The Java Virtual Machine Specification

Release 1.0 Beta DRAFT

August 21, 1995

Copyright Information © 1993, 1994, 1995 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain View, California 94043-1100 U.S.A. All rights reserved. This BETA quality release and related documentation are protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use, copying, distribution, and decompilation. No part of this release or related documentation may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior written authorization of Sun and its licensors, if any. Portions of this product may be derived from the UNIX® and Berkeley 4.3 BSD systems, licensed from UNIX System Laboratories, Inc. and the University of California, respectively. Third-party font software in this release is protected by copyright and licensed from Sun’s Font Suppliers. RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in DFARS 252.227-7013 (c)(1)(ii) and FAR 52.227-19. The release described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications. TRADEMARKS Sun, Sun Microsystems, Sun Microsystems Computer Corporation, the Sun logo, the Sun Microsystems Computer Corporation logo, WebRunner, Java, FirstPerson and the FirstPerson logo and agent are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. The "Duke" character is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. and Copyright (c) 1992-1995 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. UNIX® is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, exclusively licensed through X/Open Comapny, Ltd. OPEN LOOK is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc. All other product names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners. All SPARC trademarks, including the SCD Compliant Logo, are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. SPARCstation, SPARCserver, SPARCengine, SPARCworks, and SPARCompiler are licensed exclusively to Sun Microsystems, Inc. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. The OPEN LOOK® and Sun™ Graphical User Interfaces were developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. for its users and licensees. Sun acknowledges the pioneering efforts of Xerox in researching and developing the concept of visual or graphical user interfaces for the computer industry. Sun holds a non-exclusive license from Xerox to the Xerox Graphical User Interface, which license also covers Sun’s licensees who implement OPEN LOOK GUIs and otherwise comply with Sun’s written license agreements. X Window System is a trademark and product of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. THIS PUBLICATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. THIS PUBLICATION COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL INACCURACIES OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. CHANGES ARE PERIODICALLY ADDED TO THE INFORMATION HEREIN; THESE CHANGES WILL BE INCORPORATED IN NEW EDITIONS OF THE PUBLICATION. SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC. MAY MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND/OR CHANGES IN THE PRODUCT(S) AND/OR THE PROGRAM(S) DESCRIBED IN THIS PUBLICATION AT ANY TIME.

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Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 1: Java Virtual Machine Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Chapter 2: Class File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1 Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3 Constant Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.5 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.6 Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Chapter 3: The Virtual Machine Instruction Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.1 Format for the Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.2 Pushing Constants onto the Stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.3 Loading Local Variables Onto the Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.4 Storing Stack Values into Local Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.5 Wider index for Loading, Storing and Incrementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.6 Managing Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.7 Stack Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.8 Arithmetic Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.9 Logical Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.10 Conversion Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 3.11 Control Transfer Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.12 Function Return. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.13 Table Jumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.14 Manipulating Object Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.15 Method Invocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3.16 Exception Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.17 Miscellaneous Object Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.18 Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Appendix A: An Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 A.1 Constant Pool Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 A.2 Pushing Constants onto the Stack (_quick variants). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 A.3 Managing Arrays (_quick variants). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 A.4 Manipulating Object Fields (_quick variants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 A.5 Method Invocation (_quick variants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 A.6 Miscellaneous Object Operations (_quick variants) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Index of Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

March 4, 1996

Java Virtual Machine Specification

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Java Virtual Machine Specification

March 4, 1996

who wish to target the machine. by translating the bytecodes to machine code. Implementations whose native code speed approximates that of compiled C are also possible. and as a specification for others who may wish to implement a compliant Java Virtual Machine. at the email address below.class file format. We have written this document to act as a specification for both compiler writers. we may remove Appendix A from future releases. each of which contains the code for at most one public class.0 of the Java Virtual Machine and its instruction set. Simple and efficient emulations of the Java Virtual Machine are possible because the machine’s format is compact and efficient bytecodes. • Chapter 3 describes the bytecodes.sun. The rest of this document is structured as follows: • Chapter 1 describes the architecture of the Java Virtual Machine. Send comments on this specification or questions about implementing the Java Virtual Machine to our electronic mail address: java@java. although Sun has not released such implementations at this time. August 22.Preface This document describes version 1. If you are considering constructing your own implementation of the Java Virtual Machine please contact us. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 5 . While not strictly part of the specification we describe these here so that this specification can serve as a reference for our implementation. Sun will license the Java Virtual Machine trademark and logo for use with compliant implementations of this specification. As more implementations of the Java Virtual Machine become available.com. so that we can work together to insure 100% compatiblity of your implementation. Code for the Java Virtual Machine is stored in . • Appendix A contains some instructions generated internally by Sun’s implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.class files. The Java Virtual Machine is an imaginary machine that is implemented by emulating it in software on a real machine. • Chapter 2 describes the .

6 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 22. 1995 .

with support for gradual underflow. While the Java Virtual Machines would appear to be limited by the bytecode definition to running on a 32-bit address space machine. and • a execution environment structure. and the other to the data allocated for the object. Programs represented by Java Virtual Machine bytecodes are expected to maintain proper type discipline and an implementation may refuse to execute a bytecode program that appears to violate such type discipline. which is a pair of pointers: one to a method table for the object. 1996 Java Virtual Machine Specification 7 . integer instructions. and the pc register contains the address of the next bytecode to be executed. Other implementations may use inline caching. and double. are used to operate on boolean values. A description of this transformation is beyond the scope of this specification. This specification does not require any particular internal structure for objects. Older computer architectures that do not have support for IEEE format may run Java numeric programs very slowly. since the size of the local variables and operand stack are known at compile time. long. The virtual machine specifies that floating point be done in IEEE 754 format. Each method has memory space allocated for it to hold: • a set of local variables. it is possible to build a version of the Java Virtual Machine that automatically translates the bytecodes into a 64-bit form.1 Supported Data Types byte short int long float double char // // // // // // // 1-byte 2-byte 4-byte 8-byte 4-byte 8-byte 2-byte signed 2’s complement integer signed 2’s complement integer signed 2’s complement integer signed 2’s complement integer IEEE 754 single-precision float IEEE 754 double-precision float unsigned Unicode character The virtual machine data types include the basic data types of the Java language: Nearly all Java type checking is done at compile time. respectively The virtual machine doesn’t have separate instructions for boolean types. Other virtual machine data types include: object returnAddress // 4-byte reference to a Java object // 4 bytes. rather than method table dispatch. referenced by a vars register. • an operand stack. including integer returns. used with jsr/ret/jsr_w/ret_w instructions Note: Java arrays are treated as objects. fadd. referenced by a frame register. byte arrays are used for arrays of boolean. for example. whose types are int. and dadd instructions each add two numbers. ladd.2 Registers At any point the virtual machine is executing the code of a single method. February 29. such methods are likely to be faster on hardware that is emerging between now and the year 2000. and the size of the execution environment structure is well-known to the interpreter. float. Intead. referenced by an optop register. the bytecodes that operate on primitive values indicate the types of the operands so that. 1. Data of the primitive types shown above need not be tagged by the hardware to allow execution of Java. the iadd.1 Java Virtual Machine Architecture 1. All of this space can be allocated at once. In our implementation an object reference is to a handle. Instead. All of these registers are 32 bits wide.

and exception propagation.. value1 and value2 are popped from the stack and replaced by value3. added... Instructions are provided to load the values of local variables onto the operand stack and store values from the operand stack into local variables. Local variables are all 32 bits wide. and result in a single operand that can be used by the nesting computation. represented by an ellipsis. 1. This restriction is enforced. normal method returns. The types long and double take two 32-bit words on the operand stack: Stack: . as well as to supply parameters for operations and save operation results. value2 => . We chose a stack organization so that it would be easy to emulate the machine efficiently on machines with few or irregular registers such as the Intel 486. The class file code for a method refers to methods to be called and variables to be accessed symbolically. Thus: Stack: . Both integers are popped from the stack. and their sum pushed back onto the operand stack.4 The Operand Stack The machine instructions all take operands from an operand stack. for example. the iadd instruction adds two integers together. The remainder of the stack... As a result of the execution of the instruction. is unaffected by the instruction’s execution. Subcomputations may be nested on the operand stack. and each 32-bit word separately represented. in support of dynamic linking of the method code. Each primitive data type has specialized instructions that know how to operate on operands of that type. pushed there by previous instructions. except for long and double. It is used to pass parameters to methods and receive method results. which has been calculated by the instruction. It is illegal... 1. operate on them. It expects that the integers to be added are the top two words on the operand stack.3 Local Variables Each Java method uses a fixed-sized set of local variables. value3 shows an operation that begins by having value2 on top of the stack with value1 just beneath it. For example. => . a local variable with index n containing a double precision float actually occupies storage at indices n and n+1. Implementors are free to decide the appropriate way to divide long integers and double precision floats into two words. In our description of the virtual machine instructions below..1.1 Dynamic Linking The execution environment contains references to the interpreter symbol table for the current method and current class. Dynamic linking translates these symbolic 8 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 7. and return results to the stack.5 Execution Environment The information contained in the execution environment is used to do dynamic linking. However. by the bytecode verifier. Long integers and double precision floats are considered to take up two local variables but are addressed by the index of the first local variable.. 1.. the effect of an instruction’s execution on the operand stack is represented textually. Operands must be operated on by operators appropriate to their type.5. in the Sun implementation.. The operand stack is 32 bits wide. value-word2 This specification does not say how the two words are selected from the 64-bit long or double value. They are addressed as word offsets from the vars register. value1. (For example. it is only necessary that a particular implementation be internally consistent. a small number of operations (the dup opcodes and swap) operate on runtime data areas as raw values of a given width without regard to type. Each operand requires a single location on the stack. value-word1. 1995 . with the stack growing from left to right.) The virtual machine specification does not require 64-bit values in local variables to be 64-bit aligned. which require two locations. to push two ints and then treat them as a long.

3 Exception and Error Propagation An exceptional condition. loading classes as necessary to resolve as-yet-undefined symbols. Java does not presuppose any particular kind of garbage collection. such as a reference through a null pointer.6 Garbage Collected Heap The Java heap is the runtime data area from which class instances (objects) are allocated. as though the exception had just occurred in this caller. • An exception matches a catch clause if the instruction that caused the exception is in the appropriate instruction range. When an exception occurs: • A list of catch clauses associated with the current method is examined. Because Java code is structured. various algorithms may be used depending on system requirements.stop. can be searched in linear order to find the proper (innermost containing applicable) exception handler for an exception occuring at that program counter value.method calls into actual method calls. and has the address of the code to handle it.2 Normal Method Returns If execution of the current method completes normally. for any possible program counter value. 1. from another thread. If no handler is found. The Java language is designed to be garbage collected — it does not give the programmer the ability to deallocate objects explicitly. the system branches to the specified handler. such as is thrown by Thread. then a value is returned to the calling method. Each catch clause describes the instruction range for which it is active. • a run-time error. the process is repeated until all the nested catch clauses of the current method have been exhausted. This late binding of the methods and variables makes changes in other classes that a method uses less likely to break this code. • If there is no matching catch clause then the current method is said to have as its outcome the uncaught exception. • the program using a throw statement. February 29. If a matching catch clause is found.4 Additional Information The execution environment may be extended with additional implementation-specific information. such as debugging information. may arise in a program because of: • a dynamic linkage failure. 1. and the propagation of the exception continues. • an asynchronous event. The execution environment is used in this case to restore the registers of the caller. it is always possible to sort all the exception handlers for one method into a single list that. and translates variable accesses into appropriate offsets in storage structures associated with the runtime location of these variables.5. which are subclasses of Throwable. 1. The execution state of the method that called this method is restored from the execution environment. • The order of the catch clauses in the list is important.5. known in Java as an Error or Exception. This occurs when the calling method executes a return instruction appropriate to the return type. Execution then continues in the calling method’s execution environment. such as a failure to find a needed class file. The virtual machine execution continues at the first matching catch clause. and the exception type is a subtype of the type of exception that the catch clause handles. with the program counter of the caller appropriately incremented to skip the method call instruction. 1.5. describes the type of exception that it is to handle. 1996 Java Virtual Machine Specification 9 .

a 16-bit parameter is stored as two bytes whose value is: first_byte * 256 + second_byte The bytecode instruction stream is only byte-aligned. then it is stored in big-endian order — high order byte first. 1. method code is not part of the garbage-collected heap. Besides this limit. although this is planned for a future release. The number and size of the additional operands is determined by the opcode. It stores method code (compiled Java code) and symbol tables. and zero or more operands supplying parameters or data that will be used by the operation. In the current Java implementation. This may be fixed for 1. the line number table. and the local variable table. These decisions keep the virtual machine code for a compiled Java program compact and reflect a conscious bias in favor of compactness at some possible cost in performance. the only other limitation of note is that the number of words of arguments in a method call is limited to 255.9 Limitations The per-class constant pool has a maximum of 65535 entries. This acts as an internal limit on the total complexity of a single class. 10 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 7. Many instructions have no operands and consist only of an opcode.8 The Java Instruction Set An instruction in the Java instruction set consists of a one-byte opcode specifying the operation to be performed. If an additional operand is more than one byte in size. 1.1. The amount of code per method is limited to 65535 bytes by the sizes of the indices in the code in the exception table. The inner loop of the virtual machine execution is effectively: do { fetch an opcode byte execute an action depending on the value of the opcode } while (there is more to do). 1995 . which force alignment to a 4-byte boundary within their instructions.7 Method Area The method area is analogous to the store for compiled code in conventional languages or the text segment in a UNIX process.0beta2. For example. with the exception being the tableswitch and lookupswitch instructions.

which are read by method such as readUnsignedByte. u2 interfaces_count. cp_info constant_pool[constant_pool_count . often of variable sized elements are called tables and are commonplace in these structures. Each class file contains the compiled version of either a Java class or a Java interface. u2 super_class. u2 methods_count. major_version These fields contain the version number of the Java compiler that produced this class file. u2 interfaces[interfaces_count].DataOutput interfaces. The class file format is described here using a structure notation. two-.2 Class File Format This chapter documents the Java class (. attribute_info attributes[attribute_count]. where the high bytes come first. respectively. field_info fields[fields_count]. or four-byte quantity. u2 attributes_count. The types u1. All 16-bit and 32-bit quantities are constructed by reading in two or four 8-bit bytes. and classes such as java. This format is supported by the Java java. The bytes are joined together in network (big-endian) order. readUnsignedShort and readInt of the java. A Java class file consists of a stream of 8-bit bytes.DataInputStream and java. and u4 mean an unsigned one-. u2 this_class.io.io. u2 fields_count. method_info methods[methods_count].DataInput and java.1 Format ClassFile { u4 magic. If the minor version number is December 6. Variable size arrays. respectively. Compliant Java interpreters must be capable of dealing with all class files that conform to the following specification. u2. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 11 . u2 access_flags. Successive fields in the structure appear in the external representation without padding or alignment. u2 minor_version.io. minor_version.1].io.DataOutputStream. 2.io.class) file format. An implementation of the virtual machine will normally support some range of minor version numbers 0-n of a particular major version number. u2 constant_pool_count. u2 major_version. } The following pseudo-structure gives a top-level description of the format of a class file: magic This field must have the value 0xCAFEBABE.DataInput interface.

12 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6. Here is the encoding: Flag Name ACC_PUBLIC ACC_PRIVATE ACC_PROTECTED ACC_STATIC ACC_FINAL ACC_SYNCHRONIZED ACC_VOLATILE ACC_TRANSIENT ACC_NATIVE ACC_INTERFACE ACC_ABSTRACT Value 0x0001 0x0002 0x0004 0x0008 0x0010 0x0020 0x0040 0x0080 0x0100 0x0200 0x0400 Meaning Visible to everyone Visible only to the defining class Visible to subclasses Variable or method is static No further subclassing. or assignment after initialization Wrap use in monitor lock Can’t cache Not to be written or read by a persistent object manager Implemented in a language other than Java Is an interface No body provided Used By Class. A change of the major version number indicates a major incompatible change. overriding. class names. as described in section 2. Method this_class This field is an index into the constant pool. Method. whose format is given by the first ‘‘tag’’ byte. constant_pool The constant pool is an table of values. and field declarations. Method. Each of the constant_pool entries 1 through constant_pool_count-1 is a variablelength entry. constant_pool[this_class] must be a CONSTANT_class. 1995 . The same encoding is used on similar fields in field_info and method_info as described below. The current major version number is 45. These values are the various string constants. Variable Method Variable Variable Method Class Class. Variable Method. one that requires a different virtual machine that may not support the old major version in any way. constant_pool[0] is always unused by the compiler. access_flags This field contains a mask of up to sixteen modifiers used with class. but it is possible to make a new virtual machine which can run versions up to n+1. the current minor version number is 3. method. field names. Variable Class.incremented the new code won’t run on the old virtual machines. constant_pool_count This field indicates the number of entries in the constant pool in the class file. and others that are referred to by the class structure or by the code. Variable Method. Variable Method. and may be used by an implementation for any purpose.3.

fields Each value in this table is a more complete description of a field in the class. methods_count This field indicates the number of methods.super_class This field is an index into the constant pool. If the value of super_class is zero.5 for more information on the method_info structure. then constant_pool[interfaces[i]] must be an interface that this class implements.lang. See section 2. the only class attribute recognized is the “SourceFile” attribute. where 0 <= i < interfaces_count). Currently. both static and dynamic.4 for more information on the field_info structure. then constant_pool[super_class] must be a class. See section 2. If the value of super_class is nonzero. field or array. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 13 . It does not include those instance variables that are accessible from this class but are inherited from superclasses. defined by this class. It does not include inherited methods. interfaces_count This field gives the number of interfaces that this class implements. See section 2. This table only includes those methods that are explicitly defined by this class. and gives the index of this class’s superclass in the constant pool. both static and dynamic. 2. interfaces Each value in this table is an index into the constant pool. Question: How could one of these entries ever be 0? fields_count This field gives the number of instance variables. If an table value is nonzero (interfaces[i] != 0.2 Signatures A signature is a string representing a type of a method. which indicates the name of the source file from which this class file was compiled. and it has no superclass. defined by this class. attributes A class can have any number of optional attributes associated with it. then the class being defined must be java.6 for more information on the attribute_info structure.Object. December 6. attributes_count This field indicates the number of additional attributes about this class. methods Each value in this table is a more complete description of a method in the class. The fields table includes only those variables that are defined explicitly by this class.

It is a series of bytes in the following grammar: <return_signature> ::= <field_type> | V The character V indicates that the method returns no value. and the value that it returns. the signature indicates the type of the return value. signed byte character double precision IEEE float single precision IEEE float integer long integer an object of the given class signed short true or false array A return-type signature represents the return value from a method. S Z [<field sig> byte char double float int long .. An argument signature represents an argument passed to a method: <argument_signature> ::= <field_type> A method signature represents the arguments that the method expects. <method_signature> ::= (<arguments_signature>) <return_signature> <arguments_signature>::= <argument_signature>* 14 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6. Otherwise. It is a series of bytes generated by the following grammar: <field_signature> <field_type> <base_type> <object_type> <array_type> <optional_size> ::= <field_type> ::= <base_type>|<object_type>|<array_type> ::= B|C|D|F|I|J|S|Z ::= L<fullclassname>. short boolean . ::= [<optional_size><field_type> ::= [0-9]* The meaning of the base types is as follows: B C D F I J L<fullclassname>.The field signature represents the value of an argument to a function or the value of a variable. 1995 ....

3." 2. December 6. methods. and interface methods are represented by similar structures. Constant Type CONSTANT_Class CONSTANT_Fieldref CONSTANT_Methodref CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref CONSTANT_String CONSTANT_Integer CONSTANT_Float CONSTANT_Long CONSTANT_Double CONSTANT_NameAndType CONSTANT_Utf8 CONSTANT_Unicode Value 7 9 10 11 8 3 4 5 6 12 1 2 Each tag byte is then followed by one or more bytes giving more information about the specific constant.3. In this case.1 CONSTANT_Class CONSTANT_Class_info { u1 tag. the name of the class is its signature.lang. } CONSTANT_Class is used to represent a class or an interface. the opcodes anewarray and multianewarray can reference array “classes” via CONSTANT_Class items in the constant pool. The table below lists the valid tags and their values. the class name for int[][] is [[I The class name for Thread[] is "[Ljava.3 Constant Pool Each item in the constant pool begins with a 1-byte tag:.Methodref. 2. For example. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 15 .2. u2 name_index.Thread.InterfaceMethodref} Fields. tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_Class name_index constant_pool[name_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 giving the string name of the class.2 CONSTANT_{Fieldref. Because arrays are objects.

For CONSTANT_Fieldref and CONSTANT_Methodref. } CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref_info { u1 tag. u2 name_and_type_index. u2 name_and_type_index. } CONSTANT_Methodref_info { u1 tag. the item must be an interface which purports to implement the given method. the CONSTANT_Class item must be an actual class. } tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_Fieldref.3 CONSTANT_String CONSTANT_String_info { u1 tag. 1995 . } CONSTANT_String is used to represent constant objects of the built-in type String. 2. or CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref. u2 class_index. For CONSTANT_InterfaceMethodref. u2 class_index. u2 name_and_type_index. name_and_type_index constant_pool[name_and_type_index] will be an entry of type CONSTANT_NameAndType. tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_String string_index constant_pool[string_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the value to which the String object is initialized. 16 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6.CONSTANT_Fieldref_info { u1 tag.3.3. u2 class_index. This constant pool entry indicates the name and signature of the field or method. class_index constant_pool[class_index] will be an entry of type CONSTANT_Class giving the name of the class or interface containing the field or method. 2.4 CONSTANT_Integer and CONSTANT_Float CONSTANT_Integer and CONSTANT_Float represent four-byte constants. CONSTANT_Methodref. u2 string_index.

then the next item will be numbered n+2. u4 bytes. For CONSTANT_Double. u4 bytes. u4 low_bytes.6 CONSTANT_NameAndType CONSTANT_NameAndType_info { u1 tag. 2. } CONSTANT_Long and CONSTANT_Double represent eight-byte constants. All eight-byte constants take up two spots in the constant pool. } CONSTANT_Float_info { u1 tag. These bytes are in network (high byte first) order. tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_Long or CONSTANT_Double. u2 name_index. tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_NameAndType.5 CONSTANT_Long and CONSTANT_Double CONSTANT_Long_info { u1 tag. 2. } CONSTANT_Double_info { u1 tag.3. the 64-bit value. u4 high_bytes. If this is the nth item in the constant pool. they are the IEEE 754 standard representation of the floating point value. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 17 . high_bytes and low_bytes together represent the standard IEEE 754 representation of the double-precision floating point number.3. For floats. the 64-bit value is (high_bytes << 32) + low_bytes. } CONSTANT_NameAndType is used to represent a field or method. December 6. without indicating which class it belongs to.CONSTANT_Integer_info { u1 tag. high_bytes. u4 high_bytes. low_bytes For CONSTANT_Long. u4 low_bytes. } tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_Integer or CONSTANT_Float bytes For integers. the four bytes are the integer value. u2 signature_index.

Second. so that our strings never have embedded nulls. These strings are not null terminated. signature_index constant_pool[signature_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the signature of the field or method. First. } tag The tag will have the value CONSTANT_Utf8 or CONSTANT_Unicode. CONSTANT_Utf8 strings are “encoded” so that strings containing only non-null ASCII characters. the null byte (0x00) is encoded in two-byte format rather than one-byte.7 CONSTANT_Utf8 and CONSTANT_Unicode CONSTANT_Utf8 and CONSTANT_Unicode are used to represent constant string values. u1 bytes[length]. only the one-byte. bytes The actual bytes of the string. can be represented using only one byte per character. 2. 1995 . u2 length. We do not recognize the longer formats. length The number of bytes in the string. 18 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6. u2 bytes[length]. but characters of up to 16 bits can be represented: All characters in the range 0x0001 to 0x007F are represented by a single byte: +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |0|7bits of data| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ The null character (0x0000) and characters in the range 0x0080 to 0x07FF are represented by a pair of two bytes: +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |1|1|0| 5 bits† | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |1|0| 6 bits | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Characters in the range 0x0800 to 0xFFFF are represented by three bytes: +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |1|1|1|0|4 bits | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |1|0| 6 bits | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |1|0| 6 bits | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ There are two differences between this format and the “standard” UTF-8 format. } CONSTANT_Unicode_info { u1 tag.3.name_index constant_pool[name_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the name of the field or method. and three-byte formats are used. two-byte. CONSTANT_Utf8_info { u1 tag. u2 length.

u2 signature_index. Any other attributes are skipped. Each field is described by a variable length field_info structure.4 Fields The information for each field immediately follows the field_count field in the class file. At most one of ACC_PUBLIC. ACC_PROTECTED. 2.5 Methods The information for each method immediately follows the method_count field in the class file. Each method is described by a variable length method_info structure. which indicates that this field is a static numeric constant. attributes_count This value indicates the number of additional attributes about this field. ACC_VOLATILE. u2 name_index. The possible fields that can be set for a field are ACC_PUBLIC. The format of this structure is as follows: field_info { u2 access_flags. The structure has the following format: December 6. and fields to describe various properties and how they many be accessed by methods in other classes. name_index constant_pool[name_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string which is the name of the field. ACC_PROTECTED. methods. ACC_STATIC. } access_flags This is a set of sixteen flags used by classes. ACC_FINAL. and indicates the constant value of that field. and ACC_TRANSIENT. and ACC_PRIVATE can be set for any method. attributes A field can have any number of optional attributes associated with it.2. signature_index constant_pool[signature_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string which is the signature of the field. Currently. ACC_PRIVATE. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 19 . See the section “Signatures” for more information on signatures. See the table “Access Flags” on page 12 which indicates the meaning of the bits in this field. the only field attribute recognized is the “ConstantValue” attribute. u2 attributes_count. attribute_info attributes[attribute_count].

At most one of ACC_PUBLIC. In the future. and ACC_ABSTRACT. the value of constant_pool[attribute_name] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the name of the attribute. ACC_PROTECTED.6 Attributes GenericAttribute_info { u2 attribute_name. u1 info[attribute_length]. This length does not include the six bytes of the attribute_name and attribute_length. Any other attributes are skipped. ACC_STATIC. more attributes will be added. and the Java Exceptions which are declared to result from the execution of the method. ACC_PROTECTED. } Attributes are used at several different places in the class format. attributes_count This value indicates the number of additional attributes about this field. All attributes have the following format: The attribute_name is a 16-bit index into the class’s constant pool. and ACC_PRIVATE can be set for any method. attribute_info attributes[attribute_count]. 2. See the section “Signatures” for more information on signatures. Class file readers are expected to skip over and ignore the information in any attribute they do not understand. 20 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6. the only field attributes recognized are the “Code” and “Exceptions” attributes. u2 name_index. } access_flags This is a set of sixteen flags used by classes. ACC_NATIVE. whenever we allow attributes. and other additional information.method_info { u2 access_flags. and fields to describe various properties and how they many be accessed by methods in other classes. Currently. See the table “Access Flags” on page 12 which gives the various bits in this field. u4 attribute_length. ACC_PRIVATE. name_index constant_pool[name_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the name of the method. methods. The possible fields that can be set for a method are ACC_PUBLIC. signature_index constant_pool[signature_index]is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the signature of the field. The field attribute_length indicates the length of the subsequent information in bytes. which describe the bytecodes that are executed to perform this method. respectively. u2 attributes_count. In the following text. ACC_FINAL. we give the name of the attributes that are currently understood. u2 signature_index. ACC_SYNCHRONIZED. attributes A field can have any number of optional attributes associated with it. Each attribute has a name. 1995 .

as shown by the following table: long float double int. u4 attribute_length.1 SourceFile SourceFile_attribute { u2 attribute_name_index.6. u2 sourcefile_index. 2. byte. } The “SourceFile” attribute has the following format: attribute_name_index constant_pool[attribute_name_index] is the CONSTANT_Utf8 string "SourceFile". u2 constantvalue_index. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 21 .2. sourcefile_index constant_pool[sourcefile_index] is a CONSTANT_Utf8 string giving the source file from which this class file was compiled.3 Code The “Code” attribute has the following format: December 6.6. short. attribute_length The length of a SourceFile_attribute must be 2. char. boolean CONSTANT_Long CONSTANT_Float CONSTANT_Double CONSTANT_Integer 2.2 ConstantValue ConstantValue_attribute { u2 attribute_name_index.6. The constant pool entry must be of a type appropriate to the field. attribute_length The length of a ConstantValue_attribute must be 2. } The “ConstantValue” attribute has the following format: attribute_name_index constant_pool[attribute_name_index] is the CONSTANT_Utf8 string "ConstantValue". u4 attribute_length. constantvalue_index constant_pool[constantvalue_index]gives the constant value for this field.

code These are the actual bytes of the virtual machine code that implement the method. u1 code[code_length]. See the other chapters in this spec for more information on the operand stack. handler_pc This field indicates the starting address of the exception handler. 1995 . exception_table Each entry in the exception table describes one exception handler in the code. u2 attributes_count. attribute_info attributes[attribute_count]. u4 attribute_length. max_locals Number of local variable slots used by this method. exception_table_length The number of entries in the following exception table. max_stack Maximum number of entries on the operand stack that will be used during execution of this method. code_length The number of bytes in the virtual machine code for this method. see their description for more information on alignment requirements. u2 exception_table_length. start_pc. 22 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6. end_pc The two fields start_pc and end_pc indicate the ranges in the code at which the exception handler is active. start_pc is inclusive. The value of the field is an offset from the start of the code. u2 max_stack. } exception_table[exception_table_length].Code_attribute { u2 attribute_name_index. The values of both fields are offsets from the start of the code. excluding the initial six bytes. u2 end_pc. if the first byte of code is aligned onto a multiple-of-four boundary the the tableswitch and tablelookup opcode entries will be aligned. u4 code_length. See the other chapters in this spec for more information on the local variables. u2 catch_type. u2 max_locals. end_pc is exclusive. } attribute_name_index constant_pool[attribute_name_index] is the CONSTANT_Utf8 string "Code". When read into memory. u2 handler_pc. { u2 start_pc. attribute_length This field indicates the total length of the “Code” attribute.

The “Code” attribute can itself have attributes. 2.6.” both of which contain debugging information. where 0 <= i < number_of_exceptions). For each table element (exception_index_table[i] != 0. then constant_pool[exception_index+table[i]] is a Exception that this class is declared to throw. Currently. attributes A “Code” attribute can have any number of optional attributes associated with it. number_of_exceptions This field indicates the number of entries in the following exception index table. u2 exception_index_table[number_of_exceptions].5 LineNumberTable This attribute is used by debuggers and the exception handler to determine which part of the virtual machine code corresponds to a given location in the source. exception_index_table Each value in this table is an index into the constant pool. This exception handler should only be called if the thrown exception is an instance of the given class. attributes_count This field indicates the number of additional attributes about code. attribute_length This field indicates the total length of the Exceptions_attribute. then constant_pool[catch_type] will be the class of exceptions that this exception handler is designated to catch. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 23 . Each attribute has a name.4 Exceptions Table Exceptions_attribute { u2 attribute_name_index. The LineNumberTable_attribute has the following format: December 6. excluding the initial six bytes. If catch_type is zero. the only code attributes defined are the “LineNumberTable” and “LocalVariableTable. u2 number_of_exceptions.catch_type If catch_type is nonzero. } This table is used by compilers which indicate which Exceptions a method is declared to throw: attribute_name_index constant_pool[attribute_name_index] will be the CONSTANT_Utf8 string "Exceptions". this exception handler should be called for all exceptions. and other additional information. u4 attribute_length.6. 2.

2. } line_number_table[line_number_table_length].LineNumberTable_attribute { u2 attribute_name_index. excluding the initial six bytes. line_number_table Each entry in the line number table indicates that the line number in the source file changes at a given point in the code. } attribute_name_index constant_pool[attribute_name_index] will be the CONSTANT_Utf8 string "LineNumberTable". The format of the LocalVariableTable_attribute is as follows: LocalVariableTable_attribute { u2 attribute_name_index.6 LocalVariableTable This attribute is used by debuggers to determine the value of a given local variable during the dynamic execution of a method. u2 name_index. attribute_length This field indicates the total length of the LineNumberTable_attribute. line_number The line number that begins at the given location in the file. excluding the initial six bytes. u2 line_number_table_length.6. u2 local_variable_table_length. 24 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6. start_pc This field indicates the place in the code at which the code for a new line in the source begins. u2 length. u4 attribute_length. source_pc <<SHOULD THAT BE start_pc?>> is an offset from the beginning of the code. u2 slot. u2 signature_index. } local_variable_table[local_variable_table_length]. } attribute_name_index constant_pool[attribute_name_index] will be the CONSTANT_Utf8 string "LocalVariableTable". 1995 . line_number_table_length This field indicates the number of entries in the following line number table. { u2 start_pc. u4 attribute_length. u2 line_number. attribute_length This field indicates the total length of the LineNumberTable_attribute. { u2 start_pc.

length The given local variable will have a value at the code between start_pc and start_pc + length. December 6. local_variable_table Each entry in the local variable table indicates a code range during which a local variable has a value. slot The given variable will be the slotth local variable in the method’s frame. name_index. signature_index constant_pool[name_index]and constant_pool[signature_index] are CONSTANT_Utf8 strings giving the name and signature of the local variable. start_pc.local_variable_table_length This field indicates the number of entries in the following local variable table. It also indicates where on the stack the value of that variable can be found. The two values are both offsets from the beginning of the code. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 25 .

1995 .26 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 6.

the integer is loaded onto the stack.3 The Virtual Machine Instruction Set 3. Operations of the Java Virtual Machine most often take their operands from the stack and put their results back on the stack.. value3 A longer description that explains the functions of the instruction and indicates any exceptions that might be thrown during execution. 3.. Only instructions that do affect control flow will explicitly mention the effect they have on pc. December 5.. Instructions that do not affect the control flow of a computation may be assumed to always advance the virtual machine pc to the opcode of the following instruction.” Implicitly.1 Format for the Instructions Java Virtual Machine instructions are represented in this document by an entry of the following form. but will always mention when it is not. both its source and destination are the stack.2 Pushing Constants onto the Stack bipush Push one-byte signed integer Syntax: bipush = 16 byte1 Stack: .. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 27 .. Stack: …. For instance. the iload instruction has the short description “Load integer from local variable. This value is expanded to an integer and pushed onto the operand stack. value byte1 is interpreted as a signed 8-bit value. instruction name Short description of the instruction Syntax: opcode = number operand1 operand2 . the descriptions do not usually mention when the stack is the source or destination of an operation.... The iadd instruction is described as “Integer add”. => . Each line in the syntax diagram represents a single 8-bit byte.. value2 => . value1... As a convention.

what other constants do. 28 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5....sipush Push two-byte signed integer Syntax: sipush = 17 byte1 byte2 Stack: ... Note: A String push results in a reference to an object. Note: A String push results in a reference to an object.... => . and explain this somewhere here... and explain this somewhere here.. ldc1 Push item from constant pool Syntax: ldc1 = 18 indexbyte1 Stack: . 1995 . item byte1 and byte2 are assembled into a signed 16-bit value. The item at that index is resolved and pushed onto the stack. ldc2 Push item from constant pool Syntax: ldc2 = 19 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . The item at that index is resolved and pushed onto the stack.. item indexbyte1 is used as an unsigned 8-bit index into the constant pool of the current class. If a String is being pushed and there isn’t enough memory to allocate space for it then an OutOfMemoryError is thrown.. => . => . item indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an unsigned 16-bit index into the constant pool of the current class.. what other constants do.. This value is expanded to an integer and pushed onto the operand stack. If a String is being pushed and there isn’t enough memory to allocate space for it then an OutOfMemoryError is thrown.

=> ... lconst_1 = 10 Push the long integer <l> onto the stack. December 5.. => .. iconst_3 = 6. => .. constant-word1. constant-word2 indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an unsigned 16-bit index into the constant pool of the current class. iconst_2 = 5. lconst_<l> Push long integer constant Syntax: lconst_<l> Stack: ........ iconst_m1 Push integer constant –1 Syntax: iconst_m1 = 2 Stack: . iconst_5 = 8 Push the integer <n> onto the stack.. –1 Push the integer –1 onto the stack. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 29 .ldc2w Push long or double from constant pool Syntax: ldc2w = 20 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . <l>-word2 Forms: lconst_0 = 9.. => .... The two-word constant at that index is resolved and pushed onto the stack... iconst_<n> Push integer constant Syntax: iconst_<n> Stack: .. <n> Forms: iconst_0 = 3... => .. iconst_1 = 4.. iconst_4 = 7. aconst_null Push null object reference Syntax: aconst_null = 1 Stack: .. null Push the null object reference onto the stack. <l>-word1.

30 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. dconst_<d> Push double float Syntax: dconst_<d> Stack: . 1995 .. => . fconst_2 = 13 Push the single-precision floating point number <f> onto the stack.... iload_2 = 28. iload_<n> Load integer from local variable Syntax: iload_<n> Stack: .. 3....fconst_<f> Push single float Syntax: fconst_<f> Stack: ... <d>-word2 Forms: dconst_0 = 14... iload_1 = 27. This instruction is the same as iload with a vindex of <n>. => . <f> Forms: fconst_0 = 11...... dconst_1 = 15 Push the double-precision floating point number <d> onto the stack. => . iload_3 = 29 The value of the local variable at <n> in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack... fconst_1 = 12. except that the operand <n> is implicit. value The value of the local variable at vindex in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack.3 iload Loading Local Variables Onto the Stack Load integer from local variable Syntax: iload = 21 vindex Stack: . <d>-word1. => .. value Forms: iload_0 = 26.

. value-word2 The value of the local variables at vindex and vindex+1 in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack. except that the operand <n> is implicit... lload_3 = 33 The value of the local variables at <n> and <n>+1 in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack. value-word1. lload_<n> Load long integer from local variable Syntax: lload_<n> Stack: ... => . fload_3 = 37 The value of the local variable at <n>in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack.. except that the operand <n> is implicit.. value-word2 Forms: lload_0 = 30. lload_1 = 31. fload Load single float from local variable Syntax: fload = 23 vindex Stack: .... December 5...lload Load long integer from local variable Syntax: lload = 22 vindex Stack: . => ... => . lload_2 = 32.. This instruction is the same as lload with a vindex of <n>. This instruction is the same as fload with a vindex of <n>. fload_1 = 35.... value The value of the local variable at vindex in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack. value Forms: fload_0 = 34. => . 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 31 . value-word1.. fload_2 = 36. fload_<n> Load single float from local variable Syntax: fload_<n> Stack: ..

. => .... value Forms: aload_0 = 42.. This instruction is the same as dload with a vindex of <n>. => . aload_3 = 45 The value of the local variable at <n>in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack.. aload_2 = 44. This instruction is the same as aload with a vindex of <n>. dload_3 = 41 The value of the local variables at <n> and <n>+1 in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack.. 32 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. except that the operand <n> is implicit.. value-word1. 1995 .... except that the operand <n> is implicit. value-word2 The value of the local variables at vindex and vindex+1 in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack. => . value-word1... aload Load object reference from local variable Syntax: aload = 25 vindex Stack: ..dload Load double float from local variable Syntax: dload = 24 vindex Stack: .. aload_<n> Load object reference from local variable Syntax: aload_<n> Stack: . value The value of the local variable at vindex in the current Java frame is pushed onto the operand stack.. dload_<n> Load double float from local variable Syntax: dload_<n> Stack: .. => .. dload_2 = 40. value-word2 Forms: dload_0 = 38.. dload_1 = 39. aload_1 = 43..

. value-word1... value => .. Local variables vindex and vindex+1 in the current Java frame are set to value.. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 33 ... except that the operand <n> is implicit. lstore_1 = 64.. value must be a long integer. Local variables <n> and <n>+1 in the current Java frame are set to value. Forms: lstore_0 = 63.. value-word2 => . value-word1.. value must be an integer.3. Forms: istore_0 = 59.. lstore_3 = 66 value must be a long integer.4 istore Storing Stack Values into Local Variables Store integer into local variable Syntax: istore = 54 vindex Stack: .. except that the operand <n> is implicit.. istore_3 = 62 value must be an integer.... This instruction is the same as lstore with a vindex of <n>.. istore_1 = 60.. lstore_<n> Store long integer into local variable Syntax: lstore_<n> Stack: .. istore_<n> Store integer into local variable Syntax: istore_<n> Stack: . istore_2 = 61. lstore Store long integer into local variable Syntax: lstore = 55 vindex Stack: . Local variable vindex in the current Java frame is set to value. lstore_2 = 65. value-word2 => . This instruction is the same as istore with a vindex of <n>. December 5.. Local variable <n> in the current Java frame is set to value. value => .

. value => . value must be a double-precision floating point number... dstore_2 = 73.. dstore Store double float into local variable Syntax: dstore = 57 vindex Stack: .fstore Store single float into local variable Syntax: fstore = 56 vindex Stack: . dstore_3 = 74 value must be a double-precision floating point number. except that the operand <n> is implicit. dstore_<n> Store double float into local variable Syntax: dstore_<n> Stack: . value-word2 => . value => .. fstore_2 = 69. Local variables vindex and vindex+1 in the current Java frame are set to value... This instruction is the same as dstore with a vindex of <n>.. This instruction is the same as fstore with a vindex of <n>.. Local variable vindex in the current Java frame is set to value. Local variable <n> in the current Java frame is set to value. value-word2 => ... value-word1... 1995 ... fstore_3 = 70 value must be a single-precision floating point number. dstore_1 = 72. fstore_1 = 68.. fstore_<n> Store single float into local variable Syntax: fstore_<n> Stack: . except that the operand <n> is implicit. Forms: dstore_0 = 71. value must be a single-precision floating point number.. 34 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5.. Local variables <n> and <n>+1 in the current Java frame are set to value. Forms: fstore_0 = 67.. value-word1..

Storing and Incrementing Wider index for accessing local variables in load... Syntax: wide = 196 vindex2 Stack: no change This bytecode must precede one of the following bytecodes: iload.5 wide Wider index for Loading. Its value is incremented by the value const. The vindex of the following bytecode and vindex2 from this bytecode are assembled into an unsigned 16-bit index to a local variable in the current Java frame. store and increment. astore_<n> Store object reference into local variable Syntax: astore_<n> Stack: . astore_2 = 77.. istore. dstore.. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 35 . aload. iinc... except that the operand <n> is implicit. value => .. where const is treated as a signed 8-bit quantity. fstore.. December 5. lstore. Forms: astore_0 = 75. dload. astore_1 = 76. 3. astore. The following bytecode operates as normal except for the use of this wider index. Local variable vindex in the current Java frame is set to value. iinc Increment local variable by constant Syntax: iinc = 132 vindex const Stack: no change Local variable vindex in the current Java frame must contain an integer. fload. Local variable <n> in the current Java frame is set to value... This instruction is the same as astore with a vindex of <n>. value => .astore Store object reference into local variable Syntax: astore = 58 vindex Stack: . value must be a return address or a reference to an object. lload. astore_3 = 78 value must be a return address or a reference to an object.

. It represents the number of elements in the new array. and result is a reference to this new object. 36 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. size => result size must be an integer.. All elements of the array are initialized to zero.3.. capable of holding size elements. Allocation of an array large enough to contain size items of atype is attempted. 1995 . an OutOfMemoryError is thrown. Possible values for atype are as follows: T_BOOLEAN T_CHAR T_FLOAT T_DOUBLE T_BYTE T_SHORT T_INT T_LONG 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A new array of atype. If there is not enough memory to allocate the array. is allocated. atype is an internal code that indicates the type of array to allocate. a NegativeArraySizeException is thrown. If size is less than zero.6 Managing Arrays newarray Allocate new array Syntax: newarray = 188 atype Stack: .

For example. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 37 .. anewarray is used to create a single dimension of an array of object references.. Allocation of an array large enough to contain size items of the given class type is attempted. dimensions has the following aspects: • • It must be an integer >=1. size1 size2.Thread"> anewarray can also be used to create the first dimension of a multi-dimensional array. If size is less than zero. The resulting entry must be a class. the following array declaration: new int[6][] is created with the following code: bipush 6 anewarray <Class "[I"> See CONSTANT_Class in the “Class File Format” chapter for information on array class names. Each represents the number of elements in a dimension of the array.. The item at that index is resolved. an OutOfMemoryError is thrown. A new array of the indicated class type and capable of holding size elements is allocated. The resulting entry must be an array class of one or more dimensions. a NegativeArraySizeException is thrown. and result is a reference to this new object.. If there is not enough memory to allocate the array. size=> result size must be an integer. It represents the number of elements in the new array.. It must be ≤ the number of dimensions of the array class. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class..lang. multianewarray Allocate new multi-dimensional array Syntax: multianewarray = 197 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 dimensions Stack: . December 5. For example. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. It represents the number of dimensions being created. All elements of the array are initialized to null. The item at that index is resolved..sizen => result Each size must be an integer. to create new Thread[7] the following code is used: bipush 7 anewarray <Class "java.anewarray Allocate new array of references to objects Syntax: anewarray = 189 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: ..

If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown. The result is a reference to the new array object. objectref => .. The long integer value at position number index in the array is retrieved and pushed onto the top of the stack. arraylength Get length of array Syntax: arraylength = 190 Stack: ... If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown. to create new int[6][3][] the following code is used: bipush 6 bipush 3 multianewarray <Class "[[[I"> 2 If any of the size arguments on the stack is less than zero. 38 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. an OutOfMemoryError is thrown. If there is not enough memory to allocate the array.. If the objectref is null. a NullPointerException is thrown... index => .. value arrayref must be a reference to an array of integers.• It represents the number of elements that are popped off the stack... 1995 . value-word1. value-word2 arrayref must be a reference to an array of long integers. The length of the array is determined and replaces objectref on the top of the stack.. index must be an integer. See CONSTANT_Class in the “Class File Format” chapter for information on array class names. laload Load long integer from array Syntax: laload = 47 Stack: .. arrayref.. These are used as the sizes of the dimension.. For example. Note: More explanation needed about how this is an array of arrays. All must be integers greater than or equal to zero... The integer value at position number index in the array is retrieved and pushed onto the top of the stack. index => .. index must be an integer. length objectref must be a reference to an array object. Note: It is more efficient to use newarray or anewarray when creating a single dimension. a NegativeArraySizeException is thrown. iaload Load integer from array Syntax: iaload = 46 Stack: . If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. arrayref...

and pushed onto the top of the stack. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown. index => . If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown. The object reference at position number index in the array is retrieved and pushed onto the top of the stack. index => .. value-word2 arrayref must be a reference to an array of double-precision floating point numbers.......faload Load single float from array Syntax: faload = 48 Stack: . The signed byte value at position number index in the array is retrieved. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 39 ... index must be an integer.. The single-precision floating point number value at position number index in the array is retrieved and pushed onto the top of the stack. value arrayref must be a reference to an array of signed bytes. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown...... expanded to an integer. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. index must be an integer. index must be an integer. arrayref.. index => . arrayref. Syntax: baload = 51 Stack: . aaload Load object reference from array Syntax: aaload = 50 Stack: . baload Load signed byte from array. daload Load double float from array Syntax: daload = 49 Stack: ... If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown. December 5. arrayref... value arrayref must be a reference to an array of references to objects. value arrayref must be a reference to an array of single-precision floating point numbers. The double-precision floating point number value at position number index in the array is retrieved and pushed onto the top of the stack. arrayref. index => . If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown... index must be an integer. value-word1... If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown.

. expanded to an integer. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown.. The character value at position number index in the array is retrieved. and pushed onto the top of the stack. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. zero-extended to an integer. and value an integer. arrayref.. arrayref. If arrayref is null. index must be an integer. value => .. index must be an integer. 1995 .. arrayref... The long integer value is stored at position index in the array. value-word2 => .. a NullPointerException is thrown. index => . The integer value is stored at position index in the array... an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown.. and pushed onto the top of the stack.signed short integer value at position number index in the array is retrieved. index must be an integer... index. iastore Store into integer array Syntax: iastore = 79 Stack: . arrayref must be a reference to an array of long integers. arrayref.. If arrayref is null... value arrayref must be a reference to an array of short integers. 40 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5.. value arrayref must be a reference to an array of characters.. lastore Store into long integer array Syntax: lastore = 80 Stack: .. value-word1. index => .. index must be an integer. and value a long integer. a NullPointerException is thrown. arrayref must be a reference to an array of integers. The .. index. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown..caload Load character from array Syntax: caload = 52 Stack: . If arrayref is null a NullPointerException is thrown. a NullPointerException is thrown. If index is not within the bounds of the array. If arrayref is null. saload Load short from array Syntax: saload = 53 Stack: .

a NullPointerException is thrown. If arrayref is null. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. arrayref must be a reference to an array of references to objects. arrayref. dastore Store into double float array Syntax: dastore = 82 Stack: . The double float value is stored at position index in the array. value-word1.. The object reference value is stored at position index in the array. and value a reference to an object. an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. The actual type of value must be conformable with the actual type of the elements of the array. value => . For example.. value => .. If arrayref is null.. a NullPointerException is thrown.. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. index must be an integer. give semantics here... a NullPointerException is thrown.. it is legal to store an instance of class Thread in an array of class Object. index must be an integer..fastore Store into single float array Syntax: fastore = 81 Stack: . and value a single-precision floating point number. If arrayref is null. Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification. aastore Store into object reference array Syntax: aastore = 83 Stack: . If index is not within the bounds of the array.. index must be an integer.. (See the Java Language Specification for information on how to determine whether a object reference is an instance of a class. arrayref. index.. December 5. but not vice versa. arrayref. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 41 . The single float value is stored at position index in the array. and value a double-precision floating point number.. arrayref must be a reference to an array of double-precision floating point numbers.) An ArrayStoreException is thrown if an attempt is made to store an incompatible object reference... value-word2 => . index. arrayref must be an array of single-precision floating point numbers. index.

. arrayref must be an array of characters.. 3. arrayref must be an array of shorts.. index... If value is too large to be a signed byte.. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown.. index must be an integer. The integer value is stored at position index in the array. it is truncated. index must be an integer.bastore Store into signed byte array Syntax: bastore = 84 Stack: . value => . If arrayref is null. value => . and value an integer. If index is not within the bounds of [the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. The integer value is stored at position index in the array. 42 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5.. If value is too large to be an short... index. If index is not within the bounds of the array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. it is truncated. and value an integer.. If arrayref is null. a NullPointerException is thrown. The integer value is stored at position index in the array. and value an integer. castore Store into character array Syntax: castore = 85 Stack: . array. If value is too large to be a character. a NullPointerException is thrown. 1995 . arrayref.. index.. index must be an integer.7 nop Stack Instructions Do nothing Syntax: nop = 0 Stack: no change Do nothing. arrayref must be a reference to an array of signed bytes. value => .. it is truncated.. sastore Store into short array Syntax: sastore = 86 Stack: . If arrayref is null. arrayref. a NullPointerException is thrown.

...... any1... any.... any1 => . December 5. dup Duplicate top stack word Syntax: dup = 89 Stack: .. Pop the top word from the stack. any2. any2. Pop the top two words from the stack. any1 => . any1 => . any2. any => . any1 Duplicate the top word on the stack and insert the copy two words down in the stack. any2.pop Pop top stack word Syntax: pop = 87 Stack: ... any1..... any1 Duplicate the top two words on the stack.. dup_x1 Duplicate top stack word and put two down Syntax: dup_x1 = 90 Stack: . any2. any Duplicate the top word on the stack.. pop2 Pop top two stack words Syntax: pop2 = 88 Stack: .... dup2 Duplicate top two stack words Syntax: dup2 = 92 Stack: . any2...... 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 43 . any => .

.... any1.. any1 Duplicate the top two words on the stack and insert the copies two words down in the stack. any2... any3.. any1.. any2.. any3.. any2. The values are added and are replaced on the stack by their integer sum.. any2.. any1 => . any3....dup2_x1 Duplicate top two stack words and put two down Syntax: dup2_x1 = 93 Stack: . any2.. dup_x2 Duplicate top stack word and put three down Syntax: dup_x2 = 91 Stack: . any1 Duplicate the top two words on the stack and insert the copies three words down in the stack.. value1. value2 => . dup2_x2 Duplicate top two stack words and put three down Syntax: dup2_x2 = 94 Stack: . any2. any4.. any1 => . any2. swap Swap top two stack words Syntax: swap = 95 Stack: . any1 Duplicate the top word on the stack and insert the copy three words down in the stack... any3. any3. any2. any2... any2.. 44 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. 3. any4.. any1.. any1 Swap the top two elements on the stack... result value1 and value2 must be integers. 1995 .. any3. any1 => .8 iadd Arithmetic Instructions Integer add Syntax: iadd = 96 Stack: .. any1 => .

value2-word1.. value1-word2. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 45 . value2-word2 => .. value2 is subtracted from value1.. result-word1.. value1. The values are added and are replaced on the stack by their single-precision floating point sum. dadd Double floats add Syntax: dadd = 99 Stack: . The values are added and are replaced on the stack by their long integer sum.. value1-word1... The values are added and are replaced on the stack by their double-precision floating point sum... result value1 and value2 must be single-precision floating point numbers. lsub Long integer subtract Syntax: lsub = 101 Stack: .. result-word2 value1 and value2 must be long integers. value2 => . value1-word1.. isub Integer subtract Syntax: isub = 100 Stack: .... value2-word1. value1.... result-word1. value1-word1.. value2-word2 => . value2-word1. result-word2 value1 and value2 must be double-precision floating point numbers. result value1 and value2 must be integers.. December 5... and both values are replaced on the stack by their long integer difference.. result-word2 value1 and value2 must be long integers.. value1-word2. result-word1.. value2 => . fadd Single floats add Syntax: fadd = 98 Stack: ...ladd Long integer add Syntax: ladd = 97 Stack: . and both values are replaced on the stack by their integer difference. value2-word2 => ..... value1-word2. value2 is subtracted from value1.

Both values are replaced on the stack by their long integer product... value2 => . result value1 and value2 must be single-precision floating point numbers. value1-word2... 46 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5.. value1.fsub Single float subtract Syntax: fsub = 102 Stack: . and both values are replaced on the stack by their single-precision floating point difference. result-word1. result-word1... result value1 and value2 must be single-precision floating point numbers. value1-word1.. value2-word1.. value1-word1.. value1.. fmul Single float multiply Syntax: fmul = 106 Stack: .. Both values are replaced on the stack by their integer product.. result-word2 value1 and value2 must be long integers.. value2-word1. imul Integer multiply Syntax: imul = 104 Stack: ... result-word2 value1 and value2 must be double-precision floating point numbers. 1995 .... value2 => ... dsub Double float subtract Syntax: dsub = 103 Stack: . value2 is subtracted from value1... result value1 and value2 must be integers..... value2-word2 => . value1-word2. and both values are replaced on the stack by their double-precision floating point difference.. lmul Long integer multiply Syntax: imul = 105 Stack: .. value1. value2 is subtracted from value1. value2 => . Both values are replaced on the stack by their single-precision floating point product.. value2-word2 => .

dmul
Double float multiply Syntax: dmul = 107 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2-word1, value2-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 and value2 must be double-precision floating point numbers. Both values are replaced on the stack by their double-precision floating point product.

idiv
Integer divide Syntax: idiv = 108 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must be integers. value1 is divided by value2, and both values are replaced on the stack by their integer quotient. The result is truncated to the nearest integer that is between it and 0. An attempt to divide by zero results in a “/ by zero” ArithmeticException being thrown.

ldiv
Long integer divide Syntax: ldiv = 109 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2-word1, value2-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 and value2 must be long integers. value1 is divided by value2, and both values are replaced on the stack by their long integer quotient. The result is truncated to the nearest integer that is between it and 0. An attempt to divide by zero results in a “/ by zero” ArithmeticException being thrown.

fdiv
Single float divide Syntax: fdiv = 110 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must be single-precision floating point numbers. value1 is divided by value2, and both values are replaced on the stack by their single-precision floating point quotient. Divide by zero results in the quotient being NaN.

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ddiv
Double float divide Syntax: ddiv = 111 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2-word1, value2-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 and value2 must be double-precision floating point numbers. value1 is divided by value2, and both values are replaced on the stack by their double-precision floating point quotient. Divide by zero results in the quotient being NaN.

irem
Integer remainder Syntax: irem = 112 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must both be integers. value1 is divided by value2, and both values are replaced on the stack by their integer remainder. An attempt to divide by zero results in a “/ by zero” ArithmeticException being thrown. Note: need a description of the integer remainder semantics

lrem
Long integer remainder Syntax: lrem = 113 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2-word1, value2-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 and value2 must both be long integers. value1 is divided by value2, and both values are replaced on the stack by their long integer remainder. An attempt to divide by zero results in a “/ by zero” ArithmeticException being thrown. Note: need a description of the integer remainder semantics

frem
Single float remainder Syntax: frem = 114 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must both be single-precision floating point numbers. value1 is divided by value2, and the quotient is truncated to an integer, and then multiplied by value2. The product is subtracted from value1.The result, as a single-precision floating point number, replaces both values on the stack. result = value1 - (integral_part(value1/value2) * value2), where integral_part() rounds to the nearest integer, with a tie going to the even number. An attempt to divide by zero results in NaN. Note: gls to provide a better definition of the floating remainder semantics

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drem
Double float remainder Syntax: drem = 115 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2-word1, value2-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 and value2 must both be double-precision floating point numbers. value1 is divided by value2, and the quotient is truncated to an integer, and then multiplied by value2. The product is subtracted from value1.The result, as a double-precision floating point number, replaces both values on the stack. result = value1 - (integral_part(value1/value2) * value2), where integral_part() rounds to the nearest integer, with a tie going to the even number. An attempt to divide by zero results in NaN. Note: gls to provide a better definition of the floating remainder semantics

ineg
Integer negate Syntax: ineg = 116 Stack: ..., value => ..., result value must be an integer. It is replaced on the stack by its arithmetic negation.

lneg
Long integer negate Syntax: lneg = 117 Stack: ..., value-word1, value-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value must be a long integer. It is replaced on the stack by its arithmetic negation.

fneg
Single float negate Syntax: fneg = 118 Stack: ..., value => ..., result value must be a single-precision floating point number. It is replaced on the stack by its arithmetic negation.

dneg
Double float negate Syntax: dneg = 119 Stack: ..., value-word1, value-word2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value must be a double-precision floating point number. It is replaced on the stack by its arithmetic negation.

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3.9
ishl

Logical Instructions

Integer shift left Syntax: ishl = 120 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must be integers. value1 is shifted left by the amount indicated by the low five bits of value2. The integer result replaces both values on the stack.

ishr
Integer arithmetic shift right Syntax: ishr = 122 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must be integers. value1 is shifted right arithmetically (with sign extension) by the amount indicated by the low five bits of value2. The integer result replaces both values on the stack.

iushr
Integer logical shift right Syntax: iushr = 124 Stack: ..., value1, value2 => ..., result value1 and value2 must be integers. value1 is shifted right logically (with no sign extension) by the amount indicated by the low five bits of value2. The integer result replaces both values on the stack.

lshl
Long integer shift left Syntax: lshl = 121 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 must be a long integer and value2 must be an integer. value1 is shifted left by the amount indicated by the low six bits of value2. The long integer result replaces both values on the stack.

lshr
Long integer arithmetic shift right Syntax: lshr = 123 Stack: ..., value1-word1, value1-word2, value2 => ..., result-word1, result-word2 value1 must be a long integer and value2 must be an integer. value1 is shifted right arithmetically (with sign extension) by the amount indicated by the low six bits of value2. The long integer result replaces both values on the stack.

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result-word1.... They are replaced on the stack by their bitwise logical and (conjunction). result-word1. value2-word2 => ... value1-word1. value1-word1.. value1. lor Long integer boolean OR Syntax: lor = 129 Stack: . value1 is shifted right logically (with no sign extension) by the amount indicated by the low six bits of value2.. ior Integer boolean OR Syntax: ior = 128 Stack: . result value1 and value2 must both be integers.. result-word2 value1 and value2 must both be long integers. They are replaced on the stack by their bitwise logical or (disjunction)... value1-word2..... result-word1. value2-word1.. value1-word1.. value2-word2 => . value2-word1.... value2 => .. value1-word2... They are replaced on the stack by their bitwise logical or (disjunction).. The long integer result replaces both values on the stack.. land Long integer boolean AND Syntax: land = 127 Stack: . value2 => ... value1. value2-word1. They are replaced on the stack by their bitwise logical and (conjunction).. result-word2 value1 must be a long integer and value2 must be an integer. result-word2 value1 and value2 must both be long integers.. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 51 .lushr Long integer logical shift right Syntax: lushr = 125 Stack: . value1-word2... result value1 and value2 must both be integers. iand Integer boolean AND Syntax: iand = 126 Stack: . value2-word2 => . December 5.

The result replaces value on the stack. It is converted to a double-precision floating point number.. result-word2 value1 and value2 must both be long integers. The result replaces value on the stack. result-word1. 3. value1-word2..10 Conversion Operations i2l Integer to long integer conversion Syntax: i2l = 133 Stack: . result value must be an integer.. value => .. result-word1. value1. value => .... The result replaces value on the stack. i2d Integer to double float Syntax: i2d = 135 Stack: . value2 => . result-word1.... lxor Long integer boolean XOR Syntax: lxor = 131 Stack: ....... 1995 . result-word2 value must be an integer. result value1 and value2 must both be integers..ixor Integer boolean XOR Syntax: ixor = 130 Stack: .... result-word2 value must be an integer.. They are replaced on the stack by their bitwise exclusive or (exclusive disjunction). 52 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5... It is converted to a long integer. It is converted to a single-precision floating point number. They are replaced on the stack by their bitwise exclusive or (exclusive disjunction). value2-word1. value => . value1-word1.... i2f Integer to single float Syntax: i2f = 134 Stack: . value2-word2 => .....

give semantics here. result-word1. It is converted to an integer. See The Java Language Specification for details on converting floating point numbers to integers..l2i Long integer to integer Syntax: l2i = 136 Stack: ... It is converted to an integer by taking the low-order 32 bits. It is converted to a single-precision floating point number. result value must be a long integer. f2i Single float to integer Syntax: f2i = 139 Stack: . The result replaces value on the stack. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 53 . value-word2 => . value-word2 => . result-word2 value must be a long integer. l2f Long integer to single float Syntax: l2f = 137 Stack: .... It is converted to a double-precision floating point number.. value-word1... result value must be a long integer. The result replaces value on the stack. December 5... The result replaces value on the stack. The result replaces value on the stack. value-word1. l2d Long integer to double float Syntax: l2d = 138 Stack: .. value-word2 => ... value-word1.. value => . result value must be a single-precision floating point number... Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification........

It is converted to a long integer. 1995 .. Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification..... result-word2 value must be a double-precision floating point number... d2i Double float to integer Syntax: d2i = 142 Stack: . result-word1. result value must be a double-precision floating point number.. It is converted to a double-precision floating point number.. value => . give semantics here. It is converted to a long integer. give semantics here. The result replaces value on the stack. The result replaces value on the stack. It is converted to an integer.. value-word1. result-word2 value must be a single-precision floating point number. value-word1. result-word1. See The Java Language Specification for details on converting floating point numbers to integers.. result-word1. Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification... result-word2 value must be a single-precision floating point number. give semantics here. value => .. f2d Single float to double float Syntax: f2d = 141 Stack: ....f2l Single float to long integer Syntax: f2l = 140 Stack: .. value-word2 => . See The Java Language Specification for details on converting floating point numbers to integers. Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification. The result replaces value on the stack. The result replaces value on the stack.. d2l Double float to long integer Syntax: d2l = 143 Stack: . 54 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5... See The Java Language Specification for details on converting floating point numbers to integers... value-word2 => ..

The result replaces value on the stack.. The result replaces value on the stack. then sign extended to an integer. If overflow occurs.... It is truncated to a signed 16-bit result. result value must be an integer... int2short Integer to short Syntax: int2short = 147 Stack: . 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 55 . then sign extended to an integer. The result replaces value on the stack.. value-word2 => . value => . It is truncated to an unsigned 16-bit result... int2byte Integer to signed byte Syntax: int2byte = 145 Stack: ... The result replaces value on the stack.. int2char Integer to char Syntax: int2char = 146 Stack: . It is truncated to a signed 8-bit result.. result value must be a double-precision floating point number. then zero extended to an integer. result value must be an integer.. value => .......... It is converted to a single-precision floating point number. December 5. value => . result value must be an integer. value-word1.. the result must be infinity with the same sign as value.d2f Double float to single float Syntax: d2f = 144 Stack: .

56 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. value => . Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction....11 Control Transfer Instructions ifeq Branch if equal to 0 Syntax: ifeq = 153 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: ... value must be a reference to an object. If value is zero. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. If value is less than zero. value must be an integer. value => .....3. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifnull. value => . value must be an integer. iflt Branch if less than 0 Syntax: iflt = 155 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: .. 1995 . Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifeq.. It is popped from the stack. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction.. If value is null.. It is popped from the stack. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the iflt.. ifnull Branch if null Syntax: ifnull = 198 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: .. It is popped from the stack.

value => .. If value is less than or equal to zero...ifle Branch if less than or equal to 0 Syntax: ifle = 158 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: .. ifgt Branch if greater than 0 Syntax: ifgt = 157 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifnonnull.. It is popped from the stack.. value must be an integer. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifle... branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. value => . 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 57 . ifne Branch if not equal to 0 Syntax: ifne = 154 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. value => .... ifnonnull Branch if not null Syntax: ifnonnull = 199 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . It is popped from the stack.. value must be a reference to an object. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. value => . December 5... Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. value must be an integer. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifne.. If value is greater than zero. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. If value is not null. If value is not equal to zero. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. It is popped from the stack. It is popped from the stack.. value must be an integer.... Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifgt..

. If value is greater than or equal to zero. value1 and value2 must be integers. value2 => ... if_icmpeq Branch if integers equal Syntax: if_icmpeq = 159 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the ifge. value must be an integer. if_icmplt Branch if integer less than Syntax: if_icmplt = 161 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . value1. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset.. If value1 is equal to value2.. If value1 is not equal to value2. 1995 . They are both popped from the stack.. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset... Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_icmpne. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_icmpeq. value2 => .ifge Branch if greater than or equal to 0 Syntax: ifge = 156 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . Execution proceeds at that 58 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. value1. if_icmpne Branch if integers not equal Syntax: if_icmpne = 160 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. value1 and value2 must be integers. value1. value1 and value2 must be integers. It is popped from the stack. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset.. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction.... value2 => .... If value1 is less than value2... They are both popped from the stack.. value => .. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction.. They are both popped from the stack.

1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 59 .. value1 and value2 must be integers. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. They are both popped from the stack.offset from the address of this instruction. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_icmple. If value1 is greater than or equal to value2.. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. value1 and value2 must be integers. If value1 is less than or equal to value2. value1. value1. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_icmpgt..... value2 => . branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset... if_icmpgt Branch if integer greater than Syntax: if_icmpgt = 163 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . December 5.. if_icmple Branch if integer less than or equal to Syntax: if_icmple = 164 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . value1 and value2 must be integers. value1. If value1 is greater than value2. They are both popped from the stack. They are both popped from the stack. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. value2 => . branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_icmpge. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_icmplt.... value2 => . if_icmpge Branch if integer greater than or equal to Syntax: if_icmpge = 162 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: ....

. value1. 60 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. They are both popped from the stack and compared. If value1 is less than value2. value1-word2. result value1 and value2 must be long integers. If either value1 or value2 is NaN.. the value 1 is pushed onto the stack. If value1 is less than value2. the value 0 is pushed onto the stack. the value –1 is pushed onto the stack. If value1 is equal to value2. dcmpl Double float compare (–1 on NaN) Syntax: dcmpl = 151 Stack: ... result value1 and value2 must be single-precision floating point numbers... the integer value 1 is pushed onto the stack. the value 0 is pushed onto the stack. the value –1 is pushed onto the stack. value1-word2. value2 => . If either value1 or value2 is NaN. the integer value 1 is pushed onto the stack. 1995 . value2-word1.. the integer value 1 is pushed onto the stack. value2-word1. value1-word1. result value1 and value2 must be double-precision floating point numbers. result value1 and value2 must be single-precision floating point numbers. the value –1 is pushed onto the stack... value2-word1 => . If value1 is greater than value2... the value 0 is pushed onto the stack.. If value1 is greater than value2. If value1 is greater than value2. If value1 is equal to value2.. If value1 is less than value2. If value1 is equal to value2..... the value 0 is pushed onto the stack.. If value1 is greater than value2... value2 => . the value –1 is pushed onto the stack. They are both popped from the stack and compared. the value –1 is pushed onto the stack.lcmp Long integer compare Syntax: lcmp = 148 Stack: . the integer value 1 is pushed onto the stack.. If value1 is equal to value2. value1. value2-word1 => . fcmpl Single float compare (–1 on NaN) Syntax: fcmpl = 149 Stack: .. value1-word1. They are both popped from the stack and compared.. the value –1 is pushed onto the stack. They are both popped from the stack and compared. If either value1 or value2 is NaN. If value1 is less than value2.. fcmpg Single float compare (1 on NaN) Syntax: fcmpg = 150 Stack: .

. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. They are both popped from the stack. branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. goto Branch always Syntax: goto = 167 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: no change branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. the integer value 1 is pushed onto the stack.. value2-word1... branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset.... value2-word1 => . Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_acmpeq. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction.. If value1 is less than value2. They are both popped from the stack. if_acmpeq Branch if object references are equal Syntax: if_acmpeq = 165 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . value1-word1.dcmpg Double float compare (1 on NaN) Syntax: dcmpg = 152 Stack: . if_acmpne Branch if object references not equal Syntax: if_acmpne = 166 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: . If the objects refrerenced are not the same. December 5.. value1.. value1. the value –1 is pushed onto the stack. the value 0 is pushed onto the stack. value2 => .. value1 and value2 must be references to objects. They are both popped from the stack and compared.. If value1 is equal to value2.. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 61 .. If the objecs referenced are not the same. If either value1 or value2 is NaN. value1 and value2 must be references to objects. value1-word2. Otherwise execution proceeds at the instruction following the if_acmpne... value2 => . result value1 and value2 must be double-precision floating point numbers. Execution proceeds at that offset from the Address of this instruction. the value 1 is pushed onto the stack. If value1 is greater than value2.

. => .. The address of the instruction immediately following the jsr_w is pushed onto the stack. => . return-address branchbyte1. 1995 . and branchbyte4 are used to construct a signed 32-bit offset.. Execution proceeds at the offset from the address of this instruction... return-address branchbyte1 and branchbyte2 are used to construct a signed 16-bit offset. Execution proceeds at that offset from the address of this instruction. 62 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. Note: The jsr instruction is used in the implementation of Java’s finally keyword... branchbyte2. jsr Jump subroutine Syntax: jsr = 168 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 Stack: .goto_w Branch always (wide index) Syntax: goto_w = 200 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 branchbyte3 branchbyte4 Stack: no change branchbyte1. The address of the instruction immediately following the jsr is pushed onto the stack.. and branchbyte4 are used to construct a signed 32-bit offset. branchbyte2.. jsr_w Jump subroutine (wide index) Syntax: jsr_w = 201 branchbyte1 branchbyte2 branchbyte3 branchbyte4 Stack: .. Execution proceeds at the offset from the address of this instruction. branchbyte3. branchbyte3.

See the ret instruction for more information. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 63 . December 5. value-word2 => [empty] value must be a long integer. The value value is pushed onto the stack of the previous execution environment. The contents of the local variable are written into the pc. The contents of the local variable are written into the pc. That local variable must contain a return address. ret_w Return from subroutine (wide index) Syntax: ret_w = 209 vindexbyte1 vindexbyte2 Stack: no change vindexbyte1 and vindexbyte2 are assembled into an unsigned 16-bit index to a local variable in the current Java frame..12 Function Return ireturn Return integer from function Syntax: ireturn = 172 Stack: . The interpreter then returns control to its caller. The value value is pushed onto the stack of the previous execution environment. The interpreter then returns control to its caller. This asymmetry is intentional. value => [empty] value must be an integer. Note: The ret instruction is used in the implementation of Java’s finally keyword. lreturn Return long integer from function Syntax: lreturn = 173 Stack: .. Note that jsr pushes the address onto the stack.... value-word1. Any other values on the operand stack are discarded.. and ret gets it out of a local variable. Any other values on the operand stack are discarded.ret Return from subroutine Syntax: ret = 169 vindex Stack: no change Local variable vindex in the current Java frame must contain a return address. 3.

. Any other values on the operand stack are discarded. areturn Return object reference from function Syntax: areturn = 176 Stack: . value-word2 => [empty] value must be a double-precision floating point number.. dreturn Return double float from function Syntax: dreturn = 175 Stack: . breakpoint Stop and pass control to breakpoint handler Syntax: breakpoint = 202 Stack: no change 64 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5.. The interpreter then returns control to its caller.freturn Return single float from function Syntax: freturn = 174 Stack: . Any other values on the operand stack are discarded. The value value is pushed onto the stack of the previous execution environment.. The value value is pushed onto the stack of the previous execution environment.. return Return (void) from procedure Syntax: return = 177 Stack: . The interpreter then returns control to its caller. 1995 ... The interpreter then returns control to its caller. The value value is pushed onto the stack of the previous execution environment. => [empty] All values on the operand stack are discarded.... value-word1.. value => [empty] value must be a reference to an object. Any other values on the operand stack are discarded. The interpreter then returns control to its caller. value => [empty] value must be a single-precision floating point number.

13 Table Jumping tableswitch Access jump table by index and jump Syntax: tableswitch = 170 ..jump offsets. and the index-low’th element of the jump table is extracted.. If index is less than low or index is greater than high. Stack: . The high-low+1 signed 4-byte offsets are treated as a 0-based jump table..0-3 byte pad. high.. tableswitch is a variable length instruction.. December 5. and added to the address of this instruction.....3. and then high-low+1 further signed 4-byte offsets. between zero and three 0’s are inserted as padding so that the next byte begins at an address that is a multiple of four. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 65 . The index must be an integer. index => . low. default-offset1 default-offset2 default-offset3 default-offset4 low1 low2 low3 low4 high1 high2 high3 high4 . Immediately after the tableswitch instruction. Otherwise.... low is subtracted from index.. then default-offset is added to the address of this instruction. After the padding follow a series of signed 4-byte quantities: default-offset.

66 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. between zero and three 0’s are inserted as padding so that the next byte begins at an address that is a multiple of four. The first pair is special.... Each subsequent pair consists of a match and an offset. Stack: .. The constant pool item will be a field reference to a class name and a field name.. If objectref is null.. a NullPointerException is generated.14 Manipulating Object Fields putfield Set field in object Syntax: putfield = 181 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class... If the specified field is a static field.. The key must be an integer. The integer key on the stack is compared against each of the matches. The field at that offset from the start of the object referenced by objectref will be set to the value on the top of the stack.. The item is resolved to a field block pointer which has both the field width (in bytes) and the field offset (in bytes)... If it is equal to one of them. 1995 ...lookupswitch Access jump table by key match and jump Syntax: lookupswitch = 171 .. 3.. key => . value-word1. the default offset is added to the address of this instruction. an IncompatibleClassChangeError is thrown.. objectref. value => .. value-word2 => .. If the key does not match any of the matches. default-offset1 default-offset2 default-offset3 default-offset4 npairs1 npairs2 npairs3 npairs4 . Immediately after the padding are a series of pairs of signed 4-byte quantities. objectref. and the second item of that pair gives the number of pairs that follow. the offset is added to the address of this instruction. Immediately after the lookupswitch instruction. The first item of that pair is the default offset. lookupswitch is a variable length instruction. This instruction deals with both 32-bit and 64-bit wide fields.. OR Stack: .match-offset pairs..0-3 byte pad.

December 5.. value => . objectref => .. OR Stack: ... indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class... The constant pool item will be a field reference to a class name and a field name... If the specified field is a static field. value-word1. If the specified field is a dynamic field. This instruction deals with both 32-bit and 64-bit wide fields.. objectref must be a reference to an object. value-word1.. The constant pool item will be a field reference to a static field of a class........ This instruction works for both 32-bit and 64-bit wide fields. value-word2 indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. objectref => .getfield Fetch field from object Syntax: getfield = 180 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . value OR Stack: .. putstatic Set static field in class Syntax: putstatic = 179 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . an IncompatibleClassChangeError is thrown.. If objectref is null. That field will be set to have the value on the top of the stack. The item is resolved to a field block pointer which has both the field width (in bytes) and the field offset (in bytes).. a NullPointerException is generated.. an IncompatibleClassChangeError is thrown. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 67 . value-word2 => .. The value at offset into the object referenced by objectref replaces objectref on the top of the stack.

This instruction deals with both 32-bit and 64-bit wide fields. invokevirtual Invoke instance method. dispatching based on the compile-time (nonvirtual) type of the object..getstatic Get static field from class Syntax: getstatic = 178 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: .. 1995 .]]. where a pointer to the method block for 68 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5.. => . when the keyword super or the name of a superclass is used as a method qualifier. . => . The result of the lookup is an index into the method table of the named class.. A pointer to the object’s method table is retrieved from the object reference.. The method signature is looked up in the method table.. invokevirtual Invoke an instance method of an object.15 Method Invocation There are four instructions that implement method invocation.. If the specified field is a dynamic field.. The constant pool item will be a field reference to a static field of a class.. dispatch based on run-time type Syntax: invokevirtual = 182 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . The item at that index in the constant pool contains the complete method signature. invokestatic Invoke a class (static) method in a named class. This is the normal method dispatch in Java. dispatching based on the runtime (virtual) type of the object. [arg2 .. invokeinterface Invoke a method which is implemented by an interface. 3. objectref.. an IncompatibleClassChangeError is generated... invokenonvirtual Invoke an instance method of an object. value OR Stack: .. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.... searching the methods implemented by the particular run-time object to find the appropriate method. [arg1. The operand stack must contain a reference to an object and some number of arguments. value-word2 indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. This is used. The method signature is guaranteed to exactly match one of the method signatures in the table. for example. value-word1. => ..... which is used with the object’s dynamic type to look in the method table of that type.

If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. => . The method signature is guaranteed to exactly match one of the method signatures in the class’s method table. The method block indicates the type of method (native. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.. The item at that index in the constant pool contains the complete method signature and class. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with the class is entered.. The method block indicates the type of method (native. [arg1. The result of the lookup is a method block. The arguments are popped off this method’s stack and become the initial values of the local variables of the new method.. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 69 .... December 5. dispatching based on compile-time type Syntax: invokenonvirtual = 183 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . a NullPointerException is thrown. The method signature is looked up in the method table of the class indicated. synchronized.. . Execution continues with the first instruction of the new method. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with objectref is entered. a StackOverflowError is thrown. The result of the lookup is a method block. If the object reference on the operand stack is null. [arg1. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with objectref is entered. invokestatic Invoke a class (static) method Syntax: invokestatic = 184 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: .. If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected.. The objectref and arguments are popped off this method’s stack and become the initial values of the local variables of the new method. Execution continues with the first instruction of the new method. The objectref and arguments are popped off this method’s stack and become the initial values of the local variables of the new method..the matched method is found.. The operand stack must contain some number of arguments. and so on) and the number of arguments (nargs) expected on the operand stack. The operand stack must contain a reference to an object and some number of arguments. synchronized. The method signature is looked up in the method table of the class indicated. The item at that index in the constant pool contains a complete method signature and class.... [arg2 . objectref. [arg2 .. and so on) and the number of arguments (nargs) expected on the operand stack. The method signature is guaranteed to exactly match one of the method signatures in the table. a NullPointerException is thrown.. => . a StackOverflowError is thrown..]]. The method block indicates the type of method (native. synchronized. . If the object reference on the operand stack is null. and so on) and the number of arguments expected on the operand stack.]]. Execution continues with the first instruction of the new method. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.. a StackOverflowError is thrown. invokenonvirtual Invoke instance method. If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected.

which is thrown. The item at that index in the constant pool contains the complete method signature. The operand stack must contain a reference to an object and nargs-1 arguments. the number of available arguments (nargs) is taken from the bytecode. then a NullPointerException is thrown instead. If a matching catch list entry is found. [arg1. The pc is reset to that location and execution continues.. a StackOverflowError is thrown. 70 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5..]]. synchronized. The method block indicates the type of method (native. If objectref is null. objectref. a NullPointerException is thrown. that frame is popped and the object is rethrown. and so on) but unlike invokevirtual and invokenonvirtual. => . The current Java stack frame is searched for the most recent catch clause that catches this class or a superclass of this class.. [arg2 . The method signature is looked up in the method table. The objectref and arguments are popped off this method’s stack and become the initial values of the local variables of the new method. The result of the lookup is a method block. If no appropriate catch is found in the current stack frame. The method signature is guaranteed to exactly match one of the method signatures in the table. and execution continues there. Execution continues with the first instruction of the new method.16 Exception Handling athrow Throw exception or error Syntax: athrow = 191 Stack: ... If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with objectref is entered..invokeinterface Invoke interface method Syntax: invokeinterface = 185 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 nargs reserved Stack: .. 1995 . If one is found. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.. If no appropriate catch clause is found in the current stack frame.. A pointer to the object's method table is retrieved from the object reference. If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. .. it contains the location of the code for this exception. If the objectref on the operand stack is null.. 3.. the pc is reset to the address indicated by the catch-list entry. objectref => [undefined] objectref must be a reference to an object which is a subclass of Throwable. that frame is popped and the objectref is rethrown.

. instanceof determines whether objectref can be cast to be a reference to an object of the class class. and the objectref remains on the stack. class.. objectref indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. If objectref is null..) Otherwise. objectref must be a reference to an object.) If objectref can be cast to class execution proceeds at the next instruction.17 Miscellaneous Object Operations new Create new object Syntax: new = 187 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification. it’s overwritten by 0.3. checkcast Make sure object is of given type Syntax: checkcast = 192 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . (See the Java Language Specification for information on how to determine whether a objectref is an instance of a class.. result indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. Otherwise the referenced object must be an instance of class or one of its superclasses. give semantics here. objectref is overwritten by 0. checkcast determines whether objectref can be cast to be a reference to an object of class class. The item at that index must be a class name that can be resolved to a class pointer. A null objectref can be cast to any class.. objectref indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. This instruction will overwrite objectref with 1 if objectref is an instance of class or one of its superclasses. instanceof Determine if an object is of given type Syntax: instanceof = 193 indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: .. objectref => ... The string at that index of the constant pool is presumed to be a class name which can be resolved to a class pointer. objectref => . If objectref cannot be cast to class.. class. December 5.. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 71 . (See the Java Language Specification for information on how to determine whether a object reference is an instance of a class.. => . a ClassCastException is thrown. give semantics here. class.. objectref must be a reference to an object.. Note: Mustn’t refer to the Java Language Specification.. The string at that index of the constant pool is presumed to be a class name which can be resolved to a class pointer. A new instance of that class is then created and a reference to the object is pushed on the stack....

then continue execution. If the current thread already has the object locked.18 Monitors monitorenter Enter monitored region of code Syntax: monitorenter = 194 Stack: . If objectref is null. objectref must be a reference to an object. monitorexit Exit monitored region of code Syntax: monitorexit = 195 Stack: .. then other threads that are waiting for the object to be available are allowed to proceed.. If the object is not locked. 1995 . If this is the last lock that this thread has on that object (one thread is allowed to have multiple locks on a single object).. The lock on the object released. 72 Java Virtual Machine Specification December 5. If objectref is null. then a NullPointerException is thrown instead.3. objectref => . objectref must be a reference to an object.. objectref => ..... The interpreter attempts to obtain exclusive access via a lock mechanism to objectref. than the current thread waits until the object is unlocked. then obtain an exclusive lock... If another thread already has objectref locked. then a NullPointerException is thrown instead.

the value of constant_pool[index] is returned. If the _quick pseudo-instructions are used. We also need to define or change existing getfield and putfield bytecodes to support more than a byte of offset. It simply performs the intended operation on the resolved item. • Performs its intended operation This is identical to the action of the instruction without the _quick optimization. and getfield each have two _quick versions. constant_pool[0] is set to point to a dynamically allocated array which indicates which fields in the constant_pool have already been resolved. They are used to improve the speed of interpreting bytecodes. since they are invisible and subject to change. However. the value of constant_pool[index] is resolved to be the actual pointer or data. except for the additional step in which the instruction overwrites itself with its _quick variant. Note: some of the invoke methods only support a single-byte offset into the method table of the object. and constant_pool[0] is checked to see if the index has already been resolved. This Appendix doesn’t give the opcode values of the pseudo-instructions. A compiler from Java source code to the Java virtual machine instruction set emits only non-_quick instructions. the instruction references the constant pool. If not.Appendix A: An Optimization The following set of pseudo-instructions suffixed by _quick are variants of Java virtual machine instructions. each instance of a non-_quick instruction with a _quick variant is overwritten on execution by its _quick variant. August 22. If so. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specificationn 73 . When an instruction is executed that references the constant pool. and that this resolution did not generate any errors. and overwrites whatever value was already in constant_pool[index]. inside a virtual machine implementation they have proven to be an effective optimization. constant_pool[1] through constant_pool[nconstants .1 Constant Pool Resolution When the class is read in. getstatic. If the _quick optimization is used. putfield. an index is generated. Subsequent execution of that instruction instance will be of the _quick variant. The instructions putstatic. They are not part of the virtual machine specification or instruction set. In all cases. an array constant_pool[] of size nconstants is created and assigned to a field in the class. The _quick variant of an instruction assumes that the item in the constant pool has already been resolved.1] are set to point at the “type” field that corresponds to this constant item. and are invisible outside of an Java virtual machine implementation. if an instruction has an alternative version with the suffix _quick. for objects with 256 or more methods some invocations cannot be “quicked” with only these bytecodes. A. each non-_quick instruction with a _quick variant performs the following: • Resolves the specified item in the constant pool • Signals an error if the item in the constant pool could not be resolved for some reason • Turns itself into the _quick version of the instruction.

. 1995 . constant-word1. ldc2w_quick Push long integer or double float from constant pool onto stack Syntax: ldc2w_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: .. ldc2_quick Push item from constant pool onto stack Syntax: ldc2_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . item indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.A... => . The item at that index is pushed onto the stack. => ..... item indexbyte1 is used as an unsigned 8-bit index into the constant pool of the current class. The constant at that index is pushed onto the stack.2 Pushing Constants onto the Stack (_quick variants) ldc1_quick Push item from constant pool onto stack Syntax: ldc1_quick indexbyte1 Stack: ... => ... The constant at that index is resolved and the item at that index is pushed onto the stack.... 74 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 22. constant-word2 indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.

. Each represents the number of elements in a dimension of the array. All must be integers greater than or equal to zero. The resulting entry must be a class. an OutOfMemoryError is thrown.. size1. If any of the size arguments on the stack is less than zero. All elements of the array are initialized to zero. If there is not enough memory to allocate the array. Allocation of an array large enough to contain size items of the given class type is attempted. These are used as the sizes of the dimension.. If there is not enough memory to allocate the array. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 75 . The result is a reference to the new array object. a NegativeArraySizeException is thrown. size2. an OutOfMemoryError is thrown. multianewarray_quick Allocate new multi-dimensional array Syntax: multianewarray_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 dimensions Stack: . . a NegativeArraySizeException is thrown.3 Managing Arrays (_quick variants) anewarray_quick Allocate new array of references to objects Syntax: anewarray_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . It represents the number of elements in the new array. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. It must be ≤ the number of dimensions of the array class. Note: More explanation needed about how this is an array of arrays..A.. and result is a reference to this new array. If size is less than zero. The entry must be a class.sizen => result Each size must be an integer. dimensions has the following aspects: • • • It must be an integer ≥ 1.. size => result size must be an integer. August 22. It represents the number of dimensions being created. It represents the number of elements that are popped off the stack.. A new array of the indicated class type and capable of holding size elements is allocated.. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.

putfield2_quick Set long integer or double float field in object Syntax: putfield2_quick offset unused Stack: . a NullPointerException is generated. objectref must be a reference to an object. offset is the offset for the field in that object.. Both objectref and value are popped from the stack..A. value => .. getfield_quick Fetch field from object Syntax: getfield_quick offset unused Stack: . If objectref is null. The value at offset into the object referenced by objectref replaces objectref on the top of the stack.. objectref => .. value is written at offset into the object.. value-word1. a NullPointerException is generated. value must be a value of a type appropriate for the specified field... a NullPointerException is generated. Both objectref and value are popped from the stack.. objectref. value is written at offset into the object . 1995 . objectref.. objectref must be a reference to an object. If objectref is null. 76 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 22. value must be a value of a type appropriate for the specified field.. offset is the offset for the field in that object. If objectref is null... value objectref must be a handle to an object. value-word2=> ..4 Manipulating Object Fields (_quick variants) putfield_quick Set field in object Syntax: putfield_quick offset unused Stack: ...

.. value => .. getstatic_quick Get static field from class Syntax: getstatic_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: .. That field will be set to have the value value..... a NullPointerException is generated.. If objectref is null... value-word1. putstatic2_quick Set static field in class Syntax: putstatic2_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: ... August 22. The value at offset into the object referenced by objectref replaces objectref on the top of the stack. => . The constant pool item will be a field reference to a static field of a class..... value must be the type appropriate to that field. The constant pool item will be a field reference to a static field of a class. The value of that field will replace handle on the stack. value-word1. value-word2 => . value-word2 objectref must be a handle to an object. The constant pool item will be a field reference to a static field of a class. value must be the type appropriate to that field. That field will be set to have the value value. value indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.getfield2_quick Fetch field from object Syntax: getfield2_quick offset unused Stack: . objectref => .... indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 77 .. putstatic_quick Set static field in class Syntax: putstatic_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . That field must either be a long integer or a double precision floating point number..

The base of the operand stack for this method invocation is set to the first word after the execution environment. . The operand stack must contain objectref... The method block indicates the type of method (native.. The base of the local variables array for the new Java stack frame is set to point to objectref on the stack....5 Method Invocation (_quick variants) invokevirtual_quick Invoke instance method.. etc.lang... [arg1. a reference to an object or to an array and nargs-1 arguments. Finally. objectref.) the first nargs local variables of the new 78 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 22. synchronized. The operand stack must contain objectref. [arg1.lang. The value of that field will replace handle on the stack A. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with handle is entered. The base of the local variables array for the new Java stack frame is set to point to objectref on the stack. making objectref and the supplied arguments (arg1. a StackOverflowError is thrown.) the first nargs local variables of the new frame.Object. specifically for benefit of arrays Syntax: invokevirtualobject_quick offset nargs Stack: .. invokevirtualobject_quick Invoke instance method of class java.Object’s method table is retrieved. The total number of local variables used by the method is determined. etc... The method block at offset in java.. dispatching based on run-time type Syntax: invokevirtual_quick offset nargs Stack: . is retrieved. and the execution environment of the new frame is pushed after leaving sufficient room for the locals. arg2.... objectref. The method block indicates the type of method (native. The method block at offset in the object’s method table. as determined by the object’s dynamic type...]] => . execution continues with the first instruction of the matched method. arg2. If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. 1995 . If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with the object is entered. value-word1.. The field must be a long integer or a double precision floating point number. [arg2 . => . The constant pool item will be a field reference to a static field of a class. If objectref is null..... [arg2 . a reference to an object and nargs-1 arguments.). synchronized. .]] => . making objectref and the supplied arguments (arg1. value-word2 indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. a NullPointerException is thrown.).getstatic2_quick Get static field from class Syntax: getstatic2_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: ..

execution continues with the first instruction of the matched method.. The item at that index in the constant pool contains a method slot index and a pointer to a class. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with the object is entered.. The operand stack must contain some number of arguments. and the execution environment of the new frame is pushed after leaving sufficient room for the locals. invokestatic_quick Invoke a class (static) method Syntax: invokestatic_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: .. If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. [arg1. dispatching based on compile-time type Syntax: invokenonvirtual_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . synchronized. If objectref is null..) and the number of arguments (nargs) expected on the operand stack.. and the execution environment of the new frame is pushed after leaving sufficient room for the locals. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with the method’s class is entered. [arg1. Finally. synchronized. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.. The operand stack must contain objectref. The base of the August 22. If objectref is null. The method block indicates the type of method (native.. The total number of local variables used by the method is determined. The method block at the method slot index in the indicated class is retrieved. making objectref and the supplied arguments (arg1. a StackOverflowError is thrown. The base of the local variables array for the new Java stack frame is set to point to objectref on the stack. execution continues with the first instruction of the matched method. Finally. arg2.) and the number of arguments (nargs) expected on the operand stack. making the supplied arguments (arg1.]] => . a NullPointerException is thrown.. [arg2 . etc.. The base of the operand stack for this method invocation is set to the first word after the execution environment..) the first nargs local variables of the new frame. . indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. a reference to an object and some number of arguments. The base of the local variables array for the new Java stack frame is set to point to the first argument on the stack. The total number of local variables used by the method is determined. a StackOverflowError is thrown. arg2. The total number of local variables used by the method is determined. invokenonvirtual_quick Invoke instance method.. [arg2 . and the execution environment of the new frame is pushed after leaving sufficient room for the locals.. etc.frame... If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. The item at that index in the constant pool contains a method slot index and a pointer to a class. The base of the operand stack for this method invocation is set to the first word after the execution environment. 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 79 .) the first nargs local variables of the new frame. objectref..]] => . . The method block indicates the type of method (native. a NullPointerException is thrown... The method block at the method slot index in the indicated class is retrieved..

.. a StackOverflowError is thrown. execution continues with the first instruction of the matched method. The item at that index must be a class. . If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. and nargs-1 arguments. A. 80 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 22. a NullPointerException is thrown.. The method block indicates the type of method (native.. [arg2 ... The method signature is guaranteed to exactly match one of the method signatures in the table. objectref indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. [arg1.6 Miscellaneous Object Operations (_quick variants) new_quick Create new object Syntax: new_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . the method signature at slot guess is searched first.. => . If during the method invocation a stack overflow is detected. If the method is marked synchronized the monitor associated with handle is entered.. idbyte1 and idbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. If objectref is null. If that fails. The base of the local variables array for the new Java stack frame is set to point to handle on the stack.) but the number of available arguments (nargs) is taken from the bytecode. A new instance of that class is then created and objectref.. objectref. Each time through. invokeinterface_quick Invoke interface method Syntax: invokeinterface_quick idbyte1 idbyte2 nargs guess Stack: .) the first nargs local variables of the new frame. The item at that index in the constant pool contains the complete method signature.. Finally. The base of the operand stack for this method invocation is set to the first word after the execution environment. making handle and the supplied arguments (arg1. a reference to that object is pushed on the stack. The operand stack must contain objectref. 1995 . a NullPointerException is thrown. synchronized. If the object handle on the operand stack is null. arg2. a StackOverflowError is thrown. The total number of local variables used by the method is determined. The method signature is searched for in the object’s method table.operand stack for this method invocation is set to the first word after the execution environment. As a short-cut. and the execution environment of the new frame is pushed after leaving sufficient room for the locals. a complete search of the method table is performed. a reference to an object.. execution continues with the first instruction of the matched method... etc. guess is set to the method offset that was used. guess is the last guess. The result of the lookup is a method block. Finally..]] => . A pointer to the object’s method table is retrieved from the object handle.

. and otherwise the superclasses of objectref’s type are searched Note: here (and probably in other places) we assume casts don’t change the reference. result is 0 (false). it can be cast to objectref cannot be cast to class. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class. instanceof_quick Determine if object is of given type Syntax: instanceof_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . If class is determined to be a superclass of objectref’s type. instanceof determines whether objectref can be cast to an object of the class class. result is 0 (false). A for class. or if objectref is null. Otherwise. If class is determined to be a superclass of objectref’s type. a ClassCastException is thrown. objectref objectref must be a reference to an object... objectref => ... The item of class class at that index of the constant pool must have already been resolved. If handle is null. and otherwise the superclasses of objectref’s type are searched for class. A null objectref can be cast to any class. null reference can be cast to any class. checkcast then determines whether objectref can be cast to a reference to an object of class class... 1995 Java Virtual Machine Specification 81 . The object at that index of the constant pool must have already been resolved.checkcast_quick Make sure object is of given type Syntax: checkcast_quick indexbyte1 indexbyte2 Stack: . this is implementation dependent. result objectref must be a reference to an object. objectref => ... August 22.. indexbyte1 and indexbyte2 are used to construct an index into the constant pool of the current class.. result is 1 (true)..

82 Java Virtual Machine Specification August 22. 1995 .

1996 Java Virtual Machine Specification 83 .Index of Instructions aaload 39 aastore 41 aconst_null 29 aload 32 aload_<n> 32 anewarray 37 anewarray_quick 75 areturn 64 arraylength 38 astore 35 astore_<n> 35 athrow 70 baload 39 bastore 42 bipush 27 breakpoint 64 caload 40 castore 42 checkcast 71 checkcast_quick 81 d2f 55 d2i 54 d2l 54 dadd 45 daload 39 dastore 41 dcmpg 61 dcmpl 60 dconst_<d> 30 ddiv 48 dload 32 dload_<n> 32 dmul 47 dneg 49 drem 49 dreturn 64 dstore 34 dstore_<n> 34 dsub 46 dup 43 dup_x1 43 dup_x2 44 dup2 43 dup2_x1 44 dup2_x2 44 f2d 54 f2i 53 f2l 54 fadd 45 faload 39 fastore 41 fcmpg 60 fcmpl 60 fconst_<f> 30 fdiv 47 fload 31 fload_<n> 31 fmul 46 fneg 49 frem 48 freturn 64 fstore 34 fstore_<n> 34 fsub 46 getfield 67 getfield_quick 76 getfield2_quick 77 getstatic 68 getstatic_quick 77 getstatic2_quick 78 goto 61 goto_w 62 i2d 52 i2f 52 i2l 52 iadd 44 iaload 38 iand 51 iastore 40 iconst_<n> 29 iconst_m1 29 idiv 47 if_acmpeq 61 if_acmpne 61 if_icmpeq 58 if_icmpge 59 if_icmpgt 59 if_icmple 59 if_icmplt 58 if_icmpne 58 ifeq 56 ifge 58 ifgt 57 ifle 57 iflt 56 ifne 57 ifnonnull 57 ifnull 56 March 4.

1996 .iinc 35 iload 30 iload_<n> 30 imul 46 ineg 49 instanceof 71 instanceof_quick 81 instruction name 27 int2byte 55 int2char 55 int2short 55 invokeinterface 70 invokeinterface_quick 80 invokenonvirtual 69 invokenonvirtual_quick 79 invokestatic 69 invokestatic_quick 79 invokevirtual 68 invokevirtual_quick 78 invokevirtualobject_quick 78 ior 51 irem 48 ireturn 63 ishl 50 ishr 50 istore 33 istore_<n> 33 isub 45 iushr 50 ixor 52 jsr 62 jsr_w 62 l2d 53 l2f 53 l2i 53 ladd 45 laload 38 land 51 lastore 40 lcmp 60 lconst_<l> 29 ldc1 28 ldc1_quick 74 ldc2 28 ldc2_quick 74 ldc2w 29 ldc2w_quick 74 ldiv 47 lload 31 lload_<n> 31 lmul 46 lneg 49 lookupswitch 66 lor 51 lrem 48 lreturn 63 lshl 50 lshr 50 lstore 33 lstore_<n> 33 lsub 45 lushr 51 lxor 52 monitorenter 72 monitorexit 72 multianewarray 37 multianewarray_quick 75 new 71 new_quick 80 newarray 36 nop 42 pop 43 pop2 43 putfield 66 putfield_quick 76 putfield2_quick 76 putstatic 67 putstatic_quick 77 putstatic2_quick 77 ret 63 ret_w 63 return 64 saload 40 sastore 42 sipush 28 swap 44 tableswitch 65 wide 35 84 Java Virtual Machine Specification March 4.

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