess Diana in 1997. Willliam’s death in 1087. From 60AD. an outbreak of the Black Death. murder. and his eldest son Robert. But he was certainly not the last English king The plague of 1348 to suffer a mysterious fate. Then he declared that the boy was illegitimate. for instance. 1483. having thrown Edward and his younger brother into the Tower of London. Then. throne. had to contend with the influence of his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer. Richard II never resolved his differences with his rebellious cousin Henry. Introduction A dultery.

the The Duke (formerly King Edward VIII) and Duchess of Duchess of Devonshire admitted that he “is fond of dress Windsor. Sadly. was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. It was largely thanks to his indifference that the system of Cabinet government under a Prime Minister evolved. In the 17th century. 1940. James’s great grandson King George I was a German who came to the throne in 1714 only because he was a Protestant. really does repeat itself. the Windsors have tried to learn from his misplaced efforts to woo the public. it seems. the history of England’s kings and queens is as colourful as it is long. Indeed. History. He could not speak a word of English and was so uninterested in the Satirical cartoon showing the public support for Queen Caroline c. His vanity was such that even his friend. If King Henry VIII’s sanity was sometimes questioned during his turbulent 42-year reign from 1509 to 1547. Fortunately for us. George IV’s relationship with the media anticipated today’s tension between the monarchy and the fourth estate. who published cartoons of the “Grand Entertainment” he had become. King James I was known as the “wisest fool in Christendom”. rather less successfully. even he was more popular than his son and successor King George IV. An indiscreet philanderer. The wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer. Ironically. King George III famously went mad (in fact he was suffering from a condition known as porphyria). his affairs were as well-reported as they were numerous. his considerable appetite ©AP/TopFoto for rich food made him both fat and an easy target for the press. 1981. Still. George IV was thinking about clothes. Fifty-odd years later. the final battle of the Wars of the Roses between the rival royal families of Lancaster and York. When he was not preoccupied with women or his latest grand building schemes. ©2004 Text by Lisa Sabbage ©PA/TopFoto . while the ineptness of his son Charles I led to a confrontation with the House of Commons that would result in Civil War and his own execution for treason in 1649. the divorce of Prince Charles and Princes Diana. King Henry VII began the Tudor reign of England that would see his son Henry VIII execute two of his six wives and break with the Catholic Church in his desperate quest for a male heir. As Richard’s successor. plenty of other English sovereigns have raised concerns among their courtiers and subjects. even to a tawdry degree”. carefully managing the abdication of King Edward VIII in 1936 and. and his 1820 attempt to divorce his put-upon wife Caroline of Brunswick turned the disapproving public against him.1820 affairs of the nation that he gladly left ©The National Archives / HIP / TopFoto them to his ministers. who was widely condemned for his licentious and extravagant lifestyle.

Vatican 117 . ©Woodmansterne/TopFoto Breakaway Emperors Bottom Right: Boudicca.337 Constantine I (the Great) Emperor 364 .84 Left: The victory of Constantine the Great of Agricola Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. Notable Romans Roman Rule 43 . who ruled the Celtic Iceni against the Romans.410 Honorius Western Emperor .211 Septimius Severus Emperor 260 . Allectus Bottom Left: Hadrian’s Wall.138 ©Charles Walker / TopFoto Hadrian Right: Agricola Emperor 138 .54 Claudius Emperor 77 .274 Honorius who told Britons in 410 Marcus Postumus.161 Atonius Pius Emperor 193 .375 Magnus Maximus Breakaway Emperor 395 . 306 . ©The British Museum/HIP/TopFoto Carausius. Detail from the Governor Fresco of Giulio Romano. Tetricus “Defend yourselves”. Breakaway Emperors Left: Honorius. near Walltown Crags. 286 .296 Middle Left: Gold aureus consecration coin of Septimius Severus.

540 Constantine King of Dumnonia 577 Condidan: Conmail: Farinmail All killed at Battle of Dyrham 590 Urien King of Rheged (Cumbria) 633 Cadwallon King of Gwynedd 642 Top Left: Map of Britain. King of Strathclyde ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto 750 Right: The death of Arthur. Lindisfarne Gospels.490 . 593 AD. Owen Top Right: Gospel of St Luke.500 Ambrosius Aurelianus c. King of Strathclyde 844 . ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Teudubr Bottom Left: The Holy Grail appearing in a vision before King Arthur‘s Company.850 The Dark Ages c. Merfyn King of Gwynedd . Notable Kings 450 .872 Bottom Right: Emblem of Sir Owen son of Urien.

Bretwalda Kings The Anglo Saxons 449 Hengest and Horsa c.c.33 Edwin: King of Northumbria 633 .560 . the first Bretwalda. Below: King Offa sails to Saxony.93 Ceawlin: King of Wessex c560 . ©ARPL/TopFoto Far left: King Edwin of Northumbria. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto .477 .70 Oswy: King of Northumbria 685 .616 Aethelbert: King of Kent (Died c.627) Raedwald: King of East Anglia 616 .705 Aldfrith: King of Northumbria 688 .57 Aethelbald: King of Mercia 757 . ©Woodmansterne/TopFoto Left: Offa’s Dyke.604) preaching before Aethelbert.42 Oswald: King of Northumbria 642 .96 Offa: King of Mercia Above: Saint Augustine of Canterbury (d.491 AElle: King of Sussex c.726 Ine: King of Wessex 716 . Stained glass window in York Minister.55 Penda: King of Mercia 634 .

Edmund II Ironside Bottom Left: Edmund Ironside.860 Ethelbald 860 . Edward the Martyr Top Right: King Alfred the Great statue in Worthing.959 Edwy 959 .924 Edward the Elder 924 .1040 Harold Harefoot 1040-1042 Hardicanute 1042 . The Unready. Ethelred II the Unready Above Right: The barge of Edgar King of England.939 Athelstan 939 . King Edward The Confessor and King Harold.866 Ethelberht 866 .871 Ethelred 871 . 1016 .1066 Edward the Confessor 1066 January .November Left: Ethelred II. Canute 1035 . Kings of Wessex & England The Anglo Saxons 802 . 979 .58 Egbert 856 . 1016 April .October Harold II .955 Edred 955 .899 Alfred 899 .946 Edmund I 946 .975 Edgar 975 .1035 Bottom Right: Canute I.1016 Above Left: Athelstan.979 Top Left: Bayeux Tapestry.

14th century.1135 Henry I 1135 .1087 William I (the Conqueror) 1087 . From Chron- icle of Florence of Worcester c.. Left: Stephen. From “Historia Anglorum” by Matthew Paris. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Right: Portrait of William II. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto . Right: King Henry I. apparently because of his ruddy complexion.1154 Stephen Top: Henry I sails for England. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Left: King William I accompanied by knights and soldiers. Otherwise known as Rufus.1100 William II 1100 .1130-40. Page of illustrated Latin text showing William the Conqueror riding a horse bearing his coat of arms of three gold lions on a red ground. The Normans The Normans 1066 .

The Angevins The Angevins 1154 . Above: Richard the Lionheart. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Right: King John signing the Magna Carta at Runnymede. 1215. Above: King Henry II and Richard I. Left: King John hunting. Westminster.1199 Richard I 1199 . Below: King John and King Henry III.1189 Henry II 1189 . Bottom: Kings of England.1216 John Top Left: Henry II at Waterford. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto . statue by Marochetti. 14th century.

Top Right: King Henry III with a representation of Westminister Abbey.1272 Henry III 1272 .1327 Edward II 1327 . ©English Heritage/HIP/TopFoto .1399 Richard II Top Left: Effigy of King Henry III on his tomb in Westminster Abbey. The Plantagents The Plantagenets 1216 . A painting in Westminster Abbey.1377 Edward III 1377 . Gloucester Cathedral. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Left: King Edward III depicted on the wall of St. Left: Coronation of Edward I.1307 Edward I 1307 . Right: King Richard II. Westminster. Stephen’s Chapel. Bottom: Tomb of Edward II.

The son of John of Gaunt. King of England from 1399. Bottom Right: Henry IV. The Lancastrians The Lancastrians 1399 . .1413 Henry IV 1413 . ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Top Right: Coronation of Henry lV. 1399. ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Left: King Henry VI and his wife Margaret of Anjou.1471 Henry VI Top Left: Hoccleve Presents his Book to Prince Henry V.1461 & 1470 .1422 Henry V 1422 .

1470 & 1471 . The Yorkists The Yorkists 1461 . Duke of York and King Edward V. Bottom Right: The Princes in the Tower.1485 Richard III Top Left: Richard III and Queen Anne. . Top Right: King Edward IV.1483 Edward IV 1483 Edward V 1483 . Bottom Left: Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.

1509 Henry VII 1509 .1547 Henry VIII 1547 . . Right: Edward VI. Bottom Right: Queen Elizabeth I by M.1558 Mary I 1558 .1603 Elizabeth I Top Left: Portrait of Henry VIII by Holbein at Belvoir Castle. Woburn Abbey.1553 Edward VI 1553 . ©Corporation of London/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Left: Queen Mary. Top Right: Henry VII holding a Tudor rose. Geerarts. The Tudors The Tudors 1485 .

1688 (Died 1701) James II 1689 .1714 Anne Top Left: Queen Anne Top Right: Charles II Left: James VI of Scotland and I of England and Great Britain. Bottom Left: Portrait of Charles I as a Martyr King ©Museum of London/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Centre: William III Bottom Right: King James II ©The British Library/HIP/TopFoto .1625 James I of England 1625 . The Stuarts The Stuarts 1603 .1702 William III 1702 .1649 (executed) Charles I 1649 .1685 Charles II 1685 . Right: Successors to the throne abandoned by James II were his daughter Mary II and her husband William of Orange.

1901 Queen Victoria Top Left: King George II by Robert Edge Pine Top Centre: The Duke of Clarence. Ireland and of Hanover. Top Right: George IV 1762-1830 King of Great Britain.1837 William IV 1837 . the “Sailor King”.1727 George I 1727 . Right: George I ©Corporation of London/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Left: Queen Victoria. .1820 George III 1820 . The Hanoverians The Hanoverians 1714 . later William IV. by Allan Ramsey.1830 George IV 1830 . Bottom Right: George III.1760 George II 1760 .

©Museum of London/HIP/TopFoto Bottom Right: King Edward VII.1910 Edward VII 1910 .1936 George V Top Left: King George V making his Christmas broadcast in 1934. Top Right: King George V skippering his yacht Britannia. The Saxe-Coberg Gothas The Saxe-Coberg Gothas 1901 . 1911. . Bottom Left: Coronation photograph of George V and Queen Mary.

Prince Charles. the year Edward VIII abdicated to marry the divorcee.1952 George VI 1952 - Queen Elizabeth II Top Left: Queen Elizabeth II visits Kingston-Upon-Thames in her Golden Jubilee year. ©National Pictures/TopFoto Top Right: Coronation portrait of George VI. 1937. Mrs Simpson. Bottom Right: Queen Elizabeth II with heirs to the throne. Bottom Left: Edward VIII and Mrs Simpson sightseeing at Tregir near Split 1936. ©PA/TopFoto . The Windsors The Windsors 1936 (Abdicated. died 1972) Edward VIII 1936 . Prince William and Prince Harry.