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Wo r l d He r i t a ge

appropriate management responses
Strategy to assist States Parties to implement rapports
reports

and du patrimoine mondial
of climate change on World Heritage
Report on predicting and managing the impacts
Climate Change and World Heritage
Climate Change and World Heritage

22
Changement climatique et

Changement climatique et patrimoine mondial
patrimoine mondial
Rapport sur la prévision et la gestion des effets
du changement climatique sur le patrimoine mondial
et
22
World Heritage Stratégie pour aider les États parties
à mettre en œuvre des réactions de gestion adaptées

reports
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Climate Change and World Heritage
Report on predicting and managing the impacts
of climate change on World Heritage
and
Strategy to assist States Parties to implement
appropriate management responses

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Cover Photo:
Snow and ice on Mount Kilimanjaro in 1993, and in 2002
© NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio
http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/

Editor:
Augustin Colette, Climate Change Consultant, UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Supervision and coordination:
Kishore Rao, Deputy Director, UNESCO World Heritage Centre

With contributions from:
May Cassar (Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London, United Kingdom)
Christopher Young (English Heritage, United Kingdom)
Tony Weighell (Joint Nature Conservation Committee, United Kingdom)
ICCROM
ICOMOS
David Sheppard (IUCN)
Bastian Bomhard (IUCN)
Pedro Rosabal (IUCN)
UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Publication based on Document WHC-06/30.COM/7.1 presented to the World Heritage Committee at its 30th session,
Vilnius, Lithuania, 8-16 July 2006

Published in May 2007 by UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Disclaimer

The authors are responsible for the choice and presentation of the facts contained in this publication and for the opinions
expressed therein, which are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression
of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Reproduction is authorized, providing that appropriate mention is made of the source, and copies are sent to the UNESCO
address below:

World Heritage Centre This publication was made possible
thanks to the financial contribution of
UNESCO the Government of Spain
7, place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07 SP France
Tel : 33 (0)1 45 68 15 71
Fax : 33 (0)1 45 68 55 70
Website: http://whc.unesco.org

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Foreword

The 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention is the principal instrument for identifying and protect-
ing, for the benefit of current and future generations, the outstanding natural and cultural heritage
of the world, and encouraging international cooperation for its conservation. Climate change has now
emerged as one of the most serious threats impacting on the conservation of this heritage.

The World Heritage Committee has recognized this emerging threat and responded at its 29th session
by launching an initiative to assess the impacts of climate change impacts on World Heritage and
define appropriate management responses. Accordingly, a meeting of experts was held in March 2006
in order to prepare a Report and a Strategy to assist States Parties in addressing this threat, and these
documents were endorsed by the Committee at its 30th session in July 2006.

The fact that climate change poses a threat to the outstanding universal values of World Heritage sites
has several implications for the 1972 Convention. Lessons learnt at some sites show the relevance of
designing and implementing appropriate adaptations measures. Research at all levels would also have
to be promoted in collaboration with the various bodies involved in climate change work, especially
for cultural heritage where the level of involvement of the scientific community needs to be enhanced.
The global network of World Heritage sites is ideally suited to build public awareness and support
through sharing of information and effective communication on the subject, given the high-profile
nature of these sites.

Protecting and managing World Heritage sites in a sustainable and effective manner is a shared
responsibility under the Convention. Therefore, there is a need to publicize all available information
on the threats posed by climate change and the potential measures for dealing with them. This pub-
lication in the World Heritage Papers Series, comprising the report on ’Predicting and managing the
effects of climate change on World Heritage’ and a ’Strategy to assist States Parties to implement
appropriate management responses’ is part of that overall effort.

UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre is committed to working closely with all stakeholders including the
States Parties to the 1972 Convention, other international conventions and organizations, the civil
society and the scientific community to address the multiple challenges posed by climate change to
the precious and fragile cultural and natural heritage of the world.

Francesco Bandarin
Director of the UNESCO World Heritage Centre

3

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and for the protection and rehabilitation of areas. The Kyoto Protocol provides for innovative ’flexibility mechanisms’ to lower the overall costs of achieving emissions targets. develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone manage- ment. and educational matters. Parties have over the years agreed on many decisions that mandate actions on climate change. particu- larly in Africa. It also addresses the specific needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) for responding to climate change. In addition. to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 5 Provisions and initiatives of the process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change relevant to the World Heritage Convention Message from the UNFCCC Secretariat The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol contain a number of provisions that are relevant for addressing the concerns of the World Heritage Convention including how to ensure adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change on the World Heritage sites. and those that relate to actions taken to help communities and ecosystems cope with changing climate conditions. adopting national programmes for mitigating climate change. and many outcomes have been achieved. This Convention provides for countries to cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. water resources and agriculture. the countries are taking climate change into account in their relevant social. as well as floods. The Framework Convention stipulates that developed countries should assist developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adap- tation to those adverse effects. and environmental policies and cooperating in scientific. affected by drought and desertification. developing strategies for adapting to its impacts. as well as public awareness. These mechanisms are meant to enable Parties to access cost-effective opportunities to reduce emissions or to remove carbon from the atmosphere. technical. economic. The objective of the Framework Convention is reinforced by a number of articles which fall into two main categories: those related to actions to cut net emissions of greenhouse gases and so reduce climate change. enhancing greenhouse gas sinks and reservoirs (such as forests). promoting technology transfer and the sustainable management of resources. In order to initiate the implementation of the provisions of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. 5 . Parties to the UNFCCC are: developing and submitting national reports containing inventories of greenhouse gas emissions by source and removals by sinks using agreed guidelines.

and to monitor and evaluate their per- formance. the secretariat produced a technical paper on the application of environmentally sound tech- nologies for adaptation to climate change. the UNFCCC secretariat has created a compendium on methods and tools to evaluate adaptation options and web pages to facilitate access to information on methods to evaluate adaptation options. the UNFCCC secretariat has prepared a number of reports which are directly or partially relevant to adaptation. adap- tation technology projects (mainly from national communications of both Annex I and non-Annex I Parties). poverty eradication and sustainable development. regional efforts to implement the Framework Convention based on agreed guidelines. It has conducted expert meetings and workshops with the participation of intergovernmental organizations. and where relevant. In addition. 6 . and enabling environments with specific references to adaptation technologies. to implement adaptation strategies. They also provide for the consideration of climate change in development planning. together with three case studies for each sector. a framework for assessing technologies for adaptation to climate change. and infrastructure). This paper contains an overview of: the current knowl- edge and understanding of adaptation to climate change. examples of important technologies for adaptation in five sectors (coastal zones. In order to respond to the needs for assessing the impacts. including technical papers on: coastal adaptation technologies. the secretariat has established a technology information system (TT:CLEAR) which includes following elements relating to adaptation: inventory of existing adaptation centres. In the area of technology transfer. and an adaptation technologies database. vulnerability and adaptation. United Nations organizations and the community of users to identify opportunities for cooperation. training and public awareness. water resources. Hard and soft technologies are available to develop information and raise awareness. public health. The paper provides examples of technologies that can be employed to accomplish them. agriculture. Furthermore efforts are underway to develop a web-based information clearing house that would support networking and partnership activities between Parties. the process of technology development and transfer as relevant to adaptation to climate change. The Conference of the Parties uses this information to assess and review the effective implementation of the Convention and assess the overall aggregated effect of steps taken by Parties. and a synthesis of findings that have implications for climate policy.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 6 It is important to mention that national reports provide an opportunity for each Party to communi- cate its information. intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations. regional and global effort aimed at mainstreaming climate change. In 2006. The paper argues that many technologies exist to adapt to natural weather-related hazards and that these technologies can also play an important part in reducing vulnerability to climate change. to plan and design adaptation strategies. and to promote informal exchanges of information on actions relating to education. These reports have therefore the potential for and can serve to promote the national. The secretariat is facilitating Parties to undertake capacity-building activities related to the needs for vulnerability and adaptation assessment and implementation of adaptation measures in devel- oping countries and countries with economies in transition.

the Adaptation Fund. enhanced dissemination of information. COP 7 agreed to establish three new funds. and to make informed decisions on practical adaptation actions. relating to adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change. socio-economic information. 7 . inter alia. Acknowledging the fact that most of the States Parties to the World Heritage Convention are also Parties to the UNFCCC. and economic diversification. The climate change process has also adopted the Nairobi Work Programme (NWP). vulnerability and adaptation. the objective of which is to assist all Parties. although not all of it is focused on decisions of the COP. relevant organ- izations. in particular developing countries. Only the Adaptation Fund is yet to become operational. the implemen- tation of adaptation activities where sufficient information is available. enhanced cooperation among Parties. adaptation planning and practices. being involved in the NWP. improved information and advice to the COP. climate modelling and downscaling. A third fund. climate- related risks and extreme events. The focus areas of the NWP include: data and observations. vulnerability and adaptation. and encouraging respective national focal points to work together on climate change issues. It is also expected that the outcomes of this programme will include enhanced capacity at all levels to select and implement high priority adaptation actions. civil society and decision makers. inter alia. and the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Fund should support. The World Heritage Committee could take advantage of the information and products that have been developed by other organizations through the climate change process. the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). Many international organizations are undertaking considerable work on climate change impacts. which will communicate priority activities addressing the urgent and immediate needs and concerns of the LDCs. methods and tools. The Special Climate Change Fund under the UNFCCC is to support. encouraging experts to exchange views using the guidelines that have been used in the UNFCCC process. to improve their understanding and assessment of impacts. business. was established under the Kyoto Protocol.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 7 Realizing the need to obtain adequate funding for adaptation. including LDCs and SIDS. it is possible for the World Heritage Committee to collaborate with the UNFCCC secretariat through activities such as: presenting information at the climate change meetings. and enhanced integration of adaptation with sustainable development. technologies for adaptation research.

This means that on the one hand. and increased frequencies of extreme weather events. and with little or no pressures from human activities. One of the report’s main findings is that there are significant opportunities for mitigating climate change. through temperature increases (‘global warming’). The incidence of pest outbreaks. Convention on Biological Diversity. that can help decision makers to assess the likely impacts and make informed choices when designing and implementing mitigation and adaptation projects.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 8 Statement by Ahmed Djoghlaf. between 2001 and 2003 carried out an in-depth assessment of the inter-linkages between biodiversity and climate change and its impli- cations for the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. Climate change. At its fifth meeting in 2000. biodi- versity considerations are essential. consistent with earlier pre- dictions by climate change models. Although past changes in the global climate resulted in major shifts in species ranges and marked reorganization of biological communities. this also suggests that while designing activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of climate change. and biomes during the last thousands of years. boreal and polar ecosys- tems. current climate change cou- pled with other human pressures is stressing biodiversity far beyond the levels imposed by the global climatic change that occurred in the recent evolutionary past. and for adapting to climate change while enhancing the conservation of biodiversity. sea-level rise. delivered to the World Heritage and Climate Change Expert Meeting held at UNESCO. On the other hand. and that spring is arriving earlier in temperate latitudes. Executive Secretary. Entire regions are also suffering from the effects of global warming. The report also identifies a suite of tools. particularly in forest ecosystems. Paris. is correlated with changes in ambient temperatures. and on people’s livelihoods and requested the Convention’s Subsidiary Body on Scientific. Recent findings by the scientific community suggest that global warming is causing considerable shifts in species spatial distributions. is exerting considerable impacts on the Earth’s biodiversity. the golden toad. The recent extinction of at least one vertebrate species. the Conference of the Parties drew attention to the seri- ous impacts of loss of biodiversity on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. 8 . in particular. Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) to establish an ad hoc technical expert group which. on 16 and 17 of March 2006 Ladies and Gentlemen. landscapes. including the ecosystem approach of the Convention. is directly attributable to the effects of contemporary climate change. changes in pre- cipitation patterns. these changes occurred in landscapes that were not as fragmented as today. The impacts of climate change on biodiversity are of major concern to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).

at the biophysical level and at the level of tools and practical approaches. One of the main findings of the report is that the ability of natural and managed ecosystems to adapt autonomously to climate change is insufficient to arrest the rate of biodiversity loss and that directed adaptation towards increasing ecosystem resilience be promoted. including activities to combat desertification and land degradation. bearing in mind the challenge we all face to reduce significantly by 2010 the rate of biodiversity loss in the world as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth. in order to mitigate and adapt to climate change. 9 . The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity is fully committed to exploring ways and means to enhance its collaboration with the World Heritage Committee on this topic. the Conference of the Parties to the CBD further requested SBSTTA to develop advice for promoting synergy among activities to address climate change at the national. and requested the expert group to further refine its contents. and activities for the conservation of and sustainable use of biodiversity. Collectively. and to World Heritage sites in particular.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 9 At its seventh meeting in 2004. the findings of these two reports provide comprehensive advice and guidance on how to mainstream biodiversity into climate change activities. regional and international level. SBSTTA welcomed the report at its eleventh meeting late last year. This information can be applied to the management of protected areas in general. Another expert group on biodiversity and adaptation to climate change was then established which undertook a detailed assessment on the integration of biodiversity considerations in the implementation of adaptation activities to climate change.

Lastly. according to the Intergovernmental Panel on climate Change (IPCC). with commu- nities changing the way they live. In this context. The fact that climate change poses a threat to the outstanding universal values (OUV) of some World Heritage sites has several implications for the World Heritage Convention. regional. But aside from these physical threats. possibly migrating and abandoning their built heritage. migration of pests and invasive species. and national organizations to develop dedicated pro grammes to assess and manage the impacts of climate change (e.a of the World Heritage Committee in 2005. with modifications of precipitation patterns. and following Decision 29 COM 7B. ocean temperature and acidification. work. possibly leading to massive extinction of coral reefs. the present Report which has been prepared following the meeting of the Group of Experts in March 2006. sites and landscapes. sea-level rise. periodic report- ing. The increase of global average atmospheric surface temperature is related to the greenhouse effect as a conse- quence of enhanced emissions of greenhouse gases. the relevance of the processes of the World Heritage Convention such as nominations. climate change will impact on social and cultural aspects. aims at reviewing the potential impacts of climate change on World Heritage properties and suggesting appropriate measures to deal with them. And the conditions for conservation of archaeological evidence may be degraded in the context of increasing soil temperature. Many marine World Heritage sites are tropical coral reefs whose exposure to bleaching events is increasing. most of this increase is attributable to human activities. World Heritage cultural sites are also exposed to this threat. It is also time to design 10 . these impacts will become even more threatening. And. droughts. changes in the timing of biological cycles. Increasing sea level threatens many coastal sites. terrestrial biodiversity may also be affected with species shifting ranges. the conservation of World Heritage natural sites may be jeopardized. The increase of atmospheric temperature is also lead- ing to the melting of glaciers worldwide (in both mountainous and Polar Regions). etc. storminess.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 10 Executive Summary In the past few decades scientists have assembled a growing body of evidence showing the extent of change of the earth’s climate and that human activities play an important role in this change. and reactive monitoring must be reviewed and suitably adjusted. Increased global temperature is just one of the consequences of the impacts of human activities on the climatic equilibrium of the planet. The migration of pests can have adverse impacts on the conservation of built heritage. Ancient buildings were designed for a specific local climate. etc. and if the trend is confirmed. This warning has led international. Such changes are impacting on World Heritage properties. Projections of numerical models show that this trend is very likely to be con- firmed in the future. Increased ocean temperature and acidification pose a threat to marine biodiversity. worship and socialize in buildings. In this scenario. In this context. modification of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. the assessment recently conducted by the Convention on Biological Diversity). The unprecedented rate of increase of global temperatures that has been recorded during the 20th century is the highest in the last millennium.g.

improving dykes to prevent coastal flooding and supporting traditional methods to protect a site from sand encroachment. the OUV of a given site could be irreversibly affected (although it is recognized that climate change is one among a range of factors affecting the site).PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 11 appropriate measures for monitoring the impacts of climate change and adapting to the adverse consequences. Several actions can be contemplated in the short term to prevent the impacts of climate change on World Heritage properties. preventively draining a glacial lake to avoid the occur- rence of an outburst flood. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). As far as remedial measures are concerned. Such initiatives should be conducted in close collaboration with relevant bodies already involved in climate change and/or heritage and conservation issues. and the World Heritage Committee needs to consider the implications that this would have under the World Heritage Convention. the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The management plans of all sites potentially threatened by climate change should be updated to ensure sustainable conservation of their OUV in this context. the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and the UNESCO conventions deal- ing with cultural heritage. The effectiveness of several actions has been demonstrated at a number of sites in the past. the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere programme. although mitigation at the global and States Parties level is the mandate of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. In the worst case scenario. define appropriate adaptation measures. 11 . The importance of climate change threats also justifies the need to implement appropriately tailored risk-preparedness measures. such as: increasing the resilience of a site by reducing non-climatic sources of stress. The global network of the World Heritage sites is also an opportunity to build pub- lic and political support through improved information dissemination and effective communication. such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). research at all levels should be promoted in collaboration with the IPCC and other bodies involved in climate change research. lessons learnt at several sites worldwide show the relevance of designing and implementing appropriate adaptations measures. and enhance the sharing of knowledge among stakeholders. especially for cultural heritage where the level of involvement of the scientific community is currently not as much as it is for natural heritage. Potential mitigation measures at the level of the sites and within the World Heritage network should also be investigated. Concerning the sharing of knowledge. The impacts of climate change on World Heritage properties must be assessed through appropriate monitoring and vulnerability assessment processes.

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and sharing best practices and knowledge Page 41 Legal issues Page 42 Conclusion and steps ahead 4 Page 43 Appendices Page 45 Expert Meeting of the World Heritage Convention on the Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Page 46 Decision 29 COM 7B. adaptation.a of the World Heritage Committee. Executive Secretary of the CBD Executive Summary Page 10 Background Page 15 Introduction Page 16 Overview of climate change Page 16 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 Page 19 Impacts of climate change on natural and cultural World Heritage Page 20 Implications for the World Heritage Convention Page 27 What can be done with respect to climate change and World Heritage? Page 28 Strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate 3 Page 39 management responses Preamble: Objectives and requirements Page 40 Preventive actions Page 40 Corrective actions: Management. cooperation.1 of the World Heritage Committee.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 13 Table of contents Foreword Page 3 Francesco Bandarin Message from the UNFCCC Secretariat Page 5 Statement Page 8 by Ahmed Djoghlaf. and risk management Page 41 Collaboration. 30th session (2006) Page 50 . 29th session (2005) Page 50 Decision 30 COM 7.

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PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 15 Background Doñana National Park. Spain © Renato Valterza 15 .

16 . United According to Dr Martin Parry (co-chair of Working Kingdom. ice cores. Cambridge University Press. • Change of precipitation patterns. R.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 16 Background Introduction increase is likely to have been the largest of any century during the past 1. according to the records lenge of addressing climate change raises an of insurance companies worldwide. mitigation (reducing the emission based on proxy temperature data (tree rings. Group II of the IPCC) policy-makers need to contem- plate immediate actions. for instance.)]. ecosystems and pro- to reduce the vulnerability and increase the tected areas around the world. Kingdom: temperatures are already rising. quent changes in climate. and New York. First. inducing an increase of global aver- (UNFCCC). Changes in climate pat- resilience of sites to existing non-climatic pressures terns are already being felt now at the local scale. the • Increase in the frequency of warm episodes of the average global temperature increased by 0. atmosphere and which is in addition to natural cli- mate variability observed over comparable time © IPCC. II. To limit the amplitude of 0. and the Core Writing Team (eds. because we should not wait for anticipated climate change to happen But the temperature increase is just one of the many indi- before taking action. but considering the importance of the issue. corals. Predicting and managing the impacts that climate change will have on World Heritage is a real chal- lenge. in the United climate change related stresses.T. tion is a necessary strategy at all scales to comple- *IPCC. The chal. and enhancing the sinks of greenhouse gases) is and historical records that have been calibrated against thermometer data) for the Northern Hemisphere. with some of these changes attribut- The Earth's surface temperature has increased by about able to human activities’. the cost of weather related natural catastrophes that sig- ent effects within and between countries. The current rate of which is attributed directly or indirectly to human increase of greenhouse gases is unprecedented during at activity that alters the composition of the global least the past 20. USA. The UNFCCC thus makes a distinction between ‘climate change’ attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition. Human activities have lead to the increase of climate change is defined by the United Nations atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and Framework Convention on Climate Change changes in land use. 2001* periods’. NY. important issue of equity’. and ‘climate variability’ attributable to natural causes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states in its Third Assessment Report that ‘The Earth’s climate system has demonstrably changed on both global and regional scales since the pre- industrial era. Indirect consequences include impact of climate change is projected to have differ. in its Article 1. as ‘a change of climate aged atmospheric temperatures.000 years. The resulting activities’.000 years.6 °C. including species.6 °C over the record of direct temperature measurements (1860-2000. it is now timely to face this problem. This El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). last millennium (bottom panel). A Contribution ment climate change mitigation efforts’. of Working Groups I. but the same report mentions that ‘adapta. the IPCC also insists on the fact that ‘the rainfall in the dryer south. at least climate change. 398 pp. nificantly increased since 1953. additional changes in geophysical fea- tures are expected. because appropriate management and expected to increasingly impact on people and their responses consist in a ‘no regret-policy’ since efforts environments. provoking more rainfall in the wetter north of the country but less Lastly. as then it might be too late. During the 20th century. The IPCC states that ‘there is The scientific community now widely agrees on the new and stronger evidence that most of the warming fact that human activities are disturbing the fragile observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human climatic equilibrium of our planet. cators for the ongoing climate change that is observed And second. as follows: The history of the planet has been characterised by fre. as and threats would also reduce their vulnerability to shown by observations. top panel) . 2001: Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. Cambridge. and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson.a rise that is unprecedented. Change in climate patterns and perturbations of the geophysical equilibrium Overview of climate change As a consequence of increasing atmospheric temperatures Human induced perturbation of the climate system (‘global warming’). over the needed.

surface temperature. 2001: Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. • Increase of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and dissolved in the oceans causing increased marine acidification. population growth. • Change of the frequency. Projected climate change The extent of future temperature increase is difficult to project with certainty since scientific knowledge of the processes is incomplete and the socio-economic factors that will influence the magnitude of such increases in the future are also uncertain. • Rise in sea level (caused by glacier retreat. extreme weather events.88 m by 2100. The total losses from as a long-term melt of the Greenland ice sheet. heavy precipita- tions. tropical cyclones. the North Atlantic.. The economic losses from catastrophic weather events have risen globally 10-fold (inflation-adjusted) from the 1950s to the 1990s. fires. increased wealth. • an increased frequency of storm surges locally. The insured portion of these losses rose from a neg- ligible level to about 23% in the 1990s. risks of drought. storms.g. sea and river ice. USA.T.4 to 5. resulting in major changes in climatic patterns men- tioned above (rainfall regimes.g.8 °C by 2100 in global mean temperatures.09 to 0. The main expected changes as a result of climatic change. snow. Several key indicators are used in the scientific literature to describe climate change among which: greenhouse gas composition (in particular CO2). R. and New York. sig- nificant increases in temperature and sea-level rise would occur. 2001* According to the European Environment Agency. glaciers. a collapse small. • an intensification of the hydrological cycle.. tropical cyclones. Cambridge University Press. urbanization in vulnerable areas). pre- cipitation (rain. Part of this observed upward trend in of West Antarctic ice sheet and a change of Gulf Stream in weather-related disaster losses over the past 50 years is linked to socio-economic factors (e. And even if carbon dioxide emis- sions are reduced significantly over the coming years. non-catastrophic weather-related events (not included here) are similar. A Contribution of Working Groups I. hail). storms. such inflation. climate variability. much faster than can be accounted for with simple Some potentially extreme outcomes remain unclear.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 17 Background © IPCC. but at the same time more frequent droughts in arid and semi-arid areas. 17 . and according to current scientific knowledge are: • an increase by 1. and part is linked to regional climatic factors (e. II. etc). 398 pp. and the Core Writing Team (eds. flooding events). sea level. intensity of rainfall. Cambridge. flooding.)]. snow cover. changes in precipi- tation. The assessment reports of IPCC constitute the most authoritative reference on the extent of variation of these indicators that can be attributed to climate change. These effects would be even more exacerbated in a ‘business as usual’ scenario. there is growing scientific confidence in the ability of climate models to project future climate. intensity and seasonality of extreme events such as droughts. • an increase in global sea level of 0. *IPCC. and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson. with increased intensity of rainfall events. ice melt and thermal expansion of sea water in response to higher temperatures) with serious implications for low-lying coastal areas and islands. floods. United Kingdom. NY.

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Australia © GBRMPA Image collection 19 .PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 19 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 The Great Barrier Reef.

Protected areas with rare or threatened species near the coast. glaciers and permafrost. fishery and tourism. Climate change will impact a wide range of biomes. • Migration of invasive alien species and/or pathogens and 1.uea. as terrestrial biodiversity is concerned. As far . bating impacts on people and their environment. droughts. • Changes in the intensity. services and states: Most of the changes in the climatological indicators listed above may have adverse impacts on natural World • Changes in phenology (the timing of events such as Heritage properties: flowering). dinal directions. pol- • Coral reefs are bleaching. parasite-host.000 hectares. 20 . Heritage • Formation of non-analogue communities (new species assemblages).g.cru. ties is changing because of climate-change induced • Changes in human land-use pressures (global change species range shifts and extinctions. Norwich. ice and snow • Changes in nutrient cycling and natural resource supply cover especially in polar and mountain regions are melting.Protected areas with species at the limits of their latitudi- change and socio-economic change. in turn. plant and • Ecosystem switches following changes in ecosystem animal ranges are shifting poleward and upward in ele. .Small and/or isolated protected areas. and with the help of increased temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Thus. (e. ities. .Protected areas without usable connecting migration corridors. synergies). Doñana National Park (Spain) 1 • Species range shifts/losses due to range expansions. such as in relation to nutrient cycling. are also . • Changes in ecosystem services such as pest control. animal species and.Protected areas with abrupt land-use transitions outside their boundaries.pdf. acts with other global change drivers such as land-use . being impacted on increasingly. BOX 1 • Geographic variation in the magnitude of species Potential climate change impacts on the responses to the changing conditions. • Individualistic species responses to warmer/cooler and drier/moister conditions. the changing conditions. Impacts on terrestrial biodiversity .PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 20 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Impacts of climate change on natural and For community composition and configuration: cultural World Heritage • Changes in presence/absence and relative/absolute Impacts of climate change on natural World abundance (evenness/richness). impacts on human livelihoods. in southern Spain. socio-economic activ. comprehensive conservation area in Iberia and covers • Local. Peninsula. • Ice caps. floods. . frequency and seasonality of • The composition and configuration of biotic communi. on ecosystems. functioning and disturbance regimes. various types of terrestrial ecosystems are at functioning. the range of poten. con- tractions and eliminations. tial impacts includes: Illustrative examples of impacts of climate change on ter- For species distributions: restrial biodiversity are given in Box 1 and Box 2 on p. Climate Change Scenarios for the Iberian parasites. • The growing season of plants is lengthening. Climatic Research Unit.ac. water). • Temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are • Changes in predator-prey.iberia.uk/~mikeh/research/wwf.Protected areas with high-altitude environments. extreme events such as fires.Protected areas with interior wetlands. The Doñana National Park and World Heritage • Species range shifts relative to reserve boundaries: net property.19 for the World Heritage sites of Doñana National Park • Individualistic species responses in latitudinal and altitu. climate change inter. vation. lination and soil stabilisation. Hulme and Sheard. potentially exacer. nal or altitudinal range. sea ice. Finally. All these physical and biological changes affect ecosystem Consequently. including agriculture. Online: www. (Spain) and Cape Floral Region (South Africa). and the risk. for example through .Protected areas with rare or threatened species with changes in freshwater supply. plant-pollinator increasing and impact directly or indirectly on plant and and plant-disperser relationships. restricted habitats or home ranges. including: provision of ecosystem goods and services with significant . is the largest and most loss/gain of species in reserves. 1999. invasive alien species For disturbance regimes: increasingly impact upon indigenous species (see follow- ing section on terrestrial ecosystems).Protected areas with low-altitude environments. Brief overview of the main impacts For ecosystem functioning. regional and global extinctions of species due to an area of 50.

ciers has obvious consequences for the aesthetic values of tant migratory bird habitat. by experiments. studies. Further dessication of the wetlands can be expected in Potential strategies include investing in focussed the region with increased temperatures of between research and developing a monitoring system. 2005. It provides an ideal winter habitat be established to analyse information and assess the for species such as the greylag goose and the teal that risk of biodiversity loss. there will first be floods.iucn. A Report by the Ecosystems. • Glacier melting leads to the formation of glacial lakes. IUCN.000 greater and to strengthen risk preparedness. by artificially drain- Floral Region (South Africa) 2 ing the glacial lakes to avoid such outburst floods. Protected Areas.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 21 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 Dessication of the wetland areas of the Park as a an excellent risk assessment but key knowledge gaps result of increased water use has resulted in the loss need to be closed by experimental and observational of some 100 plant species during the last 80 years. Projected already being observed and this mechanism poses an changes in soil moisture and winter rainfall could important threat to many mountainous species. Any flood of this sort has disastrous consequences for the population BOX 2 and for the biodiversity of the entire region. This would affect the range restricted and locally rare species Illustrative examples of impacts of climate change on with limited dispersal ability and the climate sensitive mountainous glaciers are given in Box 3 and Box 4 on p. The first impacts of climate change on the region’s biodiversity are already becoming apparent and many more impacts are expected. and some time later.20 relict wetland species that characterize the floristic for the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and the region. The banks of such lakes are made of moraines (accu- mulated earth and stones deposited by the glacier) that may collapse when the lake fills up and may thus lead to sudden. But it will also have an impact on surrounding rises in sea level of between 20 cm and 110 cm by the ecosystems: end of next century. Based on supporting evidence ing to famine and pandemic disease.htm#climate. As far as mountainous glaciers are con- region has risen by about 20 cm over the last century cerned. The Doñana for fires.4 °C and 3. The melting of gla- inundation which threatens the survival of this impor. It also provides an important of protected areas by creating migratory corridors. National Park is the most important site for wintering ducks in Spain. • The annual melting of mountainous glacier also drives The Cape Floral Region World Heritage site consists the hydrological cycles of entire regions. Shifts in tree-line are this diversity over the next 50 to 100 years. perhaps 1. result in a changed species distribution. Nearly 20. characterised by an outstanding plant diversity. The winter droughts of the 1990s have already had a severe impact upon the area. however. Bangkok and SANBI.8 °C and reduced annual precipitation of with the involvement of the public. But as the ice of 8 protected areas covering 553 000 ha and recedes. Cape Town.org/themes/wcpa/pubs/theme. water supply will cease to be available. Scenarios suggest further these sites. widespread retreats are being observed and will and future rises in sea level may further threaten cause the melting of a number of glaciers. Conservation between 5 and 10 per cent by the 2050s. Immediate Potential climate change impacts on the Cape disasters may be averted. planning should also be integrated with climate risk The Park is home to 365 recorded species of resident assessment and a coordinated regional effort should and migratory birds. eventually lead- density and endemism. spring nesting ground for African and Mediterranean to reduce or remove other stresses on the ecosystem birds such as the spoonbill. among which these remaining wetland areas through saltwater many are listed as World Heritage sites. of the site through drought mortality. observations and modelling. Securing Protected Areas in the Face of Global Change: Lessons Learned from the South African Cape Floristic Region. It is also important to increase stop at the park on the migration route from western the topographic diversity and landscape connectivity Europe to West Africa. Online: www. 21 . Bomhard & Midgley. and People Project. Bioclimatic modelling provides 2. the breaking up of highly specialized mutualisms and impacts on existing disturbance regimes such as fire. in particular flamingos use the area as a feeding zone. The park exists at an Increasing atmospheric temperature is causing glaciers to altitude between sea level and 40 m. violent flooding in the valley. Climate change might also affect the values Huascarán National Park (Peru) World Heritage sites. a situation that is likely Impacts on mountainous ecosystems to become considerably more acute in the future as the climate of southern Spain dries. climate Threats to terrestrial biodiversity mentioned above also change might be the most significant threat facing apply to mountainous ecosystems. Sea level in the melt worldwide.

expert meeting on Climate Change and World Heritage (UNESCO Paris. received worldwide recognition (and was adapted for the Florida Keys and Indonesia for example). Nepal. The rise of ocean temperature threatens many marine In addition. Of central concern are the acute and cumula- tive impacts of coral bleaching. and the site is divided into zones which permit a range of activities under controls. 2006) HQ. sea temperature increase.6 and lake outburst events and the migration of certain In 1998 and 2002. international recognition. precipitation. 16-17 March. 16-17 March. Paris. Outcomes include policy congruence. 400 species of corals. and communities by identify- Impacts on marine ecosystems ing and implementing relevant management actions. Communication of Pablo Dourojeani (the Mountain Institute) at the meeting on Climate Change and World Heritage (UNESCO HQ. Paris. partnerships have been developed such as species among which coral reefs that. Potential climate change impacts on the land run-off. resulting in coral bleaching is a major threat to coral reefs every- changes in the quality and quantity of water coming where.400 km2. 3. stakeholder partnerships. As a response. changing oceanic circulation. in many areas. a rain patterns are not yet quantified. The Coral Bleaching Response Plan aims private sector through the Huascarán Working Group at detecting and measuring bleaching and other short and implementing a number of specific projects in the and long term impacts (Satellite imagery. community observations) and has change.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 22 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage BOX 3 BOX 5 Potential climate change impacts on the Potential climate change impacts on the Great Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) 3 Barrier Reef (Australia) 5 In Sagarmatha. the cooperation between public entities and Action Plan. Other effects such as the recovered well but a small percentage (less than 5 per disappearance of certain native species. Indus and Brahmaputra. drought. profitable interdependence (see the example in Box 5). temperatures. The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the world’s largest ing by 1 °C since the seventies. major bleaching events occurred in species to higher altitudes. live ‘Bleach Watch’ and NGO partnerships (IUCN. which are triggered A number of effects of climate change are being when the GBR experiences anomalously high water monitored and studied at the Huascarán National Park. Glacier lake outburst floods are now much species of fish. partly because they host infi. creating serious risks for human popu. air temperatures had been ris. TNC. between 60 and 95 per cent of Huascarán National Park threaten a nearby cultural corals were affected. The sustainability of this World Heritage site is sensitive to any change in the following climate parameters: sea level rise. that in particular the accelerated glacier melting. close to their upper thermal limit. industries. listed as World Heritage sites. Several coral reefs are WWF). thousands species of molluscs) and was listed under lations and having implications for the water supply in all 4 natural World Heritage criteria. losing between pressure on certain park resources and the alteration of 50 and 90 per cent of their corals. and 2900 individual reefs). 2006) Australian Department of Environment and Heritage) at the expert 4. research coordination and nitely complex ecosystems in which a myriad of species of investment. Australian Institute of Marine Science Annual Report 2001-2. the increased cent) of reefs suffered high mortality. climate change threats and to prepare an annual Possible solutions include: strengthening the park Coral Bleaching Response Plan and a climate change authority. Heritage Division March. adapting policy and fostering collaborations. BOX 4 storm frequency and intensity. In 2002. Government authority. And the threat is not amenable to manage- from the mountains and in greater risks of land slides ment in the short to medium term. in snow and ice cover of 30% in the same period and 344. Two million people climate change Response Programme (2004 – 08) was are depending on water originating from the National developed to better understand and respond to Park and their demand on water resources is increasing. aerial and field of research and education related to climate underwater surveys. The climate change Action Plan aims at sustaining ecosystems. It is also replacing a 4000 m high glacier on Mount Everest by among the world’s most diverse ecosystems (1500 a lake. The GBR Marine South Asia and the flow of major rivers such as the Park Authority (GBRMPA) is the responsible Australian Ganges. leading to a decrease coral reef ecosystem in the world (2100 km. It is important to note. Such outburst floods in the the region. p 18 22 . Communication of Martin Parry (Co-chair of working group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) at the expert meeting on Climate Change and World Heritage (UNESCO HQ. however. community fish and aquatic vegetation are interlocked in a mutually partnership teams and knowledge bases. and ocean Huascarán National Park (Peru) 4 acidity. Communication of Greg Terrill (Assistant Secretary. and several more frequent. 2006) 6. 16-17 5. Corals of most of the reefs World Heritage site: Chavin.

Direct physical impacts of climate change on cultural the value of this site is threatened. Canada. The main challenge is to increase broad sites of the Historic City of London. Paris. and property against the highest tides and storm surges. Box 7 below). Communication of Douglas Olynyk (Yukon Territorial Government Australia. The reactions. Westminster Abbey and Saint material (see the example for the cultural sites in the Margaret's Church. 2006. D. higher temperatures and increased UV levels.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 23 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 • Flooding may damage building materials not designed to The GBR management actions are recognized as withstand prolonged immersion. to get larger as the tides become higher over the next ject to increased biological infestation such as migration few years. affecting many of the historic grave markers and even actions within and between natural. ‘Global Climate Change and the GBR’. cultural and societal caskets buried in graveyards around Pauline Cove. which requires multifactor efforts and flowing water may also erode buildings. They are more porous and The United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme has draw water from the ground into their structure and lose suggested that the sea level will rise in the Thames estu- it to the environment by surface evaporation. CANA. the deterioration of the per- assessment of the impacts of climate change on cultural mafrost is leading to ground slumping which is World Heritage must thus account for the complex inter. which aims to halt and reverse the decline in water quality entering the Marine Park by 2013. WWF ‘Climate change and World Heritage sites’. Rapid resilience. It was expected to be used 2/3 times per year. outstanding cultural value (Site of Ivvavik / Vuntut / structure) including natural and cultural heritage. the • Movable heritage may be at risk from higher levels of GBRMPA increased the percentage of no-take area humidity. even before its World Heritage nomination on the World Heritage List. However. It is now being used 6/7 times per year. To increase the broad tural damage. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network ‘Status of coral reefs of the world 2004’. see Box 6) Greenwich) • Historic buildings have a greater intimacy with the ground than modern ones. Australia.86 m higher on average by surfaces and floors are the point of exchange for these the 2080s than it was between 1961 and 1990. continuation and • Increases in storminess and wind gusts can lead to struc- enhancement of current efforts. Short and Potential impacts of climate change on World long cycles of change to these parameters may result in Heritage sites of London. aspects. 22). human health. 8. Their wall ary between 0. of pests in altitudes and latitudes that may not have The Thames Barrier was designed to protect life. 16-17 March. land been previously concerned by such threats. within the Marine Park from 5% to 33%. but further events will be such as moulds (see the example for the World Heritage inevitable. BOX 6 Potential impacts of climate change on cultural sites in the Yukon Territory (Canada) 8 Impacts of climate change on cultural World Heritage The 19th-century whalers’ settlements of Herschel Island in the Yukon Territory (Canada) are currently on Climate change has implications for natural and societal the Canadian World Heritage Tentative List for their systems (agriculture. forestry. enhanced by weather conditions in the North Sea. tallisation on decorated surfaces through drying. Also. in many respects adaptation. A number of direct impacts of climate change can be expected to play a role: • Archaeological evidence is preserved in the ground because it has reached a balance with the hydrological.26 m and 0. and infra. salt weathering and erosion is threaten- Australian Government is working closely with the ing cultural heritage in desert areas such as the Chinguetti Queensland Government on the Reef Water Quality Mosque in Mauritania (see Box 8 on p. Consequently. 2006) 23 . and post flooding drying world’s best practice 7 and that the GBR has relatively may encourage the growth of damaging micro-organisms low bleaching to date. Some caskets are tumbling with the slumping soil and are being broken up and pushed out. in 2004. Rothwell. Pressure on the flood plain of the Thames is projected • Timber and other organic building materials may be sub. The Herschel). and ICOMOS Canada) at the expert meeting on Climate Change report for EDO. Protection Plan. 2004 and World Heritage (UNESCO HQ. BOX 7 chemical and biological processes of the soil. Increases in soil moisture might result in Thames estuary is tidal with tides being occasionally greater salt mobilisation and consequent damaging crys. Greenpeace. 7. UK (Westminster a poorer level of survival of some sensitive classes of Palace. Maritime Yukon Territory. Tower of London. the • Desertification. resilience of the GBR Marine Park.

In the case Chinguetti mosque (Mauritania) of cultural World Heritage sites these consequences will be manifest in at least two principal ways: direct physical This World Heritage site is situated on the edge of the effects on the site. management over the next 25-30 years and in the quinquennial revision of the management objectives. To identify the greatest global climate change risks and impacts on cultural heritage. societies that are currently with a massive square minaret towering over the town. work. buildings or structures as Heritage. even if the nature of the routes from the east carrying cargoes of gold and impacts will vary depending on the nature of the World ivory. The the subsequent erosion caused by the water run-off. humidity shock can change by large amounts over a short period of time. stability of cultural heritage is. worship and socialize 1000 year return flood event is exceeded. therefore. in flood result will have a greater possible impact on the conserva- management planning for London and in develop. 9. it also applies to natural heritage properties. to some extent. cultural heritage is now defined very to assess the overall impact of climate on cultural World widely to include individual sites. some climate change dynamics that are not only subject to climate change but parameters such a freezing. Even where this is not the Heritage 9 case. Interconnection of physical and social impacts Many World Heritage sites are living places which depend on their communities to be sustained and maintained. there can be very direct physical effects. The urban landscape and the built heritage also regularly subjected with seasonal flooding with have been designed with the local climate in mind. However. World in buildings. In World in the previous paragraph. This ment and land-use planning. social and cultural World Heritage site closest to the Thames. although. meant that money was available to preserve the buildings from the climate in what is an extremely Interconnection of physical and cultural impacts hostile environment. The wealth of the community traditionally Heritage sites. namely the impacts on cultural heritage. Changes to cultural heritage caused by climate change Summary of changes in climate change indicators cannot be viewed separately from changes in society. The rural landscape has developed in response to desert which constantly threatens the town’s build. sites and landscapes with heritage values. temperature and relative also contribute to climate change. Idem 24 . The Management Plans combined effect needs to be explored more fully and this of World Heritage sites should incorporate climate can be done in the context of World Heritage. as World change adaptation in their guiding principles for Heritage sites provide excellent examples of test cases. Chinguetti’s buildings are matic regimes. or even the migration of. one needs to define indicators Heritage terms. relate to their environment. especially the mosque. The combination of the decline in trade and loss in The character of cultural heritage is closely related to the income has increased the threat from the encroaching climate. Climate change can be subtle and can occur over well as urban or rural landscapes which may include a long period of time. The implications of the The town has provided a trading post for travellers on latter are not well understood. This relationship is charac- The Thames Barrier can go to 2025 before the terised by the way people live. Where World Heritage sites are in use by local communities there may be pressure for significant adaptive changes to allow Social impacts of climate change on cultural World use and occupation to continue. It is home to a remarkable collection of social structures and habitats that could lead to changes Islamic manuscripts as well as a 13th-century mosque in. BOX 8 Climate change has consequences for the whole of human Potential impacts of climate change on the existence and the products of human creativity. the plant species that are able to flourish in different cli- ings. people’s behaviour. sustaining World Heritage sites. closely tied to its interactions with the ground and the atmosphere.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 24 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Cultural impacts of climate change on cultural World One overtopping of the Barrier will have an indirect Heritage10 cost to UK economy of £30 billion and it can be predicted that flooding will inundate at least the Climate change will have physical. 10. The issues mentioned in this paragraph refer to cultural heritage properties. tion of cultural heritage than climate change alone. and related impacts on cultural heritage demographics. building or structure and the effects on Sahara desert. Heritage site managers need to engage in the wider Climate change and the socio-economic changes that will planning processes for a new Thames Barrier. It will change the way people Palace of Westminster and the Tower of London. the scien- tific community uses the climate parameters tabulated on the opposite page (Table 1). the impact of conflict- ing societal values and land-use planning which will also In the context of complex interactions such as mentioned need to evolve in the face of climate change.

Changes in the natural heritage values of cultural heritage sites . which may disturb the metastable equilibrium between artefacts and soil .Disruption of communities .Corrosion of metals . cracking. ter- mites) .Deterioration of surfaces due to erosion Desertification . wall paintings. gusts and changes .Stone recession by dissolution of carbonates acting together . moulds.Erosion .Wind-driven sand .Changes to lichen colonies .Relative humidity cycles/shock causing splitting.Ground water changes .Increase in mould growth .Abandonment and collapse .Other combined effects eg.Biochemical deterioration .Coastal flooding .Intermittent introduction of large masses of ‘strange’ water to the site.Changes the livelihood of traditional settlements .Collapse of structural timber and timber finishes effects species .Heat waves .Damage due to faulty or inadequate water disposal systems.Coastal erosion/loss .Spread of existing and new of buildings species of insects (eg. maintain.Changes in appearance of landscapes .Wind-driven rain .Diurnal.Physical changes to porous building materials and finishes due to rising damp . flaking and dusting of materials and surfaces .Inappropriate adaptation to allow structures to remain in use Sea-level rises .Population migration .Transformation of communities on buildings . and adjust .Sea-salt chlorides to access.Decline of original plant . fungi.Salt weathering .Flooding (sea.Freeze-thaw/frost damage .Changes in water-table levels . extreme .Loss of rituals and breakdown of social interactions Wind .Deterioration of facades due to thermal stress events (heat waves.Influence of bio-colonialisation Climate and biological . and increase in within material before drying wet frost .Damage inside brick.pH changes to buried archaeological evidence change .Changes in humidity cycles .PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 25 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 Table 1.Intense rainfall .Blackening of materials pollutants .Drought .Loss of stratigraphic integrity due to cracking and heaving from changes in sediment moisture .Changes in freeze-thaw and .Winds.Impact on health of population .Data loss preserved in waterlogged / anaerobic / anoxic conditions .Permanent submersion of low lying areas . inva- sive species such as termites .Eutrophication accelerating microbial decomposition of organics .Increase in time of wetness rainwater goods not capable of handling heavy rain and often difficult . snow loading) . social and cultural impacts on cultural heritage Atmospheric moisture .Static and dynamic loading of historic or archaeological structures .Changes in family structures as sources of livelihoods become more materials dispersed and distant 25 . stone.Subsoil instability. frescos and other decorated surfaces . ground heave and subsidence .Structural damage and collapse in direction .Biological attack of organic materials by insects.Wind-transported salt .Penetrative moisture into porous cultural heritage materials .pH precipitation .Changes in ‘fitness for purpose’ of some structures.Erosion of inorganic and organic materials due to flood waters .Crystallisation and dissolution of salts caused by wetting and drying affecting standing structures. Principal climate change risks and impacts on cultural heritage Climate indicator Climate change risk Physical.Loss of cultural memory Climate and pollution . ceramics that has got wet and frozen ice storms.Proliferation of invasive .Changes in deposition of . seasonal.Reduction in availability of native species for repair and maintenance . For example overheating of the interior of buildings can lead to inappropriate alterations to the historic fabric due to the introduction of engineered solutions .Changes in soil chemistry .Fall in water table . historic . increase in moisture combined with fertilisers and pesticides Temperature change .Corrosion of metals . archaeology.Sea-water incursion . river) .

Threats of climate change reported for natural World Heritage properties The climate change impacts observed for natural World 4% 3% Heritage properties were: Glacial retreat and melting 6% 19% • Glacial retreat and glacier melting (19 sites). storms (11 sites). • Drought (3 sites). 17% Other • Frequency of wildfires (9 sites). Forty-nine countries mentioned that political support was 71% being mobilized. 14% 16% A total of 125 World Heritage sites were mentioned specif- ically as threatened by climate change. 72% • Rise in temperature (1 site). Type of sites affected by climate change tioned that they were undertaking specific actions to deal with the issue although most of these actions were limited to the monitoring of the impacts of climate change. • Coastal erosion (4 sites). 20% Rainfall pattern change • Species migration and tree-line shift (12 sites. • Desertification (2 sites). 12% Coral bleaching • Rainfall pattern changes and occurrence of droughts Coastal erosion (11 sites). Coastal and marine sites Glaciers and mountains Seventy-nine of these sites were listed as natural or mixed 28% 21% Terrestrial biodiversity (both cultural and natural) heritage along the following reserves Others distribution in terms of biomes: • 16 coastal marine sites (among which 7 coral reefs). Heritage Centre in 2005 among all States Parties to the • Erosion (both wind and water driven) (8 sites). • 14 mixed biomes and other type of sites. 4% Climate change threats on 46 cultural World Heritage 11% 3% Hurricane and storm sites were reported. Outdoor painting damage 7% Droughts Other 8% 26 . cyclones (1 site). Fifty of those specifically offered pilot sites and eleven co. churches. nature of the impacts of climate change on World Heritage • Rainfall increase (4 sites). temples. Only 4 sites referred to 4% Floods cultural landscapes (among which 2 are traditional 9% Rainfall pattern change agricultural systems). Species migration • Loss of biodiversity (17 sites). • Sea water temperature and salinity change (1 site). Forty-six countries men. Threats of climate change reported for cultural World Heritage properties • Hurricane. fortress. World Heritage Convention to assess the extent and • Flooding (7 sites). storms. A questionnaire survey was launched by the World • Sea-level rise (9 sites). etc. • 14 glacier sites and 7 mountainous sites. 8% Both natural / cultural Cultural Seventy-one countries declared themselves to be inter- ested in participating in programs and initiatives aimed to address climate change impact on World Heritage sites. although this concerned mostly aware. Natural ness-raising actions. Thirty. • 28 terrestrial biodiversity sites. 6 for tree. properties and action taken to deal with such impacts. 46% nine countries reported dedicated research was underway. • Coral bleaching (6 sites). frequency 4% built structures’ such as archaeological ruins.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 26 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Survey on the impacts of climate change on World The climate threats raised for cultural World Heritage sites Heritage properties worldwide were: • Hurricane. acknowledged that climate change had an impact on their natural and cultural heritage. Of the 110 responses received from 83 States Parties. 11% and drought Wildfire frequency line shift). Sea level rise Erosion mosque. Almost all cultural sites were ‘human. Sea level rise 9% Loss of biodiversity • Sea-level rise (18 sites). Type of biomes for natural World Heritage sites financing opportunities.

doubt that climate change will impact on the natural val- inefficient site management. Operational Guidelines). Natural disasters trig- Implications in the context of the World Heritage gered by extreme weather events may cause severe and Convention irreversible impact on geological. conservation and transmission to future genera- that of meeting the criteria of outstanding universal value tions of the properties located on its territory (Article 4). thus affecting cases. Climate change ered in a longer time frame context? could amplify and accelerate major existing management problems and threats affecting the integrity of these prop. ated Operational Guidelines seriously consider the fact that for some natural properties it will be impossible to Ongoing climate change threats on World Heritage maintain the ‘original’ OUV values for which they were originally inscribed on the World Heritage List. geomorphologic and physiogeographic heritage (criterion viii). If a site was sensitivity and low capacity to cope with these social and inscribed for its glaciers. No Place to Hide: Effects of Climate Change on 13. Online: the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (OG). WWF Climate Change Programme. invasive species and.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 27 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 Implications for the World Heritage meet the conditions of integrity 13. Natural World Heritage sites are community composition and configuration and changes inscribed on the World Heritage List if they meet one or in ecosystem functioning (criteria ix and x). which increasingly require the use glaciers – no World Heritage site’? A similar problem may of innovative adaptive management mechanisms. physical and biological changes affect ongoing climate change raises many concerns that are of critical ecological and biological processes and natural habitats nature for the future implementation of the World through species range shifts and extinctions. Heritage Convention have the duty of ensuring the pro- tural and natural properties on the World Heritage List is tection. 11. potentially. Online: www. Furthermore the States Parties of the World heritage of humankind. 2003. in Danger or deleted from the World Heritage List due to the influence of impacts that are beyond the control of In a sense natural World Heritage properties represent a the concerned State Party? unique subset of the world’s global network of over • Could a particular State Party. climate change poses a Convention. or • Given the long-term nature of climate change impacts are expected to occur in the short to medium term.1. resource extraction. making use of Article 6(3) 100. magnitudes and rates. in some ues and integrity of World Heritage sites. therefore requiring an ‘evolving’ assessment of and documented. (OUV). See paragraphs 77-78 and 87-95 of the Operational Guidelines for Protected Areas. armed conflicts. whc. within the context of the World Heritage process by the Advisory Bodies of the World Heritage Convention’s legal framework. The key test for inclusion of cul. while knowing that its potential OUV may disappear due ation. even if The present and potential future impacts of climate effective adaptation and mitigation strategies are change on biodiversity and ecosystems are well studied applied. Since natural World Heritage of the World Heritage Convention blame another State sites are distributed around the world and represent a Party for their responsibility on climate change? variety of ecosystems they are exposed to impacts from • Should the World Heritage Convention – and its associ- climate change of different kinds.worldwildlife. while the majority of them apply also to cultural heritage. which are assessed through a rigorous evaluation Therefore.000 protected areas. in a should the consideration of OUV be deliberately consid- number of natural World Heritage sites12. if a site is Convention11 threatened by serious and specific danger – both ascer- tained and/or potential danger – it can be inscribed in the Introduction List of World Heritage in Danger (paragraph 180.cfm.unesco. changes in Heritage Convention.org/climate/pubs. and the glaciers melt. is it ‘no environmental impacts. however their conservation and management is the to climate change impacts? primary responsibility of the State Party where the property • Should a site be inscribed on the List of World Heritage is located (Article 4). At present. Dudley. arise from climate change-related degradation of coastal ecosystems due to sea-level rise. Berlin. more of the criteria of outstanding universal value and also the World Heritage List as we know it today could be changed drastically. Once the properties are inscribed on the number of critical questions: World Heritage List they benefit from the World Heritage • Should a site be inscribed on the World Heritage List Convention as an important tool for international cooper. tantly. Many of the impacts of climate change OUV values? mentioned in section 2.org/en/guidelines. Potentially. Most issues mentioned in this section (prepared by IUCN) refer to natural heritage properties.1 are already being observed. The World Heritage Convention The World Heritage Convention is a unique multilateral also notes that if a property loses the characteristics which environmental agreement as it recognizes that parts of the warranted its inscription on the World Heritage List it can cultural and natural heritage are of outstanding universal be deleted from the List (paragraph 176(e). Most impor- In the specific context of the World Heritage Convention. their World Heritage properties show already high natural listing as a natural World Heritage property. 27 . 12. The questions posed above are pertinent as there is little erties: species and habitat change. Operational value and therefore need to be preserved as part of the Guidelines). In addition a number of natural their outstanding universal value and.

recognizing that emissions in less economically developed As mentioned above. vulnerability and adaptation assess- Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the ment and implementation.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 28 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Implementing appropriate management strategies 1992) was to recognize the problem of climate change. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological What can be done with respect to climate Advice (SBSTA) was requested to develop a structured change and World Heritage? five-year programme of work on impacts. cli- change stress the need for using a number of manage. These nomic data. ing information at the Conference of the Parties (COP) and grammes and initiatives. subsidiary bodies meetings. thresholds. In the early 1990s there was less scientific evidence on At the same time. extreme weather events. The UNFCCC recognized that the climate logical changes and increasing pressures from other human system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected activities affect the conditions of integrity of the properties. assessments on adaptation reflecting regional priorities. Governments were required to gather and share agement. National Focal Points of both Conventions could also work together on climate The major accomplishment of the United Nations change issues. the first addition it may have implications in the working processes of the being the Kyoto Protocol (1997). reporting. physical and bio. in the face of climate change. it is The World Heritage Committee could collaborate with the important for the World Heritage Committee to establish UNFCCC secretariat on climate change issues by present- closer working links with many other following pro. socio-eco- ment responses at national and local levels. Framework Convention for climate change (UNFCCC. Committee in dealing with this issue. climate change. being involved in the SBSTA 5- year work programme. Heritage Convention and the possible options are synthe- sized in the main strategy presented in Section 3 and In the meantime three new funds have been established. 28 . • that the Global Environment Facility report on support of ify the role of the World Heritage Convention and its the programme. and also to clar. The Programme of work (Buenos Aires) requested further Therefore. encouraging exchange of experts The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol and by using UNFCCC guidelines. should this new management require. World Heritage Convention are adequate. it is appropriate implementation of actions including: to assess whether the procedures outlined in the current • data and modelling. by emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse thus requiring appropriate adaptation and mitigation man. The Framework was a document that was to be servation of World Heritage sites is an important task. Therefore. gases. climate system […] within a time-frame sufficient to allow tance to well managed and designed buffer zones which ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. They were to launch national strategies for conditions of integrity? The integrity required for inscription addressing greenhouse gas emissions with the ultimate of natural World Heritage sites might however prove to be objective ‘to achieve […] stabilization of greenhouse gas an asset when it comes to alleviating climate change concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would impacts through ‘healthy’ landscapes and seascapes. a data base on local coping strategies was made available. information about greenhouse gas emissions and national ment be considered a prerequisite for a site to meet the policies. vulnerability and adaptation. and con. research. that food production is not threatened and to enable eco- nomic development to proceed in a sustainable manner’ The possible implications for the Operational (Article 2 of the UNFCCC). Therefore. to ensure link World Heritage sites with the surrounding landscape. described in detail below. a International conventions Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) has developed hands- on training materials and a seminar on the development Addressing climate change issues at different levels and transfer of technologies for adaptation took place in requires the development of synergies and partnerships June 2005. and amended and augmented over time. World Heritage Committee. data and observations. adaptation practices. adaptation responses are applicable in the context of the World platform and economic diversification. It is particularly • that the UNFCCC secretariat organize regional work- timely and imperative to prepare a tailored climate change shops to facilitate information exchange and integrated strategy for World Heritage. accounting for climate change countries would rise to ensure vital economic develop- impacts in the evaluation. with other multilateral environmental agreements and ini- tiatives that are also working on this issue. mate modelling and downscaling. capacity-building frameworks have been agreed on. The heaviest burden for com- Guidelines bating climate change was placed on developed countries. monitoring. ment. The draft list of activities (2006-2008) Experience and lessons learned on addressing climate include methods and tools. prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the Climate change impacts are also likely to give added impor.

and addressing threats and hydrological regimes and/or due to the other pressures opportunities posed by climate change.ramsar. Conference of the Parties (COP8. the potential for adaptation is more limited for developing countries. in addition. manage wetlands to increase their resilience to climate change and variability (extreme climatic events . there is considerable overlap and synergy and droughts) and promote wetland and watershed between Biosphere Reserves and Ramsar sites (85). Exploring Collaboration wetlands could be lost to sea-level rise. humid tropics. their uses Therefore. in particular under the There are plans to update and to look specifically into addi.3 which was adopted by the on wise and sustainable use through the ecosystem approach. Online: www. Online: www.org/mab/mountains/home. including mountains. 1999. which are also Ramsar dinate their activities in the field of developing and sites. Wetlands and Climate Change. Again.17 and Wetlands: Impacts. could help to fill this gap. The attention to climate change issues is growing in the which are also projected to be more adversely affected framework of the Ramsar Convention15 leading to the by climate change. Valencia 2002) and the documents prepared for this including ‘Climate Change A number of World Heritage sites are also Ramsar sites. adapt to climate change depends upon their current and future states of socio-economic development and their Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (1971) exposure to climate stresses. 17.14 knowledge of wetland hydrology.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 29 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 UNESCO’s Programme on Man and the Biosphere contracting parties states ‘… that climate change is (MAB) occurring and may substantially affect the ecological character of wetlands and their sustainable use’ and ‘. between the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar. Resolution VIII.org/world_heritage. coastal zones and small islands attention is the assessment of the vulnerability of wetlands as well as urban areas. Lake species including inland and coastal wetlands as well as Baikal. Monitoring is essential to look at the will then be used as pilot study areas for implementing effectiveness of adaptation options and steps to rectify any activities that will help in assessing the impacts of global adverse effects should be part of the adaptive manage- change on mountain environments and people. the capacity of different regions to tion. carbon sequestration issues. The sites in common include the tional sources of information on wetland ecosystems and Danube Delta. Climate Change and Wetlands: Impacts. The management challenges include addressing the environment systems in mountain areas provides ideal impacts of multiple pressures where climate change is an circumstances for studying global change impacts. www. Therefore with the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI). by 2080 about 20% of existing coastal 15. added pressure. together change and have limited adaptive capacity.floods In addition. IUCN. 1971) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. implementing monitoring. A key limitation to implementing adapta- phere reserves selected to take part in the initial stages of tion and mitigation options for wetlands is the lack of the project include a number of World Heritage sites.htm. 16. These itor the changes. from human activities. protection and restoration.htm. Ramsar COP 8 DOC 11.org/key_unfccc_bkgd. Ramsar. The MAB Ecosystem based research focus includes that wetlands could play a role in adapting to and in mit- research on sustainability.ram- sar. Management plans need p ro j e c t on Global Change in Mountain Regions to consider impacts from climate change and other pres- (GLOCHAMORE) which will attempt to address global sures.ramsar. www. Biosphere reserves have been used to climate change. 2002. launched a innovative solutions are required. Adaptation and Mitigation. In general. have to minimize changes in hydrology from other change issues by reviewing the state of global change human activities.16 and any response strategies for wetland World Heritage sites should build on previous work. livelihoods and minimizing biodiversity loss. A number of priority ecosys- tems have been identified. The Ramsar Convention rec- Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites (74) and all ognizes that climate change impacts will vary between three (18) and these could specifically provide sustainable different wetland types and overall adaptation options development approaches to improve carbon sequestra. the World Heritage Convention and the and past and present management. are required. Ramsar Convention. Doñana National Park. at wetland World Heritage sites. minimizing biodiversity loss and igating climate change’. Wetlands sustainability is sensitive to any change in climatic parameters as temperature and precip- 14. The bios. itation. ment strategy. Adaptation and Mitigation..htm.org/cop8/cop8_doc_11_e. Many wetlands are vulnerable to as a network for testing ways and means of minimizing climate change either due to their sensitivity to changes in biodiversity loss (2010 target). Pilot research projects UNESCO MAB Programme could cooperate and coor.htm. Everglades.. 29 . The Ramsar Convention particularly concentrates peatlands. dry and A major component of adaptation that needs further arid lands. functioning. to mon- research in selected mountain biosphere reserves. Wetlands are vulnerable to climate The UNESCO MAB Programme has therefore. to reduce non-climate pressures.unesco. The high environmental sensitivity of coupled human. adaptation and mitigation options for World Heritage sites and Biosphere Reserves Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention have to in mountain ecosystems. Iran.

If one • Training on the various problems and possible responses considers the example of species shifting ranges. and further. This group carried out issue of climate change an in-depth assessment of the inter-linkages between bio- diversity and climate change. one of the focus of the CBD includes the creation of corri. Further consultation is Potential threats would take many forms and would essential with the secretariats of these conventions and affect different types of heritage in different ways. in the Great Barrier Reef region. The pilot phase of this project has major concern to the Convention on Biological Diversity.17).PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 30 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Also it is important to note the ‘Issue Based Modules (IBM)’ initiative being developed by UNEP in partnership with This Convention covers a wide range of issues related to UNEP-WCMC and IUCN for the coherent implementation the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Local influen- agement of protected areas in general. these changes occurred in management and emergency preparedness.17). Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) to establish Designing management plans accounting for the an ad hoc technical expert group. although to climate change in all aspects of conservation activity past changes in the global climate resulted in major shifts namely. Huascarán National Park. landscape. and to World tial sectors should also be part of this process such as Heritage sites in particular. This participation would include Links between the conventions management planning and implementation. and the development continuous redefinition of adaptation strategies as climate by 2010 of national-level conservation strategies that are projections are refined: specifically designed to be resilient to climate change. State Party. Therefore we think of heritage in an integrated manner. increasing ecosystem resilience should be promoted. in order to mitigate and adapt tourism (e. 2004) promoted syn- ergy among the activities to address climate change. to recognize the important role that Involvement of local communities protected areas can play in mitigating some of the impacts of climate change. Communities need to be a part of the mainstream biodiversity into climate change activities. ability of natural and managed ecosystems to adapt • Planning for emergency preparedness. global level) and networking dors to protect biodiversity from the effects of climate change. This information can be applied to the man. autonomously to climate change is insufficient to halt the • Re-evaluation of management priorities in response to rate of biodiversity loss and that adaptation towards climate change. sustainable use of biodiversity. see Box 4 on p. If a Management Plan is specifically designed and format- tunities for mitigating climate change. in species ranges. and on people’s livelihoods and their implementation. regional or thematic. The report also identified tools to help decision in the effective stewardship of World Heritage sites under makers to assess impacts and make informed choices for threat from climate change and actions in response to cli- mitigation and adaptation projects. which undertook a • Rigorous ongoing monitoring and maintenance. There are significant oppor. see Box 5 on to climate change. the Conference of the Parties (COP) drew attention bring together all the decisions of these MEAs on that par- to the serious impacts of loss of biodiversity on terrestrial ticular issue and provide guidance to the States Parties for and marine ecosystems. and for adapting to ted to foster its use as a working document which can be climate change while enhancing the conservation of bio. climate change was established. requested the Convention’s Subsidiary Body on Scientific. The of the biodiversity-related Multilateral Environmental impacts of climate change on biodiversity are already a Agreements (MEAs). It is recommended that close and effective linkages with these conventions and programmes be an integral Landscape-based approach element of any initiative relating to climate change and World Heritage properties. monitoring.g. the 7th COP (Kuala Lumpur. One of the main findings is that the • Research to support national/regional decision-making. Level of actions (site. • Enhancement of appropriate education and traditional Another expert group on biodiversity and adaptation to skills. monitoring. The IBMs 2000. In 2004. and so on. 30 . programmes. A strong focus also needs to be put on local knowledge sys- tems and the way that they understand and adapt to These findings provide advice and guidance on how to changes in climate. local. conserva.17). or industry (such as mining in the Huascarán National Park. and with fewer pressures from human activities. then it can become a key tool diversity. The following specific actions to adapt to climate change including desertification and land degradation. see Box 4 on p. landscapes that were not as fragmented as today. and biomes. mate change can be flexibly introduced throughout the document. In identified ‘Climate Change’ as one of the 4 IBMs. p. might be necessary at a regional or local level to ensure a tion. updated on a regular basis.g. Therefore. detailed assessment. development of traditional skills. as mentioned in the case studies on the approaches. at overall process of understanding and dealing with climate the biophysical level and at the level of tools and practical change (e.

PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 31 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 including landscapes. impact. for example ecosystems. It suggests 2001 and the fourth will be published in 2007. Their Assessment Reports a regional level. challenges and responses. sites ships with research-led universities and institutions to should be envisaged in a broader environment and in rela. Managing information. The environmental effects on cultural heritage such as The UNESCO World Heritage Centre could engage with key climate change are transboundary.44) This up in 1988. UNESCO Regional Offices cultural heritage issues more directly. possible impacts and responses. The sensitivity and adaptive capacity’ (Intergovernmental Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). along on sectors. ensure that research addresses the climate change prob- tion to system planning. adaptation and vulnerability of societies to climate Global Impacts Region 1 Region 2 Region N Challenges Challenges Challenges Local Local Local Managment Managment Managment Resources Resources Resources DEVELOP / ADAPT EXISTING MANAGEMENT PLANS / ACTIONS BY: Monitoring. society and settlement with ensuring that climate change issues become a part and the effects regionally. that local managers will need to explore the potential for developing or adapting existing management plans and Working Group II of the IPCC is charged with assessing the actions to respond to the climate change challenges. of the exchange of information within those networks. settlements (urban and rural). usually on a continental scale. set Panel on Climate Change Technical Summary. Preparing for threats Figure 1: Schematic of the links among global. change. maintenance training and considering to initiate partner- buildings. scientific and socio-economic taken locally. 31 . climate change researchers from the Intergovernmental regional networks need to be strengthened and focussed Panel on Climate Change to encourage them to address on climate change adaptation. lems that cultural heritage is expected Networking Research ‘Natural and social systems of different regions have There is a need for more research on the effects of cli- varied characteristics. draws on the work of experts from around quotation indicates clearly the global impact of climate the world to provide objective information on climate change. The third Assessment Report was produced in between impacts. Consequently. and objects and collections. At the very least. p. with responsibility for adaptation being provide the technical. regional and local impacts and responses to climate change No one can work alone in this complex field. emergency preparedness and given the necessary attention. This should ensure should encourage and support local initiatives. such as that climate data of direct relevance to World Heritage are community awareness. Each report includes a Summary for Policy The schematic below (Figure 1) illustrates the links makers. However the challenges need to be addressed at change for policymakers. and are mate change on both the physical heritage and the subject to varied pressures that give rise to differences in social and cultural processes that they are a part of. The report focuses on the effect of climate change Strengthening of existing networks is necessary. resources and institutions. information on climate change.

the Australian Institute for Marine Science. There is need for national heritage • The interface between fragile and very robust materials. Protected Areas.. maximum sup- assemblies is the foundation of sustainable management port is further gained through linking local and regional of World Heritage sites in a changing climate (including impacts to individual actions and vice versa. high summer temperatures and chloride simple and straight-forward ways of communicating the loading). developed and imple- • Understanding water resistance of building materials mented and ‘seed sites’ from where the message about suc- and techniques.org/themes/wcpa/pubs/theme. this issue could occur at two levels. strategies to establish collaborative programmes with such bodies. Online: Institute. academic networks and UN bodies. rain penetration. The United Kingdom Cape Floristic Region. tants at a local level leading to erosion and weathering. 2005. communication. planning and management. media Information management campaigns. The notion that all cultural heritage can be saved when confronting climate change must be tackled through Information management. Meteorological Office. Bomhard.. through NGO networks (Advisory Bodies and other con- • Understanding the effect of wind driven dust and pollu. Securing Protected Areas in the Face of Global Change: Lessons Learned from the South African 18. IUCN. climate change impacts. within the properties and in their wider context’. To umenting cumulative processes to complement events. www. G. A more complex issue that need to be taken to meet [climate change] threats both will need underpinning by scientific research is that of doc. servation NGOs). Centre for Ecological Sciences (India). Communication on • Climate change modelling and monitoring geared to cul. cessful response strategies can be spread. At the second. States Parties and other stakeholders level which leads to severe damp penetration. the South African National Biodiversity and People Project. the due to extreme weather. There is a need support to ensure better gathering and analysis of information to identify changing conditions related to climate change. Records of short cycle One of the requests of the Committee in its Decision changes will gradually expand the notion of climate 29 COM 7B. Strengthening of capacity building is important for dealing with effects of climate change as well as for good com.19 short cycles of change that together can make significant changes to cultural heritage.htm#climate 32 .iucn. regional and global approaches and involve a variety of measures: workshops. awareness in the Cape Floral Region in South Africa (see Box 2 on p. academics. newly developed strategies are disseminated to the World • Understanding the effect of wind-driven rain at a local Heritage Committee. Activities centring • Assessment of the availability of stocks of renewable on World Heritage sites should wherever possible build on materials and the development of old technologies such already existing knowledge. A Report by the Ecosystems. at the local and tural heritage. 19. etc. exhibitions and expositions. Mobilizing public and political support for climate change Developing adequate monitoring where they do not exist adaptation and mitigation inside and outside World and strengthening existing ones will be an important Heritage sites is essential.19) – with subsequent benefits for research.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 32 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage There are several research and academic institutions and • Environmental performance of historic buildings under organizations worldwide18 that are engaged in research on extreme weather. Cape Town. Midgley. audio-visual material and popular publications which link the global phenomenon of climate change to Scientific understanding of traditional materials and the local and regional context. For example.F. cific World Heritage sites be used as demonstration mod- els for countries and other stakeholders to design Information needs to be disseminated on the following adaptation and mitigation strategies for World Heritage specific areas of need: sites facing climate change challenges. where pilot projects are designed. Bangkok and SANBI. termites. strategies (bringing together NGO’s. network is ‘to demonstrate management actions that standing of this phenomenon. it is proposed that spe- based data.a related to the use of the World Heritage change impact on cultural heritage and enrich under. • Understanding the effect of new pest migration and Therefore World Heritage sites could act both as ‘host sites’ infestations. address this aspect of the Decision. B. global level. regional level where World Heritage sites are used as • Prediction of subsidence and heave caused by extreme anchors to build site-based and national awareness and weather. Communication and building public and political munication and awareness programmes. and information on the meaning and fragility of cultural building public and political support heritage including adaptation. Not only should extreme events be documented but also decision-making. Information based on cross-field monitoring impacts and implications of climate change in a local and need to be sensitive to the scale and time of problems and regional context raised considerable public and political guidance must be designed accordingly. First. This has to range from local to aspect of this effort. both scientific and stakeholder- as lime technology. Most likely. and other • Understanding of damage mechanisms and remediation field-based researchers). eg. loss and the notion of abandonment in the face of extreme weather.

the media and the policy mak. • To undertake rigorous ongoing scientific monitoring of nation. responses to climate change can be developed. as terrestrial biodiversity is concerned. and activities should be built at different levels. to welcome the development and implementation of pilot • To recognize that maintenance measures will be tested projects in their World Heritage sites. As far Parties and within the World Heritage Committee. Turner et al. 2005.g.. co-financing or in-kind • To carry out scientific research to develop understand support (e. stakeholders. and knowledge of historic and archaeological materials to support local/regional decision-making and to place Another request of the World Heritage Committee at its cultural values and significance in their social/environ- 29th session (Durban. 21. and the media and public officials to encourage greater trust cherished destinations around the world. ity of natural World Heritage sites based on both scientific and stakeholder-specific assessment of the Subsequently. initiate pilot projects in cooperation with relevant change. The promotion of these assessments by the ate strategies. At a global level. changing environment.’ As World Heritage is tied to expertise in using networks of local entities to work with some of the most recognizable. 8074-8079. 33 . • Observations of damage due to climate change. others) could be built to design both independent and col- lic and gain its support for actions. Assessing vulnerabilities to the effects of teaching of traditional skills is adapted to the needs of a global change: an eight step approach. in order to Regarding communication issues. and may provide a framework for improved coordi. around the world. it is suggested to and support for the UN. ensure public and political sup. From these examples a number of key prin.21 This can be applied to natural and the development of adaptation strategies. with individual sites of varying size embedded in a reflected in these case studies. Here as well. A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustain- ability science. these case studies could be used as field exposure.. particularly if external more severely due to climate change and may require a funding is available.20 The strong variation in vulnerability by location requires a Local communities should be closely involved in the site-based analysis with simultaneous links to other sites processes of investigation of the impacts of climate change and scales of analysis. of information on the effects of climate change on World Heritage sites to ‘reach the public at large. collaboration with rele- mobilize political support for activities against climate vant organizations (e. World Heritage Convention will have a major impact at ciples can be derived on which sustainable adaptive national and international levels. cultural landscape. enable priorities to be re-evaluated in response to climate port. 573-596. Natural heritage ers. be requested to provide data and sites for pilot projects. The vulnerability of natural World Heritage sites is a func- • Proposed/managed interventions or adaptive responses tion of their exposure. strategies lective outreach activities to advance this agenda. a coalition of use some of these places to convey information on the supporting partners (countries. State-of-the-art vulnerability assess- ures could be developed to avoid the general feeling of dis. NGOs. offices. UN bodies. iconic. renowned. 2003. medium and longer-term actions to adapt is to inform decision-makers of specific options for allevi- to climate change for best practices advertising. These case studies should variety of different terrestrial and marine ecosystems also be the opportunity to illustrate how adaptation meas. or provide financing. the United Nations Foundation) change and to safeguard in this way the livelihood of the could be established. The selection of sites concerned by such case studies would obviously require further discussion with States Climate change will impact a wide range of biomes. sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate experimental pilot sites for the development of appropri. staff. and direct impacts of climate change in order to reach the pub. the range of poten- tial impacts includes: The selected sites should represent the widest array of: • Type of site (cultural heritage. ating and adapting to the impacts of global change. develop strategies for those at most risk • Value and significance. The strong World Heritage sites since World Heritage crosses all links between cultural and natural heritage could also be scales. It is suggested that States Parties could greater proportion of available resources. Most States Parties and site managers are expected changes in condition of cultural heritage materials. The general objective of vulnerability assessment • Future short. The UN Foundation has a strong poorest people of our planet. and vehicles). ments provide a framework for assessing the vulnerabil- couragement of the public in the face of climate change.g. Schröter et al. changes. These principles are: • To ensure that the development of education and the 20. 2005) concerned the dissemination mental context.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 33 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 specific. • To design flexible management planning objectives to endorse project proposals. change. Developing case studies on the impacts of climate change on a few Vulnerability assessment iconic World Heritage sites would allow drawing a lot of attention from the public. natural Assess vulnerability of World Heritage properties and heritage). PNAS 100. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10. sensitivity and adaptive capacity to such as plans or measures to counteract climate change the present and potential future impacts of climate threats.

pdf. important to tailor the above approach to meet country specific needs. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. Hypothesize who is vulnerable to what: refine focus Change. The general conceptual framework pre- sented here provides a useful point of departure for assess- BOX 9 ing the vulnerability of World Heritage sites. appropriate tools and guidelines 2. It is also due to the many interactions involved. should be assessed by the States Parties and specific vulnerability site-level mitigation and adaptation strategies should be • Exposure indicators designed and implemented in partnership with relevant • Sensitivity indicators stakeholders. whereas 27 Tompkins et al. 24 Carter et al. the vulnerabil- ity of natural World Heritage sites. States Parties and site managers • Adaptive-capacity indicators need to look beyond the individual site level and develop 6. • Choose scenarios with stakeholders siderably to ‘healthy’ landscapes and seascapes that are • Scenarios should demonstrate full range of likely better able to buffer climate change impacts.uk/publications/surviving. Define study area together with stakeholders and Assess future climate change scenarios through choose spatial and temporal scale. PNAS 100. As An eight step approach to guide vulnerability mentioned. a system. Second.ac. 1. IPCC Technical Guidelines be applied? Mitigation and Adaptation the role of numerical modelling is the projection of future states of Strategies for Global Change 4. 34 . IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations. is available from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate 3. Operationalize model(s) of present and implement regional and/or transboundary mitigation vulnerability and adaptation strategies that reduce the vulnerability of • Apply model(s) to weigh and combine indicators natural World Heritage sites in a larger landscape or • Apply model(s) to produce a measure of present seascape context. For a detailed discussion see Schröter et al. Develop a causal model of vulnerability: • Examine exposure. Coastal adaptation to Climate Change: can the 10.27 4. Communicate vulnerability creatively research institutions. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment: a nerabilities to the effects of global change: an eight step Guide to the IPCC Approach. gies have been recently discussed in detail for islands. a key role of the World assessments should not look at climate change impacts in Heritage Convention will be to establish linkages with isolation.26 Climate change impacts and response strate- stresses and interactions of stresses. 8080-8085. to accomplish these tasks and make • Use multiple interactive media available their knowledge and experience in the field of • Be clear about uncertainty climate change adaptation and mitigation. within the countries or in the region. According to them. Hence.. 2003. 1994. refinement process. spending time in the field with stake. Here. Natural World Heritage sites must be vulnerability seen as core sites within functioning regional networks of • Validate results with stakeholders etc. this framework should be modified (simpli- assessments22 fied) to suit the specifics of a given site.. Most importantly. Illustrating the coupled human-environment system for vulnerability analysis: three case studies.. University College London. ‘Healthy’ World Heritage sites can contribute con. 22. Find indicators for the elements of risk. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 26 Klein et al. Online: www. which are particularly at 5. for vulnerability assessments. Get to know place over time by reviewing literature. 239-252.tyndall. Project future vulnerability stones. steps 1-3 take place prior to modelling. Surviving Climate Change in Small Islands: a steps 4-8 take place as part of the modelling and modelling Guidebook. 573-596). This approach could be adopted complexity of factors. Earthscan. Assessing vul.24. protected areas. London. The World trends Heritage Centre and Advisory Bodies to the World • Apply model(s) to produce a measure of future vul- Heritage Convention should encourage States Parties and nerability site managers.. 25 Parry & Carter. approach. • Trust stakeholders An eight-step approach has been developed to guide vul- nerability assessments of coupled human-environment A full vulnerability assessment is no easy task given the systems (see Box 9). Department of Geography. but should rather assess the vulnerability of organizations and institutions working on climate change World Heritage sites to global change impacts in general issues. sensitivity and adaptive capacity • Formalize into model(s) 23 Turner et al. 1999.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 34 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage A two-pronged approach is required: first. (2005. processes. 1998. vulnerability managers at present. contacting and collaborating with A comprehensive set of technical guidelines to assess cli- researchers. Norwich. and feedbacks operating easily for World Heritage sites and can also be used to within coupled human-environment systems23 and may lie guide future work on vulnerability under the World well beyond the capacities of many States Parties and site Heritage Convention.25 and has been reviewed from a coastal per- on stakeholder subgroups and identify driving spective. London. in collaboration with relevant academic and 8. 2005. mate change impacts and response strategies in general holders and assessing nearby areas. conservation corridors and stepping 7.

therefore the World identifying and resolving key management issues. climate change parameters. and research on how traditional materials and balance the interests of conservation.30 initial les. therefore appropriate to build on relevant available infor. the pro- adjusted for natural World Heritage properties. could also be the face of climate change for communities to interact developed. A Report by the Ecosystems. develop management systems for World Heritage sites provides an opportunity to integrate climate change There is widespread recognition of the need for craft skills adaptation measures in the process. non-destructive techniques. Cit. A regional strategy Monitoring could.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 35 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 For natural systems28 and protected areas. Berlin. and People Project. interpret IPCC data to make them rel- evant to the local situation. Specific high-tech systems and products Online: www. 30 Bomhard & Midgley. Thematic groupings of sites likely to face similar threats such as archaeological. 25 or Reserve) where a computer-based Decision Support 30 years. and construction systems might be modified to cope with the interests of those who live and work in the area. across the generations by documenting past climate events and their impact on cultural heritage. Buying Time: a User’s Manual for Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate Change in Natural Systems.org/climate/pubs.worldwildlife. for example.. overview of the risks to different aspects of cultural mate change data is based on regional scenarios. It is heritage can be obtained. 2003. mov. However. detailed adaptation strategies can then be developed. IUCN. coastal. It will be Regional and thematic approach important to produce risk and vulnerability maps of World Heritage regions and sub-regions which overlay Regional strategies provide a link between global climate climate data and heritage site locations so that an change initiatives and local management plans since cli. objectives could be based on: • Identification of the outstanding values of the World At the same time. 2004. It is important for the sustainability of cultural heritage in able. system failure. Using tection of World Heritage site values and sympathetic these guidelines for assessing regional and local levels land management within the area greatly depends on impacts remains a challenge. mountainous or marine sites. Online: www. Heritage Convention should promote the development • Key management issues including descriptive informa- and testing of available guidelines based on existing tion used in the identification of all issues related to experience such as WWF’s ‘Regional Biodiversity Impact management needs. there should be a focus on professional Heritage site including the reasons that make the monitoring strategies. The more aggressive conditions or sudden climate shock. 2005. it could promote the creation One of the simplest forms of monitoring is that carried of vulnerability maps for the region and sub regions and out by communities and the general public. • An assessment of why the World Heritage site is sensi- areas managers’ as well as the results from IUCN’s tive and vulnerable to the pressures of climate change projects in Nepal (Sagarmatha National Park) and Peru including objectives for the management of the World (Tambopata National Park and Inambari Biosphere Heritage site based on a strategic view over 20.). • Instruments for monitoring environment/component/ Protected Areas. Op.org/themes/wcpa/pubs/theme. World Heritage site special and justification for its sons learnt and guidelines are available. and medium-term objectives for 5 to 10 years.29. aiming to change.cfm. Documents such as in the use of traditional materials and construction sys- management plans should include a statement of the tems. but need to be inscription as a World Heritage site. However. Securing Protected Areas in the Face of could include: Global Change: Issues and Strategies.iucn. (eds. to it could provide guidance on the monitoring programmes be effective. Gland and Cambridge. 35 . bio- sensing to assess biological damage to materials and the use of simulation tools to predict the impact of climate 28 Hansen et al. this monitoring requires a programme of that might be appropriate for World Heritage sites in the awareness-raising about the significance of the heritage region which might be affected differently by different and the importance of noting and reporting change. This will Local approach enable the present generation to learn from the past and to pass knowledge of the specific culture of the place The obligation under the World Heritage Convention to and its adaptive capability to future generations. mation and to create information of common interest to World Heritage sites in a region. Assessments for climate change: A guide for protected. public access.htm#climate. 29 Barber et al. No one can afford to wait for all the research to be com- Cultural heritage pleted for guidance on the management of cultural her- itage under climate change conditions. Using this information. change on the behaviour of cultural heritage materials WWF Climate Change Programme. System (DSS) has been developed to assess ecosystem changes over time in response to a number of social and Risk and vulnerability maps environmental factors. What is now urgently needed is monitoring the objectives necessary for the long term preservation of the successes and failures of procedures in the face of climate World Heritage sites and its landscape setting. Remote sensing such as the use of satellite technology. are needed.

see Box 2 p.org/themes/wcpa/pubs/theme. (eds. A Report by the Ecosystems. both terrestrial and trolled by regulating water inflow or outflow with dams.g. reinforcing dykes and drains to deal setbacks. The cost. with poten. level. Some of the options available are listed in Box 11 opposite. and they might also be controversial when it consuming.20). fall in very different biogeographical and ing system was simultaneously established in 19 vil- political entities. Cit. could cause a GLOF event Natural heritage in which a third or more of the lake could flood down- stream. development some coastal areas.32 World Heritage sites are largely isolated from While the lake draining was in progress. Gland and Cambridge. which reduced the risk of a GLOF by 20%. Regional climate change observatories could provide BOX 10 opportunities for multi-disciplinary think-tanks involving Reducing the risk of GLOF in the Sagarmatha both cultural heritage and natural heritage. with increased resistance and resilience to climate but increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation change (e.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 36 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage • Remote sensing products.19. an early warn- each other. For example. serve to pro. struc. however. supported by the United ning and management. national protected area networks. to construct the system. Reynolds Geo-Sciences Ltd. donors. National Park (Nepal)33 vide an early warning of extreme weather events. Natural World Heritage nature and people for water. The four-year Tsho Rolpa proj- ect finished in December 2002. see Box 5 p. potential damage that would be caused by an actual tial impacts on the conditions of integrity. Adaptation to glacier melting in mountainous areas is • Non-destructive techniques for bio-degradation. Kingdom Department for International Development. Protected Areas. 33. with the technical assistance of in the framework of wider landscapes/seascapes plan. which if breached. is much less than the comes to application to World Heritage sites. Applying adaptive management responses The goal of lowering the lake level was achieved by June 2002. with rising sea level have been considered as options. IUCN. 2005 OP. whereas in other coastal areas. In addition.iucn. lowering the lake three meters by cutting an open tected-area networks to adapt to climate change stress channel in the moraine.Bomhard & Midgley. and do not share common management lages downstream of the Rolwaling Khola on the systems or structures. Local villagers have been actively surrounding matrix of other land uses and protected involved in the design of this system. http://www. mitigation. act as a network hub for relevant information on climate The Tsho Rolpa glacial lake project is one of the most change and emergency preparedness and signpost good significant examples of collaborative anticipatory plan- science and relevant training opportunities to heritage ning by the government.htm#climate. ing as was conducted in the Sagarmatha National Park in cols to building and site sensors such as infestation sur. promising management responses are The complete prevention of a GLOF at Tsho Rolpa being developed and implemented already. 1998-2002 (see Box 10 below). response strategies for successful ried out periodically. in event in terms of lost lives. perhaps different solutions to specific problems posed by climate by as much as 17 meters. communities. a hazard that called for Adaptation urgent attention. Securing Protected Areas in the Face of Global Change: Issues and Strategies. and drills are car- areas. The World Bank provided a loan adaptation that do not recognize this need will fail. The water level of some wetlands can be con. In most cases.31. sites should be cornerstones in such networks. 2004. management has favoured a planned retreat of settlements from low-lying There are also some attempts to design and implement areas. a gate was con- the importance for approaches beyond the individual site structed to allow water to be released as necessary. A 150-meter tall moraine dam held the lake. In many areas. Cape Floral Region. World Bhote/Tama Koshi River to give warning in the event of Heritage sites must be considered in the context of the a Tsho Rolpa GLOF. an expert group recommended Response strategies that enable protected areas and pro. or the will in many areas result in stiffer competition between Great Barrier Reef. OECD report on ‘Development and Climate Change in Nepal: Online: www. Expert groups are now change are available.). marine. limited to reducing the threat posed by Glacial Lake ture and infrastructure determination. but they might not be affordable or feasible cost of mitigating GLOF risks is substantial and time in all cases. and People Project. but it is obvious that the some cases. Technical solutions are available in undertaking further studies.org/dataoecd/6/51/19742202. and experts in GLOF managers.oecd. Tsho Rolpa was estimated to store approxi- mately 90-100 million m3. This threat led to a collaborative action by the There is a need to better link World Heritage properties Nepalese Government and the Netherlands with corridors and conservation-friendly land/water uses Development Agency. Outburst Floods (GLOF) events by preventive lake drain- • Wireless communication adaptation of wireless proto. 32. and energy generation.. Faced with climate change. Focus on Water Resources and Hydropower’. A number of necessitates further reducing the lake water.pdf 36 . veying equipment. To mitigate this risk. 31. Barber et al.

monitoring. also be planned in the context of climate change and pogenic factors as a cause of desertification remains World Heritage. Therefore. altitudinal. such as habitat frag.g. the World Heritage sites and the powerful communica- tion tool of the World Heritage network. Consequently • Expanding inventory. climate impacts and management structure. Monitoring climate. alien and invasive species. details. But few of the existing monitoring measures are tailored to issues 34. Only then will one be able to tell which responses do work and which do not. reintroduction or introduction of dioxide. in the context of enhanced desertification. we must be aware that the severely impede natural adaptation and mitigation total carbon dioxide sequestrated in World Heritage sites strategies. social or cultural environment. • Removing or reducing invasive alien species • Reducing other environmental stresses First. Thus. National park and reserve planning to protect bio- logical diversity: some basic elements. modelling. despite the fact that World throughout the World Heritage network. Heritage sites may be subject to more severe changes in their climatic. Shafer. unresolved. it would be most appropriate to conduct this assessment sensitivity analysis. pollution. Hence. Second. gases. with the even- tual loss of cultural memory. 123-153. Nevertheless. considering the iconic character of and periodic reporting. As mentioned above. it would be Cultural heritage most useful in terms of best practices advertising. as was mentioned in the sections on However. over- exploitation. Landscape and Urban relevant to climate change adaptation and mitigation of Planning 44. the fact that Monitoring and adaptative management they are by their nature immoveable means that adapta- tion has to take place on site. 1999. the World Heritage Centre oversees a number of conservation projects aiming at restoring degraded From this box it is particularly important to stress that habitats in natural World Heritage sites. ‘research’ and ‘information management’. • Creating new protected areas • Enlarging existing protected areas Mitigation • Creating replicates of existing protected areas • Designating ‘stepping-stone’ or corridor protected Mitigation consists in an anthropogenic intervention to areas reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse • Creating buffer zones of natural habitat around pro. mentation and loss. etc. a carbon balance could be targeted moving moveable cultural heritage away from a site. regulating or maintaining disturbance contemplated in the context of the World Heritage regimes Convention at the level of the World Heritage sites. in collaboration with the UNESCO MAB Programme. ful monitoring of adaptive management measures must Although the relative importance of climatic and anthro. latitudinal and topographic) However. But the care- abandonment of cultural heritage must be anticipated. both through reactive monitoring basis. evidence shows that an increase in dust storms would result in damage to settlements and infra. the impact on cultural heritage could BOX 11 range from erosion of physical structures to the break-up Options for planning and managing protected of the societies and communities supporting World areas faced with climate change34 Heritage sites or even to abandonment. areas (e. some mitigation opportunities could be • Restoring. sedimentation. 37 . While it may be possible to adapt to climate change by Along the same lines. and will affect human health and population responses is critical. Monitoring the impact of climate change is obviously an important issue. etc which To keep a realistic perspective. The benefit of mitigation at World Heritage the management and conditions of integrity of World sites is therefore likely to be negligible on a quantitative Heritage properties.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 37 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage 2 migration. a number of World species Heritage sites are also Biosphere Reserves. by encouraging the doing so could have an overall negative effect on the use of improved technology to reduce emissions value of a site. at the scale of the World Heritage. Such activities realistic response strategies cannot be planned without indirectly contribute to the improvement of carbon taking into account the impacts from other non-climatic sequestration and this could be quantified in more stresses on natural ecosystems. there is a need for the World Heritage is probably limited because of the relatively limited area Convention to continue enhancing its work in assessing concerned. The UN Framework Convention on Climate tected areas Change is the preferred international tool to address • Increasing habitat heterogeneity within protected mitigation at the global and States Parties levels. by investigating the extent to which natural World • Restoration or rehabilitation of natural habitat Heritage sites contribute to the sequestration of carbon • Translocation.

vision and coordination has lim. • Reduce underlying risks factors. if implemented properly. They may differ between cultural heritage Properties’ prepared by ICOMOS. 38 . management is a systematic process of continually • Use knowledge. World Heritage properties. starting from the left: Risk preparedness • Representative sites of cultural and natural heritage are selected from each of the World Heritage regions. In many global. • Identify. The process to define a coherent climate change ing the ability to deal with the issue. research etc. national and local institutions. in turn decreas. cases. Capacity-building.2). Note: The implication of this process response to climate change is that more needs to be done on monitoring. and resilience at results of previous actions. assess. ICCROM. The diagram below (Figure 2) suggests such a process. inscribed on the World Heritage List. solutions. is underway in many local priority with a strong institutional basis for imple- areas. At this point best the priorities for action of the Hyogo Framework for practice solutions may be considered. for example in rela. Adaptive early warning at World Heritage properties. and enhance should help to buffer climate change impacts. monitor disaster risks.COM/7. The lack of awareness.) START HERE END HERE Choose site Describe evidence Define responses Develop Best Practice of climate change to climate change What do we need to do for natural heritage? (Management etc. vision and strategy for cultural and natural heritage awareness rooted in a local context is much more likely to bear fruit and successful pilot projects implemented It is critical to the development of a coherent climate in World Heritage sites with multi-stakeholder involve. • The problems which are observed/can be proved as mate change should be linked with the larger disaster caused by climate change are described. and education to build a improving policies and practices by learning from the culture of disaster planning. Action 2005-2015: What do we need to do for cultural heritage? (Monitor. The rationale for this strategy follows vided by a site’s management system. managing and/or carrying Heritage Committee at the present 30th session (WHC. However. maintain. out further research – all within the framework pro- 06/30. risk-planning and strategy efforts including the ‘Strategy • A range of responses to climate change are defined by for Reducing Risks from Disaster at World Heritage the sites. change strategy that problems. innovation.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 38 2 Predicting and managing the impacts of climate change on World Heritage protected areas. research and mainte- nance for cultural heritage than the natural heritage which has already recognized the impact of climate change on World Heritage sites. mentation by strengthening support within relevant lems posed or accelerated by climate change. Responses may include World Heritage Centre for consideration by the World monitoring. As a result the funding ded- icated to the issue is far from adequate. examples and ment could provide best practices examples with very best practices are developed through a common process high publicity value reaching far beyond the individual for both cultural heritage and natural heritage sites site level. regional. maintaining. adaptive management. • Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a tion to fire and risk management. sometimes already linked to the additional prob. to address climate change.) Figure 2: Process response to climate change. and the sites and natural heritage sites. safety. A strategy for dealing with disasters resulting from cli. • Strengthen disaster preparedness at World Heritage ited the development and implementation of strategies properties for effective response at all levels.

South Africa © UNESCO / Norman Guy Palmer 39 .PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 39 A strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses 3 Cape Floral Region.

Experience and lessons learned on addressing climate Preventive actions change impacts stress the need for using a number of management responses at national and local levels. including Heritage List. ** See page 37 (Mitigation). responses to face the threats posed by climate change on ii. Preventive actions: monitoring. Parties may request guidance from the World Heritage and other monitoring processes in order to enable Committee to implement appropriate management global assessment. link support with other initiatives. Sharing knowledge: including best practices. As far as natural considered in the broader context of the conservation of heritage is concerned. ii. Preamble: Objectives and requirements Lastly. management plans. participate in climate change mitigation at the level of the c. medium term. any strategy should: tion strategies at the global and States Parties level is being a. the proposed strategy should address both types of properties jointly. and i. Mitigation** The UNFCCC is the UN instrument through which mitiga- In addition. include immediate (short term). facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. Heritage periodic reporting and reactive monitoring processes for existing and future World Heritage Conservation is the management of change. climate change is one risk among a number of chal- The potential impacts of climate change range from lenges facing World Heritage sites. a. Global level actions (World Heritage Convention): of cultural and natural heritage properties threatened by i. drawing upon the work of the Indicator Group of the IPCC to develop indicators for World Heritage Therefore. Reduce non-climatic stress factors on the site to c. address a range of levels. address the practical implementation and review avail. the main topics that should be considered when preparing to implement preventive and/or corrective management b. * See page 35 (Monitoring). facing society and the environment today. institutional and corporate. The Monitoring and reporting* World Heritage Convention provides an opportunity to develop strategies to implement relevant actions in respect a. Include climate change impacts within any World change. World Heritage of natural and cultural types. However. Identify indicators and trends relevant at the regional need to be taken to safeguard heritage are threefold: / thematic level. Provide information to IPCC and UNFCCC on the f. networking. Regional (cross-State Party) / thematic actions: responses to deal with the adverse impacts of climate i. the main objective of this strategy is to review and climate change. The actions that ii. education and training. Global level actions (World Heritage Convention): able resources. the vast majority of biomes may be these sites. adversely impacted by the effects of climate change. Link with reporting and monitoring processes under- their natural and cultural properties inscribed on the World way in other international processes. World Heritage through: d. capacity building. communication. research. addressed. Given the complexity of this issue. States Heritage periodic reporting and reactive monitoring. 40 . i. State Party / site level actions: sound choices and decisions at a range of levels: indi. to social and cultural aspects. Include climate change impacts within World climate change. public and political support. community. etc. reporting and mitiga- tion of climate change effects through environmentally c. and long impacts of climate change on World Heritage sites to term actions. Corrective actions: adaptation to the reality of climate climate parameters and to report on adaptation change through global and regional strategies and local strategies. within the available resources. whereas climate change impacts will differ for strategy is available in that report. e.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 40 3 Strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses The strategy outlined below has been developed It is noteworthy that there are strong links between natu- after a detailed analysis of the various issues elabo. ral and cultural heritage and the climate change issue rated in the report on ‘Predicting and managing the could be used as an opportunity for the two parts of the effects of climate change on World Heritage’ World Heritage Convention to be brought closer together. a. to monitor relevant b. enhance its resilience to climate change impacts. This threat should be physical. assist them in tailoring mitigation strategies. to the extent possible and vidual. and climate properties in order to enable regional / thematic change is one of the most significant global challenges assessment. the World Heritage community could b. Encourage site managers. be achievable. Detailed guidance on each aspect of the Therefore. (Section 2).

*** See pages: .2). IOC. Integrate climate change into any new or existing UN University regional programs. and sharing good practices. Explore financing options from the GEF. Explore financing options from the GEF for the i. ii.such as by ensuring information. and events. and the i. Conduct climate change vulnerability analysis. and sharing change. and risk management* their mandates. education. MAB. . 41 . Ensure that climate change impacts and environ- selected World Heritage sites is a key step in the mental education are integrated in general training development of successful and appropriate manage. regional thematic management plans. the UNESCO greenhouse gases at the level of the sites. World Heritage Heritage Cities. raising awareness. needed and possible: iii. Develop tailored programmes (including guidance. . and building public and political support). aspects into their guidelines for national communi- tance for developing project proposals) for specific cations. The implementation of pilot projects at ii. State Party / site level actions: a. Global level actions (World Heritage convention): i. including from the private at World Heritage properties which is presented as a sector. stress in the Strategy for reducing risks from disasters iv. Encourage site managers to reduce emissions of Global Environmental Change (IHDP). Inform the UNFCCC of the impacts of climate iii.33 (Vulnerability assessment).PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 41 Strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses 3 b. State Party / site level actions: /thematic aspects. sites. programmes iii. conventions on cultural heritage. espe- International cooperation with other conventions. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Ramsar. Explore financing options. ** See page 28 (International conventions). Regional (cross-State Party) / thematic actions: ing regional standard setting instruments. Build on appropriate existing initiatives of the and mitigation (i. tural landscapes. Identify existing regional / thematic efforts to be adaptive design and management planning.30 (Level of actions and networking).37 (Monitoring and adaptative management). . best practices and knowledge iii.e. UNCCD 35 . in accordance with tion. ii. Include climate change as an additional source of and climate change. in order to achieve better a. Global level actions (World Heritage Convention): (SBSTA) of relevant conventions.36 (Adaptation). risk implementation of site based pilot projects. c. the International Committee of the Blue Shield. Communication. the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). Inform Conferences of the Parties (COP) and Subsidiary Bodies on Scientific and Technical Advice a. Brief the Biodiversity Liaison Group (Heads of the The States Parties need to be aware of the risks posed by Secretariats of five Conventions) on World Heritage climate change and that clear short term actions are and climate change. Oversee the organization of international workshops to improve networking and share experience. State Party / site-level actions: ii. capacity build- ii. . communication. Advisory Bodies) by preparing training material and running specific courses on the impacts of climate Collaboration. training. ii. when developing nominations .32 (Information management. for the issue of climate change). i.30 (Designing management plans accounting 35. ii. i. on World Heritage i. and develop appropriate management plans. and knowledge*** landscape connectivity. Identify and promote synergies between adaptation i. any adaptation measure should UNFCCC. International Human Dimensions Programme on ii. etc. programmes (of the World Heritage Centre and ment responses. CBD. * See pages: . . Request new and existing sites to integrate climate change issues into new and revised management b. explored in each region. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for agricul- including approaches to vulnerability assessment. change on World Heritage in order to include these capacity building and financial assistance or assis. adapta.COM/7. includ- b. Global level actions (World Heritage Convention): resistance and resilience to climate change impacts. Consider climate change as well as other challenges ing. cooperation. adaptation. Regional (cross-State Party) / thematic actions: plans (as appropriate) including: risk preparedness. the Organization of Corrective actions: Management. Link existing institutions at the regional level. defining appropriate bound- aries and buffer zones. Link national focal points of the various conventions and programmes. cially across north-south and south-south States instruments and institutions** Parties. seek ways in which to mitigate).38 (Risk preparedness). i. Identify climate change threats specific to regional c. assessment. the separate working Document (WHC-06/30.

revised.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 42 3 Strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses iv. iii.e. Review previous periodic reports. * See page 31 (Research). which may not have been attrib- b. a. State Party / site level actions: of the World Heritage global network to inform the i. training institutions and among States Parties. such as by developing case studies on best practices and lessons learnt to be shared with other site man- agers. local communities. ii. State Party / site level actions: research institutions on specific aspects. taken in the framework of the management of climate specific training. existing networks. management After having considered the range of actions to be under- responses. displacement of communities. Promote the development of risk and vulnerability maps for regions and sub-regions which overlay climate data and World Heritage site locations. Collaborate with national. past and current climate change on World Heritage mate change on World Heritage sites and build pub. and use of traditional materials and traditional prac- reporting. Develop communication strategies taking advantage c. change impacts on World Heritage. or global c. Collect and document information on the impacts of public and policy makers about the impacts of cli. and their relation with their heritage). cultural and social aspects. iii. the possibility of including climate change related ise at the global (World Heritage Convention) level. b.distance learn. adaptation and monitoring are coordi. Work with international donors to promote research on physical. as it could lead to situation. Global level actions (World Heritage Convention): i. links between research and monitoring actions should be explored. courses. the group of experts ing opportunities. Advisory oping proposals for adapting them to cope with Bodies. and long. inves- tigate opportunities to mention issues related to World Heritage in future climate change assessment reports. Develop coordinated approach to research on the impacts of climate change on cultural World Heritage. Regional (cross-State Party) / thematic actions: uted to climate change at the time of the original i. climate change. iv. lic and political support for actions to address the ii. Regional (cross-State Party) / thematic actions: i. regional. tices in light of climate change as a basis for devel- nated with other international institutions. and secretariats of other conventions. stakehold- ers. the identification of past impacts of climate change on World Heritage. Raise awareness within regional organizations and report. Legal issues agers. considered that when the Operational Guidelines are next ii. users of the sites. Assess continuing effectiveness of traditional skills ii. 42 . i. Research* At all levels. their practices. possible assistance. sites. Encourage site managers to feed back their expert. Ensure that training courses on risk assessments. Provide information to decision-makers. including impacts as result of changes in society (i. Establish cooperation with IPCC to assess the impacts of climate change on World Heritage. aspects could be explored. movement of peoples. and other heritage specialists about the impacts of climate change on sites. site man.

PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 43 Appendices Conclusion and steps ahead Huascarán National Park. Peru © Renzo Uccelli 43 .

periodic reporting. 44 . to the extent possible and within the available resources. international assis- tance. including nominations. March. the World Heritage Committee desired that these documents be disseminated widely to the World Heritage community and the public at large. conventions and processes. It calls for a collective response and the World Heritage Convention. which pro- motes international cooperation for heritage conservation. It is for this purpose that the World Heritage Committee has requested States Parties and all partners concerned to implement this strategy to protect the out- standing universal values. together with another publication recently brought out by the Centre. The very significant challenges which climate change poses to World Heritage sites can not be effectively dealt with by any one organization. Relevant elements of the Strategy are also being mainstreamed into various processes of the Convention. which is a compilation of case studies highlighting the impacts of climate change on World Heritage properties. Further. at the behest of the Committee. the impacts of climate change can be effectively addressed only when the strategy outlined in this publication is applied at the field level. a draft policy document has been prepared on the subject for consider- ation at its 31st session (23 June – 2 July 2007) and adop- tion by the General Assembly of States Parties to the Convention later in the year. UNESCO. It is hoped that this publication will serve that broader purpose. can be an effective mechanism for mobilizing such support from relevant organizations. as well as into the strategy for reducing risks from disasters at World Heritage properties. While opportunities are being explored with donors for implementing pilot projects on vulnerability assessment and adaptation at some World Heritage sites. Case Studies on World Heritage and Climate Change. integrity and authenticity of World Heritage sites from the adverse effects of climate change. reac- tive monitoring.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 44 4 Conclusion and steps ahead While endorsing the Report and Strategy at its 30th session. capacity building. 2007.

PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 45 Appendices Chinguetti mosque. Mauritania © UNESCO / Galy Bernard 45 .

work approach on climate change and heritage structures. Case studies on the impacts of climate change consultation process between a core group. The working groups reported back to the plenary. the agenda. and v . support to the World Heritage Centre to enable some of the preparatory and follow-up actions. Luboyera (UNFCCC) presented the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.37 of various (Durban. in collaboration with the Advisory Bodies.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 46 Appendices Expert Meeting of the World Heritage The meeting brought together experts from 15 States Convention on the Impacts of Climate Parties from various backgrounds ranging from researchers Change on World Heritage involved in climate change issues to sites managers. sites and areas was presented by Mr Dinu Bumbaru The meeting was prepared after a rigorous and extensive (ICOMOS). The concluded by a presentation of Ms Erika Harms (UNF) on United Nations Foundation (UNF) provided crucial financial raising public awareness and building political support. A statement from the CBD was read on behalf of Mr Ahmed Djoghlaf (Executive Secretary of the The World Heritage Committee also accepted the gener. both natural and Mr Martin Parry (Co-chair of Working Group II of the cultural in the years to come’. the • jointly develop a strategy to assist States Parties to imple. The Mr Francesco Bandarin (Director of the World Heritage Committee took this decision noting ‘that the impacts of Centre) and Ms Ina Marciulionyte (Chairperson of the v . the CBD. and ICOMOS’ net- 17 March. many more World Heritage properties. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO 46 . change for cultural World Heritage was given by Ms May mentioned Decision 29 COM 7B. to the plenary. comprising on five natural and cultural World Heritage sites were also the World Heritage Centre. 2006 at the UNESCO Headquarters in Paris. and described by relevant experts.a). the Advisory Bodies. A keynote speech on the impacts of climate was established by Paragraphs 7 and 9 of the afore. The agenda. CBD).a. Ms Habiba Gitay (World Resources Institute) pre- ous offer by the State Party of the United Kingdom to host sented the activities of the Ramsar Convention. to convene a broad working group of experts on the impacts of climate Opening session: The participants were welcomed by change on World Heritage (Decision 29 COM 7B. Ms Ina Marciulionyte outlined the next steps in the process. and Mr Natarajan The expert meeting of the World Heritage Convention on Ishwaran (UNESCO) introduced the MAB Programme of ‘Climate Change and World Heritage’. and climate change questionnaire survey of States Parties. 2005) requested the World Heritage Centre international programmes such as UNEP. Mr Festus such a meeting of the working group of experts. attention of the Committee to this issue. The Committee requested IPCC) gave a keynote address on the implications of cli- the broad working group of experts to: mate change for World Heritage. United Nations Environment Programme 39. Committee. A background document compiled assist States Parties on implementing appropriate man- information on the assessment and management of agement responses. 36. and to review the draft background the impacts of climate change in the context of World document prepared in advance with the aim of producing Heritage. climate change are affecting many and are likely to affect World Heritage Committee) opened the meeting. the out- comes of the meeting were summarized by Mr Alexander Gillespie (Rapporteur of the World Heritage Committee). 38 IPCC. inter. Convention on Biological Diversity 38. ities of relevant international conventions were presented 2006). UNESCO MAB 40 and IOC 41 and representatives of 7 ested States Parties and petitioners who had drawn the non-governmental organizations were also represented. whose mandate UNESCO. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 37. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 40. The plenary sessions were experts from the State Party of the United Kingdom. the objectives of the meeting. submitted by many experts for consideration by the participants to the meeting. Mr Kishore Rao (Deputy • review the nature and scale of the risks posed to World Director of the World Heritage Centre) presented an Heritage properties arising specifically from climate overview of the decision of the World Heritage change. list of Working sessions: The group of experts worked sepa- participants and background documents for the expert rately in two concurrent sessions on cultural and natural meeting were prepared through collaboration between heritage issues to review the draft framework strategy to the core group. • prepare a joint report on ‘Predicting and managing the effects of climate change on World Heritage’ to be Presentations to the plenary: The climate change activ- examined by the Committee at its 30th session (Vilnius. Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO 41. took place on 16 and Cassar (University College London). strategic requirements and reported on the results of the ment appropriate management responses. A number of case studies on the impacts of a comprehensive report on ‘Predicting and managing the climate change on specific World Heritage sites were also effects of climate change on World Heritage’. 39 (WHC). Other relevant international conventions: the UNFCCC.36 the The World Heritage Committee at its 29th session Ramsar Convention on wetlands.

the objectives of the meeting...00 Registration 09.00 – 10. Paris (France) 16-17 March. the agenda.00 – 14.00 Lunch Break .00 Session 2 Natural Heritage Chair: Mr David Sheppard (Head of IUCN’s Programme on Protected Areas) Rapporteur: Mr Guy Debonnet (WHC) 2-5 min Convention on Biological Diversity Statement on behalf of Mr Ahmed Djoghlaf (Executive Secretary of the CBD) 10 min Key issues for climate change and wetlands Dr Habiba Gitay (on behalf of Ramsar Convention) (World Resources Institute) 10 min United Nations Framework Convention Mr Festus Luboyera on Climate Change (UNFCCC Secretariat) 10 min UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme Dr Natarajan Ishwaran (UNESCO. (Deputy Director of the WHC) the strategic requirements and report on the results of the climate change survey submitted to States Parties 10.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 47 Appendices Agenda of the Expert Meeting on Climate Change and World Heritage Special Expert Meeting of the World Heritage Convention: Climate Change and World Heritage UNESCO HQ.30 – 13.30 Coffee break 10. Peru) to climate change’ 13. 47 . Opening remarks Ms Ina Marciulionyte (Chairperson of the WH Committee) Keynote address on ‘Implications of climate change Mr Martin Parry for World Heritage sites’ (Co-chair of WGII of the IPCC) Overview of the decision of the World Heritage Mr Kishore Rao Committee.15 – 10.00 Session 1 Opening Session Chair: Mr Francesco Bandarin (Director of the WHC) Rapporteur: Dr Mechtild Rössler (Chief Europe and North America WHC) Welcome Mr Francesco Bandarin (Director of the WHC) v . points of view and conflicts Mr Pablo Dourojeani in the Huascarán NP World Heritage site (Peru) due (The Mountain Institute. Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences) 35 min Case Study 1: ‘Towards conservation strategies for Mr Guy Midgley and Mr Bastian Bomhard future climate change in the Cape Floral Region [presenting author] (South African National Protected Areas (South Africa)’ Biodiversity Institute) 35 min Case Study 2: The Great Barrier Reef (Australia) Dr Greg Terrill (Australian Department of Environment and Heritage) 35 min Case Study 3: ‘Risks. 2006 16 March 2006 09.

00 Raising public awareness and building support for ‘Climate change and World Heritage’ Ms Erika Harms (United Nations Foundation) 17.30 Concurrent Natural/Cultural Sessions Session 5.00 Session 3 Cultural Heritage Chair: Ms Mandy Barrie (UK Department for Culture Media and Sport) Rapporteur: Mr Joseph King (ICCROM) 15 min Climate change and cultural heritage Prof. 14.30 Coffee Break 16. Canada’ 16.00 – 16..00 Summary of key issues and discussion on Chairs of sessions 2 and 3 previous presentations 19. May Cassar (University College London..2 Natural Heritage Review framework strategy and expected outputs. Chair: Ms Carolina Castellanos (Cultural Heritage Consultant) Rapporteur: Mr Christopher Young (English Heritage) Session 5. UK) 16.30 – 18. UK) 15 min ICOMOS' network approach on climate change Mr Dinu Bumbaru (ICOMOS) and heritage structures.30 – 17.00 – 16.1 Cultural Heritage Review framework strategy and expected outputs.00 Session 5.00 – 18.00 – 16.30 – 14.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 48 Appendices . UK) 12.00 Concluding remarks Ms Ina Marciulionyte (Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee) 48 . 17.30 – 17.30 – 17. Alexander Gillespie (Rapporteur of the WH Committee) Report by rapporteur on cultural heritage session Mr Christopher Young (English Heritage) Report by rapporteur on natural heritage session Mr Tony Weighell (Joint Nature Conservation Committee.00 – 16.00 Lunch Break 14. Chair: Dr Greg Terrill (Australian Department of Environment and Heritage) Rapporteur: Mr Tony Weighell (Joint Nature Conservation Committee. sites and areas 35min Case Study 4: ‘Impact of climate change on the Mr Ali Ould Sidi (Mission culturelle de World Heritage sites of Timbuktu (Mali)’ Tombouctou. communication and support Chair: Mr Paul Hoffman (US National Park Service) Rapporteur: Ms Regina Durighello (ICOMOS) 16.00 Cocktail hosted by the World Heritage Centre 17 March 2006 17 March 2006 09.30 Coffee Break 16.3 Reports of concurrent sessions to the plenary Chair: Mr Kishore Rao (Deputy Director of the WHC) Rapporteur: Prof.00 Plenary briefing on working groups procedure Mr Kishore Rao (Deputy Director of the WHC) 09.15 – 12. Mali) 35min Case Study 5: ‘Evident threats of climate change to Mr Douglas Olynyk (Yukon Territorial cultural resources within existing and potential Government & ICOMOS Canada) World Heritage sites in Yukon Territory.00 Session 4 Awareness.30 Open discussion of the final overall draft strategy to be presented at the World Heritage Committee v .

Peter Dogse UNESCO/IOC: Mr. Bhojvaid EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA Canada: Mr Douglas Olynyk USA: Mr Paul Hoffman Dr Daniel B. Greenpeace Australia-Pacific: Ms Ilona Millar Earthwatch Institute: Dr Marie Studer Reynolds Geo-Sciences Ltd: Dr John M. Reinaud World Wildlife Fund: Mr Michael Case Ms Melanie McField Climate Justice Programme: Mr Peter Roderick Environmental Defender's Office. Reynolds MEETING ORGANIZERS UK Government: Ms Mandy Barrie Joint Nature Conservation Committee: Mr Tony Weighell English Heritage: Dr Christopher Young UNESCO/WHC: Mr Francesco Bandarin Mr Kishore Rao Ms Mechtild Rössler Mr Guy Debonnet Mr Cédric Hance Mr Marc Patry Mr Augustin Colette 49 .PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 49 Appendices List of Participants to the Expert Meeting on Climate Change and World Heritage v . Fagre United Kingdom: Prof. N.P. Ravindranath Dr P. Christian Wild Mr Patricio Bernal ADVISORY BODIES ICOMOS: Mr Dinu Bumbaru Ms Regina Durighello ICCROM: Mr Joseph King IUCN: Mr David Sheppard Mr Bastian Bomhard NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pro-Natura International: Mr Guy F. May Cassar LATIN AMERICA & THE CARIBBEAN Costa Rica: Mr Allan Flores Mexico: Ms Carolina Castellanos Peru: Mr Pablo Dourojeani Brazil: Mr Warwick Manfrinato INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS UNEP: Mr Max Zieren IPCC: Dr Martin Parry UNFCCC: Mr Festus Luboyera UNF: Ms Erika Harms Ramsar: Dr Habiba Gitay (affiliated to World Resource Insitute) UNESCO/MAB: Mr Natarajan Ishwaran Mr Thomas Schaaf Mr. Chairperson of the World Heritage Committee (Lithuania): Ms Ina Marciulionyte Rapporteur of the World Heritage Committee (New Zealand): Prof. Alexander Gillespie AFRICA Mali: Mr Ali Ould Sidi Mauritius: Mr Sachooda Ragoonaden ARAB STATES Lebanon: Dr Mohamad Khawlie Tunisia: Ms Marie-José Elloumi ASIA & PACIFIC Australia: Dr Michael Pearson Dr Clive Wilkinson Dr Greg Terrill Dr John Merson India: Prof.H.

Further notes that the impacts of climate change The World Heritage Committee.COM/7. World Heritage properties. complemented by an additional petition in February 2006. Strongly encourages States Parties and the 1. Encourages all States Parties to seriously consider 29th session (Durban. in described in Document WHC-06/30. both within the properties and Convention. are affecting many and are likely to affect many more World Heritage properties. and also thanks responses.1 of the World Heritage properties that are or may be the result of Heritage Committee. Also recalling the submission in 2005 of four peti- monitoring. interested States 4. 29th session the effects of climate change on World Heritage’. United Kingdom to host a meeting of such work- ing group of experts. Takes note of the four petitions seeking to have 11. to lead the implementation of the ‘Global 50 . Thanks the Government of the United Kingdom ties arising specifically from Climate Change. the requests the Director of the World Heritage Centre Advisory Bodies and other relevant UN bodies. in this way the livelihood of the poorest people of our planet. Heritage properties to highlight the threats posed by climate change to natural and cultural heritage. ing group of experts to: a) review the nature and scale of the risks posed to World Heritage proper. 4. and consultation with the World Heritage Centre.1. and risk preparedness strategies. the Great Barrier Reef affecting World Heritage sites reach the public at (Australia) and the Belize Barrier Reef Reserve large. 2. 30th session climate change. 2005). and also use the network to demonstrate Change (UNFCC).a. the United Nations Foundation for its support. Appreciates the genuine concerns raised by the various organizations and individuals supporting these petitions relating to threats to natural World Decision 30 COM 7.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 50 Appendices Decision 29 COM 7B. Recalling Decision 29 COM 7B. for having funded the meeting of experts. as well as all the experts who contributed to the 8. 5. Also encourages UNESCO to do its utmost to Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal). (2005) to be examined by the Committee at its 30th session (2006).COM/7. Huascaran ensure that the results about climate change National Park (Peru). (2006) 5. Having examined Document WHC-06/30. 6. Requests that the working group of experts.Rev. both natural and 1. Recognizing the work being undertaken within start identifying the properties under most serious the framework of the UN Convention on Climate threats. management actions that need to be taken to dination of such work with the activities under the meet such threats. in order to mobilize political support for System (Belize) included on the List of World activities against climate change and to safeguard Heritage in Danger. Guidelines. 7. Further recalling paragraph 44 of the Operational Parties and petitioners. cultural in the years to come. and tions by civil society and non-governmental organ- to take early action in response to these potential izations on the impacts of Climate Change on impacts. The World Heritage Committee. Endorses the ‘Strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses’ 9. which and b) jointly develop a strategy to assist States took place on the 16th and 17th of March 2006 at Parties to implement appropriate management UNESCO Headquarters in Paris. Requests the World Heritage Centre. in particular with 3. the potential impacts of climate change within their management planning. 2. Welcomes the offer by the State Party of the meeting.a of the World prepare a joint report on ‘Predicting and managing Heritage Committee. in their wider context.COM/7B. 10.1. Having examined Document WHC-05/29. 3.a adopted at its 6. in collabora- tion with the Advisory Bodies. and the need for a proper coor.Rev Advisory Bodies to use the network of World and the draft Decision 29 COM 7B. to establish a broad work.

to be discussed at the General to implement this strategy to protect the Assembly of States Parties in 2007. practitioners of heritage conservation and man- agement. and the Advisory Bodies to dis. made by the World Heritage Committee. Encourages UNESCO. on the List of World Heritage in Danger because of vant processes of the World Heritage Convention threats resulting from climate change are to be including: nominations. including the World Heritage Centre. the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. recognizing This draft should include considerations on: that there are other international instruments for a. corrective actions and sharing knowledge. World Heritage in Danger. their implementation of Climate Change related e. appropriate international organizations 8. including a specific chapter on World Heritage in future IPCC assessment reports. document should be presented to the 31st session ticity of World Heritage sites from the adverse in 2007 for comments. Strongly encourages the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in collaboration with States Parties and other relevant partners to develop proposals for the implementation of pilot projects at specific World Heritage properties espe- cially in developing countries. 13. in accordance d. on a odic reporting. international assistance. Document WHC-06/30. with a balance between natural and cultural properties as well as appropriate regional proposals. Legal questions on the role of the World and the Advisory Bodies to build on existing Heritage Convention with regard to suitable Conventions and programmes listed in Annex 4 of responses to Climate Change. Linkages to other UN and international bodies with their mandates and as appropriate. with the objective of developing best practices for implementing this Strategy including preventive actions.COM/7. taking into account the as with the ‘Strategy for reducing risks from input from Advisory Bodies and NGOs. and recommends to the international donor community to support the implementation of such pilot projects. Also requests States Parties. such as climatic 10. Requests States Parties and all partners concerned and civil society. and any policy document on the impacts of climate change other related publications through appropriate on World Heritage properties involving consulta- means to the World Heritage community and the tions with relevant climate change experts and broader public. reactive monitoring. in dealing with the issues of climate change. Synergies between conventions on this issue. to address concerns of international implication. Identification of future research needs in this area. capacity case-by-case basis. Centre. consistent with the Operational Guidelines for 06/30.COM/7. other training programmes. as well tion with States Parties. and disasters at World Heritage properties’ (WHC. the World Heritage Centre c.1. Considers that the decisions to include properties available resources. this strategy into all the rele. b. 51 . the report. to the extent possible and within the available resources. peri. the World Heritage change. 11. 7. to the extent possible and within the 14. Requests the World Heritage Centre to prepare a seminate widely this strategy. and the Advisory Bodies to seek ways to integrate. A draft of the Outstanding Universal Value. effects of Climate Change. Invites States Parties. in consultation and coopera- building. Further requests the States Parties and the World extrabudgetary funding and also takes note of the Heritage Centre to work with the Intergovernmental report on ‘Predicting and managing the impacts of Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 51 Appendices level actions’ described in the Strategy through 12. Alternative mechanisms.2). integrity and authen. coordinating the response to this challenge. 9. with the objective of Climate Change on World Heritage’. other than the List of activities.

Arab States 2000-2003 Rapports périodiques et programme régional . four papers and the conclusions and recommendations in French) October 2004 . Future Ambitions (In English) December 2002 Periodic Report Africa World Heritage 3 reports Rapport périodique pour l’Afrique (In English and French) April 2003 Proceedings of the World Heritage Marine Biodiversity Workshop. (In Spanish) May 2005 World Heritage 2 papers Investing in World Heritage: Past Achievements.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 52 Published within the World Heritage Papers Series Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: a Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers Gestión del turismo en sitios del Patrimonio Mundial: Manual práctico para administradores de sitios World Heritage manuals del Patrimonio Mundial (In English) November 2002. (In French) July 2005 Linking Universal and Local Values: Managing a Sustainable Future for World Heritage World Heritage papers3 L’union des valeurs universelles et locales : La gestion d’un avenir durable pour le patrimoine mondial (In English with the introduction. November 2002 World Heritage (In English) September 2004 Periodic Report and Regional Programme . 2002 (In English) May 2003 World Heritage 5 papers Identification and Documentation of Modern Heritage (In English with two papers in French) June 2003 World Heritage 6 papers World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 1992-2002 (In English) July 2004 World Heritage 7 papers Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation Proceedings from the Ferrara workshop.Etats Arabes 2000-2003 World Heritage reports (In English and French) June 2004 The State of World Heritage in the Asia-Pacific Region 2003 World Heritage 2 reports L’état du patrimoine mondial dans la région Asie-Pacifique 2003 (In English) October 2004. Viet Nam World Heritage 4 papers February 25–March 1.Culture as a Vector for Sustainable Urban Development Proceedings from the Urbino workshop. November 2002 (In English with conclusions and recommendations in French) August 2004 Mobilizing Young People for World Heritage World Heritage 8 papers Proceedings from the Treviso workshop. November 2002 Mobiliser les jeunes pour le patrimoine mondial Rapport de l’atelier de Trévise. November 2002 (In English and French) August 2004 papers0 Monitoring World Heritage Proceedings from the Vicenza workshop. novembre 2002 (In English and French) September 2003 World Heritage 9 papers Partnerships for World Heritage Cities . Hanoi.

PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 53 Archéologie de la Caraïbe et Convention du patrimoine mondial World Heritage 4 papers Caribbean Archaeology and World Heritage Convention Arqueología del Caribe y Convención del Patrimonio Mundial (In French. opening ceremony and seven papers in English) December 2006 Periodic Report and Action Plan – Europe 2005-2006 World Heritage 20 reports Rapport périodique et plan d’action – Europe 2005-2006 (In English and French) January 2007 World Heritage Forests World Heritage 2 reports Leveraging Conservation at the Landscape Level (In English) May 2007 . Georgetown .Guyana (In English) October 2005 World Heritage at the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress World Heritage 6 reports Durban (South Africa). 8–17 September 2003 (In English) December 2005 Promouvoir et préserver le patrimoine congolais papers7 Lier diversité biologique et culturelle World Heritage Promoting and Preserving Congolese Heritage Linking biological and cultural diversity (In French and English) December 2005 Periodic Report 2004 – Latin America and the Caribbean World Heritage 8 papers Rapport périodique 2004 – Amérique Latine et les Caraïbes Informe Periodico 2004 – América Latina y el Caribe (In English. English and Spanish) July 2005 Caribbean Wooden Treasures World Heritage 5 papers Proceedings of the Thematic Expert Meeting on Wooden Urban Heritage in the Caribbean Region 4–7 February 2003. programme. French and Spanish) March 2006 Fortificaciones Americanas y la Convención del Patrimonio Mundial World Heritage 9 papers American Fortifications and the World Heritage Convention (In Spanish with the foreword. editorial.

org .unesco.PM_ClimateChange_22 UK 2/05/07 11:55 Page 54 For more information contact: UNESCO World Heritage Centre 7.org http://whc. place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP France Tel : 33 (0)1 45 68 15 71 Fax : 33 (0)1 45 68 55 70 E-mail : wh-info@unesco.