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7/7/2010

GONAD
HUMAN REPRODUCTION,
- produces sex cells : ovary in females, testis in males
*Approximately week 5 of intrauterine life, primitive gonadal tissue is already formed

Reproductive and Sexual
Paramesonephric Mesonephric
(Müllerian) ducts (Wolffian)

Health
Week 7 or 8

AND If Testosterone is NOT
present by week 10
In Chromosomal
Males…
the gonadal tissue
Gonadal tissue
differentiates into differentiates into
Ovaries primitiveTestes and
begins formation of
Paramesonephric duct Testosterone

develops into Female Mesonephric duct
reproductive organs begins to develop
MICHAEL JOHN Z. PRINCIPIO RN, RM All of the oocytes are
into the Male
formed in the ovaries
at this stage. reproductive organs

At about week 12, the external
Secondary Sex Characteristics: GIRLS
genitals become visible…
1. Growth spurt
In females, with no Males, under the
2. Increase in the transverse diameter of the Pelvis
testosterone present… influence of
Testosterone…
T
3. Breast development ( helarche)
The urogenital fold remains
open to form the labia Penile tissue elongates
4. Growth of PUBIC hair (Adrenarche)
minora
5. Onset of menstruation (Menarche) Average: 12.5 years
and the Urogenital fold
on the ventral surface of
What would be formed as
6. Growth of AXILLARY hair (Adrenarche)
the penis closes to form
scrotal tissue in the male the urethra
becomes the Labia Majora in 7. Vaginal secretions
the female.

↓TESTOSTERONE
Secondary Sex Characteristics: BOYS Androgen is produced: (primary androgenic hormone)
in Males…

1. ↑ Weight Males Females Puberty (12 to 14 years)
Adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex ↑ TESTOSTERONE:
2. Testes Growth and the testes and the ovaries Testes, scrotum, penis, prostate, and
seminal vesicles Development

3. Growth of Axillary, Face and Pubic hair
Pubic, axillary, and facial hair
Voice changes
Roles of Androgen Maturation of Spermatozoa
4. VOICE changes Closure of growth in long bones.
Muscular development
5. Penile growth Acne
In girls, testosterone :
Physical growth
6. ↑ Height Enlargement of the labia majora
7. Spermatogenesis (Production of Sperm) and clitoris
Pubic and axillary hair

1

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL EXTERNAL Epididymis Penis Vas Deferens Seminal Vesicles Testes (encased in the Ejaculatory Ducts scrotal sac) Prostate Gland Urethra Bulbourethral Glands 2 . 7/7/2010 Estrogen Estrone [E1] Estradiol [E2] Estriol [E3] Anatomy and Physiology of the ↑Estrogen levels in GIRLS at Puberty: Reproductive System Uterus. The study of the female reproductive organs is called Gynecology. fallopian tubes. and vagina Development Female fat distribution and hair patterns Breast development End to growth = closure of the epiphyses of long bones Andrology is the study of the male reproductive organs.

3 . Each testis is encased by a protective white fibrous capsule and is composed of a number of lobules. smooth. allowing the CLOSER to the body testes to Fall away from the body MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM SCROTUM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES Testes It is 2 to 3 cm wide that lies in the scrotum. 7/7/2010 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES Scrotum It is a rugated. Because this descent occurs so late in pregnancy… many male PRETERM infants are born with Undescended Testes. skin-covered. muscular pouch suspended from the perineum. The epididymis (the tube that carries sperm away from the testes) can be palpated as a firm swelling on the superior aspect of the testes. Contains: Interstitial cells (Leydig's cells) & Seminiferous Tubule Production of Testosterone “Lalabas ng Testosterone” Produce Spermatozoa Testes first form in utero in the pelvic cavity. late in intrauterine life (about the 34th to 38th week) into the scrotal sac. Testicular Self Exam They descend. Normal testes feel firm. and egg-shaped. Function: Support the testes Help regulate the temperature of sperm COLD WEATHER HOT WEATHER / FEVER It contracts to bring the testes The muscle relaxes.

protein. and prostaglandins and is alkaline. They are not mobile at this point. Sperm become increasingly motile with this added fluid. Penile erection is stimulated by Parasympathetic Nerve Innervation. 7/7/2010 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES INTERNAL STRUCTURES Penis Epididymis Length: 20 ft long Corpus Corpus Spongiosum Cavernosa It is responsible for conducting sperm from the testis to the vas deferens. which has a high content of a basic sugar. Some sperms are stored in the epididymis and part of the alkaline fluid that surrounds sperm is produced by the cells lining the epididymis. Total of 64 days for them to due to the fairly acidic medium reach maturity. It takes at least 12 to 20 days Sperm mature as they pass for them to travel the length of through the vas deferens. the epididymis. of the semen produced at this level. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL STRUCTURES Sperms are IMMOBILE and Vas Deferens (Ductus Deferens) INCAPABLE of fertilization as they pass or are stored at the It carries sperm from the epididymis through the inguinal canal into epididymis level! the abdominal cavity. 4 . The penile artery provides the blood supply for the penis. Blood vessels and Vas Deferens  Spermatic Cord MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL STRUCTURES Seminal Vesicles Secrete a viscous portion of the semen. where it ends at the seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory ducts. because it surrounds them with nutrients and a more favorable pH.

alkaline fluid. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL STRUCTURES Urethra The urethra is a hollow tube leading from the base of the bladder. continues to the outside through the shaft and glans of the penis. after passing through the prostate gland. Like the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. 7/7/2010 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL STRUCTURES INTERNAL STRUCTURES Prostate Gland Bulbourethral Glands The prostate is a chestnut-sized Two bulbourethral or Cowper's gland. Secretes a thin. they secrete an ALKALINE fluid that helps counteract the acid secretion of the urethra and ensure the safe passage of spermatozoa. which. It is approximately 8 in long. glands lie beside the prostate gland. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL EXTERNAL Fallopian tubes Vulva Ovaries Vagina Uterus 5 .

Skene's glands / Bartholin's glands / Clitoris Paraurethral glands Vulvovaginal glands Approximately 1 to 2 cm. It is covered by a triangle of coarse. rounded organ of erectile tissue. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES EXTERNAL STRUCTURES Labia Minora Labia Majora Two folds of adipose tissue Hairless folds of connective covered by loose connective tissue tissue and epithelium Normal: folds are pink Covered by pubic hair. 6 . Arterial blood supply for the clitoris is plentiful. Purpose: to protect the junction of the pubic bone from trauma. curly hairs. 7/7/2010 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES Mons Veneris A pad of adipose tissue located over the symphysis pubis. smooth surface inside the labia. the labia majora serve as protection for Before menarche: the external genitalia and the folds are fairly small distal urethra and vagina. Childbearing age: firm and full After menopause: atrophy and again become much smaller FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES EXTERNAL STRUCTURES Lubricant during coitus & Alkaline pH for sperm survival Vestibule It is the flattened.

and discharge ova (egg cells) ova (oocytes) It produces: ALL Human body cells contains 46 Chromosomes Estrogen Progesterone IF Ovaries are REMOVED / NON FUNCTIONAL: Prevents Breast from maturing 22 pairs of Autosomes Male pattern Hair distrbiution 1 pair of Sex Chromosmes BUT Reproductive cells (ova and spermatozoa) have only AFTER Menopause. or the size and shape of almonds. Ovaries are located close to and on both sides of the uterus in the lower abdomen. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM INTERNAL STRUCTURES An unruptured. because they are situated so low in the abdomen. the uterus. joining of the two labia minora and the labia majora. clear. 7/7/2010 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM EXTERNAL STRUCTURES EXTERNAL STRUCTURES Hymen Fourchette The hymen is a tough but elastic semicircle of The fourchette is the ridge of tissue that covers the opening to the vagina in tissue formed by the posterior childhood. This is the structure that is sometimes cut (episiotomy) during childbirth to enlarge the vaginal opening. glistening. 46 chromosomes! 7 . It is They are grayish-white difficult to locate them by abdominal palpation and appear pitted. 22 Autosmes 22 Autosmes Prone to Osteoporosis X Chromosome X or Y Chromosome Atherosclerosis So that when they combine (fertilization). 1. such as an enlarging ovarian cyst. If an abnormality is present. breasts. and ovaries all undergo atrophy because half the usual number of chromosomes! of a lack of estrogen. the new individual formed from them will have the normal number. the resulting tenderness may be evident on lower-left or lower-right abdominal palpation OVARIES At birth = 1 ovary contains = 2 million immature FUNCTION: produce. fluid-filled Ovaries graafian follicle (an ovum about to be discharged) or a miniature yellow corpus 4 cm long by 2 cm in luteum (the structure left after the ovum has diameter & approximately been discharged) often can be observed on the surface of an ovary. mature.5 cm thick.

. lumen is 1 mm Childhood: it is the size of an olive 8 years of age: Increase in the size of the uterus begins Isthmus .lies within the uterine wall Uterus It is a hollow. Isthmus. the distal opening to the vagina is the external cervical os.It is cut or sealed in a tubal ligation With maturity. provide a place for implantation and nourishment during . approximately 9 cm long.1 cm in length. . the uterus never returns to its nonpregnant size.is a short segment between the body and the cervix. . 7/7/2010 Maturation of Oocytes FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Each oocyte is surrounded by a Protective sac / thin layer of INTERNAL STRUCTURES cells: FOLLICLE Fallopian Tubes Primordial Follicle INTERSTITIAL (5 to 7 million are first formed in UTERO) Fallopian tubes are approximately 10 cm in Majority NEVER develop beyond the primitive state = ATROPHY length in a mature woman. 5 cm wide. uterine dimensions are cut when a fetus is born by a cesarean birth. it weighs approximately 60 g. and.Fertilization of an ovum usually occurs In a nonpregnant state. Body . 5 cm in length 2. Function of the uterus is to receive the ovum from the fallopian Infundibular .000 ovum by sperm. By menopause. and Cervix. . Ampulla . 8 .The rim of the funnel is covered by fimbria (small fetal growth.is the lowest portion of the uterus. there are approximately 300. a uterus is approximately 5 to 7 cm long.5 cm deep.Approximately half of it lies above the vagina and half extends into the vagina. pear-shaped organ. After a pregnancy. By BIRTH only 2 million are present Their function is to convey the ovum from the ovaries to By age 7 years = 500.2 cm in length 17 years old: uterus reaches its adult size . 6 cm wide. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM PARTS OF A FALLOPIAN TUBE INTERNAL STRUCTURES Interstitial . 3 cm thick.longest portion of the tube. none are left (all have either matured or atrophied). expel it from a woman's body. Uterus consists of three divisions: Body or Corpus.It is the portion of the uterus that is most commonly In a woman who has borne a child. Isthmus . furnish protection to a growing fetus.is the uppermost part and forms the Bulk of the organ. muscular. or the end of the fertile period in females. . at hairs) that help to guide the ovum into the maturity of the fetus.000 are present in each ovary the uterus and to provide a place for fertilization of the By 22 years.The opening of the canal at the junction of the cervix and isthmus is the internal cervical os.2 cm long and is funnel-shaped tube.Itis the portion of the structure that expands to contain the growing fetus. and 80 g in Cervix . . weight. *The portion of the uterus between the points of attachment of the fallopian tubes is termed the fundus. fallopian tube.

a With childbirth.Constricts the tubal junctions and preventing regurgitation of menstrual blood into the tubes.a condition in which the body is bent junction of the fallopian tubes.It serves the purpose of adding strength and support to the structure. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Vagina secretes mucus  Increase Glycogen Vagina It is a hollow. 7/7/2010 Layers of the Uterus Endometrium .Muscle layer of the uterus  gives strength to the organ. . *After menopause.If pregnancy does not occur. .It also holds the internal cervical os closed during pregnancy to prevent a preterm birth. this interlacing network of fibers is able to constrict the blood vessels coursing through the layers  ↓ blood loss. Myometrium . it expands to reason that vulvovaginitis infections occur more frequently in women in this age group. .a condition in which the fundus is tipped forward Retroversion .5 or slightly alkaline. Broken down by the lactose-fermenting bacteria musculomembranous canal Döderlein's bacillus.a condition in which the body of the uterus is bent sharply forward at the junction with the cervix Other women have oddly shaped “horns” at the Retroflexion . the pH of the vagina becomes closer to 7.a condition in which the fundus is tipped back Anteflexion . . serve as the birth canal. 9 . *Myomas.It grows and becomes so thick and responsive each month under the influence of estrogen and progesterone that it is capable of supporting a pregnancy. termed a sharply back just above the cervix bicornuate uterus. this is the layer that is shed as the menstrual flow. Uterine Deviations Uterine Deviations Anteversion . arise from the myometrium. pH of the vagina ACIDIC! Its function is to act as the organ of intercourse To convey the sperm to the cervix so that sperm can meet with the ovum in the fallopian tube. or benign uterine tumors. located posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum. Perimetrium . LACTIC ACID is formed.After childbirth.

It is a bony ring formed by four united bones: 2 innominate (flaring hip) bones coccyx sacrum 10 . It was delivered to the nipple via a Lactiferous duct J *The nipple has approximately 20 small openings through which milk is secreted. called Acinar cells . 7/7/2010 Breasts The size increase consists mainly of connective tissue plus deposition of fat.serves as a reservoir for milk before breast-feeding. Areola . termed gynecomastia. Milk glands of the breasts are divided by connective tissue partitions into approximately 20 lobes. Ampulla (portion of the duct) . necessary for successful breast-feeding. Boys may notice a temporary increase in breast size at puberty.produces milk Montgomery's tubercles. remains undeveloped until a first pregnancy begins. It contains many sebaceous glands.dark pigmented area of epithelium. Pelvis The pelvis serves both to support and protect the reproductive and other pelvic organs. 4 cm in diameter. The glandular tissue of the breasts.

situated above the pelvic brim ilieum ischium • True pelvis pubis pelvic inlet • Sacrum pelvic cavity • Coccyx • Types of pelvis pelvic outlet Gynecoid Anthropoid Android Platypelloid Diameters of the Pelvis Anterior Division Posterior Oblique Transverse Inlet 11 cm 12 cm 13 cm Cavity 12 cm 12 cm 12 cm Outlet 13 cm 12 cm 11 cm 11 . 7/7/2010 Pelvis Divisions of Pelvis • 2 innominate bone • False pelvis.