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I am pleased to submit to the Congress this report of continued
progress in the Nation’s space program.
The report covers the months ,January to June, 1066. Since then,
the risk to human life and tlie formidable teclmicnl difficulties that
must accompany the exploration of space were vividly brought home
to every American by the tragic fire which cost the lives of three of
our bmoe astronauts.
The way to the stars was never thought to be easy. I3ut the goal
we seek promises such great, benefits to mankind that we must. press
on. We must surmount difficulty and lessen danger so we can continue
in the steady pursuit, of this historic mission.
The achievements reported here reflect not only our progress in
space flight, but also new steps taken toward the real objective of all
our efforts in space-the application of new knowledge to bettering
tlie lives of all people. Alreaciy, we see dramatic examples of success
in the satellites which have improved our weather forecasts and nnvi-
gation, and mliich tire extending radio and television communication
to the farthermos’t regions of the earth.
We are determined that space be kept free from tlie weapons of
war. Just rocently tlie Sennte ratified the Treaty on Onter S p n c ~ .
This historic action dramatizes oiir continuing efforts to cooperate with
other nations in conducting experiments, sharing data, nnd develop-
ing controls to assure that the space efforts of every nation will serve
the cause, not of war, but of peace and prosperity for nll mankind.
The Senate‘s action, taken without :I dissenting vote, enables me to
reaffirm as President what 1said as x Senator to the IJnitecl Nations
in 1958:
“On the goal of dedicating outer space to penceful purposes
for the benefit of all mankind, there :we no differencns within
our government, bet\veen our parties or among our people.”
The IJnited States space program, :is reflected in this report,
continues to exemplify our Nation’s conviction that, tlie rotid t o p e : ~ e ,
progress, and abundance is through continned cooperation among d l
I commend this report to your attention.

M n y 11. 1697.
JANUARY I - JUNE 30, 1966


Surveyor I (cover) and other illustrations prepared by Alfred
Jordan, Visual Aids Branch, Office of Administration, NASA

.__. ~~ ~~ ~~~
I'or salr hy tho Suprrlntrndent of Documents. U.S. Government PrlntlnR OffICO
WnRhington, D.C. 20402 - Prlee $1
April 24, 1967
The White H w e
This Fifteenth Semiannual Report of the National Aeronautics and
Space L4dministration,covering the period January 1 through June 30,
1966, is submitted to you for transmittal to Congress in accordance
with section 206(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of
During this time, the Gemini program moved ahead on schedule
with the completion of two manned flights. I n March, the Gemini
VI11 mission achieved the docking of two orbiting spacecraft; during
the rescheduled Gemini IX-A mission in June, rendezvous maneuvers
were executed and over two hours of extravehicular activity were con-
ducted. The manned space program progressed further as the first
flight test of the uprated Saturn I (Saturn IB) was completed.
I n the space sciences, the landing of Surveyor I on the moon was a
noteworthy achievement climaxed by the transmission of more than
3,500 clear pictures of the lunar surface. Other satellites launched
included Nimbus 11, for meteorological use, and ESSA I and 11,
wheel-type T I R O S satellites for the operational weather satellite
These advances, together with the many others detailed in the body
of this report, mean that the Nation’s space program continued to
advance tolvard developing the broad-based capability for extended
manned space flights which would be demonstrated by the lunar
mission planned for this decade. Although much remains to be done,
we are confident that we have the dedicated individuals, the diverse
skills, and the industrial resources to achieve our aim.
Respectfully yours,

. . ... ... . . . . ... . . .....

HIGHLIGHTS . . . . ... . . . . . . .. 3
Chapter 1-Manned Space Flight- _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ - 9
Gemmi Program _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10
Gemmi VI11_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10
Gemini VI11 Experiments--__ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ - - _ _ 13
Gemmi IX-A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - 14
Gemini IX-A Experiments- - _ - _ - - _- _ _ _ _ _ _ 17
Medical Results of Gemini VI11 and IX-A- - 18
Development, Production, and Test_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 21
Gemini Mid-Program Conference- - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - 21
Apollo Program- - - - _ - - _ _ - - - - _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - _ - _ _ _ _ _ 21
Specific Missions and Objectives_ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - 22
Development and Testing of Spacecraft- - - - 24
Launch Escape System _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 26
Launch Vehicles-_- _ _ _ _ - - - _ - - - _ - _ _ _ - _ - - - - 29
Uprated Saturn I (Saturn IB) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 29
Saturn V _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 30
Saturn V Dynamic Testing- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - 31
Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package
(ALSEP)_ _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ _ - - - - _ _ _ _ - - _ - _ - - - _ - 32
Astronaut Actinties_ - - - - - - - - _ _ _ - - - _ - - - - _ _ _ - - 35
. .
Apollo Applications- - - - - - _ _ _ _ - - - - - _ - - _ _ - _ _ _ _ - 36
Program Management _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - _ - - _ - - - - - - 36
Flight Hardware- - - - - - - _ _ - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 36
Experiments - _ _ _ - - - - _ _ - _ - - - _ _ - - - - _ - _ - - - - 36
. .
Program Obi ectives- - - - - - _ - - - - - - - _ - _ - _ - _ _ 38
. . . .
Mission Objectives _ _ _ _ - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
Advanced Manned Missions- _ - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39
.. .
Construction of Facdities- _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - 41
. .
Space Medicme- - - _ - _ _ - - - - - _ - - - _ - - _ _ _ - - - - - - - 41
Military Medical Personnel Requirements- - 44
Cooperation with USAF in MOL Program- - 44
Reorganization of Medical Capabilities a t
MSC- _ _ _ _ - - - - - - _ - - - _ _ - - - - - - - _ _ - - - - - - 44
Medical Data Analysis Program_-- - - _ - - _ - - 44
General - _ - - _ _ - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ 45














Chapter 8- Grants and Research Contracts Activities-Con.

Sustaining University Program-Con tinued
Research - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
.. .
Research Facdities-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Management of Grants and Research Contracts- 135
Chapter 9-Informational and Educational Programs-- - - - - - 136
Educational Programs and Services- - - - - - - - - - - - 136
Spacemobiles-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 138
Educational Publications and Films-- - - - - - - 138
Educational Television and Radio- - - - - - - - - 138
Scientific and Technical Information- - - - - - - - - - 139
* .
Historical Program - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 140
Chapter 10-Personnel, Management, Procurement, and Sup-
port Functions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 141
Personnel- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- ----- 141
Employee-Management Cooperation- - - - - - - 142
Employee Training and Education- - - - - - - - - 142
Graduate Study-- - - - - - - - - - -- - 142
Cooperative Education - - - - - ------- 142
Apprentice Training - - - - - - 143
. . ..
Specialized Training - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- --
Equal Employment Opportunity- - - - - - - - 143
Status of Women _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 44
Manpower Research and Utilization - - - - - - 144
Status of Personnel Force _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 145
Key Executive Personnel Changes- - - - - - - - - 145
Key Appointments- - - ~-------- 145
Reassignments - - - - 146
. .
Termin ations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- --- ---

NASA Awards and Honors- - ---------- 147
NASA Distinguished Service Medal- - - - 147
NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal..- 147
NASA Exceptional Service Medal.. - - - - 147
NASA Group Achievement Award- - - - - 149
Tnventions and Conhibutions Board- - - - - - - - - - - 150
Patent Waiver Petitions_-_ - - - - - - - - - - - - 150
Contributions Awards- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 150
Invention Awards to NASA Employees- - - - 151
Revised Patent Waiver Regulations- - - - - - - - - - - 151
Organizational and Managerial Improvement- - - 151
Financial Management- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 153
Fiscal Year 1967 Program _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - . - - --- 155
Financial Reports, June 30, 1966 _ _ - - - - - - - - 155
Cost Reduction - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .- - - - - 156
Gemini VIII, the sixth manned Gemini mission, was conducted on
March 16. With Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott
aboard the spacecraft, Gemini VI11 accomplished the second rendez-
vous and the first docking mission of the program.
The Gemini IX-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford
and Eugene A. Cernan aboard, was successfully launched on June 3.
Gemini IX-A successfully rendezvoused with the ATDA (Aug-
mented Target Docking Adapter) during the spacecraft’s third revolu-
tion (but did not dock because the ATDA shroud did not completely
Astronaut Cernan carried out extravehicular activity for 2 hours
and 5 minutes on the third day of the Gemini IX-A mission.
The first uprated Saturn I (Saturn I B ) mission was completed
on February 26. This was an unmanned suborbital flight.
The first altitude testing of the complete Lunar Module descent
propulsion system was carried out at White Sands Test Facility
( W S T F ).
The Apollo Launch Escape System was declared qualified for flight
following the final test in January at WSTF.
The Manned Space Flight Center-built first S-IC flight stage was
acceptance tested on the single position test stand in February. The
second flight stage was successfully acceptance fired on June 6.
The first flight unit of the Saturn V third stage (S-IVB-501) was
successfully acceptance fired on May 26.
On May 26, the Crawler Transporter lifted the Launcher Umbilical
Tower and the Apollo/Saturn 500F and moved the combined units
to Pad A in a nine-hour trip.
Nineteen new pilot/astronauts were assigned to the Manned Space-
craft Center in May.
The last major laboratories were completed a t the Manned Space-
craft Center in Houston.

I n June, Surveyor I soft landed on the moon and began to transmit

high-resolution pictures of the lunar surface. The thousands of pic-
tures will be used in planning for manned lunar landings.
Two observatory type satellitas were launched: the first Orbiting
Astronomical Observatory in April, and an Orbiting Geophysical
Observatory carrying 21 scientific experiments in June.
Preparations were also underway for launching the first Biosatellite
(an orbiting biological laboratory) and the first Lunar Orbiter which
will make photographs of the moon’s surface for use in selecting
potential landing sites for manned spacecraft.
I n May, Explorer X X X I I was orbited to observe and report on the
neutral components and the charged ions of the upper atmosphere.

Mariner I V (which flew within 6,118 miles of Mars in July 1965)

transmitted data as it passed behind the sun a t a distance of 219 million
miles from the earth. This was the first time that coherent radio-
frequency energy has passed through the solar corona and been
monitored by earthbased receiving stations.
Pioneer VI-launched December 16, 1965, to survey interplanetary
space during a complete solar cycle-collected and returned substan-
tial data covering 900 hours of flight time.
I n ,June, PAGEOS-I, the second spacecraft in the U.S. geodetic
satellite program was orbited. It serves as an orbiting point of light
as bright as the star Polaris for use in precision mapping of the earth’s
a a 0

A highly sophisticated, completely-instrumented Nimbus I1 space-

craft was launched in May to furnish data for more accurate weather
forecasts; in February, the launchings of ESSA-I and -11 marked
the opening of the national operational weather satellite system.
Two second-generation commercial communications satellites
(INTELSAT-11) were being rmdied for launch by NA4SAfor the
Communications Satellite Corporation late in 1966. Positioned in
geostationary orbit-ne over the Atlantic, the other over the
Pacific-the satellites will provide earth coverage in both the Northern
and Southern hemispheres.
A Gravity Gradient Test Satellite was launched in June to help de-
termine if the gravitational pull of the earth can be used to stabilize
spacecraft in high orbits.
Prototypes of instruments which will be used in NASA’s earth re-
sources survey program were evaluated in airborne remote sensor tests.
The first Applications Technology Satellite (ATS)-which will
conduct experiments in communications, meteorology, and geophysics-
completed major qualification tests and was scheduled t o be launched
in December.
0 a a

The three Pegasus satellites continued to return valuable meteoroid

penetrations data which are used in the design of advanced spacecraft.
The reentry “E” experiment of the Scout reentry heating project was
flown in February. It provided useful data on nosecap material be-
havior under reentry heat conditions and information on scaling laws.
NASA received the second of its two lifting-body research vehicles,
the HL-10, and began wind tunnel tests of the craft. The M-2 made
three captive flights (two of them manned) and several taxi tests.
Research was conducted on a concept for a radio telescope n i d e up
of a parabolic shaped network of fine wires about one mile in diameter
orbitingat an altitudaof 3700 miles.
A visual aid, the standoff cross, was developed for astronaut use in
rendezvous and docking maneuvers and incorporated into the Apollo
lunar module design.
Measurement devices developed to determine human response to the
space environment included radio transmitters small enough to be
swallowed or implanted under the skin, spray-on electrodes, and pocket
size data recorders.
A second 260-inch solid motor was test fired in February, producing
a peak thrust of over 3.5 million pounds, burning for 114 seconds near
peak thrust, and delivering useful thrust for a total of 130 seconds.
0 a 0

The Nation’s first nuclear rocket system, a “breadboard” engine

called the NRX/EST, was power tested.
Two significant NJXX-A5 reactor experiments were conducted
(June 8 and June 23), with the reactor operating in general accordance
with design predictions.
The first 35 KWe S N A P 4 breadboard power conversion system,
using the first generation of components, was operated for the first
Work was underway to develop a small (15-watt) ion engine for the
14pplications Technology Satellite.
I n the electric thrustor area, one ion engine, under endurance testing,
had accumulated over 4500 hours as of the end of this report period.
A mercury bombardment engine had also been tested for about 4000
0 0 0

STADAN (Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network) sup-

ported 43 satellite programs during the period, eight of which were
launched since January 1 (four NASA satellites, four belonging to
other government agencies).
The first Apollo Instrumentation Ship, the USNS Vanguard, was
completed and testing started.
The eight Apollo/Range Instrumentation Aircraft were under
The 210-foot antenna located a t Goldstone, California, was dedi-
cated in April and became operational shortly thereafter.
The Deep Space Network provided continuous control of Surveyor
I during its flight to the moon and after its landing.

Nine countries cooperated with NASA on scientific sounding rocket

experiments, and agreements for new experiments were concluded
with Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain.

Arrangements were made with seven countries for operational sup-

port of new or continuing NASA projects.
Over 2700 foreign nationals from 92 locations visited NASA facili-
ties for scientific and technical discussions o r general orientations.
Under the NASA International University Fellowship Program, 38
graduate students completed their studies while 53 either entered the
program or continued their studies.

By June, 164 grants or contracts had been awarded to 153 institu-

tions for advanced training under NASA’s sustaining university pro-
gram. Predoctoral training program grants were awarded to 152 uni-
versities, 10 entering the program for the first time. By the end of
.June, 272 NASA trainees had earned the Ph.D.
I n a program enabling postdoctoral investigators to conduct ad-
vanced research at a NASA field center, 104 individuals were on tenure
at 6 centers and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
Support €or multidisciplinary space-related research in science and
technology was provided to 48 educational institutions, an increase of
12 over the last period.

During the firsthalf of 1966, significant manned space flight achieve-

ments included two Gemini missions and the Apollo Saturn mission
initiating the flight phase of the Apollo program. The Gemini VI11
and IX-A missions were completed, and the first suborbital flight test
of the uprated Saturn I launch vehicle with the unmanned Apollo
Command and Service Module spacecraft (AS-201) was conducted.
The Apollo Sat& I flight, one of a number of major Apollo pro-
gram milestones, was completed on schedule after more than three
years of program development effort. Future milestones include the
first manned flight of the Apollo/uprated Saturn I and the first un-
manned flight of the Apollo Saturn V, both scheduled for 1967; and
accomplishment of the Apollo lunar mission, scheduled to t,ake place
before 1970.
Construction and activation of necessary facilities in support of the
Apollo program continued on schedule. On May 25 the crawler-
transporter for the first time moved a fully assembled Apollo Saturn
spaca vehicle from the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the
launching pad A a t Launch Complex 39.
The overall objectives of the Apollo Applications program were
further defined and additional major effort was directed toward es-
tablishing NASA’s later post-Apollo space program goals.
I n April, organizational changes in the Kennedy Space Center were,
approved, including establishment of a new position of Deputy D i m -



tor, Center Operations and formation of an Executive Staff in support

of the Center Director. The changes resulted from the rapid buildup
of KSC in the past three years, the assignment of both manned and
unmanned launch program responsibilities, and the quickened pace
of Apollo program launch preparation.
In addition, nineteen new pilot/astronauts were assigned to the
manned space flight program and began their training activities.

Gemini Program
I n the five manned Gemini flights of 1965, the investigation of the
effects of long duration flight was completed, extravehicular activity
was demonstrated, and the first rendezvous of two spacecraft in space
was achieved. Two of the manned Gemini flights were conducted to
continue the development and investigation of rendezvous techniques
and procedures, and to extend our knowledge of manned extravehicular
operations. During the Gemini VI11 mission in March, the first dock-
ing of two spacecraft in space was successfully accomplished. I n the
course of the Gemini IX-A mission in June, extravehicular activity
was conducted for more than two hours, and three methods of rendez-
vous were executed and evaluated.
Gemini Vlll
The Agena Target Vehicle test program, instituted by NASA and
the Department of the Air Force in October 1965 to confirm the cause
of the Gemini VI-Agena failure and t o test corrective modifications,
was successfully completed in March. The Gemini VIII-Agena Tar-
get Vehicle was consequently modified to a new configuration and
delivered to Cape Kennedy for the Gemini VI11 mission.
The sixth manned Gemini mission (Gemini V I I I ) was the second
rendezvous mission and the first docking mission of the program. The
Ai2genaTarget Vehicle was launched from Complex 14 at 0:OO a.m.
(e.s.t) on March 16. The Gemini spacecraft, with Astronaut Neil A.
Armstrong as command pilot and Astronaut David R. Scott as pilot,
was launched oiie hour and 41 minutes later from Complex 19. (Fig.
1-1.) Rendezvous and docking with the Agena Target Vehicle \vas ac-
complished as planned during the fourth revolution of the spacecraft.
The rendezvous phase of the mission mas completed after five hours
and 58 minutes of spacecraft flight, and nine spacecraft maneuvers,
when spacecraft VI11 was 150 feet, from the Agena Target Vehicle
and all relative motion between the two vehicles had stopped. (Fig.
After station keeping for 36 minutes (fig. 1-3), spacecraft VI11
docked with the Agena Target, Vehicle, and the Target Docking
Figure 1-1. Gemini Vlll launch, March 16, 1966.

Figure 1-2. The Agena Target Docking Vchiclc seen from Gemini VIII.

Adapter was rigidized, combining the two vehicles into one space
vehicle. This docking event marked the attainment of another Gemi-
ni program objective, a vital step toward the Apollo lunar mission.
The stability and control of the docked vehicles were excellent for
27 minutes after docking, until the combined vehicle began to de-
velop unexpected roll and yaw rates. Subsequently, the crew found
it increasingly difficult to control these rates without excessive use of
Orbit Attitude nad Maneuvering System (OAMS) propellants.
To isolate the problem, the crew undocked the spacecraft from the
Agena Target Vehicle. After undocking, spacecraft roll and yaw
rates continued t o increase. When these rates reached 300 degrees
per second, the crew completely d e a c t h t e d the OAMS and activated
the Reentry Control System (RCS) . Using malfunction analysis
precedures, the crew determined that a thruster in the OAMS was
Inasmuch as the primary function of the Reentry Control Systelrl
(RCS)is to control the spacecraft during reentry and the system had
been used to gain control of the spacecraft, the Mission Director de-
cided to terminate the flight in the seventh revolution.
The crew made a controlled reentry and landed within seven miles
of the planned landing point in the recovery area in the Western Pa-

Figure 1-3. Agena Target Docking Vehicle about two feet from nose of Gemini VIII.

cific. (Fig. 1-4.) A U S A F search aircraft from Naha, Okinawa,

sighted the spacecraft supported by its parachute just prior to splash-
down. Recovery was carried out quickly, and the spacecraft and
crew were on board the USS Leonard Mason approximately three
hours and 11minutes after landing.
S f t e r the manned phase of the mission had been terminated, the
Agena Target Vehicle was maneuvered 11times by ground command.
These maneuvers utilized the primary and secondary propulsion sys-
tems of the Agena Target Vehicle, ultimately placing it in a 220-mile
circular orbit for use as a dual rendezvous target on a latter Gemini
mission. The EVA planned for Gemini VI11 was rescheduled for a
later flight. because of the early termination of the mission.
After completion of the mission and thorough study of the faulty
thruster, the malfunction was determined to be an intermittent short
in its electrical control system. The remaining four Gemini space-
craft-IX, X, XI, and XII-were thoroughly inspected to prevent a
recurrence of this malfunction.
Gemini Vlll Experiments
Data were accumulated on three Gemini VI11 experiments: The
M-&Bioassays of Body Fluids, 5-&Frog Egg Growth, and 5-9-
Figure 1-4. Gemini V l l l Astronauts Armstrong and Scott after splashdown in Pacific Ocean.

Nuclear Emulsion. A fourth experiment, Si-l&Agena Micromete-

orite Collection, was installed on the Gemini VI11 Agena Target
Vehicle; plans call for retrieving this experiment during the extra-
vehicular activity period of the Gemini X mission. Six other experi-
ments were incomplete because of the short duration of the mission.
Gemini IX-A
The Gemini IX mission \vas first attempted on May 17. A4ftera
successful countdown and liftoff of the Atlas/Agena Target Vehicle,
a malfunction occurred in the Atlas Launch Vehicle that resulted in an
erratic trajectory and loss of the -4gena Target Vehicle.
The USAF Space System Division investigation to determine the
cause of the Gemini IS Atlas malfunction concluded that the probable
cause \vas an electrical short in the guidance and control system. I n -
dications were that the short cnwed one of the booster engines to go to
:I pitch down position. The other booster engine reacted norm:~llyby
going to a pitch lip position, resulting in a rapid pitch down/roll
maneuver. During this m:uieiiver the ground based guidance W:LS lost,
:md R normal switch over to the backup guidtince system \vas made.
Although the backup system operated, its reference was lost during the
initial maneuver. The Atlas continued to fly but iissumed nn incorrect
flight p:Lth, and the flight WLS terminated prior to ignition of the
Agena main engine. The malfunction was considered a random fail-
ure unique to the Gemini IX Atlas vehicle, requiring no vehicle design
As described in NASA’s Fourteenth Sentiannual Report (p. 22),an
augmented target docking adapter (ATDA) was added to the Gemini
program as a backup for the Agena Target Vehicle. The availability
of this vehicle along with a pre-arranged turn-around plan allowed
NASA to recycle the Gemini I X mission (redesignated IX-A) in
14 days for a planned June 1 launch. From Complex 14 at KSC, the
ATDA was launched at 1O:OO a.m. ( e s t . ) on June 1, attaining the
circular orbit of 161 nautical miles. Countdown of the Gemini IX-A
spacecraft continued to T minus 3 minutes (a planned hold, where
final ground corrections for spacecraft orbit insertion are made). A t
the resumption of the countdown, the spacecraft would not accept
its launch azimuth update information. The optimum time for launch-
ing the spacecraft for the planned rendezvous was exceeded and space-
craft launch was rescheduled to June 3.
On June 3, at 8:39 a.m. (e.s.t.), the Gemini IX-A spacecraft was
launched with Thomas P. Stafford as command pilot and Eugene A.
Cernan as pilot. The crew executed a number of rendezvous ma-
neuvers and rendezvoused with the ATDA as planned during the third
spacecraft revolution. As the spacecraft completed its terminal phase
of rendezvous, the crew confirmed visually what telemetry had par-
tially indicated to the ground during the ATDA insertion into orbit
on June 1. The shroud that protects the ATDA from aerodynamic
forces and heating during the launch phase had not completely sep-
arated, thus preventing completion of the docking maneuver. (Fig.
1-5.) Based on the crew’s in-flight observations of the partially
opened shroud and a ground analysis of the separation mechanisms,
the problem was traced to improper rigging of lanyards used to
separate electrical wiring between the shroud and the ATDA. Since
similar lanyards are also used on the Agena vehicle, corrective meas-
ures were taken to prevent a recurrence on later Gemini missions.
The initial rendezvous simulated the planned Apollo Lunar Module
rendezvous with the Command and Service Module. Two additional
rendezvous maneuvers were later executed by the Gemini IX-A crew.
The last of these was a Lunar Module Abort Simulation. Although
extremely difficult to execute, this rendezvous simulation was com-
pleted successfully and provided significant experience for the crew
and the flight controllers at the Mission Control Center.
On the third day of Gemini IX-A, extravehicular activity (EVA)
was conducted for 2 hours and 5 minutes. (Fig. 1-6.) This EVA
provided the second step in the understanding and development of
I man’s proficiency in extravehicular operations. During this EVA,

Figure 1-5. The "Angry Alligator"-ATDA with partially opened protective shroud still

evaluations were conducted of tether dynamics, umbilical operations,

dark side operations, Velcro hand holds, and mechanical hand rails.
A major part of the E V A planned for this mission was to include
experiment D-12, Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) . This unit
was stowed in the adapter section of the spacecraft where it \vas to
be checked out and donned by Astronaut Cernan. After the checkout
and donning were completed, the astronaut would conduct various
maneuvers with the AMU while attached t o the spacecraft by a 100
foot tether.
The amount of work required of the astronaut to perform his as-
signed EVA tasks was much greater than anticipated and resulted
in fogging of his helmet and visor. Checkout of the AMU was satis-
factorily completed; but hecause of the limited visibility resulting
€ram the fogged visor, the command pilot ordered Astronaut, Cernan
to return to the spacecraft cabin without, conducting the experiment.
An antifogging compound will be used on the remaining E V A mis-
sions to eliminate visor fogging.
As in Gemini VIII, a controlled reentry \VRS flown and the space-
craft landed within 2.8 miles of the planned landing point. This was
the best executed controlled reentry of any mission to dtite, and was

,Figure I d . Astronaut Ccrnan during EVA.

the fourth successive time the Gemini spacecraft had landed within 7
miles of the planned landing point.
Gemini IX-A Experiments
The Gemini IX-A mission made highly important cmtributions in
the field of scientific experiments. All three of the principal scientific
investigators with experiments originally planned for this flight
praised the astronauts and other members of the Gemini team for the
data obtained during the flight. Seventeen high quality photographs
were obtained for the Zodiacal Light Photography experiment. The
Zodiacal light is believed to result from sunlight reflecting on small
particles in orbit about the sun.
Approximately 45 photographs were obtained for the Airglow Hor-
izon Photography experiment. (Fig. 1-7.) The night airglow layer
can be seen as a narrow bright band lying above the night-time hori-
zon. Caused by sunlight excitation of the upper atmosphere, the re-
sulting airglow persists into the nighttime.
Eighteen hours of exposure time, including a 10-hour bonus result-
ing from the flight plan changes, were obtained for the s-12 Micro-
meteorite Collection experiment. The purpose of this experiment was
to expose biological samples to the space environment, collect micro-
meteorite particles, and examine craters caused by micrometeorites.
Another experiment, the S-10 Agena Micrometeorite Collection ex-
periment, was rescheduled to the Gemini X mission which was planned
to include E V A t o the Target Vehicle.
Real time flight plan changes made it possible t o add an experiment
and obtain approximately 50 photographs of the South American
continent for the S-5 Synoptic Terrain Photography studies. (Fig.
1-8.) Before the Gemini IX-A mission, very few synoptic terrain
photographs of the South American continent had been obtained.
Medical Results of Gemini Vlll and IX-A
The significant medical features of these flights were primarily the
unique stress environment encountered in Gemini VI11 and the extra-
vehicular activities in Gemini IX-A.
The Gemini VI11 crewman performed satisfactorily throughout
the emergency caused by the failure in the spacecraft Orbit Attitude
and Maneuvering System. Roll rates during this period exceeded 180'
per second for approximately 4 minutes with maximum rates in the
range of 300 degrees per second, lasting a t least 1minute. During the
period of maximum roll, the crewmen were able t o see the circuit
breaker panel by holding the head back and turning slowly to the
appropriate side. Neither nausea nor other physiological problems
were induced by this activity, although the head movement usually
used to see the circuit breakers-a forward, twisting motion-caused
vertigo during this period of extreme roll. Heart rates were increwed
slightly during the emergency period.
After landing, nausea and vomiting, induced by a relatively rough
sen, were experienced by the crew. Medical examinations following
the landing failed to reveal any notkeable effects of the flight.
n a t a for Gemini IX-A were still being analyzed at. the end of the
period. However, the crew members were in excellent condition a t the

Figure 1-7. Airglow Horizon experiment photograph.

time of launch, all biomedical instrumentation functioned normally,

and the data received were of the highest quality.
On the first day of Gemini IX-A, both astronauts were subjected to
a very heavy workload, including three rendezvous operations. Up to
the time of the evening meal, e,acli crewman had consumed only one-
half of a meal and approximately 28 o'mces of water. Sleep was light
for SI/, hours and was followed by an extremely busy and fatiguing
series of procedures preliminary to attempting the third rendezvous--a
rendezvous from above. The crew reported fatigue and requested a
delay in extravehicular activity until the 3d day of the mission. This
request resulted in decisions to postpone the extravehicular activity
and to change the 2d day flight plan to permit B rest period after -a
midday meal.
Biomedical real time data obtained during preparations for the
extravehicular activity, a high workload period, indicated no significant
258-73s 0-47-8

Figure 1-8. Central coastal area of Peru showing path of 1962 avalanche.

problems and showed the crew’s physiological status to be good for the
The pilot left the spacecraft without difficulty. The extravehicular
activity followed the flight plan for approximately 52 minutes; at that
time the pilot, reported R fogging of the visor during checkout of the
Astronaut Maneuvering Unit. Approximately 27 minutes later, the
pilot reported that his visor was still fogging. H e then returned to the
spacecraft umbilical and mnq h c k in the spacecraft within the nest
half hour. The total EVA time was 2 hours and 5 minutes.
During the EVA, the pilot’s heart rate was typically higher than that
of the command pilot. Following the extr:ivehiculnr :Lctivity, the
command pilot‘s heart rate quickly returned to normal levels; that of
the pilot declined slowly over :I period of 8 hours. 7V:iter intake fol-
lowing the extrnvchiculnr activity increased for hoth the crewmen,
with the pilot drinking about three times as much as the command
The third night’s sleep W R S scheduled for 8 hours, but both crewmen
slept lightly for less than that time. However, following the sleep
period, both sounded alert during voice communications and their bio-
medical data were normal. Both were in excellent physical condition
after completion of the flight.
Development, Production, and Test
The Gemini space vehicle consists of a spacecraft and a modified
Titan I1launch vehicle. The target vehicle used for a rendezvous mis-
sion consists of an Atlas Standard Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) and the
Gemini Agena Target Vehicle. Development and qualification of these
major elements have been completed, with production and delivery
scheduled to be completed in the 3d quarter of 1966.
Spacecraft V I I I , IX, and X were delivered to Cape Kennedy dur-
ing this period. Spacecraft XI completed systems test and was to be
delivered in July. Spacecraft XI1 was in assembled systems test.
Gemini Launch Vehicle (GLV) 8 was delivered in January. GLV
9 was delivered in March, and GLV 10 was delivered in May. GLV
11was to be delivered in July, and GLV 12 was i n final systems test
in the Vertical Test Facility.
Atlas 5303 for the Gemini I X mission was delivered in February.
Atlas 5304, originally planned for Gemini X, was used to launch the
ATDA for the Gemini IX-A mission. Atlas 5305, scheduled for
Gemini X, was delivered in June. Atlas 5306 was .to be delivered in
July. Atlas 5307 was in final stages of assembly. This vehicle was
added to the program to replace the Atlas used to launch the ATDA
on the Gemini IX-A mission.
Agena 5003 was delivered in January and launched in March as the
rendezvous and docking target for the Gemini VI11 Mission. Agena
5004 \vas delivered in March, Agena 5005 was delivered in May, and
Agena 5006 was to be delivered in July. Agena 5001, planned for use
on Gemini XII, was in final phases of production and assembly.
Gemini Mid-Program Conference
A 3-day (Feb. 23-25) Gemini Mid-Program Conference a t the
Manned Spacecraft Center reviewed f o r representatives of govern-
ment, industry, and the scientific community, administrative and oper-
ational achievements of the program through missions VI-A and VII.
Proceedings of the conference were published in KASA SP-121 (avail-
able from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Wnshington, D.C.
20402, $2.75). The second and final conference will be held early in
1967, following completion of the Gemini program.

Apollo Program
The momentum of the Apollo Program increased rapidly during the
first. half of 1966, midpoint in the program which will culminate in

manned flights to the moon’s surface and safe return to earth of the
Apollo astronauts. I n February, the flight test phase of the uprated
Saturn I (Saturn I B ) Program opened with the successful mission of
AS-201. This mission was the first in a series of unmanned flights
to test the Apollo Saturn I space vehicle and to qualify the combined
vehicle systems for manned flights in earth orbit.
A t the end of the period a Saturn launch vehicle stood on each of the
three Apollo launch complexes a t Cape Kennedy. AS-203, the next
vehicle to be launched in a test of the launch vehicle only, stood on
LC-37; AS-202, a fully assembled Apollo uprated Saturn I space
vehicle, was on LC-34; and the fully assembled Apollo Saturn V
facility checkout vehicle (AS-500F) was on Pad A of LC-39.
Specific Missions and Objectives
The first uprated Saturn I (Saturn I B ) mission, an unmanned sub-
orbital flight, was successfully completed on February 26. (Fig. 1-9.)
This marked the beginning of a major new phase in Apollo Flight
The major objectives of this mission were to prove out the launch
vehicle, to demonstrate the compat ibility and structural integrity of
the CommandPService Module (CSM) and the uprated Saturn I
vehicle, to verify the spacecraft subsystems, to demonstrate spacecraft
heat, shield performance, and to demonstrate the adequacy of the
mission support facilities.
Lift-off from Launch Complex 34 a t Cape Kennedy occurred a t
11 :12 a.m., e.s.t. The first stage functioned according to design, cut-
ting off after 2% minutes to complete a successful first phase of the
flight,. The second stage ignited and burned for over 7 minutes.
Guided by the Instrument Unit, it placed the spacecraft into the
proper trajectory, culminating a highly successful performance by
the launch vehicle. The trajectory had an apogee, or high point, of
approximately 300 miles.
After spacecraft/launch vehicle separation, the spacecraft propul-
sion system was fired twice, a verification of its stop/start capability.
I t propelled the command module back into the atmosphere a t a speed
of approximately 27,000 feet per second. This imposed reentry con-
ditions more severe than in either Mercury or Gemini and provided
data important for the Lunar Mission reentry. T h e command module
impacted some 4,500 miles downrange in the South Atlantic near
Ascension Island (fig. 1-10) and was recovered by the U.S.S. Bomr,
the primary recovery ship, at 2 :20 p.m., e.s.t,.
During the mission, the spacecraft systems functioned within design
specifications, although the propulsion system performance was some-
what irregular. The spacecraft heat shielding experienced greater

Figure 1-9. Apollo/uprated Saturn I liftoff.


Figure 1-10. Apollo spacecraft in South Atlantic.

ablation than expected in three spots ; however, it prevented interior

temperatures from exceeding human limits and essentially proved
that the basic design was sound and men would have returned safely
from earth orbit.
The second Apollo/uprated Saturn I launch development mission, to
be launched a t Cape Kennedy early in July 1966, is to be a unique
engineering study of liquid hydrogen behavior in the launch vehicle
upper stage during orbital flight. The primary purpose of this un-
manned mission is to observe operation of the two-stage launch vehicle’s
S-IVB second stage prior to its use as the third stage of Saturn V in
the manned lunar landing program.
Development and Testing of Spacecraft
I n the Apollo Command and Service Module spacecraft ground
test program, many critical hardware tests were completed and other
major tests were still underway. Propulsion testing a t White Sands
Test Facility (WSTF),New Mexico, using Service Module (SM) 001,
was essentially completed. This testing culminated in R series of in-
tegrated tests of fuel cells, cryogenic systems, and the service propul-
sion system. The Block I service module engine and the Block I
propellant gaging system both completed qualification during this
period. Meanwhile CSM 011 subsystem factory checkout was com-
pleted, the heat shield was fitted, and the CM (Command Module)
mated to the SM. Following integrated testing, the modules were
separated and delivered to KSC for flight on the second Apollo/up-
rated Saturn I mission, AS-202. (Fig.1-11.)
The lunar configured Block I1Command and Service Module under-
went a critical design review during the period. Apollo program
personnel from the Manned Spacecraft Center and Headquarters
conducted an intensive review with the spacecraft contractor to make
sure the design would satisfy the requirements for a lunar mission.
Particular attention was given t o the design features required for a
lunar mission but not included in the Block I spacecraft, especially
the docking equipment and a thicker heat shield. A period of intensive
testing was underway to qualify the Block I1 spacecraft for flight in
Manufacture of the first three Block I1 spacecraft was nearly com-
pleted. One of these is to be used for thermal vacuum testing a t the
Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory a t the Manned Space-
craft Center, one is scheduled to fly on an uprated Saturn I launoh
vehicle, and the third is to be launched by a Saturn V launch vehicle
in 1967.
The Lunar Module (LM) design was essentially complete, with
delivery of the first flight vehicle, L3-1, scheduled in the second half
of 1966. A critical design review of the LM was successfully completed
in March. The final significant design decision was the selection of
a radar system t o be used for rendezvous in lunar orbit.
The first altitude testing of the complete LM Descent Propulsion
System was carried out on a descent propulsion test rig at White Sands
Test Facility. Altitude testing of the LM Ascent Propulsion System
began, and the first series of propellant flow tests mere successfully
completed. The second phase of the LM Descent Propulsion System
altitude testing was started, and combined system tests were com-
pleted before the. beginning of propellant flow testing.
The L M Structure Test Vehicle, a structural mockup of the LM
ascent and descent stages with simulated equipment, was successfully
used in the initial LM launch vehicle dynamic tests conducted at
MSFC. Following these tests, the vehicle was being refurbished for
flight on AS-5Q2.
During the period, the Thermal Analysis Verification Vehicle, a
full-scale thermal model of the LM, was undergoing thermal vacuum
tests. Results of these tests vere leading to thermal design improve-
ments expected to be verified on the LM Thermal Vacuum Tests Vehicle
when testing is initiated.

Figure 1-1 I. Crated Command Module 01 I arrives at KSC.

An essential part of the equipment required for a lunar mission is

the space suit. Modified Gemini suits to be used for early Block I
earth orbital spacecraft missions were undergoing Apollo qualification
testing, and the first flight suits were scheduled for delivery in August.
-1critical design review for the Block I1 Extravehicular Mobility Unit
(EMIJ) was completed in ,June nnd no significant deficiencies were
found. The EMU, consisting of the ,Ipollo Block I1 space suit and
portable life support system, is designed for use in the lunar landing
mission aiid will be tested in earth orbit in 1967. (Fig. 1-12.)
Launch Escape System
A significant milestone achieved early in the period was the flight
qualification of the Apollo Launch Escape System. The rocket
powered system is designed to separate the spacecraft command
module from the space vehicle and propel it to safety in the event
of an abort situation on the pnd or in early powered flight.
The flight on which qualification was completed took place in Jan-
unry at WSTF, as shown in fig. 1-13. The launch vehicle. was the
Little Joe I1 which had been used in four previous tests under varying
nbort conditions. With the successful completion of this final test, an

Figure 1-12. The Apollo Block II space suit.


Figure 1-1 3. Intermadiute altitude abort test.

I intermediate altitude abort simulation, the Launch Escape System was
declared qualified for manned missions.

Launch Vehicles

Development and testing of the up-rated Saturn I and the Saturn

V continued satisfactorily during the period.
Uprated Saturn Z (Saturn ZB).-The uprated Saturn I is the
launch vehicle to be used in the first Apollo manned mission, which
will be flown in earth orbit. Its liquid oxygen/liquid kerosene first
stage (S-IB.) is similar to the original Saturn I first stage but it
weighs less and has greater thrust (1,600,000 pounds). The liquid hy-
drogen/liquid oxygen second stage (S-IVB) is totally new. It has
a thrust of 200,000 pounds, greater than any previously flown hydro-
gen/oxygen stage. Powered by the J-2 engine, it is the same as the
third stage of Saturn V. The Instrument Unit (IU) is similar to
that of the original Saturn I and almost identical to that of the
Saturn V.
I The design of the uprated Saturn I has been completed and all
authorized hardware was being manufactured and tested. Compo-
nent qualification programs were essentially complete with the ex-
ception of some items of the second stage and the IU which require
additional tests for ‘Saturn V environments.
The most significant milestone during the period was the previously
mentioned successful flight of the first vehicle. I n this mission the “all
up” principle of flight testing was used; that is, all stages were fully
operational and committed to flight together in the first flight test.
The high degree of success achieved was made possible by a thorough
ground test, qualification, and checkout program. Several firsts were
accomplished with this flight : the first flight of the uprated 200,000-
pound-thrust H-1 engines ; the first flight of the 200-000-pound-thrust
hydrogen/lOX 5-2 engine; the first flight of the first stage; the first
flight of the second stage; the first firing of a service propulsion sys-
tem engine in space; and the first flight of an Apollo spacecraft on a
Saturn vehicle.
Final predelivery checkout for the launch vehicle stages of AS-202
was completed and both stages were delivered to KSC. The I U was
also delivered to KSC. The vehicle mas erected on LC-34 on March
9 and checkout began 9 days later. A delay in the availability of the
CSM payload for AS-202 prompted a decision to reschedule the
launch of AS-202 after that of AS-203.
Postacceptance firing checkout of the first stage of AS-203 pro-
ceeded without difficulty at Michoud Assembly Facility near New
Orleans, and the stage was delivered to KSC in April. The second

stage was acceptance fired a t the contractor’s test site in Sacramento,

Calif., and also delivered to KSC. Assembly of the IU was com-
pleted in February, and after checkout it, too, was delivered to KSC.
By the end of April all stages were erected on LG37B. Bince this
vehicle will not carry a CSM, a nose cone manufactured a t MSFC was
installed atop the IU.
Both the first and second stages for AS-204 completed successful
acceptance firing tests,the former a t MSFC and the latter a t Sacra-
mento. After the firing, the first stage was moved to Michoud for p a t
firing checkout.
Critical design reviews were held for the first manned configuration
of the uprated Saturn I, SA-204. The designs of the first and sec-
ond stages and the Instrument Unit were reviewed by the Marshall
Space Flight Center with the respective contractors to make sure that
the design would meet the requirements of the mission. The review
disclosed no major discrepancies. All launch vehicle stages for AS-
204 were to be delivered to KSC in August to support the current
launch schedule.
A t the end of the report period, the stages for the remaining eight
uprated Saturn I vehicles were in various phases of manufacture and
test, ranging from fabrication t o statictests.
Roturn T’.-Extensive testing of all stages of the Saturn V launch
vehicle continued. During February, the MSFC-built first S-IC
flight stage (S-IC-1) mas acceptance tested on the single position test
stand. The stage underwent two static firings, one of approximately
40 seconds and the other of approximately 80 seconds. Following
these firings, the stage static firing instrumentation was removed
and post static checkout was started. After checkout, the stage was
to be shipped to ICSC’s Launch Complex 89. The second MSFC-
built, flight stage in the S-IC series (S-IC-8) was successfully accept-
ance fired on ,June 6. Post firing activities were in progress a t the
end of the period.
,Qssembly and checkout of the facility checkout stage was completed
at Michoud, and the stage was delivered to ICSC. Also, the third
S-IC flight stage (S-IC-3) WRS fabricated and asscmhled.
Major ground tests to support, the second stage of Saturn V (S-I1
stage) were conducted during the period. Seven full duration (360
second) firings of the S-I1 battleship were attempted, and five of these
were successful. The remaining two were prematurely terminated
because of overheating. After the seventh firing, the bnsic 53-11 bat-
tleship program mas concluded. However, the test facility was kept
on a standby basis, available for use as hackup.
The S-11-T, n test stage, which more closely tipproximates a
flight stage than the battleship, \vas successfully fired a t M T F for 15
~~ ~


Chapter 10-Personnel, Management, Procurement, and Sup- Page

port Functions-Continued
Procurement and Supply Management - - - - - - - - - 159
Treatment of Data and Other Information
Submitted with Proposals.. - - - - - - - - - _ - - - 159
Plan for New Technology Reporting.. - - - - - - 160
Preaward Surveys for Compliance with the
Equal Opportunity Program- - - - _- - - - - - - 160
Implementation of the Service Contract Act
of 1 9 6 5 - - - - _ - _ - - _ - _ - _ _ _ - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - -161
Incentive Contracting- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 161
Summary of Contract Awards _ _ _ _ - _ - - - - _ - - 162
Contracts Awarded to Private Industry - - - - 162
Geographical Distribution of Prime Con-
tracts---_-_---_----__________________ 163
Subcontracting - - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - _ - - _ - - 163
Major Con tract Awards- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 164
Major Contractors_ - _ _ - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - - - - - - - 165
Labor Relations- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 166
.. .
Technology Utdization-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 167
Relationships with Other Government Agencies- - 169

Gemini VI11 launch, March 16, 1966- _ _ _ _ - _ - ___ _ _ ___ __
1 1. _ _ _
The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from Gemini VI11 - - 12
Here the Agena Target Docking Vehicle is about two feet from
nose of Gemmi VIII- - - - - - - - - _ - . _ _ - - - _ - - - _ _ - - - - - - - - 13
Gemini VI11 Astronauts Armstrong and Scott after splash-
down in Pacific Ocean-- _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ 14
The “Angry Alligator”-ATDA with partially opened protec-
tive shroud still attached-- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _- _ _ _ - _. - -~ _ _ _ _ - 16
Astronaut Cernan during EVA_-_- _ _ - _ - - ___ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - _ - -- -- - 16
Airglow Horizon experiment photograph - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19
Central coastal area of Peru showing path of 1962 avalanche- - 20
Apollo/uprated Saturn I liftoff - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23
Apollo spacecraft 009 in South Atlantic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ - 24
Crated Command Module 011 arrives a t KSC_- - _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - - - 26
The Apollo Block I1 space suit _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - - - _ - - - - - 27
Intermediate altitude abort test__- - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - - - - - - - - 28
Static test firing of S-IC-T at M T F _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - - _ -32 ---
Roll-out of Crawler Transporter carrying LUT and Apollo/
Saturn 500F__- --_ ----_ -- ----- --- - _ -- -- -- -- ---_ - - -- --- 33
Page 0
Crawler Transporter with LUT and 500F on way to Pad A- - - 34
Mockup of ALSEP on Lunar Topographical Simulation Area- - 35
Nineteen new astronauts: Edward G. Givens, Jr., Edgar D.
Mitchell, Charles M. Duke, Jr., Don L. Lind, Fred W. Haise,
Jr., Joe H. Engle, Vance D. Brand, John S. Bull, Bruce
McCandless 11, John L. Swigert, Jr., William R. Pogue,
Ronald E. Evans, Paul J. Weitz, James B. Irwin, Gerald P.
Carr, Stuart A. Roosa, Alfred M. Worden, Thomas K.
Mattingly, and Jack R. Lousma- _ - - - - ---- --------- 37
Centrifuge in the Flight Acceleration Facility, M S C - - - - - - - 42
Interior of Environmental Testing Laboratory- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory- _ _ -- --------- 48
Surveyor I photographs foot-long lunar rock- _ - - - _ - - _ - - - - - - - 50
Surveyor footpad on the moon’s surface_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ - - - _ - - - - -51
Lunar Orbiter spacecraft.. - - - - - - - -- ------- - --- 53
Improved miniaturized Gillliver life detector.. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 57
Biosatellite undergoes qualifying tests- - --- ---- 59
ESSA-I and ESSA-I1 spacecraft -------------- 66
Kamchatka Peninsula (U.S.S.R.) photographed by ESSA-I - - 69
Mexico and Lower California as seen by ESSA-IT- - - - - - - - - ~
Nimbus I1 photographs the Great Lakes- - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - _ -- - - .- - 71
Flight model of ATS cloud camera- -. - . ~- _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - _ - - .
~ 72
P A G E O S I Geodetic Satellite- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ - - - - -
~ 75
Infrared aerial survey of an active volcano in Hawaii.. - - - - .- - 78
The reentry “E” experiment spacecraft- - - .- .- - .- - .- - - - - - 82
Proposed orbiting radio telescope- ------------- 85
Segment controlled space telescope -- - - ------- - -- -- - 87
Standoff cross__- - - - - - -------- --- 89
Life support
system test chamber- - - -- - - - - - - - 94-95
The advanced space suit- - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - 96
The Endoradiosonde in the hand and in the intestine- - - - - .- - 97
. .
Cardiovascular monitormg device- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 97
Test apparatus for foot controlled astronaut maneuvering unit- 98
Spin test apparatus-_..- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 99
Solar heat distribution on a rotating satellite- - - - - - - - - - - - - - 103
Nozzle to be used on the X E engine- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 108
Breadboard power conversion system- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 111
The ion engine being developed for the ATS- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 113
Transportable station to be operated a t Toowoomba, Aus-
tralia- - - - - - - - - - - - - ---- ---- 117
Apollo Instrumentation Ship-USNS Vanguard- - - - - - - - - - - - 120
IAaunching from USNS Range Recoverer near Koroni, Greece - 125
Clinical Sciences Research Building, Stanford University
Medical Research Center- - _ _ _ _ _ - - .- - .- .- - - - - - - ~
NASA organization chart (January 2, 1966) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 152

TIROS highlights through May 24, 1966_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 68
Spacecraft-acquired data applied to earth resources surveys
(May 13, 1 9 6 6 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - _76_ _ _ _ _
Natural resources activities (March 11, 1966) _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ 77
Summary of power tests of first U.S. nuclear rocket engine
system (February-March 1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - _ _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ _ - _ - 106
Appropriation authorizations, fiscal year 1967- _ _ - _ _ _ - - - - _ _ _ _ 154
Status of appropriations as of June 30, 1966 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 155
Comparative consolidated balance sheet, June 30, 1966 and
December 31, 1965- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 157
Resources provided and applied, six months ended June 30,
1 9 6 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - _ _ _158
Net change in working capital, six months ended June 30, 1966- 158

A-Congressional Committees on Aeronautics and Space
(Jan. 1-June 30,1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 171
B-National Aeronautics and Space Council (Jan. 1-June 30,
1 9 6 6 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - _ _ -172 --_______
C-Current Official Mailing Addresses for Field Installa-
tions (June 30, 1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _173 __
D-Principal NASA Officials a t Washington Headquarters
(June 30,1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _174 ___
E-NASA’s Historical Advisory Committee (June 30, 1966) _ _ _ 175
F-NASA’s Inventions and Contributions Board (June 30,
1 9 6 6 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ -176
G-Patent Waivers Granted and Denied for Separate In-
ventions upon Recommendation of the Agency’s
Inventions and Contributions Board (Jan. 1-June 30,
H-Patent Waivers Granted and Denied for All Inventions
Made during Performance of Contract upon Recom-
mendation of the Agency’s Inventions and Contri-
butions Board (June 30, 1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 178
I-Scientific and Technical Contributions Recognized by the
Agency’s Inventions and Contributions Board (Jan. 1-
June 30, 1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 179
J-Awards Granted NASA Employees under Provisions of the
Incentive Awards Act of 1954 (Jan. 1-June 30, 1966) _ - 180
K-Educational Publications and Motion Pictures (June 30,
1 9 6 6 ) _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _182

I,-Technical Publications (Jan. 1-June 30, 1966) - - - - - - _ - _ - - 184
M-Major NASA Launches (Jan. 1-June 30, 1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 191
N-NASA Launch Vehicles_--_ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 193
0-NASA International Activities Summary (cumulative
through June 30, 1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 194
P-Grants and Research Contracts Obligated (Jan. 1 J u n e 30,
1966) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--_ _ _ _ 197
Q-Institutions Currently Participating in NASA’s Pre-
doctoral Training Program (June 30, 1966) - _ _ - - _ - _ _ - - 242
seconds on April 23. On May 17, a 150-second firing mas successfully
conducted; then on May 20 it underwent a successful full duration
firing (354.5 seconds). (Fig. 1-14.)
On May 25, an attempt to achieve a second full duration firing was
cut off after 198 seconds because leakage in an engine-start fuel line
caused a minor fire. On May 28, the stage was inadvertently over-
pressurized with helium during a leak test and was destroyed. This
accident not only resulted in loss of the stage for further testing but
also caused damage to the A-2 stand a t M T F which is needed to test
the first S-I1 flight stage (23-11-1). T o reduce the impact of this
loss, possible revisions to test sequences and schedules were being
studied as the report period ended. Meanwhile the S-11-1 was
undergoing factory checkout a t Seal Beach before shipment to M T F
for its acceptance tests.
The first flight unit of the Saturn V third stage (S-IVB-501) was
successfully acceptance fired on May 26 in the test facility a t Sacra-
mento. Since this stage must have a restart capability in orbit, the
test consisted of a 150-second firing, a 105-minute simulated coast
period, followed by a restart and 305-second firing. The stage was
undergoing post acceptance firing checkout as the period ended.
The first Instrument Unit (IU-501) was undergoing checkout at
Huntsville, with shipment t o KSC scheduled for August. The next
three Instrument Units were in various phases of fabrication and
assembly a t Huntsville.
Preparations and tests, vitally important to the success of the
Saturn V flight program, were being carried out at the Kennedy Space
Center. Stages for a Saturn V facilities checkout vehicle, AS-BOOF,
were delivered early in the period and stacked on the Launcher Umbil-
ical Tower (LUT) in the high bay of the Vehicle Assembly Building.
Power was applied on May 13, and the vehicle was used to check out
the ground support facilities and procedures in the VAB which will
later support Saturn V flight vehicles.
On May 25, a Crawler Transporter lifted the LUT and 500F and
moved the combined units out to Pad A. (Figs. 1-15 and 1-16.)
The trip required 9 hours. On June 8, in the face of hurricane warn-
ings, 500F was taken back to the VAB aboard the Crawler, then
returned to Pad A on June 10. These operations verified the mobile
assembly/launch concept employed a t Launch Complex 39.
Saturn 'v Dynamic Testing.-Dynamic testing in the Saturn V
program is the test verification of the vehicle design in terms of its
response to the flight loads that are imposed upon it. This testing
is performed on a nonflight Saturn V space vehicle, designated
AS-500D, built to simulate the weight, center of gravity, moment
of inertia, and stiffness of the flight vehicle. The space vehicle is

Figure 1-14. Static test firing of S-IC-1 at MTF.

flexibly supported in a dynamic test stand and subjected to the kinds

of vibration caused by wind forces, engine ignition, liftoff, engine
cutoff, stage separation, and control force application.
Near the end of the reporting period, the data acquisition system
mns delivered and installed in the Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility.
Checkout, of the entire facility began, using the first stage of the
AS-5OOD (S-IC-D) .
Testing of the launch configuration (Configuration I) is scheduled
to start late in 1966; in this configuration, the first stage is thrusting.
Early in 1967, testing of Configuration I1 is to begin; this one sirnu-
latcs the spaco vehicle when the second stage is thrusting. (Con-
figuration 111, which simulates the thrusting of the third and find
stage, was completed in November 1965. as one phase of the uprated
Saturn I dynamic program.)
Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP)
The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar landing missions are
to study tho moon, the physical characteristics of its surface, and the
interior down to its core. NASA plans to achieve these objectives by
collecting and returning lunar samples, by carrying out a field geology

Figure 1-15. Rollout of Crawler Transporter carrying LUT and Apollo/Soturn 500F.

II f

1’. B

i” I’

I . . . -

Figure 1-16. Crawler Transpder with LUT and SOOF on woy te Pod A.
Figure 1-17. Mockup of ALSEP on Lunar Topographical Simulation Area.

experiment, and by using a lunar surface experiments package.

(Fig. 1-17.)
The experiments package is being developed in two configurations.
The first contains a scientific payload consisting of four primary and
three backup experiments. The primary experiments are a passive
seismometer, a magnetometer, a solar wind measuring device, and a
suprathermal ion detector. The primary experiments of the second
configuration are the passive seismometer, the suprathermal detector,
the lunar heat flow, and the active seismometer.
I n February, a 6-month program definition phase was completed.
Also in February, N,QSA determined which experiments would be
developed and appointed the principal investigzztors who mould con-
duct the experiments. By June, substantially all interface relation-
ships between the scientific experiments and the Central Station mere

Astronaut Activities
Nineteen new pilot/astronauts were assigned to the Manned Space-
craft Center during May of this year. (Fig. 1-18.) This increases
the total number of NASA astronauts to 50. Twenty-three astronauts
258-738 0-67---4

are flightready and most of them have crew assignments. Five

scientist/astronauts completed approximately half of their general
training. Astronauts Slayton, Shepard, and Carpenter are assigned
to key managerial positions in a nonflight status.
General training for the newly assigned pilot/astronauts was
oriented to the Apollo and Apollo Applications programs since the
Gemini program will be completed before these astronauts achieve
flight-ready status. A combined academic, field training, and opera-
tional familiarization program gives each astronaut a solid technical
base and thorough Apollo program orientation. This program will
enable each to resolve specific mission crew problems and develop mis-
sion flight test techniques when he is assigned as a crew member to a
specific flight. This type of general background training has proved
invaluable in both the Mercury and Gemini programs.
Crew assignments for the first two Apollo manned missions were
made previously, and intensive flight readiness activities were under-
way. Following several weeks of briefings and seminars on vehicle
systems, the Apollo flight crews engaged in systems and integrated
testing of the spacecraft to be flown on the first two missions.
The experience level of the astronaut force steadily increased during
tho past 6 months as NASA continued to make Gemini flights at ap-
proximately 2-month intervals. The capability to substitute the back-
up crew late in the prelaunch preparation period was demonstrated on
Gemini IX. Thc practice of providing backup crews for all missions
not only precludes expensive launch delays but maintains the capabil-
ity of our astronant force at a very high level.
Plans were completed for a second scientist/astronaut selection,
which is scheduled to begin in the fall of 1966. Scientific screening
of candidates is to be done by the National Academy of Sciences.

Apollo Applications
Significant accomplishments of the Apollo Applications program
during the report period involved the following aspects : management,
flight hardware, experiments, and program/mission objectives.

Program Management

Overall objectives for the proposed program were previously

defined. To support these objectives, project, organizations were estab-
lished at MSC and MSFC, and key personnel were assigned. These
organizations are planned to be comparable in form to those of Apollo.
-1draft program development plan W:LS completed. This is the b:Lsic
in:anagement, plan which describes the program and the ititinner in
I which it is to be managed and executed.

Figure 1-18. The new astronauts: (seated left to right) Edward G. Givens, Jr.,
Edgar D. Mitchell, Charles 31. Duke, Jr., Don L. Lind, Fred IF”. Haise, Jr.,
Joe H. Engle, Vance D. Brand, John S. Bull, and Bruce McCandless II-
(standing left to right) John L. Swigert, Jr., William R. Pogue, Ronald l0,
Evans, Paul J. Weitz, James B. Irwin, Gerald P. Carr, Stuart A. Roosa, Alfred
If. Worden, Thomas K. Mattingly, and Jack R. Lousma.

Flight Hardware

Preliminary definition of candidate space vehicle configurations for

attaining long-duration flights was completed. Procurement plans
were partially completed to continue production of Apollo flight hard-
mare needed to meet NASA requirements for long-duration flights
and to support the experiments program. Test plans were partially
completed for testing portions of the Apollo space vehicle that mill
require qualification for long-duration flights beyond the 14-day


Identification was completed and plans were being prepared for the
definition, development, and integration of experiments to fulfill the
requirements of the scientific and engineering communities. Revisions
will be made as studies continue. Two contractors were selected for
the award of Payload Integration Definition contracts.

Program Objectives

The purposes of the Apollo Applications program, :is discussed in

the 13th Sewitrnnuu?Report (p. 42), are to exploit fnrtlier develop
the basic capabilities of the Saturn-Apollo System. The major flight
mission objectives of tlie program fall into two pri1icip:Il categories :
(1) Long-duration flights to determine the effects on men :mtl systems,
ancl (2) space flight experiments. The space flight experiments cate-
gory includes life sciences (both biomedical and biascience/tech-
nology) , astronomy and space physics, extended lunar exploration,
applications (including tnetrorology, communications, earth re-
sources), and technology (e.g., spent stage utilization, ac1v:inced extrx-
vehicular activity, propellant handling in space, :tiid orhitnl :tssembly
:i nd ma i ntenance .
Extended duration manned flight experience is required to establish
tlie basic capabilities of the projected m:tnned space flight goals (e.&
w r t h orbital space station, lunar station, or manned p1nnet:tx-y ex-
ploration). Flights lasting as long as a year \vould be attained in
.\pollo Applications through the use of modified Apollo hardwitre
\vi t h resupply.
The experiments in the areas listed would be responsive to specific
needs, as defined by the scientific :tnd engineering commiiiiities and as
ravie\vcd and approved by the cogniz:tnt NASA program offices. A11
experiments proposed for flight on manned missions would be reviewed
:ind approved by the joint NASA/DOD Mnnned Space Flight Experi-
inrnts Board.
Experiments in the areas of astrononiy and space physics, and ex.
tended-lunar exploration, would support, tlie N:ition:tl Astronomical
Observatories objectives proposed in the 1965 Woods Hole Summer
Stiidy and the extended lunar exploration as recommended a t the 196.;
Ihlmouth Summer Study.
These proposed prograni objectives are based on certain assumptions :
The Gemini and Apollo programs, before 1970, will have provided
the capability to explore space out to 250,000 miles from earth and
to conduct mnnned operations and experiments on flights of up to
t w o weeks.
The npriited Saturii I aiid Satiirn V boosters will have denion-
strated the capability to inject 20 and 125 tons of payload per
l:tuncli, respectively, into ne:w-e:trtli orbit.
‘rhe Saturn V will have sent 48 tons to the vicinity of the moon.
The -ipollo sptcecraft will have sustained :L three-man crew for 2
wet.ks iii it t\vo-c.onip:i1.tii~eiit,niodiiI:kr, ninneuvernble vehicle, will
l ~ v Ie: \ i i t l t d t w o nieii oii tlie moon, :inti will have returned to earth
wit I1 s:ui~pIesof Iiinar mnteri:iI.
U.S. astronauts will have flown over 500 man-days in space. Dur-
ing this time, data and experience mill have been acquired from
approximately 100 in-flight experiments in response to the needs
of the scientific and technological communities.
The currently approved Apollo mission objectives can be accom-
plished with the currently planned flight vehicles. If the approved
Apollo objectives can be achieved with fewer flights, the remaining
flight, vehicles can be used for alternate missions during 1968-71.
Follow-on missions requiring procurement of flight hardware be-
yond that now planned for Apollo mould continue the manned
space flight effort, based on Apollo systems, beyond that time. I f
all of the presently funded hardware is required for the basic
Apollo lunar missions, the program content of the alternate mis-
sions can be appropriately phased into the follow-on period.
Mission Objectives
Mission plans were under continual study to identify and trade off
!alternative modes of accomplishing mission objectives. Approxi-
mately 2 years prior to the scheduled launch date for each mission, the
objectives and flight assignments for that mission should be firmly
established, and a period of intensive mission planning must begin
through the NASA organization and its contractors. Apollo Appli-
cations missions planned for 1968-69 should enter this 2-year mission
preparation phase during fiscal year 1967. The post-1969 missions
will be subject to further definition studies and long-lead-time develop-
ment effort.
The total process of identification, definition, selection, hardware
development, flight qualification, and procurement of experiments can
take a total of 3 to 4 years. This process must be initiated long
enough in advance to be in phase with the schedule requirements for
detailed mission planning and launch. Similiarly, adequate lead times
must be allowed for procurement of basic space vehicle hardware.

Advanced Manned Missions

The major effort of the Advanced Manned Missions Program has
been directed toward establishing NASA’s post-Apollo space Frogram
goals and developing program alternatives that support the goals.
The primary considerations for possible new goals have been that they
give promise of satisfying scientific and national needs in order to
merit strong public support.
The most recent activity has focused on the development of a plan
for an integrated space program with logical, well-defined milestones
of progress. Such an integrated space exploration plan would begin
with AAP, progress to a space station, develop into a Mars/Venus

flyby, and possibly include in its long-range gods manned surface

exploration of Mars and Venus. Eventual implementation of this
plan would depend on the previous development of a long-duration
Earth orbital space mission module and the inf ormation obtained
about, the planets from uninaniied probes and manned flyby missions.
This module would initially be utilized as an Earth orbital station for
applications potentially beneficial to such economically important
areas as agriculture, forestry, oceanography, and hydrology.
The program alternatives being developed to achieve these goals are
based on a continuing program of advanced studies covering Earth
orbital, lunar, aiid planetary missions, :is we11 as the hiinch vehicles
required to support these niissions.
The major study effort continued to be in the Earth orbital area
since this activity, in its early stages, is closely tied to the Apollo Appli-
cations Program (AAP). Studies were being conducted of a number
of advanced-AhP aiid post-AAP spacecraft configurations for coli-
ducting scientific :uid :ipplications experiments and for extending the
time in Earth orbit. Configurations studied included those derived
from Saturn/Apollo technology and directed at achieving 1-year and
longer duration in orbit with a compiitible logistic systeiii. These
activities sought to develop the essenti:tI predesign information for
the long-diirntion spice iriissioii module which could support il broad
i m g e of future space missiona. ,2nalyses were also tinderway to
develop concept11iil designs for appropriate space resciie systems to
meet emergencies.
Lunar mission studies which were underway support :tdvanced-XAP
:uid possible follow-on exploration. These studies cover the general
categories of mission requirements, Iiinnr explorat ion systems. : ~ n d
Earth-Moon traiisportixtion systems. Concepts for surface niobility.
siirvey probes, and scientific explornt ion systems are iwluded. Proni-
king concepts for more efficient delivery systems for cxrgo
: ~ n dpersonnel on the 1iiii:ir surfnce, were being stndied, :is were
the E::wth-bnsetl rqiiirements to siipprt possible extended lunar
‘rlie third study :ire:i is cwnceriied with pssiblc fnture ~nnnnedmis-
sions to the planets. 1I:irs and Yciiiis are the niorc likely targets be-
~ i ~ ofs tlieir
e relative proxiinitg t o tlie Eiirth. The l’lanetiiry niis-
h i studies coiit inued to corer the areas of niissioii requirements, sys-
tem studies, and operatiow ant1 sii1)por.t. The re1:itionships between
1)ossible e:irlier f l g l ) ~niissions an(1 Inter 1:inding missions were being
r ,
1 he l i ~ 1 l l 1 ( ~vchhicles
li iintl h l ) i i ( v 1)rol)tilsion st:iges required to support
the possible future EartIi-orbital, liin:ir, and plnnctxry missions were
also being studied. Under consideration were possible upratings of
Saturn vehicles and stages, advanced stages and vehicles, and possible
reusable vehicles.

Construction of Facilities
Significant accomplishments were made in the construction and ac-
tivation of facilities for the test, checkout, and launch of manned space
vehicles. A t Cape Kennedy, where the checkout and launch of space
vehicles are conducted, modifications to Launch Complex 37 were com-
pleted and the facility was activated. I n addition, construction of
major elements of the Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Build-
ing, crawler-transporters, and launch pads was completed. These
facilities were being activated in preparation for erection and checkout
of the first Apollo Saturn V scheduled for launch in 1967.
A t the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, the last major labora-
tories were completed. The Flight Acceleration Facility, containing
a large centrifuge for astronaut crew training (fig. 1-19), and the En-
vironmental Testing Laboratory, housing the space chambers in which
flight conditions can be simulated (fig. 1-20), are now operational.
,4t the Mississippi Test Facility, the site for acceptance testing of the
Saturn first and second stages, the first of two stands for testing second
stages became operational in April. This test stand was subsequently
readied for static firing of the first Saturn V flight version of the
second stage. Construction of the second stand \vas progressing sat-
isfactorily. Capability for testing Apollo Saturn V booster flight
stages (S-IC) at MTF should be achieved by the end of the year.

Space Medicine

I n the latter half of 1965, discussions were begun with the US.
Public Health Service concerniiig the possibilities of and the necessity
for precautionary action against harmful contamination of the earth
by lunar organisms. The discussions were the result of recomendn-
tions by the Life Sciences Committee of the Space Science Board.
National *4cademy of Sciences. The recommendations, which stressed
the desirability of quarantining returning lunar landing crews and
spacecraft. ; the need for biological studies of spacecraft., suits, and
equipment ; and the requirement for examining lunar samples under
rigid bacterial and chemical isolation and behind absolute biological
barriers, were based on R statement issued by the Space Science Board
in 1962 : “The introduction into the Earth’s biosphere of destructive
alien organisms could be a disaster of enormous significance to man-
kind. We can conceive of no more tragically ironic consequence of
our search for extraterrestrial life.”

. - s i

Figure 1-19. Centrifuge in the Flight Acceleration Facility, MSC.

As a result of the USPHS-NASA discussions, an Interdepartmental

Advisory Committee on Back-Contamination was formed in emly
1966. The functions assigned to the Committee were (1 ) t o protect
the public’s health, apiculture, and other living resources; (2) to
protect the integrity of the lunar samples and the scientific experi-
ments; and (3) to assure the least composite of the operatiomil aspects
of the lunar missions. Responsibility for the staff leadership of the
Committee was assigned to the Division of Space Medicine.
Subsequently, the position of Director, Lunnr Receiving Opera‘It’lolls
\vas created under the Director of Space Medicine. The individual
holding the new position was also named to serve as Executive Secre-
t ary of the Interdepartmental Advisory Committee on Back-Con-
tamination. This committee is made up of representatives from the
‘ I T S Public Health Service, the Departments of Agriculture and
Interior, and from the Ames Research Center, Manned Spacecraft
Center, and NASA Headquarters.
Committee actions included defining objectives; evaluating the site
selection and design criteria for the 1,unar Receiving 1,aboratory ;
rmd reviewing stxndards, protocol, m d procedures for handling re-
turned crews, spacecraft, equipment, and .wnples.


Figure 1-20. Interior of Environmental Testing Loborotory.


Military Medical Personnel Requirements

Together with representatives of the Surgeons General of the Army
and Air Force and the Chief of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery,
Navy, NASA’s Space Medicine Division completed an evaluation of
NASA’s requirements for military personnel in the biomedical area.
This evaluation resulted in a reduction in the number of positions
requiring military personnel. I n several cases, it led to a lowering
of the professional education or experience requirements. It also
established procedures to reduce the paperwork involved in NASA‘s
requesting the assignment of personnel by the Services. Such reviews
are to be conducted annually so that NASA requirements for military
personnel will be consistent with changing availabilit ies in civilian
Cooperation W i t h USAF in MOL Program
Biomedical scientists representing the Division of Space Medicine
and the U S A F Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program Office partici-
pated in a series of meetings to exchange information on proposed
USAF MOL and NASA medical experiments and requirements for
biomedical data. These exchanges were initiated to provide the Air
Force with medical data for use in defining the medical and lifcl
support requirements for the Manned Oribiting Laboratory, to aid
in establishing nonduplicating lines of investigation, and to make
known to NASA the MOL medical data requirements.
Reorganization of Medical Capabilities at MSC
I n May, a reorganization at the Manned Spacecraft Center created
the Directorate of Medical Research and Operations. Combined in
this Directorate were the medical functions of the Chief of Center
Medical Programs and Center Medical Office and the biomedical re-
search functions of the Crew Systems Division, Engineering and De-
velopment Directorate. This consolidation will make better use of the
Center’s medical manpower resources, establish within n single orga-
nization the overall responsibility for identifying the medical prob-
lems of irianned space flight, and help improve NASA career patterns
in the medical and medically related fields.
Medical Data Analysis Program
I n Gemini V I I , the feasibility of automatically monitoring and ana-
lyzing in-flight an electrocardiogram system WAS successfully demon-
strated. During this period, further progress mas made in pattern
recognition, in waveform measurement, and in the development of
interpretive and diagnostic routines. Before it is used operationally
in SA-205, the system will serve as an automatic collector of baseline
data, as a vehicle for refining techniques and routines, and as a quasi-
operational digital monitoring system.
Efforts to develop specifications for a contourographic display sys-
tem for electrocardiograms were continuing. This display system
records the analog waveform of each single heart cycle one below the
other and provides a contourogram that appears t o have a third dimen-
sion. This system compresses the data and allows a scanner to note
small changes in rate and slight difference in waveform while main-
taining the details in proper time perspective over long periods.
Plans were completed for the transfer of the Medical Data Analy-
sis Program from NASA Headquarters Space Medicine to the Direc-
torate of Medical Research and Operations, Manned Spacecraft Cen-
ter. The program is being transferred because it has progressed to
the point where its most effective implementation will be at the Center.
A NASA contract related to measurement devices for biomedical
testing of orbiting research laboratory concepts was completed in
March. A full-scale wooden mockup of a medical-behnvioral labora-
tory for the Lunar Excursion Module ascent stage was delivered to
the Manned Spacecraft Center by the contractor. This mockup is to
be used to continue inhouse efforts pertaining to the medical-behavioral
experiments program.
Two comprehensive briefings on selected biomedical problem areas
were presented by the Space Medicine sLaff t o NASA management and
engineering personnel. The first briefing, a review of space radiation
problems, included participants from the Oak Ridge Institute of
Nuclear Studies, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the U S A F
Aerospace Medical Division, as well as scientists from NASA Head-
quarters and various NA4SA Centers. The second briefing was di-
rected to the life sciences support of manned space flight missions.
NASA launched two orbiting observatories during the first 6
months of this year-its first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and
a third Orbiting Geophysical Observatory carrying 21 scientific experi-
ments. Them large unmanned spacecraft were designed to study
ultraviolet, X-, and gnmma rays, and ~nrth-Siin-interplnnetarys p a
relationships. They were joined in orbit, in May, by Explorer
XXXII which will observe the upper atmosphere.
On dune 2, Surveyor I soft landed on the moon and in about six days
transmitted over 3,500 TV pictures of the lunar surface. Data pro-
vided by the spacecraft helped scientists understand the moon’s
topography and supplied vital information for Project Apollo.
To take pictures of the rim and floor of the crater in which Surveyor
I landed, the *4gency has scheduled an August launching of the first
Lunar Orbiter photographic laboratory.
Two other NASA lunar and planetary spacecraft continued their
outstanding performances. Marking the first time that radiofre-
quency energy from a spacecraft was received after traveling deep
within the solar corona, Mariner I V transmitted signals from over 200
million miles away after it had passed nearly behind the sun. Pioneer
VI, systematically measuring and monitoring interplanetary space
during n complete solar cycle, collected substantial data ten times
faster than previous probes.
Exobiologists of the National Academy of Sciences, who evaluated
the photographs of Mars taken by Mariner IV, reiterated for NASA
their earlier recommendation that biological exploration of the planet
should be a high-priority objective of the Nation‘s space program.
The %day flight of the Agency’s first Biosatellite was scheduled for
the last quarter of 1966. This orbiting biological laboratory will
carry 13 experiments to study the effects of weightlessness, radiation,
and the removal of the effects of the earth’s rotation on the plants,
animals, and other life forms on board. While contributing to basic
biological knowledge, the Biosatellite should help defhe the dangers
of prolonged space missions for astronauts.
Physics and Astronomy Programs
Orbiting Obsenatories
Reaching above the earth’s atmosphere to observe celestial bodies,
NASA launched its first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-
1) on April 8. (Fig. 2-1.) The observatory carried four experi-
ments that could not be performed on the ground. On board were
seven telescopes from the University of Wisconsin for broadband
ultraviolet photometry, an experiment from Massachusetts Institute
of Technology to measure the intensity and the direction of arrival of
gamma rays from nuclear reactions of matter in space, an experiment
to extend the search for X-rays from the planets and other bodies,
and an experiment of Goddard Space Flight Center to survey gamma
rays in the 2- to 180-kiloelectron volt energy ranges.
OAO-1 was orbited as planned and carried out its first pointing
operation. However, during its second day in orbit faulky operation
of a battery circuit deprived the spacecraft of power and it became use-
less. A second attempt to launch an Orbiting Astronomical O k r v a -
tory will be made in 1967.
The third Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (OGO-111) was
launched on June 6 to continue NASA’s investigations of the com-
plex Earth-Sun-interplanetary space relationships. Twenty-one
scientific experiments are carried by the spacecraftthe largest num-
ber ever flown by this country. ( O W - I , launched on September 5,
1964, and OGO-11, on October 14,1965, are still in orbit.) The highly
elliptical orbit of OGO-I11 (apogee, 75,874 miles; perigee, 183 miles)
was designed for measurements in interplanetary space and a t the
boundary of the earth‘s magnetic field.
Seven observatories make up the OGO series. They carry a large
number of experiments using the same basic structure, power supply,
attitude and thermal controls, telemetry, and command systems.
Explorer Satellites
On May 25, NL4SAorbited its Explorer X X X I I . An atmospheric
Explorer similar 10 the Explorer X V I I launched on April 2, 1963,
the satellite is one of several designed to study the neutral components
and the charged ions of the upper atmosphere. An apogee of 1,629
miles was achieved instead of the planned 750 miles; perigee \%-asnearly
as planned at 173 miles. Adjustments mere made in the spacecraft’s
commands to compensate for the higher apogee. At first, all of its
experiments functioned and returned data; later there were difficulties
with the mass spectrometers.

Figure 2-1. The Orbiting Astronomical Obrtrvotory.

GEOS-I Satellite
The first satellite in the I T S . Geodetic Satellite Program, Explorer
XXIX, GEOS-I, IV:LS launched by NASA in 1065 (14th Semiannual
Report, p. 53). h second satellite in this series, PAGEOS-I, part of
the coordin:bted NASA-Deptwtment of Defense-Depnrtment of Com-
iiierce program, wns lnunched in this period. Both ;\re discussed i n
c-lispter 3.

Sounding Rockets

Forty-three sounding rockets were launched in Studies of the upper

I atmosphere. Iinder iiivestig:ttion were magnetic fields, energetic
pxrticles, ion densities i n the ionosphere, winds nboiit,60 miles above the
citrtll, :tnr.or:Ll plwnoineiin, : ~ n dtiigli'ttimeairglow.
Fire successful 1:uincliings were made from tlie deck of the USNS
[lunge R e c o w r e r off the const of Greece during the eclipse of the sun
on May 20. The hnnchings, to investigate ionization in the upper
:itniospliercl, wcre :L cooperntivc projcct of NASA, the Greek Nntionnl
C:ommittee for Space Resoircli, and the University of Athens.
Lunar and Planetary Programs

The first Surveyor engineering spacecraft was successfully launched

to the moon on May 30 and made a soft landing on its surface in the
Sea of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum) about 63 hours later. The per-
formance of the 2,2200-pound spacecraft w-as outstanding in all phases
of the flight and the landing. As of June 8, Surveyor I had o p e m M
for approximately 6 days and obtained more than 3,500 high-resolution
television pictures of the lunar surface and parts of the spacecraft.
(Figs. 2-2 and 2-3.) Included were wide-angle and narrow-angle
panaramic sequences, pictures of the spacecraft’s landing pads and
impressions which they made in the lunar surface material, and
photographs taken through special color filters.
The spacecraft carried out successfully all of the objectives of its
mission. Data transmitted by Surveyor I have brought about a sub-
stantial increase in scientist’sunderstanding of the nature of the moon’s
surface and provided essential data for the Apollo manned lunar
landing project.

Lunar Orbiter

Lunar Orbiter, scheduled to be launched by NASA in August, will

photograph the rim and the floor of khe ancient crater in the Sea of
Storms in which Surveyor I landed. The spacecraft’s high-resolu-
tion cameras should send back pictures of objects only 3 feet in size
and views of the humps over the horizon photographed by Surveyor.
This topographic information will help scientists select landing sites
for manned and unmanned spacecraft and be used t o make environ-
mental measurements and obtain data a b u t the moon‘s gravitational
The 850-pound Lunar Orbiter (fig. 2 4 ) is 5 fmt in diameter and
j.5 feet tall, excluding the solar panels and antennas. During launch
the solar panels will be folded up under the base of the spacecraft
and the antennas held against the side of the structure. With the solar
panels and antennas deployed, the maximum span is increased to 18.5
feet along the antenna booms and 12 feet 2 inches across the solar
During this period, considerable progress was made in preparing
for the first Lunar Orbiter mission. Most of the planned spacecraft
testing was completed, as were integration tests of a prototype test
spacecraft. Two other prototype spacecraft vere undergoing exten-
sive vibration and thermal vacuum testing and a full mission simula-
tion test in a space chamber. Flight acceptance testing of the first

Figure 2-2. Surveyor I photographs foot-long lunar rock.

flight spacecraft and its backup were completed a t tlie contractor‘s

plant and the spacecraft were undergoing launcli preparations itt Cape
Kennedy, Fla. Ground support equipment was instnlled and checked
at the various sites which were staffed for the missions. Mission openi-
tiom tminiiig escrcises cont iiiued :it the Jet I’ropulsion Caborntory.
Detailed plitiis were nindc for 1i:~ndliiigand distributing Orbiter‘s
pIiotogr:aphic. data. twin of scientists and engineers from tlw
Langley 1tese:trcli Center, the Manned Spacecraft (’enter, tlie Geologi-
cal Survey, mapping ngciicics of tlie Army and Air Force, a d t h
.Jet I’ropulsion Laborittory will study tlie photogrnplis to pinpoint
potentid 1:uiding sites for Apollo : t i i d Surveyor spacecraft i d the11
recommend various :ireas to 1 ~ photogr:tphed
1 on su1)srquent Tliinar
Orbiter missions.

Figure 2-3. Surveyor footpad on the moon's surface.

NASA plans two flyby missions of Mars during 1969 using the
Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle. This is a more powerful vehicle than
the ,Qtlas-Agena used in November 1964 to launch the Mariner I V
which flew within 6,118 miles of Mars in July 1965. The increased
capability of the Atlas-Centaur could permit the spacecraft t o carry
a two-camera television system, an infrared spectrometer, an infrared
radiometer, an ultraviolet spectrometer, an occultation experiment,
and a celestial mechanics experiment. For this project, Mariner
mission definition studies were made, systems were being designed,
the payload selected, and the requests for proposals on various space-
craft subsystems were being prepared.
Mariner I V continued to orbit the sun. (14th Semiannual Report.
258-738 0-67-5
p. 56.) Signals from it were detected several times during the report
period, indicating that the telemetry and data transmission systems
were functioning normally. I n January, signals were received from
more than 216 million miles away, a one-way record for transmitted
signals. I n March, when the spacecraft passed nearly behind the
sun as seen from the earth, signals transmitted from it were received
at the new 210-foot diameter antenna at Goldstone, Calif. This
marked the first time that radiofrequency energy from a spacecraft
was received after it had traveled deep within the solar corona.
Scientists will continue to track Mariner I V and expect to receive
telemetry data as it comes nearer t o the earth.
I n February, scientific experiments were selected for a Mariner
spacecraft to fly by Venus in 1967. An ultraviolet photometer,
trapped radiation detector, magnetometer, plasma probe, and occul-
tation and celestial mechanics experiments should provide further
data on the temperature, pressure, density profiles, and composition
of the planet's atmosphere. Tracking data will be used t o better
determine the masses of Venus and the moon.
The design of the spacecraft was completed. Similar t o Mar-
iner IV, it was modified to go toward, rather than away from, the
sun. Many of the parts iised for this Mariner spacecraft will be
Mariner I V spacecraft spares requalified for use.
Pioneer VI-launched December 16,1965, to systematically measure
and monitor interplanetary space during a complete solar cycle-has
proved to be a very effective survey spacecraft. By late June, it was
62 million miles from the earth. I n 154 days of flight it collected a
substantial amount of data 10 times faster than earlier space probes.
Information returned covered 900 hours of flight time. As antici-
pated, its temperature rose as it got closer to the sun, and it found a
greater particle flux. Initial results from Pioneer V I were the subject
of a special symposium during the 47th Annual Meeting of the
American Geophysical Union, April 19-22,1966, in Washington, D.C.
The cosmic ray telescope from the Graduate Research Center of the
Southwest carried by the spacecraft established that the direction of
arrival of IOU- energy cosmic rays from three different solar flares
varied by as much as 90" for hours a t a time, and in one instance for
2 days. This suggested that the rays were traveling in well-defined
streams which were flapping back and forth ; sudden changes in their
intensity indicated a highly nonuniform distribution of them in the
solar system. Scientists a t the University of Chicago comparing
Pioneer V I data with that from a similar instrument aboard Explorer
X X V I I I (launched May 29, 1965) reached the same conclusion.






b-frlr j -INERTIAL


Figure 2 4 . Lunar Orbiter spacecraft.

Initially, Voyager spacecraft will perform experiments on the sur-
face of Mars. Also, while orbiting the planet, they mill obtain infor-
mation to help determine whether life is present and supply data on
the Martian atmosphere, surface, and environment. These experi-
ments are planned t o be carried out on the first Voyager operational
missions when Mars is closest to the Earth in 1973 and 1975.
During the period, studies were made of conceptual designs of cap-
sules for revised atmospheric models of Voyager based on data sup-
plied by the Mariner I V flyby of Mars in July 1965, and on ground-
based spectroscopic investigations. Research also progressed on the
ability of a single Saturn V to launch two identical Voyagers in the
1973 and 1975 missions.

Advanced Programs and Technology

Lunar and Planetary Studies
Lunar and planetary studies included-
* A conceptual design (found to be feasible) of a 100-pound probe
f o r obtaining measurements to determine the structure and com-
position of the atmospheres of Mars and Venus while the space-
craft is descending through these environments.
Another conceptual design (also found feasible) of an integrated
Mars probe/lander to enter the Martian atmosphere in 1971 and
obtain information on it during descent and on the terrain of
the planet a t and after impact.
Iiivestigntions of precursor probes to Jupiter and such expected
problems as micrometeorite hazards and long lifetime require-
ments, which resulted in the conclusion that these problems could
be solved.
Developing specific mission objectives, experiments, and sample
payloads for use in mission studies based on solar sytem explora-
tory objectives developed by the National Academy of Sciences.
Completed mere objectives for flyby missions to Jupiter, entry
probes of Venus, and flybys of Mercury using a gravity assist
of Venus.
Using the SPARC (Space Research Conic) advanced computer
program to generate preliminary design trajectory data for
gravity assist missions to Mercury via Venus and to the outer
solar system planets via Jupiter. About 100,000 trajectories were
run in record time.
Derivation of an improved model and formula for estimating total
spacecraft cost with n n accuracy of approximately 30 percent.
Advanced Technical Development and Sterilization Program

Significant progress was made in developing highly reliable and

sterilizable electronic items, components, and polymers (such as
plastics, rubber, and adhesives) to be used in sterilized planetary
spacecraft. Several types of capacitors, resistors, and diodes passed
stringent life tests after heat sterilization. Solid propellants for rocket
motors were being developed which could stand up under heat
sterilization and ethylene tetraoxide ( E T O ) gas treatment.
Several types of electronic and scientific components tested with-
stood high-velocity impact shocks. These tests provided invaluable
information for the preliminary design of an impact suirvivrlhle
Idanetary diagnostic package. I n developing associated hardware
(such as telenieters, flight computers and sequencers, and transmit-
ters), a 100- to 500-watt variable power transmitter underwent initial
tests which indicated the feasibility of the design.
Studies of system problems of spacecraft msembly under bioclean
conditions resulted in the development of a method t o keep technicians
biologically isolated from the sterile spacecraft.
Bioscience Programs
I n a new study, Biology and the Exploration of Mars, the 1964
Exobiology Summer Study Group of the Space Science Board, Na-
tional Academy of Sciences, evaluated the pictures taken of the planet
by Mariner I V in July 1965 in the light of the Group’s prior recom-
mendation that biological exploration of Mars be a high-priority
objective of the space program I n this complete review the scientists
reemphasized their conclusion that this type of exploration should
be a national goal of the highest scientific value. (13th Semiannual
Report, p. 56.)
The Space Science Board’s Working Group on Biology published
several recommendations in its Space Research: Directions f o r the
Future-the results of a broad review of NASA’s space research which
it undertook in the summer of 1965. The Group predicted that traces
of some stage of organic evolution, if only the presence of simple
organic molecules, would be found on another planet. Evidence from
biological evolution on earth should also alert bioscientists to the
possibility that life on another planet could be extinct. Since the
biology of a planet may possibly be learned through its paleontology
(fossils of plants and animals) only, these scientists recommended that
planetary biology not be limited to the search for living organisms
but investigate all stages of the evolutionary development of life on
a planet.
The identification of certain molecules as “fossil” indicators of early
life on earth has extended man’s knowledge of the history of his
planet. For example, investigators have found pristane and phytane
molecules (hydrocarbon residues from plants and animals) in rela-
tively high concentrations in sediments of essentially all geological
ages. Sterane molecules-a hydrocarbon “skeleton”-were identified
in a marine sediment 2.7 billion years old. The finding of these
molecules in contemporary orgnnisms validates their use as biochemical
“fossil” markers.

Extraterrestrial Life Detection

The improved and miniaturized “Gulliver” extraterrestrial life

detector (fig. 2-5) has become a simplified instrument. Each unit is
about the size and weight of a cigsrette lighter. I t can right itself
so that an opening on the bottom comes in contact with the soil, tests
a sample for the presence of living microorganisms, and transmits

the results. This instrument contains a radioactive growth medium,

a carbon dioxide absorber, and a geiger counter to detect and measure

Automated Biological Laboratory

Bioscientists have established the feasibility of an integrated pack-
t i p of
life detection experiments-an Automated Biological Laboratory
(ABL) . A study indicated t,liat reliable results can only be obtained
by a system able to detect simultaneously as many characteristics of
life as possible, to receive commands from earth to reprogram and
reproduce experiments, to reconfirm results, select and compress data,
and transmit this information back to earth.
Recent ABL studies were made of such problems as long lifetime
power supply, automated techniques for the Laboratory to obtain and
then process soil saimples, improved logic and data compression tech-
niques, and faster, more efficient tmnsmission of data. Methods of
solving these problems mere being investigated both within and outside
of the ABL program.
Responsibility for system management for the Automated Biological
Laboratory was assigned to the Jet. Propulsion Laboratory. The Ames
Research Center and university and industrial contractors continued
conceptual, laboratory, and preliminary design studies of potential
subsystems and experiments.

Planetary Quarantine
NASA’s planetary quarantine program develops new techniques to
assure that its lunar and planetary spacecraft maintain the lowest POS-
sible level of contaminat,ion by life forms from the earth. Major
effort is directed at learning how to reduce the stresses placed on
spacecraft by the sterilization process. Resulting research has pro-
vided new knowledge on the die away of many organisms during an
extended period under normal temperature and humidity conditions
which will eventually bs of value in surgery. Other research promises
to lead to improved methods of controlling bacterial contamination in
moms where spacecraft are assembled. This cleanliness will be sub-
stantially better than that provided in the average surgery. Biologi-
cally clean assembly coupled with die away over several days will result
in lunar landing spacecraft with an acceptably low level of biological
contamination without further treatment. (13th Semiannual Report,
p. 57.)
Much more stringent sterility requirements for planetnry landers
were developed. To achieve accep!able sterility in the interior of parts
of these spacecraft, as well as on their surfaces, dry heat must be ap-
plied at temperature levels previously untested. Unnecessarily high


iFigure 2-5. Improved miniaturized Gulliver life detector.

temperatures and long periods of heating can result in decreased space-

craft reliability. However, methods were developed through research
to permit gradual reduction of temperatures and exposure times re-
quired for sterilization, resulting in improved reliability. To assure
that no breaks occur in the protective system and the final sterilization,

detailed monitoring procedures were set up. These included visual and
photographic inspection, biological assay, and computerized mathe-
matical analysis of svery step of the process.
Progress was made also in analyzing planetary contamination pre-
sented by nonsterile spacecraft flying past or orbiting a planet, and
measures Yo prevent this contaminat,ionwere under study.

BiosatelI ites
Qualification tests were completed on the components and subsystems
of the first Biosatellite scheduled to be launched on a 3-day flight
during the last quarter of 1966. (Fig. 2-6.) The orbiting biological
laboratory was being tested (as a completed system with thermal-
vacuum vibration and the space environment simulated. Plans call
for launch with a Thrust-augmented Improved Delta vehicle into
an equtxtorial orbit of approximately 200 miles and aerial recovery
of the reentry capsule minus its heat shield. Laboratories for experi-
menters a t Kennedy Space Center and the contractor’s plant were
completed, as mere spacecraft checkout facilities a t RSC. System
development tests of the 21-day mission flight, experiments were
completed with favorable results, and the contractor was directed to
proceed with final design and procurement of the hardware. A mock-
up of the 13ios:itellite for a :<O-diiyflight WLS also completed, and sys-
tems devrlopmcnt tests of its primate hardware rerun at the University
of California (Los Angeles) in dune to check out redesigned equip-
NA4SA2’s T3iosatellite Program, plimned with the advim of the scien-
tific community, is designed to study the effects of weightlessness,
cosmic radiation, and the removal of the effects of the earth’s rotation
on living cells, tissues, and organisms in orbit for 8, 21, and 30 days.
Nineteen experiments were selected as three payloads for the satellites.
Experimental specimens include bacteria, radiation-sensitive plants
:rnd insects, wheat seedlings and other plants gravity-oriented in their
growth, amoeba, human cells, frog eggs, rats, and primates. Of the
13 experiments selected for the 8-day flight payload, 7 mill be used
to study the r f f r c t s of n-cightlcssness combined with a known radiation
source. Human cells in culture, plants. and rats will be flown for 21
dngs to determine the effects of \~-eightJessnessand removal from the
mrth‘s rotational influences. A pig-tailed monkey q u i p p e d with
brain probes will bc orbited for :I month to determine the effects of
weightlessness on its Iwhavior, its rrsponse to imposed tasks. and rem-
tion during cycles of sleep or wakefulness. Catheters will be im-
planted in the monkey’s circulatory system to asses the effects of
weightlrssncss on the heart and tlic entire system. The urinary tmct
will also be catheterized in order to nnalyze the urine during flight

,Figure 2-6. Biosatellite undergoes qualifying tests.

to determine the primate’s metabolic balance and levels of calcium,

creakinine, and creatine. An experiment in bone X-ray densitometry
will detect any change in calcium in the skeleton.
I n addition to contributing to basic biological knowledge, the Bio-
satellite experiments should help define flight hazards for astronauts
and develop methods for carrying on more detailed investigations of
these hazards.

Gemini Biological Experiments

Bone X-ray densitometry studies were made of astronauts’ bone
mineral losses during several Project Gemini flights using a tech-
nique developed by NASA for its Biosatellite and manned missions.
Results of these studies indicated a greater loss of bone mineral from
the skeleton during the flights than during the immobilization of
complete bed rest simulating weightlessness.
Fertilized frog eggs were carried on the Gemini VI11 mission in
March in ail experiment designed to study the effect of weightlessness
on living cells. Frog eggs were selected because they require gravity
for normal development, and the effects of weightlessness should be
observable. The astronauts stopped the growth of the eggs at certain
intervals by activating controls which released a fixative. Eggs
arrested in development during the first and second cleavage were
normal ; those stopped at 2-hour rand 25-minute intervals in the eight-
celled stage of division were normal with typical cleavage and devel-
oped on schedule. The absence of a gravitational field did not appear
to affect the development of previously fertilized eggs. Further
flights of these eggs are planned aboard Biosatellites and Gemini

Environmental Biology
Systematic studies continued of the biological eff ects of weightless-
ness, radiation, removal of the effects of earth's rotation, magnetic
fields, and other stresses of the space environment on various life forms
as simulated in the laboratory.
The combined effects of vibration and radiation were not found by
bioscientists to produce greater damage to certain living cells than
their individual effects. However, vibration appeared to slow down
or prevent the recombination of chromosomes. High-magnetic fields
protected fruit flies from radiation injury after irradiation. A low-
magnetic field reduced the growth rate of wheat seedlings. Experi-
mental animals subjected to 200 days of continuous acceleration at
1.5 g exhibited smaller body size, shorter and broader bones, and
changes in body utilization of fat. While immobilized, young ani-
mals exhibited higher metabolic activity than older animals and
incorporated more phosphate into their bones.
Experimenters discovered that algae which normally grow a t low
temperatures on snow banks showed a very low rate of photosynthesis
when exposed to temperatures as high as 2 0 O C. in the laboratory.
For this reason they concluded that the reaction temperature of a
Martian life-detection probe designed to measure metabolic activity
should also include freezing temperatures.
I n other experiments cucumber seedlings grown in air, cooled to
14' F. for an hour, and thawed were killed by the lower temperature.
However, all seedlings survived the low temperature d i m they were
grown in 2 percent oxygen and 95 percent argon.
Bbregenerahe Life 8upport A~yste~.-Not~worthydevelopments
were made with IZydrogenomonas (soil bacterin) in the electrolysis-
soil bacteria bioregenerative life slipport syskiii for astronauts in
nrbit. (The bacteria use the hydrogen produced when electricity
~ p l i t the
s water into hydrogen and oxygen, while the oxygen generated
can be consumed by the astronauts.) The nutritional value of
Irjydrogenomoms was determined to be almost as good as the standard
dietary protein cnsein; there was n good balance of essential amino
acids, and vitamin and mineral contents seemed adequate. Human
urine was shown to be : ~ nexcellent growth medium for the bacteria,
indicating that these organisms might use human wastes.
A continuous two-liter culture system developed for cultivating
Rydrogenomonm operated for 100 hours without any significnnt oper-
ating difficulties. The capacity of this system was increased to 20
liters for continuous life support of 1 astronaut.
Behavioral Biology
Experiments directed toward solving the basic biological problem
of the origin of circadian rhythms (regular changes in physiological
functions occurring in life forms in about 24-hour cycles) were
planned with potato tubers, mice, cockroaches, and the pupae of fruit
flies. Flying these experimental specimens in solar orbits would
remove them completely from the effects of the earth’s rotation and
would determine whether the circadian rhythms match the periodic
nature of the physical environment on earth o r originate within the
organisms. Other investigations in earth orbit mill provide data on
controlling these cycles.
Ground-based studies at Ames Research Center produced devices
capable of collecting biorhythm data without disturbing the animal.
Miniature radio transmitters determined the circadian rhythm of deep
body temperature and heart rate, and strain gages reported locomotor
activity. A sealed transmitter and thermistor recorded changes in
deep body temperature and transmitted the data to a receiver. The
heart rate was determined from an EKG signal to a second transmitter.
Physical Biology
An electron microscope with superconducting lenses examined mete-
oritic dust collected by a space probe at an altitude of about 90 miles.
However, the organic compounds present in the dust may have been
produced during the probe’s approach to the earth when the dust
became exposed to various gases.
An automatic electronic device using computer techniques was de-
veloped to sort, count, and analyze minute biological materials (espe-
cially chromosomes). Data on the computer tapes reveals the reactions
of chromosomes and blood cells t o radiation exposure, changes in
gravity, and to various other stresses encountered in space flights.
This system has not only medical and clinical applications, but can
be used to detect imperfections in metals due to manufacturing or
U.S.-U.S.S.R. Bioscience Review
A joint review of space biology and medicine will be prepared by
American and Russian bioscientists under the terms of an agreement
signed in October 1965 by NASA and the Soviet Academy of Sciences.
Representing the United States on the joint editorial board for this
project are : Dr. Melvin Calvin, University of California (Berkeley),
US. cochairman, and six other members : Professor Loren D. Carlson,
University of Kentucky ; Dr. Robert W.Krauss, University of Mary-
land; Professor Robert B. Leighton, California Institute of Tech-
nology ; Dr. John P. Marbarger, University of Illinois ; Professor
Wolf Vishniac, University of Rochester; and Dr. Orr E. Reynolds
of NASA. These scientists held their first meeting at NASA head-
quarters on January 29, 1966. Chapter titles and outlines mere
exchanged with the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and a tentative work
schedule leading to publication of all volumes during 1967 and 1968
was agreed upon. Authors of the chapters-evenly divided between
this country and the U.S.S.R.-were chosen by the joint editorial
board. NASA has arranged with George Washington University to
publish the American reviews in a separate monograph series.

Bioscience Advisory Panels

Under a contract with the American Institute of Biological Sciences,

NASA’s Office of Bioscience Programs set up Advisory Panels on
Behavioral Biology, Environmental Biology, and Exobiology. These
panels mill evaluate resenrch proposals submitted by the Chiefs of
various Agency Bioscience Programs, advise the Program Chiefs of
the scientific merits of the proposals, and also act as advisors on other
matters requested by the Office of Bioscience Programs and the Execu-
tive Director of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Mem-
bem of the ,Idvisory Panels were selected by the Institute in
cwisultdon with the Bioscience Program Chiefs and with the con-
currence of the Director of Bioscience Programs. They met twice
during the first 6 months of 1966.

Light and Medium Launch Vehicles

NASA used Scout, Delta, Agena, and At,las-Centaur launch vehicles
for its unmanned space missions during the first 6 months of 1966.


Five Scout vehicles were successfully launched and accomplished all

their mission objectives, extending Scout’s launch record t o 18 con-
secutive successes. On January 28, a Scout orbited a payload for the
Department of Defense; another, on February 9, performed a NASA
reentry mission. Three other Scout launches (March 25, April 22, and
May 18) carried out additional missions for the Defense Department.

There mere three successful Delta launches. The second opera-

tional TIROS (ESSA-I) was orbited by n Delta vehicle on Feb-
ruary 3, the third operational T I R O S (ESSA-11) by another Delta
on February 28, and a third Delta launched Explorer XXXII on
May 25. The Delta launch record stood at 34 successes in 38 attempts
by the end of this report period.
On April 8, an Agena launched an Orbiting Astronomical Observa-
tory (OAO-I) from Cape Kennedy. The Atlas-Agena vehicle, per-
formed flawlessly, injecting the spacecraft into a nearly perfect orbit.
All vehicle test objectives were achieved.
A Thrust-augmented Thor Agena launched the Nimbus-I1 weather
satellite from the Western Test Range (Point Arguello, Calif.) on
May 15. The launch vehicle performed satisfactorily and met all its
test objectives.
Launch Vehicle Status.-Launch vehicle preparations were on
schedule for missions planned during the last 6 months of 1966. These
included a third Orbiting Geophysical Observatory, the first two
Lunar Orbiters, a Passive Geodetic Satellite, a Polar Orbiting Geo-
physical Observatory, and an Applications Technology Satellite.
Facilities-Launch Complex 13 at Kennedy Space Center was modi-
fied to enable it to launch the new standard Atlas. The Air Force
formally transferred this complex to NASA.
The modifications to Space Launch Complex 1 (formally 75-1-1)
at the Western Test Range were completed to accommodate the Delta
launch vehicle and up-date the complex for Agena. Nimbus I1 was
the first launch from this updated complex.
At las-Centaur
Atlas-Centaur, the first US. launch vehicle to use liquid hydrogen
fuel, was developed for use in lunar and planetary explorations. Its
first assigned spacecraft was Surveyor, designed as a soft lunar lander
vehicle. The vehicle will also launch a Mariner spacecraft for a
Mars mission in 1969.
Seven development vehicles have flown. A failure occurred on the
first flight in May 1962, the following three flights were generally
successful; the fifth flight failed at launch; and the sixth was a total
success completing the development program for the direct ascent
vehicle. The seventh vehicle, flown April 7, was the first of two
planned parking orbit (two-burn) attempts. The second burn of the
Centaur stage was not accomplished because the hydrogen peroxide
ancillary propellant was lost through leakage. The eighth Atlas-
Centaur successfully injected the first Surveyor spacecraft into a
lunar intercept trajectory on May 30 (p. 49). A parking orbit (two-
burn) capability will be provided during 1966, and additional payload
capability in 1967.


I n May NASA orbited its most sophisticatad meteorological satellite,

Nimbus 11. This advanced version of the original Nimbus makes
possible more accurate weather forecasts and extensive global infrared
photography, particularly of hurricane-breeding areas in the Atlantic
Ocean. Earlier in the spring two wheel-type T I R O S satellites,
ESSA-I and -11, were launched, opening the operational meather
satellite system. I n 6 years T I R O S and TIROS Operational Sntellite
(TOS) spacecraft, provided meteorologists and other sciectists with
over 600,000 TV pictures, ranging from photographs of global cloud
cover, hurricanes, and typhoons t o ice floes. The satellites also stlp-
ported the Nation’s manned space flights, and data which they SLIP-
plied was used intenlationally for special storm ndvisories
The Agency will launch four more spacecraft (on a reimbursable
basis) for the Commiinicntions Satellite Corporation; two will ht.
launched late in 1 ~ 6 6 o n over
e the Atlantic Ocean, and another over
the Pacific. These Early Bird I1 communicntions satellites will fur-
nish complete glo~balcoverage (in contrast to the limited coverage of
Early Bird I ) , providing commercial service and supporting the
manned lunar landings of Project Apollo.
On .June 24, N M A launched P,\GEOS-I, the second spacecraft in
:\ geodetic satellite program coordinated with the Departments of
Commerce and Defense. The 100-foot diameter plastic-aluminum
sphere gathers data for precision mapping of the earth’s surface.
I n its earth resources survey program NASA conducted airborne
remote sensor tests to evaluate prototypes of instruments to be flown
by spacecraft gathering information for such surveys. Preliminary
studies of the resulting remote sensor data by scientists in govern-
ment, at universities, and in private industry indicate that similar
instruments aboard spacecraft may be applied to agriculture, geogra-
phy, geology, hydrology, and oceanography. Possible uses include in-
vestigating glaciers, volcanoes, and geologic faults ; identifying the
surface color and bottom features of bodies of water; and pinpointing
diseased trees in forests and the conditions of soils and crops.

Meteorological Programs
Two wheel-type TIROS-ESSA-I and ESSA-I1 orbited in Febru-
ary-inaugurated the operational weather satellite system (fig. 3-1).
Launched on February 3, ESSA-I (Environmental Survey Satellite
No. I) furnishes stored global cloud pictures remotely to the TOS com-
mand and data acquisition stations at Wallops Island, Va., and Gil-
more Creek, Alaska. The stored data received at the stations are im-
mediately transmitted over wide-band communicationslinks to the Na-
tional Environmental Satellite Center at Suitland, Md. At Suitland,
the data are processed and used by the Weather Bureau for daily
weather forecasts and meteorological research. Cloud analysis charts
based on satellite data are prepared for operational use and dissemi-
nated over national and international weather communications
channels. Picture data are provided also in nearly real time to the
U.S. Air Force station at Offutt Air Force Base (Nebraska) for opera-
tional use.
The T V cameras of ESSA-I provide about 450 excellent cloud
pictures daily (fig. 3-2). More than 98 percent of these pictures are
useful for meteorological purposes.
ESSA-11, orbited on February 28, transmits approximately 112
picture frames daily. Each of about 150 Automatic Picture Trans-
mission ( A P T ) stations receives up to 9 local area pictures daily
from the satellite’s A P T subsystem. Local A P T stations have found
these high-quality photographs useful in local weather forecasting
and operations (fig.3-3).
The ESSA satellite ground station complex was completed, checked
out, and placed in full operation. Included were command, data, and
acquisition stations at Wallops Island, Va., and Gilmore Creek, Alaska,
a TIROS Operational Satellite System Operational Center at Suit-
land, Md., and the ground communications system interconnecting
these facilities.

Figure 3-1. ESSA-I and ESSA-II spacecraft.

A preliminary design study was begun in May to provide on a
single spacecraft (TIROS-M) A P T and Advanced Vidicon Camera
picture transmission systems, and a local and global nighttime system
similar to the High Resolution Infrared Radiometer successfully dem-
onstrated on Nimbus I and 11. Also being developed were an im-
proved camera with increased resolution, reliability, and operating life-
time, and an onboard gridding subsystem for A P T to increase its
accuracy and permit greater ease and economy of operation.
The TV cameras of TIROS VI1 and VIII, launched in 1963, and
those of TIROS IX and X, orbited in 1965, continued to provide
meteorologically usable pictures. TIROS VI1 completed 3 years of
successful operation on June 19. Table 3-1 summarizes TIROS
satellite performance through May 24,1966.

Nimbus 11,the second spacecraft in this series, was launched on May
15 from the Western Test Range by a Thrust-augmented Thor-Agena
(fig. 3-4). More accurate weather forecasting will be possible through
data supplied by this 912-pound spacecraft-the most sophisticated,
completely instrumented weather satellite orbited t o date. I n a 700-
mile, nearly polar, sun-synchronous, circular orbit the spacecraft and
its four sensors were operating as designed, supplying more data in
the first 2 weeks of operation than that obtained from Nimbus I during
its entire lifetime.
High-resolution infrared radiometer data were added to the satel-
lite’s A P T system, providing stored and direct readout of day and
night cloud cover for the first time. Infrared pictures, particularly
of hurricane-breeding areas in the Atlantic, are available on a global
basis. The Advanced Vidicon Camera system that yielded such excel-
lent piotures on Nimbus I was also working well aboard the Nimbus
I1 spacecraft. The Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer, with
five continuously scanning data channels, was providing information
on water vapor concentration, surface and cloud top temperatures, and
stratospheric temperatures. It also was collecting data on the amount
of radiation the earth absorbs each day and how much of it is reflected
and radiated back into the atmosphere. This radiometer is an ad-
vanced digitalized version of the one flown on TIROS.
Engineering models of spacecraft components and sensors of the
third Nimbus (Nimbus B) were being delivered by the contractor, and
the assembly of the engineering model was underway. The basic
spacecraft, similar to Nimbus I and 11,will be the first to carry new
sensors to measure the atmospheric structure of the earth. I t was
scheduled tobe launched late in 1967.
258-738 047-6

Table 3-1. TIROS highlightsthrough Muy 24, 1966

TIROS (launch date) Useful lift Total TV Performance

in days pictures

I (Apr. 1,1860) . _ . _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _88

__ 23, ooo Proved TV operation in space feasible.
I1 (Nov. 23,1960) ____________ 37t 36,100 Photographed ice floes and demonstrated mag-
netic attitude control.
I11 (July 12, 1961) ___.....
~ . . ~230 35, ooo Qave advance storm warning of flrst hurricane
IV (Feb. 8,1962) .__._..._.___
161 3 2 800 Provided supporting data for first 2 U.S. manned
orbital space flights (Astronaut Glenn on Feb-
ruary 20; Carpenter on May 24, 1962). Data
from satellite used internationally for special
storm sdvisaries.
V (June 19,1962) ___.___._..._
321 w2JM Supplied broader cloud coverage and maximum
weather data during peak of 1962 hurricane
VI (Sept. 18,1962). -.
.___... 389 w,
Observed and tracked 10 hurricanes and 21
typhoons. Supported the 3d and 4th U.S.
manned orbital flights by Astronaut Schirra
on Oct. 3, 1962; Cooper during May 1546,1963.
VII (June 19,1863)____..._.__*1,071 123,050 Orbited along with TIROS VI11 and Nimbus I ,
in 1964, to provide the most closely observed
hurricane season in history.
VI11 (Dec. 21,1963) _______... ‘886 101,820 Carried flrst experimental Automatic Picture
Transmission (APT) subsystem which sup
plied weather forecasters in remote areas with
photographs of local cloud cover.
I X (Jan. 22,1966) ___...____..*468 71,130 Incressed coverage of world’s cloud cover pro-
vided daily by use of the flrst “cartwheel”
type of satellite.
X (July 2,1965) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0328
___ 67,850
. _ .Photographed
_ Hurricane Betsy in August 1965,
PrOVldlIIK the basis for the decision to e1.d the
Gemini V flight of Astronauts Cooper and
Conrad early by one orbit.
X I (ESSA-I) (Feb. 3,1966) . 0111 51,135 Inaugurated the worldwide TIROS Operational
Satellite System.
XI1 (ESSA-11) (Fob. 28,1966) *86 R, &?7 Supplied local Automatic Picture Transmission
(APT) subsystem stations with photographs
for local weather forecasting. as the flrst oper-
ational global A P T satellite.

4,636 674,022

*Still operating.

Sounding Rockets

Nike-Cajun and Nike-Apachc sounding rockets were used to explore

the atmosphere at heights of from 20 to 60 miles. They carried experi-
ments using sodium vapor, acoustic grenades, Pitot-static tubes, and
inflated mylar spheres. Other payloads designed to measure water
vnpor and ozone at these altitudes were under development,. There
were 20 successful launches, with a single failure due to R rocket
malf unction.
Between sunset, Jan. 17 and sunrise Jnn. 18, five rockets releasing
vapor trails were lnunched from Wallops Station, Vn. Cnmerns n t

Figure 3-2. Kamchatka Peninsula (U.S.S.R.) photogmphcd by =SA-I.

several points along the Atlantic Coast took time-lapse photographs of

the trails to determine the modes of flow of winds. During the last
week of January and the first of February, acoustic grenade experi-
ments were launched from Fort Churchill, Canada, during and after
an auroral display to measure the effect on temperature. Later launch-
ings at Fort Churchill were coordinated with others from Point Bar-
row, Alaska and Wallops Station to sample winter circulation phe-
nomena. I n the first week of May, two grenade experiments to measure
winds during the spring transition were launched from each of the
launch locations a t Point Barrow, Fort Churchill, Wallops Station,
and Natal, Brazil. The Natal launch was the first from there, mark-
ing a shift of the grenade experiment from Ascension Island for tech-
nical reasons. The launches supplied the required data. Two experi-
ments each were launched from Point Barrow and Fort Churchill
during the last 2 weeks of June. These provided data on the at-
mosphere prior to the occurrence of noctilucent clouds.

Figure 3-3. Mexico and Lower California as seen by ESSA-II.

Seventy-eight, h k i and Arcas class sounding rockets were used in

routine launches for range support, research, and meteorological rocket
network operations. Each launch \vas scheduled to obtain the maxi-
inum possible data to support development work, other tests or mis-
sions, and the cooperative meteorological sounding rocltet network.

Meteorological Flight Experiments

ATX-R.-The prototype spin scan camera of the first Applications

Technology Satellite (ATS-R) was completed and siiccessfully car-
ried out the vacuum thermal cycle while mounted on the prototype
spacecraft. The flight model camera \vas fabricated and delivered
to the spacecraft, contractor for mounting, integration, and checkout
on the flight model spacecraft (fig. 3 - 5 ) . This camera is designed for
continuous detailed viewing, analysis, study of short-lived mete-


Figure 34. Nimbus II photographs the Greut Lakes.

orological phenomena such as thunderstorms, tornadoes, and groups of

cumulus clouds.
ATS-A.-Prototype Advanced Vidicon Camera system cameras
were assembled, tested, and shipped to the spacecraft manufacturer
for mounting on the prototype ATS-A spacecraft, the second in the
Applications Technology Satellite series. A high resolution camera
mill provide detailed T V pictures of a limited portion of the earth, a
low resolution camera cloud pictures of the visible disc of the earth.
This experiment mill also test the effects of the moving parts of the
camera, such as shutters and camera reels, on the spacecraft gravity
g a d i e n t stabilization system.

Communications Programs
Active Commurciccrtions Sotellites
Telstar.-Telstar 11, orbited by NASA on May 7,1963, continued in
working order but no communications experiments mere conducted
with it since the ground stations formerly associated with the satel-
lite were operating with the commercial communications satellite
Early Bird.
Relay.-Except for communications experiments conducted by Ger-
man, Japanese, and Scandanavian ground stations, Relay I1 was used

Figure 3-5. Flight model of ATS cloud camera.

exclusively to gather data on radiation and radiation effects. (Relay

I1 was launched January 21,1964.)
Bymom.-Syncom I1 and I11 were used by the Department of De-
fense for operational communications from the Near and F a r East.
Syncom I11 has conslimed most of its onboard propellnnt supply for
station keeping. However, even after depletion of t,his propellant,
the satellite should continue to be useful for communications with
Southeast Asia for another year or two. (Syncom I1 and Syncom 111
were orbited on ,July 26,1963 and August 19,1964.)
Early Bhi?.-Launched by NASA for the Communications Satel-
lite Corp. (Comsat) on April 6, 1965, Early Bird I continued to pro-
vide satisfactory commercial service. Flight model No. 2 WRS
available for launch if this first commercial communications satellite
should need to be replaced.
Late in 1965, Comsat contracted for four Early Bird I1 spacecraft,
which will be launched by NASA on a reimbursable basis. Two of
these satellites will be placed in geostationary orbits late in 196-e
over the Atlantic and another over the Pacific. These satellites, which
can provide earth coverage in both the northern and southern hemi-
spheres, will satisfy some of the communications requirements of the
Apollo project and also give additional commercial service.
A t about the same time, the Corporation requested proposals for a
new global system satellite able to operate in medium altitude inclined
orbits or in a synchronous (geostationary) orbit. A contractor was
selected to develop this satellite, and its launch vehicle will be chosen
6 months after th0 contract is awarded.
Passive Communications Satellites
Echo I and 11-launched on August 12,1960 and January 25,1964-
remained in orbit. Experiments with them were limited t o studies
of how the space environment affects their orbits and of their use as
passive geodetic satellites preparing for the operation of PAGEOS
(pp. 48 and 74).
Early Gravity Gradient Test Satellite
The Early Gravity Gradient Test Satellite, designed to determine
if earth's gravitational pull can be used to stabilize spacecraft in high
orbits, was launched from Kennedy Space Center on June 16. The
two axes-stabilized satellite, which uses a double dumbbell gravity
gradient system made up of 52-foot motorized booms, was injected into
a nearly synchronous equatorial orbit by the Department of Defense
on board a Titan 111-C rocket.
Applications Technology Satellite (ATS)
Final assembly and integration of the ATS-B prototype model-
the spin-stabilized version of the Applications Technology Satellites-
was completed as were the major qualification tests. Assembly of the
flight spacecraft was completed and acceptance tests begun. Manu-
facturing and testing of components of the second ATS spacecraft,
the gravity-stabilized STS-A, were proceeding satisfactorily with
launch scheduled for mid-1967.
Three parallel study contracts mere initiated t o determine the feasi-
bility of a follow-on Applications Technology Satellite mission beyond
the currently approved five-launch series. Objectives of this proposed
mission would be to develop a geostationary spacecraft carrying a
parabolic antenna 30 feet in diameter, a precision radio interferometer,
a multibeam phased array antenna, and a long-lived attitude control
system able to point all of them toward any point on the earth's sur-
face with an accuracy of 0.1".

Navigation and Geodetic Programs

Navigation Satellites
The interagency Joint Navigation Satellite Committee completed
its studies of requirements, systems, and costs of satellites for air-sea
navigation, communications, traffic control, emergency and rescue op-
erations, and related functions and issued a report to its members on
the results. The report also recommends specific studies to be con-
ducted by the participating agencies (NASA, the Federal Aviation
Agency, and the Departments of Treasiiry, Interior, and Commerce)
and means of disseminating research and development information
generated by them.
Navigation-traffic control experiments for possible flight on manned
spacecraft were being investigated for tlie Committee under the terms
of a contract recently negotiated. I n addition, an experiment aboard
Applications Technology Satellite-C (ATS-C) mill be used to develop
a method to locate large numbers of moving platforms dispersed over
the earth and then relay via synchronous satellites the geophysical
data which their sensors have acquired. The experiment (named
OPLE for Omega Position Location Equipment) uses signals trans-
mitted by the Navy‘s Omega navigation stations to locate tlie platform
and n communications transponder aboard the satellite to transmit
the Omega signals and the, platform‘s scientific information to a
ground station. The experiment will determine if this technique is
able to provide meteorologists and oceanographers with data from free
moving balloons and ocean buoys.
,\nother experiment, being considered by scientists of the American
Institute of Biological Sciences, the Smithsonian Institution, and
NASA, would use the interrogation, recording, and location system
aboard Nimbus I3 ( t o be launched in 1967) to track large free moving

Geodetic Satellites
NASA launclied a second geodetic satellite, PAGEOS-I, on June 24.
l’,tGEOS (:I P:wiw Geodetic Earth-Orbitiiig Satellite) is a 100-
foot, aluminized, Mylar-plast ic sphere designed to obtain data for
precision mapping of the earth’s surface. The satellite-similar to
the Echo I passive communicntions satellite-was boosted into a 2,600-
mile-high polar orbit, by :I Tlirnst-augmented Thor-Agenn D laulich
\-chicle. (Fig. 3-6.)
Poi-ty-one ground observing sites nroiind the world photograph tlie
iioiiinstrnirieiited s:ttellite. 13y reflecting sunlight, PI\GEOS provides
an orbiting point of light which will be photogr:iplied over a &year
period to determine the location of continents, land masses, islands,

Figure 3-6. PAGEOS-I Geodetic Satellite.

and other geographic points in relation to each other. I n orbit i t will

be as bright as the star Polaris.
The GEOS-I active geodetic satellite (Explorer XXIX), launched
on November 6, 1065, became fully operational. Instruments on the
satellite service about 110 ground observation stations daily. Fifteen
of these were established, manned, and funded by scientists outside the
U.S., principally in Europe. Data from these overseas stations are
forwarded to a geodetic satellite data service in the National Space
Science Data Center at Goddard Space Flight Center.

Earth Resources Survey

T o calibrate and evaluate prototypes of instruments which will be

flown by spacecraft gathering data for earth resources surveys, NASA
conducted an airborne remote sensor-testing program. (Table 3-2
summarizes some anticipated applications of spacecraft-acquired data
to these surveys.) A number of highly instrumented aircraft were
used to acqnire data, including a NARA Convair 240-A for altitudes
up to 20,000 feet, R NASA Lockheed Electra P-3A for altitudes u p to
40,000 feet, and aircraft of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Geological
Survey, Department of Agriculture, and private industry (on a part-
time basis). These airplanes flew more than 1,000 hours over various
test sites collecting information with infrared imagers, microwave
radiometers, radar, and other sensors.
Over 100 potential foreign and domestic testsites presenting a variety
of earth resources features or problems were identified. More than
25 were overflown by aircraft carrying various remote sensors. The
data gathered were being studied by scientists in government, a t uni-
versities, and in private industry (table 3-3) to determine their appli-

Toble 3-2. Spocccraft-acquired duta applied to earth resources surveys (Moy 13. 1966)

I May be applied to-

Agricul- Geology Iydrology oceanog-

ture raphy

Metric camera ............................. X X X X X

Panoramic camera ......................... X X X X X
Multispectral tracking telescope- .......... X X X X X
Multiband synoptic camera ................ X X X X X
Radar imager............................. X X X X X
Radar altimeter/scatterometer ........................ .......... X X X
Wide spectral scanner ...................... X X X X X
Infrared radiometer/spectrometer.- -.-. -.-- X X X X X
Microwave imager ......................... X X X X X
Microwave radiometer - - - - - - - - - - -. ----- X .......... X X X
Laser altimeter/scatterometer......................... .......... X X X
Magnetometer.. ...................................... X X X
Gravity gradiometer-.- .............................. .......... X .......... X
Absorption spectrometer. ............................ .......... X X
Chirp radar .......................................... .......... X X
Viewfinder................................ X X X X X
Ultraviolet imager/spectrometer- ..................... .......... X
Telemetcring buoys.. ................................ .......... .......... X
Thermometer and hydrometer ............. X .......... ..........
Anemometer. ............................ X .......... ............
Weir stream gage..- ....................... X .......... X
Fathometer............................... X .......... ..........
Snow pack integrator ...................... X .... .......... X
Xerometer ................................. X ..-. - - - -.-. ..........
Particle sbe analyzer. ..................... X ........... ..........
cation to earth resource studies. These studies included analyses of
black and white, color, near-infrared, and multiband photography,
radar, and infrared imagery.
I n addition, a data processing and distributing unit ,was established
at the Manned Sp'acecraft Center to receive and disseminate remote
sensor data collected by spacecraft, aircraft, ground vehicles, and
supplied from ground-based instruments.
Preliminary studies of remote Sensor data for geologic applications
showed that faults which could not be identified on conventional black-
and-white aerial photographs could be recognized on radar. Radar
imagery was also found to be valuable for identifying various rock
formations by measuring their reflectivities, and for distinguishing
surface gl'acial features. Infrared surveys (fig. 3-7) of active volcanic
areas and the Sm Andreas Fault system helped identify these types
of features.

Toblc 3-3. Natural resources uctivitics (Morch I I, 1966)

Discipline Principal responsible agency Some contributing organizations

Agriculture/Forestry - - __ Department of Agriculture Purdue University, University of California,

(Agricultural Research University of Kansas,University of Michigan,
Service, Forest Service, National Academy of Sciences, Department of
and Economic Research State.
Department of the Interior Northwestern University, University of Michi-
( Qeological Survey). gan, Erst Tennessee State University, McQill
University, National Academy of Sciences,
National Resources Evaluation Center, Brook-
ing~ Institution, Amciation of American
Geographers, OfficeofNaval Research,Library
of Congress, Department of the Interior (Office
of Geography), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Department of Commerce, Coast and Qeodetic
Survey, Bureau of the Census.
QeologyjHydrology- - ._
. Department of the Interior University of Nevada, Stanford University,
(Geological Survey). Northwestern University, Ohio State Univer-
sity, University of Indiana, Massachusetts In-
stitute of Technology, University oI Kansas,
California Institute of Technology, National
Academy of Sciences, Jet Propulsion Labors
tory, U.S. Army Geodesy, Intelligence, Map
ping, Research and Development Agency, U.S.
Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory.
OceanogmphylMarine Department of the Navy University of California (Scripps Oceanographic
Technology. (Naval Oceanographic Institute), New York University, University
Office). of Washington, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, Texas A.&M. University, Woods
Hole Oceanographic Institute, National Acad-
emy of Sciences, Department of the Interior
(Qeological Survey and Bureau of Commercial
Fisheries), Environmental Science Services
Administration (Department of Commerce),
U.S. Coast Quard.


Figure 3-7. Infrared aerial survey of an active volcano in Hawuii.

Preliminary results of geographic studies indicated that multi-

spectral photography may be used in studies of urban development and
tmnsportation systems, and in monitoring changes in population dis-
tribution. I n hydrologic studies over a number of lakes, color and
infrared color photography mapped the mixing of pollutants and
identified water surface color and bottom features. Near-infrared
1)hatogr:sphy was used to study glaciers :snd to distinguish between
snow and ice. Remote sensors also established various characteristics
and conditions of soils, c ~ o p sand
, forests. Specific types were identi-
fied, diseased conditions pinpointed, and soil types and their moisture
content determined.

The 05ce of Advanced Research and Technology (OART),like

other NASA program ofices, conducts a Supporting Research and
TechZogy Program which prepares for future achievements by
anticipating and solving the key problems standing between present
capability and future plans. Most of this supporting activity and the
coordination of all supporting research and technology is placed in
The review of the OART program which follows is broad in scope
and diverse so as to show that the impetus of that program is in the di-
rection of new technology for future applications.
Some achievements described represent only milestones toward the
solution of key problems upon which many missions will depend;
others illustrate the development of the broader base of technology
which must accompany the work on these key problems. All represent
progress in the evolution of sound aerospace technology.

Space Vehicles Program

High Energy Radiation Effects
I n research on techniques for accurately calculating the effectiveness
of spacecraft materials in shielding against electron radiation, experi-
mentally derived cross sections of electron scattering and secondary
bremsstrahlung radiation were obtained. They were compared with
input data for analytical techniques developed by the National Bureau
of Standards. The data produced better agreement between predicted
and measured results of shielding effectiveness for several materials
involving simple geometries and single elements. The Manned Space-
craft Center used data from the analytical codes in shielding calcula-
tions for Gemini, Apollo, and other possible future manned systems.
Thermal Effeds
A half-scale model of the Mariner Mars spacecraft previously tested
in the solar simulator a t Lewis Research Center, was tested in a dif-
ferent type solar simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Tem-
perature readings in both tests were close to those actually recorded by
the full-scale spacecraft earoute to Mars. Such findings again indicate
that greater reliance can be placed upon thermal tests run in solar
simulators and in particular on the newly developed technology of
thermal scale modeling under steady state conditions.
Considerable progress was made in instrumentation for measuring
the light intensity in solar simulators. Conical cavity devices developed
a t Goddard Space Flight Center and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
reduced errors in predicting spacecraft thermal performance.
A new white, highly reflective thermal control paint was developed.
The resistance of the zinc-oxide pigment to solar ultraviolet damage
was improved by surrounding each pigment particle with a potassium
silicate shield. The new paint is to be tested as :I,part of a coatings
experimental package on OSOE-1.
Vacuum Technology
I n the testing of materials and components for high vacuum effects,
:In improved method for controlling contamination caused by mole-
d e s which outgas from a test spncecraft and bounce off the malls
of the vacuum chamber was developed by J e t Propulsion Laboratory
and incorporated in a new vacuum chamber.
Meteoroid Technology
The three Pegasus meteoroid detection satellites which were put
into orbit in February, May, and July 1065, continued t o yield g i g -
nificant data on the number of meteoroid penetrations of aluminum
sheets up t o 0.016-inch thick. The information being gathcred is
directly applicnhle to the design of advanced spacecraft, particularly
to such potentially vulnerable components as propellant tanks and
pressurized cabins. The more than 1100 penetrations recorded thus
far have confirmed the adequacy of the current meteoroid design
model being used for Project Apollo. The findings also indicated,
however, that problems will be encountered in designing protection
against probable meteoroid penetrations for future longer-dnration-
mission spacecraft. I n anticipation of such problems, ways to obtain
additional information on penetration of greater thickness of space-
craft materials were being considered.
Reentry "E"
The reentry "E" experiment of the Scout reentry heating project
was launched February 9, from Wallops Island, Va., using a five-
stage Scout vehicle. (Fig. 4-1.) The primary objectives of the
experiment were to evaluate the char integrity of the low-density,
charring-ablator nosecap material and to determine its thermal effec-
tiveness for withstanding a high heat funclion (enthalpy) reentry
environment. The results of the experiments are being used to vali-
date procedures for extrapolating laboratory data t o real environments.
The flight experiment met its objectives despite two problems that
occurred during the flight. The delay-data telemeter transmitter
failed before the start of reentry, and the advanced range instru-
mentation ship did not obtain radar track of the spacecraft beacon.
However, excellent records of the real-time telemetry mere recorded
by Bermuda radar both before and after blackout. Analysis indicates
that a majority of the desired measurements were made and the experi-
inent objectives were achieved. The preliminary results indicated
that further study must be made of the scaling laws required to inter-
pret the results from small-scale ground-based research.
Acoustic Noise
Work continued on methods of more accurately predicting the noise
environment which affects the structure and components of space ve-
hicles. One study investigated the effects of fluctuating pressures due
to protuberances and vehicle interstage geometry. Data obtained
from wind tunnel tests on idealized vehicle protuberances and on
scaled models of flight vehicle configurations, together with existing
theory, were incorporated into a technique for predicting critical in-
flight fluctuating pressures and induced aerodynamic noise on space
A related study sought to achieve a better understanding of the
basic noise generation mechansims associated with rocket exhaust
flows since fluctuations about the mean flow profile properties of a
high-velocity, high-temperature jet flow constitute a major noise
source. Such an understanding would serve as the basis for better pre-
diction techniques to determine the noise environment of launch ve-
hicles. I n connection with this study, R unique thermo-acoustic simu-
lation facility mas designed and built ; it will enable experiments to be
performed on hot jet exhaust flows and experimenters t o examine in
detail the flow properties of both hot and cold jet exhaust flows.
Rocket Base Flow Field Studies
I n designing clustered-rocket engine configurations, it is important
to understand the detailed nature of base region flows. While avail-



-- 3
Figure 4-1. The reentry " E ' experiment spacecraft.

able data (model-base surface pressures and heat transfer rates) are

valuable for vehicle design purposes, information on base flow param-

eters in the three-dimensional space of the base-nozzle region is essen-
tial for a general understanding of base heating phenomena and for
developing rational scaling criteria. Since physical sensors are not
practical for probing the flow, a recently developed diagnostic tool, the
electron beam probe, may provide the information needed for under-
standing base flow phenomena. It was used to map the density, tem-
perature, and pressure fields in the base area of clustered-rocket

Lifting-Body Spacecraft
NASA has taken delivery on two lifting-body research vehicles,
representing two different concepts, and the vehicles were being made
ready for flight testing. Both vehicles have wing loadings represent-
ative of an actual mission-type spacecraft. These unpowered re-
search vehicles, designated the M-2 and -10, will be launched
from a B-52 mother airplane and maneuvered back to earth to deter-
mine their handling and landing characteristics during the critical
terminal approach and landing phase of flight.
The M-2 was taken aloft in captive flight on three occasions; two
of the captive flights were manned. I n addition, several taxi tests
were made using small hydrogen peroxide engines to provide power.
These engines permit a variable lift-to-drag ratio t o be simulated and
approach flight path angles t o be varied. The vehicle is now ready
for glide flight.
The H L l O was tested in the Ames Research Center’s 40- by 80-foot
wind tunnel, and the aerodynamic characteristics predicted from earl-
ier model tests confirmed. The HLlO will be on flight status during
the summer months, with captive flight and taxi tests to be conducted
before the first glide flight.

Structures Technology
The space vehicle structures program continued to develop a base
in structures technology to meet the requirements of various divisions
of the Office of Advanced Research and Technology. Program acti-
vity included consideration of the structural problems related to space
antennm, cryogenic storage, and extravehicular shelters and space
suits. Work was also done on advanced structural concepts appropri-
ate for reusable launch vehicles and planetary entry.

Orbiting Radio Telescope

To facilitate the development of an orbiting radio telescope, sensing
devices capable of receiving low-frequency (10 to 1,000 meters) radio
waves in space are needed. Such a receiver must also be able t o de-
termine direction of the radio source with the highest possible accur-
acy and to detect relatively weak signals. I n response It0 this require-
ment, it was determined that a parabolic-shaped network of fine wires
or ribbons approximately 1 mile in diameter and weighing only 3,300
pounds will perform satisfactorily as a radio telescope. Despite its
huge size, it could be packaged as a payload for a Saturn V launch
vehicle and subsequently deployed in a 3,700-mile orbit, maintaining
its shape by rotating slowly about its axis once every 16 minutes.
Steering and orientation would be accomplished by a magnetic loop in
the peripheral rim of the structure which would make use of the
Earth’s magnetic field. Such a structure would permit the entire ce-
lestial sphere to be mapped in 6 months. Research to establish dy-
namic behavior and manufacturing methods continued (Fig. 4-2).

Space Suit Technology

Structural research on high-strength filaments has developed a basic
technology applicable to many systems; their application to the struc-
tural design of lunar shelters was discussed in the 14th Semiannual
Report, p. 91. Further nnalysis of and experiments with woven or
wrapped shapes showed that cylindrical structures can be produced
able to contain pressure without high rigidity. Since one of the pri-
mary problems in space snits i s the high rigidity of the pressurize,d suit,
and the consequent limitation on an astronaut’s mobility, the &ructures
research program W R S modified to include development of an improved
suit based on the low-stiffness filament structure research. One of the
existing space suits was altered to demonstrate the degree of improve-
ment and the modified suit delivered to the Manned Spacecraft Center
for evaluation.

Cryogenic Storage
The efficient storage of cryogenic propellants, particularly liquid
hydrogen, for prolonged periods and during operation in adverse en-
vironments presents a number of problems. These are primarily asso-
ciated with the thermnl protection system required to minimize vapori-
zation of the cryogenic fluids, with improved materials for use a t cryo-
genic temperatures, and with suitable protection against, meteoroid
damage. Because these problems overlap disciplines, R cryogenic stor-
age group representing the major organizational dements concerned

Figure 4 2 . Proposed orbiting radio telescope.


with cryogenic propellant research and applications was established

to coordinate agency research activity in this area.

Planetary Entry Structures

Research continued on space vehicle structures appropriate for Mars
exploration. Studies related to development of the landing capsule
established the need for low ballistic coefficient aeroshells and auxiliary
deceleration aids in order t o achieve satisfactory terminal conditions.
These studies also indicated potential problems in design and con-
struction of the aeroshell and deployment of the deceleration aids.
Investigation of the problems associated with design, construction,
and deployment of aerodynamic decelerators proceeded to the flight
test phase, with first tests scheduled for the summer of 1966. Comple-
mentary studies concerned with terminal propulsion braking were
being conducted. Work on the preliminary design and construction
of lightweight aeroshells was under way a t JPL and Langley Research
Center, and a study contract treating the preliminary design of a Mars
probe/lander was completed. Other work included research on heat
shields for planetary entry, planetary entry studies using computer
programs modeling material response during entry, and an ablation
screening program investigating full Mars entry simulation in avail-
able facilities.

Spacecraft Electronics and Control

Communications and Tracking
An experimental high-data-rate laser communications system for
deep-space application was being evaluated over a 4.2-mile test range.
The laser beam from an argon ion laser operating in the blue-green
wavelength bands with a total power output of 0.1 watt illuminates an
&inch diameter spot a t the receiver 4.2 miles away. The signal is
modulated a t 30 mega bits per second which is comparable to 8 com-
mercial TV channel. Initial picture transmission was good but ex-
hibited a moderate amount of “snow” similar to that experienced in
fringe area reception. Plans mere made to upgrade the system by in-
corporating a 2-watt argon ion laser and extending the test range to
100 miles.
Studies of large, high-quality, spacecraft telescopes indicated that
:L system could be developed by using an array of H number of high-
precision primary mirror segments fitted together. Measurement and
nlinement techniques using white light and laser interferometry and
accurate to 1/5millionth of an inch were demonstrated. Mechanical
sctuators were developed to move the individual mirror segments from
0.1 inch to 0.5 millionths of an inch. Three precision optical segments

Figure 4-3. Segment controlled space telescope.

will be fabricated, assembled into a 20-inch array, and alined by using

the interferometers and mechanical actuators to form a diffraction-
limited primary mirror. (Fig.4 4 . )
Rendezvous and Docking
A visual aid was developed by the Langley Research Center to aid
astronauts in rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Called the stand-
off cross, it was incorporated into the Apollo Lunar Module design
and is also being considered for the Apollo command module. The
device consists of a small cross mounted on a rod and an indexed
circle. The astronaut receives angular information on the relative
attitude of the target by the orientation of the cross in the center
and range information from the length of the horizontal bar com-
pared to the outer circle. This simple static device on the target
vehicle looks to the astronaut as an aircraft artificial horizon would
look, with the same error correction motions being required. When
this technique was used in studies of docking performance, precision
increased even though there was partial failure of the control system.
(Fig. 4 4 . )
Reentry Vehicle Viewing System
A device to enable pilots to make normal visual approaches and
landings in vehicles where reentry heating makes conventional cano-
pies and windows impractical was being developed by the Flight
Research Center. The optical system, which presents a wide undis-
torted field of view ( 140° x 90°) t,o the pilot vet exposes only 6 square
inches of glass to the outside environment, consists of two unity power
monoculars mounted in the rear cockpit of the test aircraft. The
optical path extends upward through the canopy, giving the pilot
an unobstructed view forward.
Guidance and Navigation
computer program for determining optimum trajectories for
multistage launch vehicles T.VRS developed for Langley Research Cen-
ter. The program, which uses closed-loop guidance techniques for
performance evaluation and trajectory planning reduced computing
time to 10 percent of that, required by previous techniques. The pro-
gram was furnished to a number of other agencies for use on their
Electronic Techniques and Components
The Langley Research Center developed a process for thick film
(one thousandth of an inch) deposition of microelectronic transistors
on ceramic wafers. Thick film printed microelectronic circuits have
been used where integrated circuit technology was not suitable. How-
ever, transistors could not be printed but had to be inserted by hand.
The new method will significantly improve the fabrication of thick
film microelcctronic circuits.
In efforts to improve heat shield materials for missions involving
atmospheric entry at high velocity, Langley Research Center devel-
oped a method for determining the high-temperature behavior of
materials. The method uses radioisotopes imbedded in the heat
shield to obtain :I continuous measurement of the recession and decom-
position of the ablating material by monitoring the radioactive count
rate. This process will make it easier to identify the distribution of
heat loads and their temperature history in reentry vehicle systems.
.lines Research Center developed improved biotransmitters to meas-
ure and telemeter skin and body temperatures for use in studying the
effects of space travel during long duration missions. These bio-
transmitters have integrated circuits, miniature components, high
:tccur:wy, which is maintained by using :t unique circuit permitting
Coiistmt calibration of the temperature sensing element, and an oper-
ating life, with :I single miniature battery, of 5,000 hours. Similar
micropower transmitters using thin-film resistive gages as heat sen-
sors and a capacitance type transducer to measure pressure, and weigh-
ing less than one ounce, were used in wind tunnel facilities t o measure
heat transfer data and after-body pressure on models of the Apollo
Command Module and other reentry vehicles.

Figure 4-4. Standoff cross.

Data Processing
A computer-controlled data-editing system was developed by the
Lewis Research Center for laboratory experiments involving small
rocket engines. The system enables an experimenter to review and
manipulate magnetically recorded test data presented visually on a
16-inch cathode ray tube. Any 4 of 200 data channels may be
scanned simultaneously, and only data points or sequences of partic-
ular interest selected (by means of a light pen) for more detailed
analysis. The computer is given channel selection, processing, and
analysis instructions through the display typewriter. The system
reduced data processing time to approximately one tenth that formerly
Aeronautics Research
Aircraft Aerodynamics
A 3-day conference on aircraft aerodynamics, held in May a t the
Langley Research Center, was attended by over 300 representatives
from industry, other government agencies, and universities. Pur-
1 pose of the meeting was to review research in support of advanced
national aircraft development programs such as the F-111, C-5A,
and SST. Topics discussed included experimental techniques, stabil-
ity and control, and performance a t subsonic, transonic, and super-

sonic speeds. The state-of -the-art of NASA aerodynamic research

on advanced V/STOL and hypersonic aircraft was also summarized.
Research on methods of increasing the aerodynamic efficiency of
high-aspect-ratio swept wings at high subsonic speeds demonstrated
experimentally that appropriately shaped inboard leading-edge exten-
sions can delay the transonic drag rise from Mach 0.85 t o 0.90. It
was also found that a cranked swept wing having supersonic sections
near the root and subsonic sections outboard had lower drag by as
much as 15 percent in the Mach number range from 0.8 t o 0.9. The
data from this research are applicable to the design of advanced sub-
sonic jet transports which will cruise nearer the speed of sound than
current types do.
Additional work was done on injecting air into the boundary layer to
reduce skin friction at supersonic speeds. Using a variety of slot
arrangements and porous surfaces, investigators found that partial-
chord porous injection was about as effective as full-chord porous
injection or injection through fine normal slots near the wing leading
edge. The maximum reduction in turbulent skin friction obtained was
about 20 percent.
An investigation was undertaken to determine how body cross sec-
tion and width-height ratio affected the hypersonic lift-drag ratio of
bodies and delta-wing-body combinations at Mach 7. For bodies
alone, n flat-top triangular cross section was found to be more efficient
than a rectangular or elliptical section. For flat-top wing-body com-
binations, the effect of body cross sections was small or negligible.
However, for flat-bottom combinations, the triangular-cross-section
body increased the m:ixirnuin lift-drag ratio 8 percent over that ob-
tained with an elliptical-cross-section. Increasing the elliptical body
width-height ratio from 2 to 3 increased the lift-drag ratio of the flat-
top wing-body combination by 4 percent. This information with sim-
ilar basic research information on discrete wing-bodies, blended wing
bodies, and lifting bodies serves as a guide in the design of advanced
hypersonic vehicle.
Aircraft Structures
A structural concept which may be useful for the skin psne1S of
advanced aircraft envisions an exterior sheet stiffened by an attached
corrugated sheet. Since present theory is inadequate to predict flut-
ter of such panels in supersonic flow, numerous corrugation stiffened
panels were subjected to wind tunnel tests to determine their experi-
mental flutter boundaries, to obtain design data, and to improve theory.
- h o t h e r lightweight panel concept for advanced aircraft, the honey-
comb sandwich, has the inherent characteristic of flexibility in trans-
verse shear. A theoretical study of the effects of shear flexibility on
panel flutter indicated that this flexibility usually reduced the flutter
boundary. Finally, two structural concepts were identified and in-
vestigated to obtain information on problems associated with struc-
tures for hydrogen-fueled hypersonic airplanes. One, the multiwall
sandwich concept, combines the evacuated thermal protection, tankage,
and load-carrying functions into a single component. The other con-
cept is based on an unsealed structure that utilizes carbon dioxide gas
to purge the insulation space between the structure and tanks. A pre-
liminary study was made of some of the characteristics and relative
merits of these two concepts.

Air-Brecrthing Propulsion

Research was completed on bearing and lubricant systems operating

at conditions typical of those associated with high speed jet engines.
Ball bearings and synthetic lubricant combinations were derived that
could be run more than twice the standard catalog life when bathed in
a nitrogen environment. Because ball bearings are a major factor de-
termining the time between aircraft engine overhauls, this increased
bearing life can have an important influence on aircraft operating

Aircraft Operating Problems

Dry Runway Slcidding.-Investigation of aircraft accidenb on dry

runways showed a loss of aircraft directional control during heavy
braking, and tests a t the Langley Research Center confirmed that
heavy wheel braking drastically reduces the side force generating ca-
pability of tires. At vehicle ground speeds as low as 30 miles an hour,
the side force is reduced 85 percent if braking heavy enough to cause
a skid is applied. Studies were continued t o determine the effect of
tire tread and wear on the loss of side force capability.
Noise Abatement.-NASA conduds research to assist in alleviating
the problem caused by noise produced during aircraft landing and
takeoffs. Studies were made of aircraft piloting and control problems
associated with steepening the landing approach path and climb-out
procedures to move the noise source farther from the ground and thus
lower the noise level at the ground. Three four-engine jet transports
(the NASA Convair 990, the FAA Convair 880, and Boeing 720 air-
craft) carried out flight tests of steep landing approaches at the NASA
Wallops Island noise and radar direction ranges. Experiments were
conducted to evaluate the effects of various climb-out profiles on noise
exposures for Boeing 720, BAC-111, and Boeing 727 aircraft, and the
results were made available to the FAA and to the aircraft and airlines
Light Aircraft Handling Qualities.-The flying qualities of 6 late
model personal-owner aircraft were evaluated by the Flight Research
Center in a series of instrumented flight tests and found to be generally
satisfactory for operation in the visual-flight environment. However,
during instrument flight, particularly in tudbulence, the flying quali-
ties were found to be such that excessive pilot effort was required to
perform precise tracking tasks and instrument landing system
Vertical and Short Takeoff and Landing (V/STOL) Aircraft
I n April, NASA held its second Conference on V/STOL aircraft.
at the Ames Research Center. %ports were made on results of NASA
experimental studies of aerodynamic and propulsion prwblems in heli-
copters, propeller, lift-and cruise-fan, and jet-lift V/STOL aircraft ;
of VTOL and STOL aircraft handling qualities; and of feasibility
studies of V/STOL concepts for short-haul transports.
The design of jet VTOL aircraft requires detailed knowledge of the
losses in engine thrust resulting from the manner of installing the
engines. Since not enough information is available on losses peculiar
to V/STOL aircraft, an investigation was undertaken to determine
the factors influencing the magnitude of such losses for single- and
multiple-jet configurations. Data collected made it possible to de-
rive an empirical expresion for calculating the jet-induced loads
which affect thrust losses.
I n earlier research on the use of tanden arrangements of tilting
ducted fans as both propulsive units and lifting devices for V/STOL
aircraft, small-scale studies were made of the effects of duct placement,
of an a f t wing, and of wing tips. I n another investigation of a small-
scale model with dual tandem ducted fans, the use of duct exit vanw
as a primary yaw control in hover caused cross-coupling effects thRt
resulted in adverse rolling moments. Also, stall on the upper outside
duct surfaces in transition contributed to poor lateral-directional be-
havior of the model, especially in the approach speed range. However,
since the duct stall characteristics could be associated with the scale of
the model, a study was made in the Ames 40- by 80-foot tunnel of a
large-scale, complete model of a typical V/STOL aircraft with four
tilting ducted fans arranged in tandem pairs. Differential fore-aft
duct, exit vane deflection and differential fore-aft thrust were found to
be effective for pitching-moment trim at the low and high duct inci-
dences, respectively. Proper phasing of these controls would be nec-
essary for longitudinal trim in the intermediate duct incidence range
from 40' to 70° where the trim requirements reached a maximum.
Thrust vectoring by the use of differential fore-aft duct incidence was
effectivein reducing the trim requirements.
XB-70 SST Flight Research Progrom
The XB-70 flight demonstration program, which began in Septem-
ber 1964, was concluded in June, and the joint USAF-NASA XB-70
Flight Research Program began the same month. NASA-funded re-
search instrumentation installed in each of the two XB-70 aircraft
during fabrication was used, together with the normal flight test in-
strumentation, to define various items relating to the national super-
sonic transport program during the Air Force-contractor flight demon-
stration program. NASA research centers will assume prime respon-
sibility for analysis of the information obtained from a designated
segment of the flight program. Topics to be investigated in detail
during the joint USAF-NASA XB-70 Flight Research Program
include airframe/propulsion system efficiency (Breguet range factor
determination) ; handling qualities, including stability, control, and
aerodynamic derivative analysis ; dynamic loads and aeroelasticity ;
effect of transient conditions, maneuvers, and atmospheric turbulence
on inlet operations. As presently planned, the program will require 18
months t o complete.

Biotechnology and Human Research

A closed environment life support system test chamber, with a life
support system designed to support four men for 90 days or as much
as a year if resupplied, was installed a t the Langley Research Center.
(Fig. 4-5.) Extensive component and systems tests were conduqted,
and manned simulation studies were scheduled for later in the year.
Techniques were developed for using waste heat from other systems
as direct energy for the life support regeneration processes, and the
capacity of laboratory water electrolysis units was increased ’to match
crew requirements for oxygen. During tests, water reclamation, car-
bon handling, and ‘trace contaminant control processes will be operated
full scale in conjunction with each other in the closed cabin. Tests
on component subsystems and integrated assemblies indicated problem
areas and subjects to be emphasized in continued research. Several
short manned tests of the entire system were also completed. Testing
with this tank will provide the basis for developing the technology
for long duration manned space flight.
An advanced space suit made of a laminated honeycomb aluminum
structure for lunar and extravehicular operations was being developed
by the Manned Spacecraft Center. (Fig. 4-6.) The suit uses “con-
stant volume” join% which have essentially zero resistance to move-
ments and permit extensive mobility with low-energy expenditures,
so ‘that the wearer is scarcely aware that he is pressurized. Leakage

Figure 4-5. ( a ) Life support system t e s t chamber.

was reduced to less than half that of present suits. The metallic space
suit offers the inherent advantage over present suits of reduced bulk
and greater protection against radiation, micrometeoroids, and
a brasion.
The Ames Research Center developed another hard suit which re-
quires no soft joints, and will give even greater protection and reliabil-
ity. An experimental version of the upper body segments was under
test and work was underway on the lower body.

Figure 44. (b) Interior of c h a b e r .

Human Research
I n efforts to determine how the human responds to the space environ-
ment, many new measurement techniques have been developed. For
example, miniature radio transmitters (endoradiosondes) which can
be swallowed or used as implants in animals to reflect physiological
condition and function were being tested. (Fig. 4-7.) These “pills”
enter the intestine after being swallowed and transmit information
on pressure changes caused by intestinal motility. The device, which
provides remote quantitative data on peristalsis for the first time, is
used to detect changes in intestinal motility which signal the onset
of disorientation. O.ther versions of this instrument measure intesti-
nal p H and temperature. The Flight Research Center also developed
instruments and methods to moni’tor the performance of the cardio-
vascular system under the stress imposed by the flight of high-per-
formance aircraft. Rapid techniques were developed to instrument
the subjects (pilots attending the USAF Aerospace Research pilot
school). Spray-on electrodes composed of a fast drying, conductive
silver paint and miniature pocket-size data recorders carried in the
flight suit reduced instrumentation time t o 3 minutes. (Fig. 4 4 . )
The same techniques and equipment also found applications in civilian

Figure 4-6. The advanced space suit.

Man-Systems Integration
The Langley Research Center studied jet shoes for personnel propul-
sion in space. Compressed gas thrustors attached to the shoe soles
produce a thrust vector along the leg when activated by a switch under
the toes. The jet of each shoe is independently controlled. I n simula-
tion and demonstration tests, the subject was suspended by cables to
simulate zero-G for horizontal movement. (Fig. 4-9). Thrusters
producing about one to 2% pounds thrust provided R reasonable feel
for attitude control and translation contml utilizing only knee and
hip motions; a 30' forward pitching movement was found to be neces-
sary. Further tests mere planned.

Chemical Propulsion Systems

Solid Propulsion Research and Technology
Work in this area included evaluations of thermnl protection
iiiethods for use with new propellants and hybrid systems which in-

Figure 4-7. The Endoradiosonde in the hand (left) and in the intestine (right).


Figure 4-8. Cardiovascular monitoring devices.



Figure 4-9. Test apparatus for foot controlled astronaut maneuvering unit.

volvo high temperatures (8000O F. range), corrosion, and the thermal

shock of restart ;and studies of propellant mechanical properties, ways
to improve stress analyses, and of methods t o develop accurate failure
criteria. Such studies will provide information to help meet demands
€or wider temperature range, improved ruggedness, higher accelern-
tion loads, and large motor sizes.
Combustion problems such as lower-than-expected efficiency in
metal-loaded solid propellant systems and reduced performance due
to acceleration and spin effects were under study. A new apparatus
constructed a t Langley Research Center (fig. 4-10) was used to test
1llotors up to 30 inches in diameter and 3,000 pounds in weight a t spin
rates up to 900 revolutions per minute. Its capability for imposing
realistic conditions extends to 3,000 rpm and/or longitudinal accelera-


.Figure 4-10. Spin test apporatus.

tions to 360 g's on solid rocket motors while firing. Data derived from
studies conducted on this equipment brought about modifications in
motors and prevented motor failures during flight.
The environmental effects of the hard vacuum of space on propel-
lants and plastics which have volatile, low molecular weight fractions
were studied. Research also continued on the requirements for com-
mand stop-restart and thrust variation in solid propellant motors; on
technology problems in hybrid propellant systems; and on the kinetics
of decomposition, chemical erosivity, sensitivity, and instability, con-
trol, and processing characteristics of high performance propellants.
Solid Prwulsion Experimental Engineering Program
I n the large solid motor program, a second 260-inch-diameter motor
was fired on February 23, with results almost exactly as predicted:
Peak thrust of slightly more than 3.5 million pounds, burning time of
114 seconds near peak thrust, and total useful thrust time of 130 sec-
onds. The test firings demonstrated technological competence in
iiozzle design, aft-end ignition, and case, insulation, and the ability to
inanufacture multimillion pound propellant charges.
I n March, a plan was approved for a third static test firing in 1967
of a short-length, 260-inch-diameter motor. This motor will test a
iiozzle configuration possibly adaptable to motor steering, a higher
burning rate propellant, components of a failure warning system, and
inert slivers for controlling thrust decay. A study was completed on
methods and materials to permit multiple use of ablative nozzles as
258-738 0-67-8

a way of reducing the cost of large nozzles; the contract will be con-
tinued to cover additional work in nozzle repair techniques.
Liquid Propulsion Research cmd Technology
L a w h Vehicle Propu&m..-Work in this area focused on new
engine cycles. Toroidal chamber concepts with the aerospike nozzle
(14th Xemiamnd Report, p. 117) progressed to the experimental
chngine stage, laboratory cold and hot testing of the plug niultichamber
continued, and two basic composite engine cycles using atmospheric
air, which may be applicable to reuseable launch vehicles, were
Spacecraft ~ropdsion.-Results of the injector design program
were successfully coupled with an ablative chamber using oxygen
difl uoride and monomethylhydrazine propellants, and good per-
formance and chamber durability were also achieved with the space
storable combination of oxygen difluoride and diborane despite the
fact that both propellants are poor coolants.
New chamber materials investigated include pyroceramics and
hafnium/tantalum (Hf/Ta) alloys. Small diameter (0.040 inch) wall
tubes of zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide were able to stand
working stress above 40,000 psi, in contrast with the old level of 12,000
psi. Commercial manufacturing techniques for the new hafnium/
tantalum alloys, which were formerly laboratory curiosities, were be-
ing developed. I n addition, research was being conducted on pres-
surizing systems, guide books, advanced engine valves, and new
materials for ablative chambers md for blnddem.

Liquid Propulsion Experimental Engineering Programs

Launch Vehicl&y.-In the advanced launch vehicle engines project,
it toroidal system dynamics program and a design study of the toroid-
plug concept were initiated. Work on this advanced concept parallels
projects already in progress in the ;ir&t of the high pressure,, dual-
cycle engine. Several tests of a high pressure liquid hydrogen pump
were made, liquid oxygen-cooled bearings were designed and tested,
;tiid plans were made for work on the power system of the dual-cycle
engine. The high pressure dual-cycle and the toroid-plug concepts
will provide the technological basis for design of the next generation of
launch vehicles.
Preparations for testing the large scale M-1 thrust chamber were
completed, and several tests were conducted. This final phase of the
M-1 program will provide the first data on combustion of oxygen
and hydrogen in a rocket engine of over a million pounds thrust.
Seventeen final reports on various components of the M-1 were
Space Propu&n.-High energy propellant work made progress
in developing criteria for both pump fed and pressure fed systems for
fluorinated oxidizers. Liquid fluorine feed system component testing
was scheduled to begin in June. The formats for the criteria docu-
ments to be published as NASA standards were established, and the
information necessary to complete the documents was being developed
and compiled.
For the high energy deep cryogenic propellants, a test program to
determine chemical kinetic losses associated with the nozzle expansion
process using the fluorine hydrogen combination was completed, and
analytical models were updated. Plans were made to extend experi-
mental and analytical studies to include high energy space storable
propellant combinations. The high energy space sturable propellant
work emphasized the performance potential and cooling of FLOX-
L P G (Liquefied Petroleum Gases) at low combustion pressures. The
feasibility of transpiration cooling with methane, or regenerative-
cooling with both propane and a pentane blend was demonstrated.
Progress was made in developing standards for safe handling and
use of the highly toxic fluorinated oxidizers. I n efforts to establish
the exposure limits of humans and plants to fluorine and hydrogen
fluoride, animal tests indicated that the short term exposure may be
higher than anticipated.
Auxiliary Proplsion.-A parametric test program provided design
criteria for a variety of monopropellant hydrazine combustors over
the thrust range of y2 to 50 pounds, and a system was investigated
which uses electrical power to electrolyze water to produce oxygen and
hydrogen for chemical propulsion.

Basic Research
Fluid Physics
I n research relating to the effect of atmospheric composition on heat
transfer to entry vehicles, analytical studies were conducted which
produced a correlation formula for laminar convective heating, includ-
ing the effects of ablation. It is generally applicable over a wide
range of entry conditions and for a large number of different gases.
The correlation equation developed agrees fairly closely with the more
elaborate theoretical calculations and with available experiments.
The correlation formula offers the advantage of requiring only rel-
atively low temperature gas property data to evaluate the heat transfer
even when gas cap temperatures are high.
Large-angle conical vehicles for earth-atmosphere entry at hyper-
bolic speeds would permit large reductions in shock-layer radiation.
Since the heat transfer is mainly by convection, the total heat trans-
ferred is strongly dependent on whether the boundary layer flow is

laminar or turbulent. Ballistic range tests gave preliminary experi-

mental data on the extent of laminar flow (hence minimum heating)
which may be attainable on ablating conical bodies. The tests a t
velocities over 20,000 feet per second indicated that under certain
conditions conical entry bodies will be able to take advantage of the
decreased radiant heating without increased turbulent convective
Friction losses inherent in plasma power generation and propulsion
systems are apparently enhanced by plasma effects and also limit the
maximum performance of plasma accelerators. Experimental meas-
urements of plasma flows provided data on the mechanism controlling
the losses which will make it possible to improve the efficiency of high
power density plasma devices.
Applied Mathematics
A mathematical technique was developed to predict more exactly
the temperature of a spherical satellite as a function of spin rate and
orientation. (Fig. 4-11.) Although this study was performed for
a spherical shell like that enclosing Telstar, the mathematical method
can be extended to more complex shapes and internal structure and
instrumentation. Its use will facilitate the design of future satellites.
The National Bureau of Standards, in a study of the superconduc-
tivity of transition metal oxides, found superconductivity in barium
and strontium titanate and in mixtures of the two materials. The
results, the first of their kind to be reported, in addition to demon-
strating superconductivity in a class of ceramic materials normally
considered to be insulators, may also lead to a better understanding
of the theory of superconduction in solids.
I n polymer research at the Jet, Propulsion Laboratory, a new class
of solid materials was developed which may be useful for solid-state
batteries, and a battery-about the size of a dime-was constructed
to demonstrate the principle. The battery uses conventional dis-
similar metals as electrodes (magnesium and platinum have been used
but barium and calcium could also be used) and an electrolyte con-
sisting of an organic solid (some polymeric) to which a halogen is
added. The organic material, which is in itself an insulator, reacts
with the halogen to produce charge-transfer.comp1exesthus converting
it into a useful electrolyte. The demonstration cell electrolyte was
made by combining iodine with perylene. Such cells produce only
small amounts of power, but the quantities are sufficient for instru-
mentation purposes. They appear to have good storage life, to be
I-elatively insensitive to space radiation, to be resistant to temperatures

Figure 4-1 I. Solar heut distribution on a rotating satellite.

as high as 130”C., and to be sterilizable. Additional work was planned

and should result in improved power output and reduced size.
Further research on technetium (12th S m b n n d Report, p. 113)
confirmed theoretical predictions that it would behave like rhenium,
a sister metal, as an additive to cure the brittleness of tungsten, which
is under consideration for use in hypersonic aircraft and advanced
space power systems. Small samples of tungsten became increasingly
workable as they were alloyed with technetium. The potential supply
of technetium is growing since it is a byprodud of the fission of
uranium in power reactors. NASA and the Atomic Energy Commis-
sion cooperated in investigating commercial and other possible uses
of this rare metal.
Elecho physics
Research a t the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a new explana-
tion of the adsorption process of gases on solid surfaces. The work
was conducted with para- and ortho-hydrogen molecules on the surface
of aluminum oxide. Experimental data indicated that orthohydrogen
was absorbed on the surface a t a greater rate than parahydrogen,
and it was theorized that the adsorption is due to an electric f o m
field present a t the aluminum oxide surface. An earlier theory as-
sumed that the gas molecules were absorbed on the basis of s h , the
smaller molecules passing through the solid “molecular sieve” via tiny

holes. The sieve theory failed when it was shown that the ortho-
and para-hydrogen, two molecular hydrogen species identical in size
and shape, could be separated by a “molecular sieve.” The new
theory showed that an electric field force on the surface of the solid
h d d some molecules more strongly than others, thus accounting for
the sieve-like action. The theory may be applicable to the field of
general nnesthesia to explain the behavior of anesthetic gas. Such
a gas may be adsorbed over a nerve cell to blanket the cell, thereby
insulating the cell from the brain during a sufficiently long adhesion


NASA continued its work to develop the propulsion systems and

sources of power generation which will be needed for those missions
beyond the immediate Apollo program. Areas of effort already under-
way to satisfy these needs include the nuclear rocket program, the
SNAP-8 development project, nuclear electric power research and
technology, the electric propulsion program, and space power
The Nuclear Rocket Program

The Nuclear Rocket Program, a joint effort of the National Aero-

nautics and Space Administration and the Atomic Energy Commis-
sion, is aimed a t providing the advanced propulsion systems for
conducting space missions beyond Apollo. Its primary goal is to
provide the technology for a versatile nuclear rocket propulsion system
using a solid-core graphite, nuclear-rocket reactor. I n addition, since
nuclear-rocket propulsion is a relatively new field holding promise of
long-term usefulness, the program continues to investigate certain
alternate and advanced concepts \rhich offer a theoretical promise of
higher performance.
Current work on graphite reactors and engine systems was directed
toward developing engine system technology based on KIWI-NERVA
reactor technology, and developing advanced reactor technology

Engine system technology development was being carried out on

1,100-megawatt systems having thrust of about 55,000 pounds. This
work progressed to a point where development of a large NERVA
engine, which should have a thrust of 200,000 to 250,000 pounds and
a reactor power of 5,000 megawatts, can proceed.
The two most significant activities in the NERVA technology pro-
gram during the first half of 1966 were the power testing of the
Nation’s first nuclear rocket engine system, a LLbreadbonrd”engine
called the NRX/EST (NERVA Reactor Experiment/Enpine System
Test), and tests on the NRX-A5 power reactor.
The major objective of the NRX/EST was to demonstrate the hot-
bleed cycle nuclear rocket engine system under steady state and
transient conditions. I n the 5 days of power testing a t Test Cell “A,”
NRDS (Nuclear Rocket Development Station), a large number of
experiments were conducted. A summary of the 5 days of testing
is given in table 1.

Table I. Engine system test--lumrnary of power tests

Date Or duration

2 250 2. 050 13
Feb. 11,1966. ...................................... 3 230 %W 9
4 180 1,450
5 3m 2, mo 22
Mar. 3,1986........................................ 8 1,080 4,loo 8
7 1,040 3,BQg 15
Mar. 18,190t. ................................... 8 170 1,Wo ..............
9 1,oBo 4. ow 18
Mar. 25,1968. ...................................... 10 1,130 4,175 18

Total ................................................. ........................... I110

1 28 minutes nominal full power.

The disassembly and postmortem examination of the NRX/EST

were in progress at ‘the end of the period in the Reactor Maintenance,
Assembly and Disassembly building (R-MAD) at, NRDS. While
detailed analyses of test data were also in progress, the following
major findings were established: Operation of the engine system is
stable over a wide range; the engine can be throttled at full specific
impulse; a variety of start k h n i q u e s are feasible, and several control
modes are available; and multiple starts and many tests can be con-
ducted on one engine system assembly.
The first, significant NRX-A5 reactor experiment was conducted
on June 8, 1966. I n the experiment, the reactor was operated a t
requirements. These devices, unlike their electro-mechanical prede-
cessors, are relatively insensitive to the extremes of temperature and
radiation encountered in a nuclear rocket engine. One such actuator
was used to operate the turbine power control valve (TPCV) in the
NRX/EST. A similar actuator is to be used with the TPCV for the
X E engine. A fluid control drum actuator also is planned for incor-
I poration in the XE engine.
The X E engine is to be tested in Engine Test Stand 1 (ETS-1)’
nearing completion at NDRS. The nozzle of the engine will be pointed
downward in the stand with an exhaust duct simulating altitude pres-

Figure 5-1. Nozzle to be used on the XE engine.

producing engine called the X E C F (XE-Cold Flow). The reactor

of the X E C F will be an assembly containing no fissionable fuel mate-
rial. The fabrication of this engine was initiated, with final assembly
scheduled to be accomplished at NRDS early in 1967. Cold-flow-
tests are expected to begin in the spring of 1967. When completed,
the X E C F is to be used to obtain data on the early phase of engine
startup with partial altitude simulation.
The Phoebus graphite reactor technology development work is
aimed at providing a reactor of approximately 5,000 megawatts, called
Phoebus 2, capable of operating at higher exit gas temperatures
(higher specific impulse) and greater power density. As stated in the
14th Seminnnzml Report (p. 130), these improvements in an engine
system such as NERVA would translate directly into increased mission
capability. (The 5,000 mw reactor is called Phoebus 2 to distinguish
it from smaller, KIWI and NRX sized, reactors called Phoebus 1
which are now being used to explore operating chnracteristics and
design features currently planned for the Pliwbus 2.)
The next experiments to be conducted in the Phoebus progr:m will
be the power tests of the Phoebus 1-13 and Phoebus 1-C reactors. The
Phoebus 1-I3 objective will be to operate certain sectors of the core ht
Phoebus 2 thermal stresses, which should provide data for establishing
R better nnderstanding of the design of the Phoebus 2.
The increased power, temperature, and size of the Phoebus 2 reactor
I has required the development of an advanced hydrogen pumping sys-
tem and nozzle. A pumping system for the Phoebus 2 reactor has
been under development now for the past 3 years. It is based on a
modification of the turbopump originally used for KIWI-NRX re-
actor tests a t NRDS. I n this modified system, two turbopumps are
connected in parallel to provide the increased flow rates required for
Phoebus 2 testing. The performance of the basic pump design was
being improved so that the new system can operate a t higher pressures
and flow than required for KIWI and NRX reactor tests. A single
one of these turbopumps was being installed a t Test Cell C, NRDS,
for the testing of the Phoebus 1-B reactor.
The exhaust nozzle for the Phoebus 2 reactor was being fabricated
by a NASA contractor. The design of the nozzle is similar to the
U-tube nozzle used for NERVA-NRX reactor testing except that Has-
telloy X is being used instead of stainless steel to accommodate the
higher Phoebus 2 temperatures and heat fluxes.
During this period, the development hardware for the basic nozzle
was fabricated and the nozzle test stand (using a n uncooled nozzle)
was activated and demonstrated. The first cooled development nozzle
also was moved into the final stages of fabrication, with completion
expected in the fall of 1966.
Efforts to increase the corrosion lifetime of graphite reactors were
continuing. These efforts depend primarily on developing more cor-
rosion-resistant fuel elements and more accurate laboratory fuel ele-
ment testing techniques.
Sixty-minute tests of fuel elements in hot hydrogen corrosion test
furnaces were conducted and were providing valuable data on fuel
element corrosion. Also, postmortem analyses of fuel elements tested
in full scale reactors were providing valuable data and information for
correlation of fuel element performance in reactors and in corrosion
Investigators continued to study tungsten reactors using tungsten-
uranium-dioxide fuel elements. The major problems investigated
were related to fabricating suitable tungsten-uranium-dioxide fuel
elements and determining the characteristics and capabilities of such
material in a hydrogen environment when subjected to various steady
and cycling temperatures. I n addition, the investigators conducted
niialyses of the design, iieutronics, and control characteristics of a re-
actor based on the use of such material.

The SNAP-8 ,Development Project

I n January, 1966, NASA and the AEC authorized continuation of

the ground development of the 35 KWe SNAP-8 space power system.
The principal N14SA activity in this period was centered on the ini-
tial operation of the first breadboard power conversion system using
the first generation of components. (Fig. 5-2.) The test was run
using a nonnuclear heat source. The system operated stably and suc-
cessfully a t 35 KWe but at lower efficiencies than desired. T o increase
efficiency, design work was initiated on a turbine with improved

Nuclear Electric Power Research and Technology

I n the area of nuclear electric power research and technology, four

fields of activity received continuing emphasis : Rankine turbogen-
erator technology, thermionic conversion technology, low power Bray-
ton cycle equipment, and isotope power.
Rankine Turbogenerubr Technology
The two-stage potassium vapor turbine at a contractor’s facility was
disassembled and inspected after a full 2,000-hour endurance test. No
liquid impact erosion was found. The turbine was reassembled and
additional endurance testing was started, aimed at extending endur-
anw data to 5,000 hours.
Continued progress was being achieved with evaluation of ma-
terials which may be suitable for use as alkali-metal lubricated bear-
ings. Preliminary tests indicated that, refractory met,al-bonded
carbides are satisfactory >bearingm;iterials for use with potassium.
Results of an electromagnetic (EM) pump study program indicated
that a tenfold reduction in weights of conventional E M pumps may be
possible, and a lightweight E M pump suitable for space use was being
Thermionic Conversion Technology
Thermionic conversion is a method of direct conversion of reactor
heat into electricity. I f an electromagnetic pump or heat pipes can be
used to transport working fluid through the reactor, a completely
static system (no moving parts) may be feasible.
Further efforts were made t o improve the life and performance of
thermionic diodes both within and outside of a radiation environment.
Although operating life continued to improve, the difficult experi-
mental conditions under which the tests were being performed led to
somewhat erratic results stemming from leaks in the cell or test SUP-
port equipment.
Experiments with cesium fluoride ns a second additive to cesium
(firstadditive) vapor-filled thermionic converters had previously sug-
gested that short-term increases in efficiency and power density may


Figure 5-2. Breadboard power conversion system.

occur. Evidence that cesium fluoride could potentially improve

thermionic converter performance was first reported in 1962 and was
apparently confirmed by a second group of scientists in 1964.
However, work under NASA sponsorship recently revealed khat
the results previously attributed to cesium fluoride were probably
caused by small amounts of oxygen present in the experimental de-
vices. This is an important finding since present theory suggests that
absorbed fluorine should have a greater effect than oxygen. Further
experimental work is needed along with a reexamination of the theory
of electronegative additives.
Low Power Brayton Cycle Equipment
The gas Brayton cycle power conversion system is of particular
interest with radioisotope heat sources for manned mission, especially
if the theoretically high cycle efficiency can be obtained. The NASA
program is providing technological information for defining aero-
dynamic component efficiencies, gas bearing operating boundaries, and
parasitic pressure losses in these small systems. The first "hot" gas
bearing-supported radial flow turbocompressor was tested to 1,000" F.
, with the bearings operating hydrodynamically as part of a planned
I test program that will lead to design test conditions at about 1,550" F.
The gas bearings operated satisfactorily under these test conditions.

Isotope Power
A NASA contractor successfully completed a planned efficiency
determination and 1,000-hour endurance test of a thermionic heat pipe
device intended for use with isotopes.
The Goddard Space Flight Center and its contrmhrs continued
work on thermoelectrics. Encouraging progress was made in the
attempt to improve the efficiency and usefulness of these devices. The
eff orh included segmenting thermoelectrics, improving the bonding
of thermoelectric materials, and reducing or eliminating magnetic ma-
terials from thermoelectric conversion devices. Lewis Resemch Cen-
ter was continuing support of work a t Oak Ridge National Laboratory
on large isotope heat sources and was expanding the study to include
consideration of %hepolonium isotope.
Marshall Space Flight Center and Manned Spacecraft, Center were
studying the applications of isotope power supplies to some of their
missions, with promising results. The AEC was continuing to develop
the SNAP-19 for the NIMBUS B and SNAP-27 for the Apollo/
Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package ( A L S E P ).

The Electric Propulsion Program

Electric propulsion systems are being studied because of their poten-
tial for reducing launch vehicle or spacecraft propulsion requirements
for certain high energy and long duration missions. This program
provides the research data nnd advanced technolqgy required to con-
duct the necessary development.
System Analysis and Experimental Evaluation
Under this effort, classes of application are identified, and appro-
priahly configured hardware based on prior thrustor research and
technology is evaluated. As was pointed out in the 14th Semianltual
Report (p. 136), it is because of this activity that the Lewis Research
Center is developing a small (15 watt) ion engine for the Applications
Technology Satellite (ATS). (Fig. 5-3.) This engine was being
scheduled for test on the ATS-B spacecraft, and, if successful, is It0 be
flown on the ATS D&E flights to perform the sensitive east-west sta-
tion-keeping maneuvers.
Work continuod on experimental verification of hardware €or two
other classes of application: Space station reaction control and drag
cancellation ; and solar-powered prime or midcourse propulsion. The
latter system has shown considerable promise for unmanned inter-
planetary missions.

Figure 5-3. The ion engine bung developed for the ATS.

Thrustor Research ond Technology

I n this second element of the program, investigations of three types

of thrustors-the e l e c t r b t i c or ion, the eleotrothermal, and the
plasma-ontinued. The most significant accomplishment in this
area has been the satisfmbry endurance testing of the cesium bom-
bardment ion engine. Many W have been conducted without failure,
and one ion engine has accumulated over 4,500hours as of this report.
The mercury bombardment engine has also overcome previous prob-
l e m of cathode deterioration and has been tested at Lewis for approxi-
mately 4,000 hours.
These successful tests led to an interest in activating the SERT I1
flight program, and proposals to conduct a long duration orbital t&
were under review at period’s end.

Space Power Technology

I n the overall field of space power technology, two areas wore re-
ceiving continuing study : Solar power generation and chemical power

Solar Power Generation

Preliminary work revealed that heating silicon solar cells to approxi-

mately 400" C. for about 15 minutes will remove most of the damage
caused by energetic particles of the type present in the earth's radia-
tion belts. New methods for making electrical contact to the solar
cell would be needed, however, since present designs have an upper
limit of about 125O C. This could be an important discovery if reliable
processes for constructing high temperature solar cells arrays can be
found and if practical methods for producing such temperatures in
space can be devised.

Chemical Power Generotion

I n an effort to obtain charge-discharge cycle data on batteries with-

out destroying them, NASA investigators made use of certain crypto-
analysis procedures, with encouraging results. Data taken early in
experimental life testing were examined in a search for characteristics
that would identify cells most likely to fail under further cycling.
It was found thak certain empirical indicators, identified during this
study, did permit such distinction and even served to find character-
istics for each type of failure. However, further work is necessrtry
before reliable estimates of the cycle life, of newly manufactured bat-
teries can be made from data obtained in the first few days of cycle

The NASA tracking networks successfully supported 52 missions, 37

of which were launched prior to calendar year 1966. Important mis-
sions launched and supported during this period included Gemini VI11
and IX-A, ESSA I and 11,SA-201 (upmted Saturn I), Nimbus 11,
and Surveyor I.
A particularly significant mission was ‘the Suweyor I spacecraft’s
successful soft landing on the moon after a flight of 63 hours and
nearly a quarter-million miles. Of particular interest was the precise
midcourse maneuver, commanded from the Space Flight Operations
Facility of the Deep Space Network, which enabled the soft landing
to occur within the predetermined target area.
Also of significance was the support provided the Gemini IX-A mis-
sion. The quality of the data received by the Network and the pre-
cision of the commands transmitted to the spacecraft resulted in splash-
down within sight of the aircraft carrier, USNS Wasp. This near-
perfect landing permitted millions of Americans t o share this event
via iive television.

Satellite Network
The Satellite Network supports NASA’s unmanned satellite pro-
grams for scientific, communication, and application satellites. In ad-
dition, the Network provides support for projects of the other govern-
ment agencies, private industry, and other corntries engaged in space
research endeavors.
258-738 0-67-9 115
The Network provides this support through the electronic Space
Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN) stations, and 12
Baker-Nunn Optical Camera Stations. At, the end of the reporting
period, STADAN consisted of facilities a t 15 United States and for-
eign locations, and a centralized control center at Goddard Space
Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
One of the pioneer STADAN stations a t East Grand Forks, Minn.,
ceased operations June 30. Although this station was a veteran of
almost 5 years of space tracking, advances in the technology of track-
ing and orbit determination had made it no longer essential in support
of NASA's scientific satellites. The large unmanned satellites now be-
ing launched, such as Nimbus, Orbiting Geophysical Observatory
(OGO) , and Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) , follow or-
bital paths which are better served by stations in other geographical
locations. By the end of 1966, the STADAN station a t Blossom Poinlt,
Md., will also be deactivated for the same reasons. I n addition, the
station at Woomera, Australia, was being consolidated with the sta-
tion a t Canberra.
The other STADAN stations that will continue support operations
are at Fort, Myers, Fla.; Fairbanks, Alaska; Goldstone, Calif.;
Rosman, N.C. ; St. John's, Newfoundland ; Winkfield, England;
.Johannesburg, South Africa ; Tananarive, Madagascar ; Carnarvon
and Canberra, Australia. ; Quito, Ecuador; Lima,.Peru ; and Santiago,
Chile. A trimsportable station was being implemented at TOO-
woomba, Australia, for support of the Advanced Technology Satellite
( A T S ) Program. (Fig. 6-1.) The location of 'this station at, TOO-
woomba, rather than at the primary site near Canberra, was necessary
to preclude interference 'between the ATS communications experi-
ments and existing commercial microwave links in the general Can-
berra area since both operate in the same frequency range. The Too-
woomba, Rosman, and Mojave stations will support the ATS flights,
with the first launch scheduled for the latter part of this year.
Forty-foot diameter parabolas were being added a t Alaska and Tan-
nnarive to meet a workload that is increasing both in num'ber of space-
craft to be supported :ind i n volume of data to be received. Anothcr
important and ritnl :&lition to the Network is the STADAN Engi-
neering and Real Time Station. Construction of this addition was
underway, with completion scheduled during 1966. This facility,
located at the Goddard Space Flight Center, will be used for the test
and checkout of new and standard network equipment and for space-
craft, and ground equipment compatability testing prior to satellite
STADAN supported 43 satellite programs during this period.
Eight of these satellites were launched since January 1, 1966:



Figure 6-1. Transportable station to be operated at Toowoomba, Australia.

Manned Space Flight Network
The Manned Space Flight Network actively supported the Gemini
Program and was concurrently being augmented to support the Apollo
Program. The tracking and data acquisition support furnished in-
cludes that for telemetry, command, tracking, and communications.
The Network provides similar support for other programs, when such
support is within the capability of the network and can be accom-
plished on a scheduled basis with NASA’s manned flights.
This Network, as planned for Apollo lunar missions, will consist of
ten 30-foot antenna stations, three stations with 85-foot antennas, one
transportable station, five instrumented ships, and eight instrumented
aircraft. I n addition, three 85-foot antenna stations of the Deep
Space Network (in Australia, Spain, and California) were being
augmented with specialized equipment to provide full support, to the
Apollo spacecraft during the lunar phases of the missions. The Ioca-
tions of the Network’s ground stations are as follows:
SO-foot antenna stations: ~ b - f o o antenna
t stations:
Antigua, West Indies. Canberra, Australia.
Ascension Island. Goldstone, Calif.
Bermuda. Madrid, Spain.
Canary Island.
Carnarvon, Australia.
Corpus Christi, Tex. 30-foot antenna tramportable Rtatwn:
Guam. Grand Rahama Island.
Guaymas, Mexico.
Merritt Island, Fla.
All of the land and ship stations are to be used in 1966-67 in support
of the Apollo/uprated Saturn I (Saturn I B ) missions. The first
Apollo ship, the USNS Vangwzrd,was completed during the reporting
period, and testing started. (Fig. 6-2.) The Vanguard, together
with the next two ships to be delivered, the Redstm and the M e m q ,
are to be used to support the insertion/injection phase of the lunar
missions. These ships will have the shipboard capability for com-
munications with the Houston Mission Control Center (MCC) via
communications satellites. Satellite communication to MCC was re-
quired as a result of the need for higher communications reliability
from the ships and some of the land stations. As the period ended,
NL4SAwas in the final stages of negotiations with the Communications
Satellite Corporation (Comsat) to provide the communications satel-
lite services. Two additional ships, the Hzvntssil2e and the Water-
t o m , were also being modified and outfitted with instrumentation to
provide coverage during the critical earth reentry phase.
The eight Apollo/Range Instrumentation Aircraft were under con-
tract and the anticipated delivery dates remained consistent with the
operational need date.
The Manned Space Flight Network supported the following
missions :
Ml(E8iOn Date
Uprated Saturn I (hS-201)_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ February26
G e m i n i V I I I ~ ~ _ ~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ March16 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Atla~-Centaur8___-______--___-___---_------____---_-------- April7
OAO-A1 ________________________________________--__------- April8
Gemini IX Target Vehicle ___________________________________ May 17
Surveyor A_____-___---______--_-____-__________-_---___--__ May30
Gemini IX-A Target Vehicle ____________________----_-~-__--- June 1
Gemini IX-A-____________________-_-_______--_--_---___-_-_- June3
OGO-B ______________________________________________--___- June 7

No major problems were encountered in supporting these missions,

and the Network was being prepared to support two uprated Saturn I
flights and the Gemini X and Gemini XI missions, all scheduled
for launch during the third quarter of 1966.
Deep Space Network
The prime function of the Deep Space Network is to provide
tracking and data acquisition support for unmanned lunar and plane-
tary space flight missions. The support falls under four major
categories-tracking, command, control, and data acquisition. I n
1 addition to supporting the unmanned flights, three stations in the

I Network were being modified and equipped to provide joint support
to the Manned Space Flight Network during the lunar phase of the
Apollo flights. These three s t a t i o n s i n Australia, Spain, and Cali-
fornia-are approximately 120" apart in longitude, enabling them
to provide continuous surveillance of a lunar mission.
The operational Network consists of 85-foot antennas a t Woomera
and Canberra, Australia, at Goldstone, Calif., a t Madrid, Spain, and
at Johannesburg, South Africa; and a 210-foot antenna facility at,
the Goldstone, Calif., site.
The 210-foot antenna was dedicated in April and became operational
shortly thereafter. This antenna is this Nation's largest fully steer-
able antenna and the world's largest built for research by spacecraft.
Because of its enormous size and the perfection of its contour, this
antenna will collect enough energy from a distant signal to permit
recording of data even though the strength of the signal is but one
billionth of one billionth of one watt when received on earth. The
210-foot antenna is required to support spacecraft to those extended
ranges which exceed the capability of the 85-foot antenna.
During the preoperational period in March, this antenna facility
supported solar corona experiments using the Mariner IV spacecraft.
The capability of the 210-foot antenna made i t possible to measure
radio transmissions through the solar plasma for the first time.
A Launch Checkout Station a t Cape Kennedy, Fla. (made opera-
tional in March 1966) and the Space Flight Operations Facility
( S F O F ) at the J e t Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., com-
plete the Network. The S F O F is the control center for the Deep
Space Network and receives information transmitted via ground com-
munications from the stations. The d a h are processed by large-scale
computers, and the information displayed in real time so that the
mission directors can make critical decisions concerning the status
of the spacecraft. Equipment was modified to provide multiple mis-
sion support capability a t the SFOF, since the Network stations and
the SFOF must support two or more missions simultaneously to meet
the flight schedule.
The Network supported two major flight missions-the Pioneer V I
(ch. 2, p. 52) and Surveyor I, with limited support for the Mari-
ner I V and the Atlas-Centaur ( AC-8) development test. Extensive
preparation and checkout were performed for the Lunar Orbiter,
scheduled for launch late in 1966. (Lunar Orbiter I was successfully
launched 011 August 10.)
The Atlas-Centaur ( AC-8) Vehicle Development Flight Mission
(ch. 2, p. 63) was not a complete success, but the Network received
valuable data.
The Mariner IV, launched on November 28, 1964, was tracked
continuously until it accomplished the fly-by of Mars on July 14,1965,

and thereafter for about 2y2 months. Since then, the Goldstone sta-
tion has established communications with Mariner IV at least once
The Surveyor I mission (ch. 2, p. 49) requiwd .a midcourse cor-
rection to the trajectory, and correction commands transmitted by the
Network were so precise that the spacecraft landed within the pre-
determined impact area-after a flight of about 250,000 miles. Sur-
veyor demonstrated for the first time the capability of the Network
to control a spacecraft continuously during its flight to the moon
and after landing. The spacecraft performance was monitored all
through the flight, and adjustments made in response to the command
sequences sent to it. About 300 direct commands were sent via the
Network to Surveyor during its flight. By late June, nearly 100,000
commands had been sent from the Network and more than 10,000
pictures received at the Network stations.

NASA concluded agreements with France, Germany, the Nether-

lands, and Spain, involving a cooperative satellite project, additional
experiments to be flown on NASA satellites, (andnew sounding rocket
experiments. Nine countries cooperated on scientific sounding rocket
experiments, with launchings conducted from ranges in six countries.
Support for new or continuing projects was arranged with seven
countries. NASA continued to make available a variety of personnel
and information exchange opportunities in which many foreign or-
ganizations and individuals participated. Finally, steps were taken
to advance the President’s proposal of December 1965 for a major
U.S.-European cooperative space project.

Cooperative Projects
NASA and the French Space Commission agreed on a second coop-
erative satellite project, and a French experiment was accepted for
flight on a NASA spacecraft. Nine countries cooperated with NASA
on scientific sounding rocket experiments ; launchings were conducted
in A4rgentina,Brazil, Greece, India, Norway, and Pakistan. Agree-
ments for new experiments were concluded with Germany, the Nether-
lands, and Spain.
The Argentine Space Commission successfully launched three
boosted Dart meteorological sounding rockets as part of the Inter-
American Experimental Meteorological Sounding Rocket Network
(EXAMETNET) . Argentina, Brazil, and the United States are
participating in this project, which establishes a north/south chain
of stations through the Western Hemisphere. Sounding rockets will
be launched from these stations to obtain synoptic upper atmospheric
weather data for research.
Brazi I
The Brazilian Space Commission (CNAE) and NASA imple-
mented two cooperative projects during this period. I n the first,
CNAE launched 10 Judi-Dart and Arcas rockets with meteorological
payloads from the Urazilian range near Natal. They were the first
of approximately 30 launcliings CNAE expects to conduct, in 1966
as part of EXAMETNET. I n the second project, CNAE success-
fully launched two NASA acoustic grenade payloads on Nike-Cajun
rockets to measure wind, temperature, pressure, and density in the 40-
100 km region of the atmosphere. These ltiunchings were coordinated
with similar ones from Wallops Island, Va. ; Fort Churchill, Canada;
and Point, Barrow, Alaska. Ten additional launchings :we to be con-
ducted from T3raxil in this project.
NASA and the French National Center for Space Studies (CNES)
concluded an agreement in Mny on :L project designed to demonstrate
the scientific value ~ n d technical feasibility of collecting data on :L
global scde by means of constant level bnlloons and an earth orbiting
satellite (EOLE/FR-2) . The memorandum \vas confirmed on June
17. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 1968.
I n March, CNES and NASA\ agreed to place a French experiment
on NASA‘s OGO-F satellite to be launched in 1968. The experiment,
“Measurement of Altitude Ilistribution of Nitrogen and Oxygen in
Aurorae,” was proposed by the French Service d’Aeranomie. It is the
fifth French experiment, to be accepted for flight on NASA satellites,
and thc seventeenth foreign experiment to be so chosen.
Agreement, WLS d s o reached between NASA and CNES for CNES
p:irticipation in the joint NASA-<’:tn:tdi:tn topside sounder program.
CNES has begun to receive telemetry from the Alouette I and
allouette I1 satellites a t telemetry stations located in Fntnce and at
Colomb-Bechar (Algeria) and Ouagadougou (IJpper Volta) .


Figure 7-1. Launching from USNS Range Recoverer near Koroni, Greece.
NASA and the German Federal Ministry for Scientific Research
(BMwF) agreed on a cooperative project to launch German solar
instrumentation on high-altitude balloons. I t s purpose is to obtain
high-resolution pictures and spectra of the fine structure elements
of the solar atmosphere. The first flight is scheduled for late 1966
from the Balloon Flight Station in Palestine, Tex.
The BMwF and NASA also concluded a letter of agreement for a
cooperative sounding rocket experiment to measure electron density
in the ionosphere. The RMwF is to make available a variable fre-
quency impedance probe prepared by the Ionospheres Institute at
Breisach. This probe will be integrated into a payload with a NASA
propagation measurement experiment and launched on a NASA Nike-
Apache sounding rocket from Wallops Island in the summer of 1966.
Seven boosted-Arcns sounding rockets were launched from the deck
of the USNS Range Recoverer in connection with the eclipse of May
20,1966. The ship was stationed several miles off shore from the town
of Koroni in the southern Peloponnesos. (Fig. 7-1.) The project,
jointly undertaken by the Greek National Committee for Space Re-
search and NASA, was designed to study ionization below 90 km
caused by solar ultraviolet and X-ray fluxes during the eclipse.
India successfully launched four J u d i - I h r t meteorological sound-
ing rockets carrying chaff payloads. They were the 23d and 26th t o
he Inunched in India as part of a cooperative project with NASA,
supplementing the work of the International Indian Ocean Expedi-
tion (IIOE). The Indian Space Commission (INCOSPAR) also
launched two sodium rapor payloads on Nike-,\pache sounding
rockets to measure upper atmosphere winds. The second of these
began it new series of 12 launchings in cooperation with NASA to in-
vestigate high altitude and ionospheric phenomena.
Agreement was reached with the .Jnpanese Radio Research Laboni-
toric? (RRL) for RRL to pnrcicipate in the NASA/<'nnadian ISIS
program through an experiment based on the direct reception in Japan
of telemetry from the Alouette I and Alouette I1 satellites, beginning
in August 1966.
NASA and the Netherlands Laboratory for Space Research (LSR)
concliided an agreement to cooperate in an X-ray heliography sound-
ing rocket experiment. I n this project a Fresnel zone plate camera
and associated instrumentation will be provided by Dutch scientists
and integrated into a payload containing related NASA solar physics
experiments. This payload will then be launched from White Sands,
N. Mex., in late 1966 on an Aerobee sounding rocket provided by
An ion spectrometer payload was successfully launched on a Nike-
Apache sounding rocket from the Norwegian Range at Andoya on
March 21. The purpose of this project, conducted pursuant to an
agreement between NASA and the Norwegian Committee for Space
Research, was to study the ionic composition of the D-region of the
The Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Committee
(SUPARCO) launched eight Judi-Dart meteorological sounding rock-
ets carrying chaff payloads as part of a series that began in 1964.
The purpose of the series is to obtain upper atmospheric meteorological
data to supplement the work of the International Indian Ocean
SUPARICO launched three payloads in a U.S./U.K./Pakistani
acoustic grenade project. One payload combined grenades and
trimethyl aluminum vapor. The purpose of these launchings was to
provide data on wind, temperature, pressure, and density in the upper
SUPARCO also launched two Nike-Apache sounding rockets carry-
ing sodium vapor payloads (provided by France) from its range in
Sonmiani Beach, Pakistan, on February 25 and 26. In this project
SUPARCO is measuring upper atmosphere winds by ground-based
photography of illuminated sodium vapor released from the payloads.
A Memorandum of Understanding was concluded between NASA
and the Spanish Space Commission on January 14, providing for a
cooperative project to obtain high altitude meteorological informa-
tion and to test and evaluate both equipment and techniques for making
meteorological sounding rocket observations. Sixteen small meteoro-
logical sounding rockets are to be launched from a site in southwestern
Spain to obtain information on wind, temperature, and pressure at
;dtitudes ranging from 30 to 60 km.
,Qnother Memorandum of Understanding was signed January 14 and
confirmed on April 14. I t provides for a cooperative project to
measure winds and temperatures at high altitudes (50 t o 100 km.),
using four Nike-boosted rockets with acoustic grenade payloads ;
launchings are planned t o begin in 1967.
The Swedish Space Research Committee and NASA signed an
agreement in February to cooperate in investigating upper atmospheric
particles by means of ground-laser techniques. The studies will be
conducted from several locations in Sweden using a pulsed laser radar
installed in a mobile ground-station. The principal scientific objective
of the project is to determine the height distribution and scattering
properties of aerosol particles during both the presence and absence
of noctilucent clouds.
Europe-Advanced Cooperative Project (ACP)
During February a NASA/State Department team visited Western
Europe to explore with space and other officials the details of a
possible major advanced U.S./European cooperative space project,
such as a Jupiter or solar probe, as a consequence of the President’s
proposal t o Chancellor Erhard on December 20,1965.
The scientific, technical, and financial aspects of such a project were
being studied by the individual governments of the Western Euro-
pean nations and by ESRO, the European Space Research Organiza-
tion. During a May visit to the United States, the German Minister
for Scientific Research expressed Germany’s readiness to participate
in such a IJ.S./Ehropean project.
Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information
Under informal arrangements, NASA continued to maintain a pro-
gram of document exchange with 240 institutions located in 41
Cooperation Through United Nations
The Assistant Administrator for International Affairs served as
U.S. Representative to the Working Group of the United Nations
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in January and to
the Fourth Session of the Committee’s Scientific and Technical Sub-
committee in April.
Operations Support
Arrangements were made with Argentina, Australia, Brazil,
Canada, Chile, Spain, and the United Kingdom for the support of
new or continuing NASA pmjects.
On April 13, an agreement w i s c*oncliided between NASA tuid the
-lustralian Department of Supply implementing the intergovern-
mental agreement of December 7,1965. This agreement provided for
the establishment and operation of a transportable telemetry and com-
mand station at Cooby Creek, near Toowoomba, to support the Appli-
cations Technology Satellite program. Another agreement was con-
cluded on February 18, between NASA and the Department of Sup-
ply concerning an optical tracking station operated by the Smithsonian
Institution for NASA at Woomera.
A memorandum of understanding was signed March 29, between the
Smithsonian Institution and the Brazilian space agency (CNAE)
providing for the establishment of a Baker-Nunn camera station at
Natal. This station is to be operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical
Observatory under a NASA grant.
Canada approved instrumented aircraft overflights for the purpose
of conducting research into aircraft as a source of gamma radiation at
supersonic altitudes.
With Chilean approval, a small U.S. scientific team staged an ex-
pedition to the Atacama Desert during May to study the effects of ex-
treme and prolonged aridity on the soil chemistry and microflora.
These studies are of interest to NASA in connection with the question
of existence of life on Mars.
An agreement for the continuation of the NASA tracking station
in the Canary Islands until January 1974, and for the expansion of the
station to support Project Apollo was signed a t Washington on
April 14.
United Kingdom
Approvals were obtained from the United Kingdom on May 4 and
5 for NASA to proceed with construction of tracking stations in sup-
port of Project Apollo on the islands of Antigua and the Grand
Bahamas. Intergovernmental agreements for the stations are in
process. The intergovernmental agreement for the NASA tracking
and communications station at Winkfield was extended on January 18
for 6 months, pending discussions for renewal of the agreement for a
longer period.
instrumented Aircroft in Support of Nimbus II
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile approved the overflights of an in-
strumented NASA Convair 990 aircraft from May 23 through May 31,
to take infrared spectrometer and radiometer measurements in sup-
port of Nimbus 11.

European Space Research Organization (ESRO)

Legislation was signed by the President on February 2, which per-
mits ESRO to receive the benefits of the International Organizations
Immunities Act in connection with the prospective establishment of
an ESRO telemetry and command station in Alaska.

Personnel Exchanges, Education, and Training

Over 2,700 foreign nationals from 92 locations visited NASA facili-
ties for scientific and technical discussions or general orientation.
Visitors included representatives of space research agencies in Brazil,
Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and Germany, as well as representatives
of ESRO and high officials of foreign governments.
Under the NASA International University Fellowship Program, 38
graduate students completed their studies and 53 either entered the
program or continued their studies. They were supported by their
national space research sponsors or by the European Space Research
Organization. Thirteen countries and 18 universities participated in
the program, which is administered by the National Academy of
Eighty-five postdoctoral and senior postdoctoral associates from 24
countries carried on research a t NASA centers and the J e t Propulsion
Laboratory. This program, also administered by the National
Academy of Sciences, is open to U.S. nationals.
Fourteen scientists, engineers, and technicians representing
.lrgentina, France, Spain, and ESRO here a t their own expense, re-
ceived training in space technology at Goddard Space Flight Center
and Wallops Station in connection with cooperative projects.

NASA supports scientific and engineering research programs a t

universities through two types of activities, both related to NASA’s
missions. The first, project research, directly supports Agency mis-
sion objectives ; the second, the sustaining university program, seeks
to broaden and strengthen the university community’s participation
in and capability for contributing to the national spaee program.

Sustaining University Program


The training program was designed to support the production of

new Ph. D.’s in space-related disciplines and to provide advanced
training opportunities to special groups of scientists and engineers.
By June 1966, 164 grants or contracts has been awarded to 153 insti-
tutions. (App. P.)
Under the predoctoral training program grants were awarded to
152 universities (app. Q) . The objective of this program is to ensure
R continuing supply of highly trained scientists and engineers for the
space program by providing grants to universities, which in turn
select participants to receive up to 3 years of support. Ten of these
institutions entered the program for the first time this year, and the
remainder were continuing grants. By September 1966, 1,335 new
NASA predmtoral trainees will begin studies a t these institutions,
joining 2,346 students from the previous 2 years, and bringing the
total number in training to 3,681.
25&738 0--67-10 131

By the end of June, 272 Ph. D.'s had been earned by NASA trainees :
146 in the physical sciences, 98 in engineering, 17 in life sciences, and
11 in other areas. The new recipients of the Ph. D. degree made the
following initial career choices : University research and teaching,
130 ; postdoctoral fellowships or Fulbright awards, 36 ; employment
in government laboratories, 30 ; and employment, in industry, 76. All
the degree programs involved advanced research emphasizing space-
related problems and contributing to the total body of space knowl-
edge. I n addition to the 272 doctoral dissertations, 146 articles,
reprints, and reports or special studies in space science or engineering
were prepared for publication. To acquaint NASA trainees more
directly with the Agency and its mission, about 550 NASA pm-
doctoral trainees, accompznied by approximately 75 faculty members,
visited NASA field research centers for intensive briefings on NASA
research programs.
Early in 1966, 7 contracts were swarded to 12 universities to
continue the cooperative summer faculty fellowship programs which
bring junior faculty members in engineering or science to a NASA
center for 10 weeks of research and study. About 165 faculty mem-
bers ,were scheduled to participate in this program during the summer
of 1966, approximately one-third returning for a second, and terminal,
Plans were also readied to spin present three summer institutes
for outstanding undergraduates. Approximately 160 undergraduates
will receive 6 weeks of specialized summer training a t three universities
conducting programs in space sciences and technology.
One grant, awarded for continuation of a small training program in
aerospace medicine, will enable several medical doctors to receive
advanced training in this new field. One objective of the program is
to help alleviate the critical shortage of researchers on problems of en-
viromenta1 health in space flight. One participant completed the
program and is employed at, NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center at
Houston while another joined the faculty of a medical school and is
establishing a new curriculum in aerospace medicine.
The National Academy of Sciences administers a program for
NASA which is designed to allow postdoctoral and senior postdoctoral
investigators to carry on advanced research at one of the NASA field
centers. During the past year, the first appointments were made to
the Manned Spacecraft Center, the Electronics Research Center, and
the J e t Propulsion Laboratory, and the number of centers psrticipat-
ing in the program totaled seven. I n May 1966,104 advanced investi-
gators were on tenure at NAS-4 centers, distributed as follows :
Goddard Space Flight Center_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _66 _-____-_
Institute for Space Studies, New York, N.Y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ 16
Greenbelt, Md ___________________________________________- 40
iunes Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif _____________________________ 35
Langley Research Center, Langley, Va ___________________________________ 6
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala ___________________________ 5
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif _____________________________ 1
Electronics Research Center, Boston, Mass _______________________________ 1
Research fields included astrophysics, airglow emission, high-energy
physics, geomagnetism, instrumentation for direct atmospheric meas-
urements, applied mathematics, electron microscopy, comparative bio-
chemistry, hypersonic aerodynamics, plasma flow, materials, and
The research element of the sustaining university program sup-
ported multidisciplinary space-related research in science and tech-
nology at 48 educational institutions throughout the country, an in-
cream of 12 over the last period. The institutions are :
Adelphi University University of Miami
University of Alabama University of Minnesota
University of Arizona University of Missouri (Columbia)
Brown University Montana State University
University of California (Berkeley) New Mexico State University
University of California (Los New York University
Angeles) University of Oklahoma
California Institute of Technology Oklahoma State University
University of Cincinnati University of Pennsylvania
Colorado State University Pennsylvania State University
University of Denver University of Pittsburgh
Drexel Institute of Technology Purdue University
Duke University Rice University
University of Florida University of Southern California
George Washington Universi,ty Southern Methodist University
Georgia Institute of Technology University of Tennessee
Graduate Research Center of the Texas A. C M.University
Southwest University of Vermont
University of Houston University of Virginia
Howard University Virginia Polytechnic Institute
University of Kansas Washington University
Kansas State University (St.Louis)
University of Louisville West Virginia University
University of Maine College of William and Mary
University of Maryland University of Wisconsin
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Twelve universities initiated programs :University of Arizona, Uni-
versity of Cincinnati, Colorado State University, Drexel Institute
of Technology, George Washington University, University of Houston,
University of Miami, New York University, University of Oklahoma,
Rice University, University of Southern California, and University

of Tennessee. Arizona, Ohio, and Tennessee were newly represented

States in the program.
The following exemplify the nature of the research being conducted.
The grant a t the University of Cincinnati supports work in aerospace
engineering, mathematics, physics, chemical engineering, nuclear engi-
neering, materials, and psychology. The close working relationship
between medical school investigators and those in other academic
departments permits multidisciplinary approaches to complex human
engineering problems. The University of Houston, working closely
with the Manned Spacecraft Center, has contributed to the further
development and training of NASA scientists and engineers at the
Center through ‘the research activities in geophysics, physics, materials,
geochemistry, and deep space television system techniques.
Research Faci I ities
Six NASA-funded facilities were dedicated and placed in full oper-
ational support of space related research and training. Since build-
ings were essentially finished in earlier reporting periods, the total
number of completed strudtures remains a t 17.
The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Materials Research Center
(13th Semiannual Report, p. 150) was dedicated in ceremonies held
on April 22 and 23, with NASA Administrator James E. Webb the
principal speaker. On May 26, the Clinical Sciences Research Build-
ing \vas dedicated at, Stanford IJniversilty. Approximately 9 percent
of tho t o t d cost of this major addition to the University’s Medical
Research Center (Fig. 8-1) was supported by :I NASA facilities grant.
The NASA-funded portion of these Iaboratories mill accommodate
scientists working in exobiology and biomedical instrumentation.
UCLA dedicated its Space Science Ridding on April 4 (14th Semi-
~ ~ n Report,
n d p. 166), naming it for Dr. Louis Slichter, former
director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planatary Physics a t the
University. On April 5, the Combustion Research Laboratory of the
Purdue University Jet Propulsion Center was dedicated. Funded
by NASA, the laboratory, which provides facilities for graduate re-
search and training on liquid, solid, hybrid, and air-augmented rocket
systems developing up to 25,000 pounds of thrust, is equipped with
modern instrumentation and closed circuit television for observation
of experimental apparatus. The university’s IBM ’7094 computer is
available for processing experimental data. The Arthur Holly Comp-
ton Laboratories a t Washington University were dedicated May 4.
A portion of this structure was funded by NASA t o provide space
for graduate research and training in theoretical physics, cosmic radia-
tion, astrophysics, and other space-related activities. The Polytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn dedicated its expanded gritduate facilities
(Preston R. nssett Research Tliiboratory) on April 23 (14th Rs7n;-

Figure &I. Clinical Sciences Research Building, Stanford University Medical Research

annual Report, p. 166), with Mr. James E. Webb as principal speaker.

Located at the Institute’s Graduate Center, Farmingdale, Long Island,
the Laboratory is devoted to education and research in the aerospace
sciences and engineering, electrophysics, applied mechanics, and re-
lated areas. It includes a Mach 12 hypersonic wind tunnel, a 6-foot
diameter Mach 14 shock tunnel, and a plasma laboratory.

Management of Grants and Research Contracts

The Office of Grants and Research Contracts continued to improve
its management techniques and procedures for administering grants
and research contracts with universities and nonprofit, institutions.
Letter of credit procedures (19th Semknnud Report, p. 154) were
implemented to replace the NASA-MIT special bank account, form-
erly used to finance advance funded contracts with the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. Cash requirements are provided through
a commercial bank for the financing of advance funded contracts.
Also, procedures were developed for delegating property administra-
tion to the DOD Contract Administration Services, and an audit pm-
gram for training grants was developed and was being tested at three
Between January 1, and June 30,1966, the Officeof Grants and Re-
search Contracts received 1,753 proposals, an increase of 18 percent
over the same period of the previous year. Procurement actions
totaled $57.8 million and obligations processed totaled $92.3 million.


Reflecting the increasing interest of young people in the Nation's

space activities, NASA continued t o expand its educational programs
and services. The Agency nnswered almost 2,500 letters of school-
childen monthly and, through sp,acemobile lecture-demonstration
teams, reached an audience of over 3 million along with their teachers
and civic groups.
To keep pace with the growing needs of scientists and engineers
for scientific and technical information, NASA began to study a
modified procedure for its computer-based Selective Disseminn.t'ion
of Information System. Called "Selected Current Aerospace Notices"
(SCAN), the new method would save computer time in selecting dwu-
lileilts for individual scientists and engineers, and the SCAN outputs
would be reproduced to serve several individuals with similar interests.

Educational Programs and Services

NASA helped almost 300 colleges, universities, and school districts
conduct space science courses for an estimated 15,000 elementary and
secondary school teachers during their summer sessions. The Agency
provided major assistance in organization and instruction in 125 in-
stances. A number of projects were set u p to develop space-related
curriculum materials :Resource units in chemistry for secondary school
teachers at Ball State University, in industrial arts at Long Beach
State College, and in mathematics at the University of Akron; a space
science glossary for elementary schools at Oregon State University ;
and a comprehensive 12-grade curriculum guide at the South Dakota
State Department of Education. I n addition, NASA began a study
of the services in developing curricula which planetariums in the
United States might provide elementary and secondary schools.
Final reports were submitted to the Agency on the completion of
the following space-related curriculum projects: a program in mathe-
matics for inservice elementary school teachers by the Washington
State University; units on elementary school use of the planetarium
by the University of Bridgeport; Units for teachers of earth-space
science by the National Science Teachers Association; and miscellane-
ous briefs on subjects related to space science for elementary and sec-
ondary school teachers by the Houston Independent School District.
Regional conferences were held to plan for cooperation between
NASA field installations educational officers and the educational lead-
ers of neighboring states. One for industrial arts and science teach-
ers, super.visors, and educators was conducted at the John F. Kennedy
Space Center; another for teachers of the language arts at Langley
Research Center; for college and university heads of schools and de-
partments of education, at the Manned Spacecraft Center; and for
guidance counselors, at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Agency's
educators also provided and manned exhibits, and served as speakers
and consultants at annual conferences of state, regional, and national
professional organizations.
I n its youth service program NASA cooperrtted, for the fifth succes-
sive year, with the Science Fair-International by providing judges
and awards for space-related projects. Each of the six winners re-
ceived a certificate and a trip with his teacher to the NASA Center
of his choice. The education office of Langley Research Center con-
ducted a Youth Science Congress in cooperation with science super-
visors of the State Departments of Education of Kentucky, North
and South Carolina, and Virginia. At this Congress, a select group
of superior high school science students met with Agency scientists to
read and discuss their research. Also, work was completed on a space
exploration merit badge booklet, prepared in conjunction with head-
quarters officesof the Boy Scouts of America.
I n response to questions of young people about careers in space,
NASA answered approximately 2,500 letters a month, and partici-
pated in over 100 youth career days and 10 national and regional con-
ferences for guidance counselors. A pilot project in adult education
was begun with Elementary Science Project (Washington, D.C.) to
investigate the nature of a space-related lecture series which might be
conducted for adults of limited education.

S pacemobi les
NASA’s spacemobile lecture-demonstration teams spoke on space
science and exploration before 1,895,764 people in 4,260 lecture-demon-
strations for schoolchildren, educators, and civic groups. The lee-
turers reached an additional 1,366,050 persons in numerous broad-
casts and more than 27 television programs. Many of these programs
were scheduled in cooperation with state departments of education.
Also, special programs were conducted for culturally-deprived school
districts in six States. Overseas spacemobiles visited Argentina,
Australia, Austria, Great Britain, Peru, and Tripoli. I n this country
there were 27 vehicles with an average of 54 lecturers; abroad, five
vehicles were manned by lecturers of the nations the spacemobiles
Educational Publications and Films
NASA released 11 new publications, issued updated editions of
several previously published, and produced three new motion pic-
tures; they are described in appendix K. Over 49,000 requests for
publications and 3,200 requests for motion pictures were received from
teachers, students, professionals, and the general public. Motion pic-
ture film catalogued and stored in NASA’s depository reached
7,290,000 feet, and 34,500 feet of film was made available to producers
of ediicational and documentary motion pictures and telecasts.
Educational Television and Radio
NASA continued providing information on the Nation’s space pro-
gram to the increasingly larger audiences of television and radio. T V
stations exceed 726, reaching into 54 million homes; 6,200 radio sta-
tions serve over 55 million. The Agency produced and distributed
its regular monthly 5-minute television program “Aeronautics and
Space Report.’‘ Topics included the Gemini flights, bioastronautics,
V/STOL aircraft and general aeronautical research, meteorological
satellites, and the orbiting scientific observatories. NASA also began
to distribute 13 half-hour documentaries entitled “Science Reporter”
to educational television stations throughout the country. The pro-
grams-covering a variety of scientific and technical topics on space
and aeronautics-were on such subjects as the Surveyor spacecraft,
fuel cell technology, space medicine, and scientific sounding rockets.
Distribution of the six half-hour programs in the “Space : Man’s
Great Adventure” series continued, with many stations programming
them for the second time. Also, NASA’s motion pictures were dis-
tributed to a larger number of television stations, and the Agency
furnished guidance, information, and visual materials t o individual
stations, networks, and producers. I n addition, production began on

a new group of half-hour TV programs, “Space: The New Dimen-


The Agency’s series of 13 half-hour radio programs on bioastm-
nautics, ‘‘Their Other World,” was also distributed. Another series on
“The Peaceful Uses of Space” was released and broadcast over a num-
ber of stations. These 12 half-hour programs feature the addresses
which highlighted the Fifth National Conference on the Peaceful .
Uses of Space held in St. Louis, Mo., in May 1965. Also, distribution
continued on the weekly 5-minute radio program, “Space Story;”
“NASA Special Report,” a monthly 15-minuteprogram; “Audio News
Features,” a series of interviews released periodically ; and, “NASA
Space Notes,” a quarterly series of short, informational programs.
Scientific and Technical Information
Encouraging scientists and engineers to use its scientific and tech-
nical information services, NASA has taken several steps to show them
how to take advantage of its information system. For example, earlier
it issued an instructional manual, How to Use NASA’s ,Scientific and
Technkal Informution Systewparticularly its abstracting and in-
dexing services, literature searches, publications, and microfiche.
I n this period, a catalog of NASA Special Publications (Spring
1966) was published listing and describing monographs, state-of-the-
art summaries, conference proceedings, data compilations, handbooks,
sourcebooks, histories, chronologies, charts, and bibliographies in the
formal series of special publications. A selected list of NASA’s
scientific publications released recently is given in appendix L.
The Agency also arranged with the American Institute of Aero-
nautics and Astronautics to set up a program to help those in aerospace
science and technology who use scientific and technical information
acquire the services needed to meet their research, development, and
engineering objectives. The Institute will use instructional materials,
brochures, briefings, and workshops in this program.
The Agency’s Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) pro-
gram, which became operational in 1964, has demonstrated that a com-
puter can be used to select information for individual scientists and
engineers. But this personalized method of selecting documents and
journal items by computer matching of index terms with an individ-
ual’s “interest profile” (subject terms and phrases related to his work
and interests) requires the expenditure of computer time for each par-
ticipant in the SDI program. Accordingly, NASA began a study of
a modified procedure-Selected Current Aerospace Notices, SCAN-
which substitutes topics for the individual users’list of interests. The
SCAN method requires fewer topics to cover a wider range of interests,
and each SCAN output can then be reproduced to serve many in-
dividuals with comparable interests.

Historical Program
The Agency’s historical staff released its Eistorical Sketch of
NASA, and sent to the printer the first two major histories to be issued
by NASA :An Administrative flistory of NASA, 1958-1963 by Robert
L. Rosholt, University of Minnesota, and This New Ocean: A Nistory
of Project Mercury by Loyd S . Swenson and Charles C. Alexander,
University of Houston, and James M. Grimwood, Manned Space-
craft Center. Several other histories were being written. These
treated the role of NASA in the development of commercial com-
munications satellites, the beginning of Goddard Space Flight Cen-
ter, and Projects Gemini and Apollo.
Continuing :t series of annual chronologies begun in 1961, Astro-
n,autks and Aeronautics, 1965 was scheduled for August 1966 publica-
tion as SP4006.
Members of NASA’s Historical Advisory Committee for 1966 were
appointed (app. E) and held their annual meeting at the Agency’s
headquarters on May 20 to review the historical program.

NASA’s personnel, management, procurement, and other nontech-
nical activities received the kind of emphasis necessary to assure ade-
quate and timely support of the space and aeronautics missions, within
the framework of a sound economic approach. With its work force
remaining fairly stable, the Agency concentrated its personnel efforts
on those programs that would increase employee efficiency. Refine-
ments were made in two aspects of the organization, steps were taken
to further upgrade both financial management and procurement prac-
tices, technology utilization received continued stress, and the
NASA/DOD cooperative efforts showed positive results.

NASA’s personnel activities during the period included furthering
the Government-wide employee-management cooperation program, ex-
panding the employee training efforts, reinforcing the equal employ-
ment opportunity actions, and providing increased opportunity for
the advancement of the Agency’s women employees. Key personnel
changes were made, and both individuals and groups were given
special recognition for their noteworthy contributions to the space

Employee-Management Cooperation
The Government-wide program for Employee-Management GO-
operation in the Federal Service (Executive Order 10988) continued
to receive emphasis by this Agency. Exclusive recognition within
one craft unit (33 employees) was granted to the Pattern Makers AS-
sociation of San Francisco and vicinity, A F L C I O , a t the Ames Re-
Fearch Center. Exclusive recognition within another craft unit (22
employees) was granted to the Pattern Makers Association of Houston
and vicinity, AFL-CIO, by the Manned Spacecraft Center.
T4;xclusive recognition within :I wage board unit (201employees) was
granted to Lodge 2284, American Federation of Government Em-
ployees, AFL-CIO, at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The parties
concluded negotiations, and their collective bargaining agreement was
undergoing review for approval by the Administrator.
The collective bargaining agreement between Marshall Space Flight
Center and Lodge 1858, American Federation of Government Em-
ployees ( A F L C I O ) was approved by the Administrator. Also, the
Langley Research Center and the Pattern Makers Association of New-
port News and vicinity, A F L C I O , concluded negotiations and their
collective bargaining agreement was approved by the Administrator.
Employee Training and Education

NASA management views employee training and educat'ion as an

essential and continuous learning process spanning the career of an
employee. During the last 6 months, the Agency has continued to
translate this view into specific actions and commitments.
Graduate Study

Since the Llgency's inception, NASA installations have recognized

thnt bachelor degree graduates feel the need for additional training
to meet the demands of modern research and development. Therefore,
emphasis has been placed on further development of NASA's available
staff by continued education through graduate study. Approximately
3,000 employees took 4,500 graduate courses during the year ending
.June 30. This total included eight employees who completed Fellow-
ship Progr:ims such as the Sloan and the National Institute of Public
-iff airs.
Cooperative Education

?'he NASA cooperiLtive education progr;ini is :I work-study arrange-

iiient, which provides undergrndn:ite students with nn opportunity t o
integrate wademic study with planned work experience a t NASA in-
std1:Ltions. More than 90 percent of NASA's co-op students me in
the fields of science and engineering. ‘Several are in administrative
professional positions such as accounting, economics, and statistics.
During the year ending in June 1966, the Agency employed approxi-
mately 1,000 co-op students.

Apprentice Training

The NASA apprentice training program is designed to prepare

qualified young men to become journeymen and potential leaders in
those skilled trades which have particular application to the research
needs of NASA. The preparation includes organized on-the-job and
classroom training. Approximately 400 apprentices were employed
by NASA field installations.
Specialized Training

With today’s rapid technological change, even highly trained people

lose utility unless training is continuous. Therefore, NASA pro-
vides seminars and short courses, sponsored by universities and private
industry, in a wide variety of specialized up-to-date subjects not yet
available in the standard college or university curriculum. In addi-
tion, seminars and noncredit short courses are offered in such areas
as supervisory and management development, oral and written com-
munication, and reliability and quality assurance. Approximately
7,500 employees participated in seminars and short courses.

Equal Employment Opportunity

To more effectively carry out the provisions of Executive Order
11246, NASA established a Special Programs staff in the Personnel
Division to plan, direct, and coordinate an agencywide program for
Equal Employment Opportunity. I n addition, to comply with a Civil
Service Directive, the Agency furnished all employees cards for self-
identification of racial origin. This information was being fed into
the Program Management Information System (ADP).
I n March 1966, the Manned Spacecraft Center and Texas South-
ern University sponsored a %day Minority Manpower Resources Con-
ference for college officials. The purpose of the conference was to
focus attention on the evolving role of the placement function at pre-
dominantly Negro colleges and universities.
A special effort was made to attract a top school administrator and
the placement director from each school, and the response was very
gratifying. Representatives from 20 of the 22 colleges invited at-
tended the meeting. I n addition, over 100 special guests, including
employers, local school officials, representatives of the Civil Service
Commission, the Texas Employment Commission, and other inter-
ested persons attended the opening session. Mr. Anthony Rachal,
who attended the conference as a special representative of President
Johnson, read to the conferees a letter from the President t o Dr. Gil-
ruth commending the Manned Spacecraft Center for its efforts in
support of equal employment opportunity.
NASA continued to sponsor a tutorial program to provide remedial
assistance to disadvantaged youths. This volunteer service was origi-
nally intended for students of elementary school age. Because of in-
creased interest, however, the program was extended to include youths
from elementary through high school level. Approaches were made
to private industry and the Urban League t o consider a centralized
“volunteer placement activity” within the Urban League. The League
Status of Women

During the quarter ending March 31, 1966, the number of women
a t GS-12 level and above increased from 186 to 194. Twenty women
were promoted from GS-11 to GS-12.
Dr. Jocelyn Gill, Program Chief of In-Flight Sciences, Manned
Space Science Programs, was among the six winners of the Federal
Woman’s Award. I n addition, Mrs. Catherine Dryden Hock, a re-
liability and quality assurance systems engineer a t the NASA Head-
quarters Office of Manned Space Flight, was elected as a Fellow of
American Society for Quality Control. Her selection was primarily
for long-term membership and for active participation in the Society
in various capacities.
Manpower Research and Utilization

NASA completed the final stages of an agencywide system for ob-

taining essential information about the work force. The system called
the Personnel Management Information System ( P M I S ) , was imple-
mented as of June 30. It will be validated against existing reporting
systems during the last half of 1966.
P M I S covers all inhouse NASA personnel. Based on quarterly
submission of specific data items extracted directly from installation
A D P records, the system will provide a uniform base of factual data
from which significant information can be generated for management
purposes and t o satisfy agency reporting requirements. Standard
data elements and codes as developed through the Civil Service Com-
inission and the Bureau of Budget are utilized. P M I S is expected
to eliminate the need for Centers t o prepare a number of separate
personnel reports.
Status of Personnel Force
NASA staff increased form 33,355 to 35,708 between December 31,
1965 and June 30,1966. Temporary summer employment accounted
for 1538 of the increase. The distribution by installation was as
follows :
Dee. SI, June SO,
1866 1866
2,236 2,310
340 555
629 662
3,560 3,958
2,486 2,669
4,263 4,485
4,834 5,047
7,503 7,740
4,391 4,889
526 563
343 294
2,112 2, 336
112 115
20 85

33,355 35,708

Key Executive Personnel Changes

Three key appointments were made and four individuals were
reassigned to key positions. I n addition, there were six terminations.
K e y Appointments.-On January 16, 1966, Neil S. Hosenball was
appointed as Assistant General Counsel for Procurement Matters
succeeding Mr. Bernard Moritz who had served in this capacity from
1961 to 1965. Mr. Hosenball came from the NASA Lewis Research
Center where he had served as Chief Counsel since April 1963.
Col. Rocco A. Petrone was appointed to the new position of Manager,
Apollo Program Office, John F. Kennedy Space Center, NA4SL4
(June 16, 1966). Colonel Petrone, who retired from the U.S.
,Qrrny on June 30,1966, assumed his duties on July 1. H e had served
in the Center, on detail from the US. Army, from August 1960, in
various capacities involving the coordination and direction of Center
planning, program control, and resources management.
William L. Green, Jr., was appointed as Deputy Assistant Admin-
istrator for Public Affairs on June 19, 1966. He came t o the NASA
in August, 1964, from the position of Special Assistant to the Deputy
Director, U.S. Information Agency. His previous assignments with
NASA included service as a foreign information specialist and, from
April 1966, as Executive Assistant to the Assistant Administrator for
Public Affairs.
Reassignments.-On January 2, Breene M. Kerr, who had served as
Assistant Administrator for Technology Utilization from 1964, was
also assigned to serve as Assistant Administrator for Policy Analysis.
On June 5,1966, Mr. Kerr was placed in the latter capacity on a full-
time basis. The Technology Utilization responsibility was reassigned.
Dr. Richard L. Lesher was appointed as Assistant Administrator
for Technology Utilization (June 5,1966). H e had served as Deputy
Assistant Administrator for Technology Utilization since May of
Dr. Lesher was succeeded as Deputy Assistant Administrator for
Technology Utilization by Melvin S. Day who, from August 1960,
had served as Deputy Director, and from January 1962, as Director
of the Officeof Scientific and Technical Information.
On May 5, Dr. John F. Clark was appointed as Director of the
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. H e had served as Deputy
Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications
(Sciences) from November 1963, but had been serving as Acting
Director of the Goddard Center since July 23, 1965.
Term,inationc.-On March 2, 1966, Elliott McKay See, Jr., was
killed while on flight training maneuvers a t the Manned Spacecraft
Center, Houston, Tex. Mr. See was an astronaut scheduled for the
then-pending Gemini mission.
I n the same accident, Charles A. B,?ssett 11, Captain, USAF, was
also killed. Along with Mr. See, Captain Bassett was assigned as a
crew member of the same pending Gemini mission. ( H e was post-
humously awarded the rank of Major, USAF.)
On March 26, 1966, Dr. Raymond I,. I3isplinghoff resigned from
the position of Special Assistant to the Administrator to which he
had been appointed December 21, 1965. Dr. Risplinghoff had pre-
viously served as Associate ,\dministrator for ,\drnnced Rese:wch
and Technology (from August 1962).
John D. Young resigned from the position of Assistant Adminis-
trator for Administration on May 28, 1966. He had served in this
capacity since April 1963. Mr. Young joined the staff of the NASA
in December 1960, as Director of Management Analysis.
On June 3, 1966, Earl D. Hilburn resigned from the position of
Deputy Associate Administrator, the capacity in which he had served
since May 1964. Previously, he had been Deputy Associate Admin-
istrator for Industry Affairs.
Joseph A. Walker, a Research Test Pilot at the NASA Flight Re-
search Center, Edwards, Calif., was killed on June 8, 1966, while
engaged in flight operations a t the Edwards Air Force Base.
NASA Awards ond Honors
Special honorary recognition was given to individuals and groups
for their contributions to the Nation’s space program.
NASA Distinguished Service J!edal.-Two such awards were
Walter M . Schirra, Jr., MSC.-For his courage and judgment in
the face of great personal danger; his calm, precise, and immediate
perception of the totality of the situations that confronted him; and
his accurate and critical decisions which made possible the successful
execution of the Gemini VI mission, preserved the pace and momentum
of the Gemini program, and extended the horizons of piloted space
space flight.
D m Z d K . Slayton, MSC.-For his outstanding performance in
directing NASA flight operations and for his leadership of the con-
tinuous and rapid adaptation of NASA’s astronaut training activities
to the experience gained from Mercury and Gemini flights. His train-
ing of the 10 Gemini astronauts who, in 1965, flew more than 1,250
hours in space to demonstrate the capabilities of the Gemini space-
craft, to achieve self-propelled extravehicular activity, t o conduct
long-duration flight in steps of 4, 8, and 14 days, to rendezvous, and
to accomplish controlled reentry, has contributed greatly to the United
States mastery of manned space flight.
NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal.-Two of these awards were
Earl D.HQburn, Headpmrters.-For his contributions to the effec-
tive management of NASA during the past 3 critical years of aero-
nautical development and space exploration. Gifted in both man-
agerial and technical abilities, he has exercised rare qualities of
judgment and decision. His willingness to question and search, his
refusal to accept the superficial, and his insistence on quality perform-
ance without compromise have been trusted bulwarks of the NkSA
John D . Young, Headpuarters.-For his very large contributions
to planning and achieving an effective system of management for
NASA as a major public enterprise. His leadership and high com-
petence in organizing and administering NASA’s Headquarters and
Field Centers, and his personal commitment to excellence in all phases
of administration have been major factors in NASA’s success in
building national competence in aeronautical and space research.
NASA E x c e p t w d Service MedaZ.-Eleven of these medals were
Walter M.Schirra, Jr., ilr(SC.-For his outstanding contribution to
the technology of manned space flight. As Command Pilot of Gemini
258-738 0 - 67 - 11
VI-A, he performed precision maneuvers in orbit culminating in
rendezvous and formation flying with the Gemini VI1 spacecraft. He
further demonstrated his outstanding capabilities as a pilot by his
precise control of the spacecraft during reentry and landing in a
predetermined area.
Thomas P. Stufford, MSC.-For his outstanding contribution to
the technology of manned spaceflight. As Pilot of Gemini VI-A,
he materially contributed to the orbital maneuvers that culminated in
rendezvous and formation flying with the Gemini VI1 spacecraft.
His performance in the operation of spacecraft systems and in pro-
viding the parameters for rendezvous added greatly to man’s pro-
ficiency in orbital flight.
Frank B m ? MSC.-For his outstanding contribution to the
technology of manned spaceflight. As Command Pilot of Gemini VII,
he demonstrated man’s ability to adapt to weightless flight of fourteen
days’ duration. H e performed scientific, technological, and medical
experiments in exemplary fashion ; and he piloted his spacecraft with
precision in a controlled reentry to a predetermined landing area.
jam.^ A . Lm7eZ7, M86‘.-For his outstanding contribution to the
technology of manned spaceflight. As Pilot of Gemini VII, he demon-
strated man’s ability to adapt, to weightless flight of 14 days’ duration.
He carried out scientific, technological, :tnd medical experiments in
exemplary fashion. His performance in the management of spacecraft
systems :tdded greatly to man’s proficiency in orbital flight.
Wi7liana C. Schneider, A/lCC.-For his superior performal~ceas
Deputy Director of the Gemini Program and his vital contributions to
its management,, direct ion, and coordination. His technical compe-
tence, initiative, drive, and foresight in orgnnizing and directing the
activities of NASA centers working with elements of manned space
flight have contributed in large measure to the success of the Gemini
Program, as evidenced by the unprecedented accomplishments of the
John 7’. Menge7, GXFC.-For his outstanding contributions to the
mastery of space flight, t\s demonstrated by the development and o p m -
tion of worldwide networks for tracking, data acquisition, and com-
munications in support of NASA space programs, manned and un-
manned, scientific and applied; and for leadership in the development
of the basic operational concepts that have resulted in efficient program
support by these facilities, ns iwently evidenced in the Gemini VI-A
:tnd VI1 rendezvous space flights.
Neil A . L4mistrong, MSC.-For outstfanding contributions ta the
technology of manned space flight and exemplary demonstration of
man’s capability in spaaxraft control. As Command Pilot of Gemini
1‘111, he performed precision maneuvering in orbit culminating in
rendezvous, formation flying, and, for the first time, docking with a
separaitely launched unmanned spacecraft. He further demonstra;ted
his outstanding capabilities as a pilot by taking corrective action and
regaining control over his spacecraft under emergency circumstances
and by performing a precise landing in an alternate landing a m .
David R. Scott, MSC.-For his outstanding contributions t o the
technology of manned space flight. As Pilot of Gemini VIII, he
materially contributed to the orbital maneuvers which culminated in
wndezvous, formaition flying, and, for the first time, docking with an
unmanned spacecraft. His performance in the operation of space-
craft systems and assistance in taking corrective aotion and regaining
control of the spacecraft under emergency conditions demonstrated
man’s flexibility and operational proficiency in orbital flight.
Morris Tepper, Headquurters.-For outstanding achievement lead-
ing to the Nation’s first operational weather satellite. His ability and
leadership in guidance and direction of the NASA Meteorological
Satellite Programs and his fostering the introduction of satellite data
into the Nation’s operational weather forecasting system contributed
to the early operational use of Meteorological Sakllites.
Herbert Z. Butler, GSFG.-For outstanding achievement leading to
the Nation’s first operational weather satellite. His role in carrying
out the joint cooperative effort between NASA and the Environmental
Science Services Administration resulted in the early transition from
research and development to operational use of the TIROS satellite.
David S. Johnson, Environmental Science Services AdrninGtra-
tion.-For outstanding achievement leading to the Nation’s first opera-
I tional weather satellite. His role in carrying out the joint cooperative
effort between NASA and the Environmental Science Services Ad-
ministration culminated in the Nation’s first operational weather satel-
lite, ESSA-I, formerly the TIROS Operational Satellite.
NAEA Group Achimemmt Award.-Three such awards were
The Gemini VZZ/VZ-A Launch Operations Team.-For exceptional
achievement by the NASA-Air Force-Industry launch support crews
which in eleven days successfully prepared and launched Gemini VI-
A, making possible rendezvous with Gemini VII.
The Department of Defense Recovery Forces.-For their outstand-
ing performance in rapidly reacting to an emergency situation in the
recovery of Astronauts Armstrong and Scott and the Gemini VI11
spacecraft. The speed and efficiency of this action is indicative of the
high level of preparedness developed through planning and training by
the air and naval forces involved, and reflects the high level of efficiency
mid performance consistently demonstrated throughout the Gemini
Advanced Antenna System Project Team, JPL-For outstanding
achievements in the design and development of the Goldstone 2lO-fWt
antenna system. The antenna provides to the Unikd States the
world’s most advanced system for conducting deep space communica-
tions and tracking.

Inventions a n d Contributions Board

This Board, established as directed by section 305 of the Space Act,
performs three principal functions. It reviews and evaluates petitions
€or waiver of patent rights received from NASA contractors and
recommends the granting or denial of such petitions to the Adminis-
trator. It evaluates for possible monetary awards scientific and tech-
nical contributions relating to aeronautical and space activities which
may be received from sourc~sboth within and outside of NASA and,
in accordance with section 806 of the Space A&, makes its recommen-
dations to the Administrator.
The Board also evaluates inventions made by NASA employees and,
under the authority of the Incentives Award Act of 1954, makes mone-
h r y awards if such awards are merited. (The amounts of t h m
awards may not exceed $5,000.) If any contractor submits a petition
for waiver of patent, rights or proposes to contribute ideas for aero-
naiiticd or space activities, and requests a hearing, the Board will con-
duct n hearing. (Members of the Board are listed in appendix F.)
Putent Waiver Petitions
The Inventions and Contributions Board considered 19 petitions for
waiver of pstent rights for separate inventions and 27 petitions for
waiver of rights to all inventions made during the performance of a
specific contract. Upon the recommendations of the Board, the Ad-
ministrator granted 26 petitions for waiver to separate inventions
while denying 6 (app. G ). I n addition, he granted 17 petitions for
waiver of all inventions under a contract while denying 4 (app. H ) .
The Board considered four additional petitions for waiver upon
which its findings and recommendations have not been made. It
conducted one public hearing on two petitions for waiver.
I n a separate action, the Board published, in NHR 5500.1, the
“Findings of Fact and Recommendations of the NASA Inventions and
Contributions Board.” This publication may be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents.
Contributions Awords
The Board’s Secretaritit received :uid replied to 929 communications
in the category of contributions. I t also evaluated 58 additional con-
tributions under section 306 of the Space Act as having possible sig-
nificant value in the conduct of aeronautical and space activities.
Four awards were made (app. I) for a total of $4,700.
Invention Awards to NASA Employees
The Board considered 65 inventions made by NASA employees and
made 53 monetary awards, under the Incentive Awards Act of 1954,
totaling $28,650. (app. J.)

Revised Patent Waiver Regulations

I n May, NASA published revisions to its patent waiver regulations,
thus effectring a number of procsdural changes in the handling of patent
rights allocation under section 305 ( f ) of the Space Act. These pro-
cedural changes were based upon experience gained since the fall of
1964 in applying the 1963 Presidential Statement of Government
Patent Policy. The major changes are in the handling of contractors’
and subcontractors’ requests for commercial rights a t the time of con-
tracting, and in the conduct of hearings on such rights before the In-
ventions and Contributions Board. Also, adjustments were made to
strengthen the Government’s safeguards in cases where contractors
acquire commercial rights.
The revised regulations also require publication of the findings
and recommendations of the NASA Inventions and Contributions
Board on petitions for waiver of commercial rights. In anticipation
of this requirement NASA has already published such findings and
recommendations made on petitions for waiver submitted under the
1964 NASA Patent Waiver Regulations.

Organizational and Managerial Improvement

NASA continued reviewing its organizational structure and mana-
gerial practices, updating and modifying them as necessary to adjust
to the advanced programs while maintaining total Agency effective-
ness. The procurement office, for example, was reorganized ,tomake
inore efficient use of its manpower and to provide sound pre- and
post-contractual administration.
The Facilities Management Office, established during the preceding
I report period, placed increased emphasis on an overall facilities man-
1 agement program. All headquarters real prope&y records were co-
ordinated and centralized. Authority for real property acquisition,

management, and disposal was assigned to this office. And a cen-
tralized system was established to acquire or assume control by NASi4
of facilities in the field held or controlled by other government

Figure 1 0 - 1 . NASA organization chart (Jan. 2, 1966).

At the John F. Kennedy S p m Center, the Agency realined

major organizational elements into more homogeneous and more
clearly defined areas of responsibility. These changes were made
to stren@,hen management, to improve managerial processes, and
to clarify Government-contractor interfaces. They reflect the needs
of the Center as it moved rapidly into the site activation and heavy
operational phase of mission activity.
In the area of budget administration, NASA prepared its budget
estimates for fiscal year 1967 on the accrued cost basis. IJse of this
method culminated 4 years of continuing effort toward improved re-
sources management. The advantages are (1) cost figures closely
represent the value (or estimated value) of work or construction
actually 'accomplished (or to be accomplished) during the 3 fiscal
years shown; and (2) attention is focused on the value of resources
(other than new appropriations) available t o the Agency a t the
beginning of each fiscal yenr.
Financial Management
I n April, NASA submitted its accounting system for the approval
of the Comptroller General of the United States, as required by section
112(b) of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950. The
accounting system was designed to conform in all material respects
with the principles, standards, and related requirements prescribed
by the Comptroller General. It is now in operation. (Refinement of
the accounting system preparatory to its submission, including added
emphasis on accrual accounting, had allowed the agency in the fall
of 1965 to submit a budget supported by cost performance data for
the first time.)
Refinements were developed in NASA’s contractor financial man-
agement reporting system and coordinated with representatives of
the Aerospace Industries Association. New report formats we7re
designed to be compatible with the Department of Defense Cost
Information Reports (CIR) system. The revised system provides
accrued cost data and cost projections originating in the contractors’
records for NASA’s use in carrying out its project management,
financial reporting, cost estimating, programing, budgeting, and
procurement activities.
A handbook, “Guidelines for Evaluation of Contractor Accounting
Systems,” \vas de,veloped to assist NASA personnel concerned with
source evaluation and contractor operations. The handbook sets forth
criteria by which a prospective contractor’s accounting system may
be evaluated as to its ability to generate the data required for financial
management control. It also contains a guideline checklist of factors
for measuring the contractor’s conformance to the criteria and for
highlighting any deviations.
I Inhouse functional cost-finding and reporting systems were de-
veloped and installed on a test h i s to promptly provide functional
managers with cost information in the areas of public affairs activities
and occupational health services.
Following a recently completed comprehensive study, NASA
initiated actions to convert mechanized accounting and reporting
operations at Headquarters to a real-time system. By augmenting the
existing computer system with teleprocessing devices and random-
caccess storage, the Agency expects the real-time system to provide,
I for immediate updating of records; for minimum manual record-
Beeping, input preparation, and reconcilement ; for prompt financial
status information through remote-inquiry stations ;and for improved
special and recurring reports.
NASA intensified its employee development program to upgrade
the quality of performance of financial management functions. I n

addition to encouraging employees to attend specialized training

courses and to work toward higher scholastic degrees, the Agency
initiated certain specific training activities. It established training
assignments at Headquarters for field personnel who show a potential
for advancement, and it began encouraging the interchange of financial
management personnel between installations. It began to sponsor
management interns in the financial management area and provided
for rotational assignments for management interns from program
The Agency also started employing for the summer those students
who have completed their third year of college and show both an
interest in and R potential to qualify for permanent financial manage-
ment positions when they complete their college studies. The summer
employment program also includes hiring college professors who, in
addition to benefiting the Agency, can gain practical experience and
insight into Government financial management and can .carry such
information back to the classrooms.

Table I. NASA appropriation outhorizotion. fiscal year 1967

Research and development:
Gemini--- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $40,600
Apollo ................................................... 2,974,200
Advanced missions ........................ ..._._...______.. 8,000
Physics and astronomy ..................................... 129,900
Lunar and planetary exploration- ........................... 210,900
Sustaining university program ............................... 41,000
Launch vehicle development- ............................... 33,700
Launch vehicle procurement- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142,750
. .
Bioscience ............................................... 35,400
Meteorological satellites-. ................................. 43,600
Communications and applications technology satellites- ........ 26, 400
Basic research ............................................. 23, 000
Space vehicle systems__.................................... 36, 000
Electronics systems ........................................ 36, 800
Human factor systems.. .................................... 17,000
Space power and electric propulsion systems-- ................ 44, 500
Nuclear rockets- ............................ ...... 53,000
Chemical propulsion- ...................................... 41,000
Aeronautics ............................................... 35,000
Tracking and data acquisition .............................. 270,850
Technology utilization- .................................... 5,000

Total, research and development- ........................ 4,248,600

Collstruction of facilities ....................................... 95,919
Administrative operations ...................................... 655,900

Total .................................................. 5,000,419

Fiscal Yeor 1967 Program
Table 1 shows the level of effort in research and development, con-
struction of facilities, and administrative operations for fiscal year
1967, as authorized by the National Aeronautics and Space Admin-
istration Authorization Act of 1967.
Financial Reports, June 30, 1966
Table 2 shows fund obligations and accrued costs incurred during the
6 months ended June 30,1966. Appended to the table is a summary by
appropriation showing current availability, obligations against this
availability, and unobligated balances as of June 30,1966.

Table 2. Stotus of oppropriotionr os of June 30, 1966


6 mn6nth8 mded June 80,1066

Obligations Accrued costs
$43,988 $93,381
1,255,427 1,679,711
6,259 9,144
-295 - 185
67,931 79,735
88,926 113,447
36,149 21,778
29p192 30,984
93,835 65,189
17,292 21,555
20,845 24,668
1,507 1,935
10,967 18,348
2,125 2,177
12,913 11,740
20,206 17,723
2,203 202
20,586 18,387
9,129 9,213
16,150 35,489
23,229 18,823
29,316 20,749
16,086 18,217
139,723 176,877
2,357 1,552
-428 844
30,280 43,561

1,995,898 2,535,244
156,225 276,937
305,109 322,783

2,457,232 3,134,964

Appropriation summaru availabilitu 1 T*
oblrpalim balance
Research and development _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $2,199,563 $1,995,898 $203,665
Construction of facilities _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 284, 328 156, 225 128,103
Administrative operations- - - - - - - - - - - 305,743 305,109 634

Total--- _.__._ 2,789,634 2,457,232 332,402

IThe availability lhted represents the amountsavailable for obligation during the 6 months ended June 30
1866 and includes anticipated reimbursable authority.

Table 3 (p. 157) shows NASA’s consolidated balance sheet tis of

June 30, 1966, as compared to that of December 31, 1965. Table 4
(p. 158) summarizes the sources and applications of NASA’s resources
during the 6 months ended June 30,1966. Table 5 (p. 158) provides
an analysis of the net change in working capital disclosed in table 4.

Cost Reduction
Overall direction of the Cost Reduction Program is the responsibility
of the Deputy Administrator, with its management delegated to the
NASA Cost Reduction Board chaired by the Assistant Administrator
for Industry. Affairs and assisted by a permanent staff. Each head-
quarters program and staff office and each installation has designated a
key management official to direct its cost reduction program and a
cost reduction officsr to assist in carrying it out.
The objectives of the Agency’s Cost Reduction Program are to en-
courage the achievement of economy and efficiency in operations by
NASA activities and NASA contractors without compromising per-
formance, realiability o r schedule; to stimulate cost conscious and
innovative attitudes among NASA employees and NASA contractors ;
and to foster dissemination of cost reduction techniques which have
the potential for wider application among NASA activities and be-
tween NASA and its contractors.
On May 9, the Cost Reduction Board established the NASA Cost
Reduction Management Steering Committee as a permanent body to
assist the Board in making sure the program is implemented a t all
NASA Installations. The Committee membership includes the Deputy
Associ:ite Administrators for Manned Space Flight, Space Science .
and Applications, Advanced Research and Technology, and Tracking
and Data Acquisition.
The Steering Committee, assisted by the Headquarters Cost, Reduc-
tion Office, is expected to develop and recommend to the Board outlines
of programs and projects for achieving cost reductions. It is also ex-
pected to perform studies or reviews of special problems relating
cost reduction and to develop implementing plans for policies ap-
proved by the Board. The Committee will meet every 2 months at the
call of the Chairman.
P E R m m L ,m m G E m m , PRom~~mm , FuNcTloNs 157
Table 3. NASA Comparative Consolidated Bolonee Shcci-June 30, 1966, and Dee. 31, 1965
[In millions]

JuneSO, lQ68 Dcc. Sl, 1986

$2,592.9 $5,691.6

24.1 26.9
1.5 .8
25.6 27.7

35.3 35.4
114.8 55.4
150.1 90.8

6.8 7.4
.1 .1
24.2 32.8
31.1 40.3

1,990.7 1,693.9
485.3 416.8
1, 176.4 1,179.3
3,652.4 3,290.0

6,452.1 9, 140.4

215.6 248.8
737.4 737.4
953.0 986.2

32.7 _________
985.7 986.2

2,849.1 2,429.8
2,621.4 4,718.8
79.5 1, 172.5
5, 550.0 8,321. 1

Less reimbursable disbursing authority uncollected-- 83.6 166.9

Total equity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________ 5,466.4 8,154.2

Total liabilities and equity--_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6,452.1 9, 140.4


Table 4.

Resources provided and a p p l i e d 4 months ended June 30, 1966

Revenues------___-------------------- ________ -------- $47.6
Decrease in working capital (Table 5) _ _ _ _ ________ ._____-- 3, 017. 5

Total resources provided- - - -.-.- .______- - - - - - _ -- 3, 065. 1

Tdal cosls
6 months Less costa
RESOURCES APPLIED ended June SO, applied to
Operating costs: naacts 1966
Research and development _ _ _ _ $2, 535.2
. _ $190.2
_ _ _ _ 2, 345.0
Construction of facilities-__- _.....__ 276.9 240.6 36. 3
Administrative operations- - -.-..... 322.8 25.7 297.1

Total increase in fixed assets . _ . _ .

_ ______
_ ..
_ _ _ 362.4

Property transfers and retircmc!nts-nct_ - - .- - -.

-.- --- - ~ -
-. 21. 1
Administrative operations tippropriation
returned to Treasury-. .-. .....-. ..-.-- .....-. - -.
. 3. 2
Total resoiirces applied.. ~ .
.. ._.__
_._ 3, 065. 1

Table 5. Net change in working c a p i t a l 4 months ended June 30, 1966

[In millions1
June SO, U e c . SI, Increase or
Current assets: 1966 196s (decrease)
Funds with U. S. Treasury- - - _ _ _ $2, _ 592.
_. 9_$5, 691. 6 ($3, 098. 7)
Accounts receivable-- - - - -.- - - - - - - - - - 25. 6 27. 7 (2. 1)
Inventories - - - - - - - - - - -..- - - - -.- - - - - 150. 1 90. 8 59. 3
Advances and prepayments- -....- - -. 31. 1 40. 3 (9.2)
Total current assets_--. ....-....-. 2, 799. 7 5, 850. 4 (3,050.7)

Current liabilities:
Accounts payable _ _ _ _ _ _ -..-......... 953. 0 986. 2 (33. 2)
Working capital- -.- - - -.
- - -. - -.
-. ---
.-. 1,846. 7 4,864. 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ -

Decrease in working capital _ _ _ . _ . _

_ _ ._ __
_ _ __
_ _
_ __
_ _ __
_ _ _. (3,017. 5)
The first NASA-Industry Cost Reduction Seminar, held in Dallas,
in February 1966, was attended by representatives of NASA, the
Bureau of the Budget, and the 39 contractors participating in the
Formal NASA-Contractor Cost Reduction Program. The seminar
provided an opportunity for those responsible for cost reduction in
NASA and industry to meet and exchange views on program policy and
techniques, and to consider refinements to improve the program's
As pointed out in the 14th Serniannuul Report (p. 199), NASA set a
goal of $150 million for fiscal year 1966, based on a conservative evalua-
tion of management improvement and fund saving actions that could
be done without compromising the Agency's mission responsibility.
Accumulated cost reductions reviewed and accepted by the Board staff
for fiscal year 1966 amounted to $188 million or $38 million more than
the goal for the year.
Items reported in NASA's internal program which appear to have
a potential for wider application are disseminated periodically
throughout NASA in a publication entitled NASA BITS. Individual
NASA employees who have contributed unusual ideas or innovations
which have significantly improved management, performance, and
economy are recognized in various award programs.
All cost reductions of contractors' origin are reported separately
to the President (14th Semiannuul Report p. 199). (These are in
addition to savings reported under the NASA Internal Cost Reduction
Program.) Since the inception of formal reporting through Fiscal
Year 1965, NASA contractors have reported savings of $202 million.
During the period of this report, the NASA-Contractor Cost Reduc-
tion Program yielded reportable savings of $132 million. The total
results for Fiscal Year 1966 amounted t o $277 million. Those savings
techniques reported by contractors which appear to have potential for
wider application are disseminated throughout NASA and among
NASA contractors in a publication entitled T R I M .

Procurement and Supply Management

NASA continued to develop incentive contracting techniques in
order to obtain maximum benefit from this type of procurement. I n
addition, policies and procedures mere developed to cover treatment
of data submitted with proposals, new technology reporting, and pre-
award Equal Employment Opportunity compliance reviews. The
Agency also took steps to implement the Service Contract Act of 1965.
With Proposals
Treatment of D a t a and Other Information Submitted
NASA issued a policy covering the treatment of technical data sub-
mitted in unsolicited proposals and made some changes in the treat-
ment of such data in solicited proposals. The regulation now pro-
vides that, in regard to solicited proposals, NASA follow a “mark-or-
lose” theory whereby marked data will be protected but may be used
by NASA for any purpose whatsoever.
With this Regulation, the technical data policy for unsolicited pro-
posals is basically the same as that for solicited proposals with one
important difference. NASA will protect marked technical data in
unsolicited proposals, and will use it for evaluation purposes only.
However, it assumes no liability for disclosure or use of unmarked
data. This is based on the concept that submittors of unsolicited pro-
posals may not have express notice of our “mark-or-lose” policy as
would offerors under Requests for Proposals; they should therefore
be accorded some additional safeguards. This Regulation also pro-
vides that NASA will not use or disclose financial and management
information contained in a proposal, regardless of whether the pro-
posal is marked or unmarked.
These concepts are expected t o encourage and stimulate the flow
of outside ideas and developments to NASA for evaluation. I n addi-
tion, they provide for recognition of technical data and for the pro-
tection of the rights and interests of both parties.
Plon for New Technology Reporting
NASA issued a directive requiring that, in response to Requests for
Proposals, proposers outline their plans t o comply with the “New
Technology” clause and that such plans must be considered by source
evaluation boards and contract selection officials. Placing this re-
quirement upon contractors at. the proposal stage is preferred to in-
corporating it in the contract itself or simply “requesting” the con-
tractor to advise us of his plan after he signs a contract. This require-
ment should help NASA obtain reports of inventions, discoveries,
improvements, and innovations made in the performance of work un-
der NASA contracts. It should also protect the Government’s interest
in these matters and should provide for their widest, practicable and
appropriate dissemination.
Preaward Surveys fer Compliance W i t h the Equal Opportunity Program
NASA also published procedures implementing the Office of Federal
Contract Compliance, Department of Labor, order of May 3, 1966.
The procedures apply to formally advertised supply contracts of
$1 million or more and require each bidder, and his known first-tier
subcontractors with anticipated subcontracts of $1 million o r more,
to be subject to a preawttrd Equal Employment Opportunity compli-
anw review by a representative of the Federal Government. Bidders
and subcontractors who have been reviewed within a 6-month period
prior to the date of bid opening and have demonstrated compliance
normally will not be required to undergo another review to qualify
for the specific award. The procedures became effective on June 1,
Implementation of the Service Contract Act 04 1965
The Agency issued a procurement directive implementing the mini-
mum hourly wage policy set forth in the Service Contract Act of 1965
(Public Law 89-286, approved October 22, 1965). The Act applies
to Government contracts, the principal purpose of which is to obtain
services within the United States through the use of service employees
as defined in the Act. The measure affects service contracts entered
into on or after January 20, 1966. It covers the last major category
of Federal contract employees heretofore without this needed labor
standards protection.
Incentive Contracting
NASA continued to seek ways of evaluating and improving the use
of incentive contracts. One ongoing study involved the review of 14
selected NASA incentive contracts to obtain a concrete basis on which
to judge past effectiveness of this type of contract and to develop
techniques that will increase this effectiveness in the future. Pre-
liminary findings indicate that incentive contracting has contributed
to effective management of NASA's programs.
NASA also made a presentation covering its experience with incen-
tive contracts to the Defense Science Board Task Group in connection
with a study being conducted by that group. Similar presentations
were made by the Army, Navy, and the Air Force in a symposium
type review. Results of this study mill be useful to NASA in deter-
mining the optimum utilization of incentive techniques.
NASA awarded 32 new incentive contracts having a target value
of $178.9 million and converted 9 cost-plus-fixed-feecontracts to incen-
tive contracts having a target value of $2637.5 million. Changes,
extensions, and additions to existing incentive contracts less the value
of incentive contracts completed during the period amounted to $285.7
million. Thus, as of June 30, 1966, NASA had under administration
196 incentive contracts with an aggregate target value of $5286.5 mil-
lion. This was $3102.1 million more than the target value of active
contracts as of December 31, 1965.
Major new incentive contracts awarded during the period mere (in
millions of dollars) :
Contract NAS5-9968, Operation and Maintenance of the Space Tracking
and Data Acquisition Network, with Bendix meld Engineering C o w - 828.5
Contract NAS9-3535, Apollo Portable Life Support System Development
Program, with Hamilton Standard Division, IJnited Aircraft Gorp----- 27.2
Contract NAS3-8701, Management and Engineering Effort to SuPPOrt
Centaur Program, with General Dynamics Corp_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - 21.3
Contract NAS9-6820, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, with
Bendix Systems Division, Relldix Gorp______________________________ 19.1
Contract SAS!3-6100, Apollo Space Suit Program, with International
Latex Corp____________________________________________--___--__--- 13.4
Contract NAS7-380, Delta Space Research Vehicles, with Douglas Air-
craft Go., I n c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - _ _ - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - _ - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - _ - 13.4
Contract NAS9-4412, Refurbishment and Modification of GT-2. with Mc-
Donne11 Aircraft C o ~ - - - - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ - - - - - - _ - _ _ - - - - _ - - _ _ - _ _ - - - - _ - - - _ _ - ~ 12.5
The major conversions completed in the period were (in millions
ofdollars) :
Contract NAS9-1100, Lunar Excursion Module, with Grumman Aircraft
Engineering Corp___________________________________________--_ q9s2.2
Contract NASSlEiO, Apollo Command and Service Module, with North
American Aviation, Inc________________________________________--- 671.2
Contract NASCT608, Saturn S-IC Stages, Ground Support Equipment
nnd Services, with the Roping Co ___________________________________ 410.4
Contract NAS7-101, Develop, Fabricate, Test, and Deliver S-IVB Stage
of the Saturn \’ Vehicle and Associated Ground Support Equipment,
with Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc._____________________________________ 3!%. .5
Contract NASST603, ,T-2 Rocket Engines, with Supporting Services and
Hardware with North Aniericxn Arintion, Inc_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 104.0
Contract KASS5604, F-1 Engines, with Support Services and Supplies
with North American Aviation. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.9
Summary of Contract Awards
NASA’s procurement for the last 6 months of Fiscal Year 1966
(this report period) totaled 432,252.5 million. This is 0.3 percent less
t,lian was awarded during the corresponding period of Fiscal Year
Approximately 70 percent of the net dollar value was placed
directly with business firms, 5 percent with educational and other non-
profit institutions, 4 percent with the California Institute of Tech-
nology for operation of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 12 percent
with or through other Government agencies.
Contracts Awarded t o Private Industry
Ninety percent of the dollar d u e of procurement requests placed
by NASA with other Government agencies resulted in contracts with
industry awarded by those ngencies on behalf of NASA. I n addi-
tion, about 83 percent of the funds placed by NASA under the J e t
Propulsion Laboratory contract resulted in subcontracts or purchases
with business firms. I n short, about 93 percent of NASA’s procure-
ment dollars was contracted to private industry.
Sixty-seven percent of the total direct awards to business repre-
sented competitive procurements, either through formal advertising
or competitive negotiation. An additional 7 percent represented
actions on follow-on contracts placed with companies that had previ-
ously been selected on a competitive basis to perform the research and
development on the applicable project. I n these instances, selection
of another source would have resulted in additional cost to the Govern-
ment by reason of duplicate preparation and investment. The
remaining 26 percent included contracts for facilities required at
contractor’s plants for performance of their NASA research and
development effort, contracts arising from unsolicited proposals offer-
ing new ideas and concepts, contracts employing unique capabilities,
and procurements of sole-sourceitems.
Small business firms received $141 million, or 8 percent of NASA’s
direct awards to business. However, most of the awards to business
were for large, continuing research and development contracts for
major systems and major items of hardware. These are generally
beyond the capability of small business firms on a prime contract
basis. Of the $278 million of new contracts of $25,000 and over
awarded to business during the 6 months, small business received
$50 million, or 18 percent.
I n addition to the dired awards, small business received substantial
subcontract awards from 65 of NASA’s prime contractors partici-
pating in its Small Business Subcontracting Program. Total direct
awards plus known subcontract awards aggregated $378 million, or
21 percent of NASA’s total awards to business during the last half of
Fiscal Year 1966.
Geographical Distribution of Prime Contracts
Within the United S t a h , NASA’s prime contract awards were dis-
tributed among all the States and the District of Columbia. Busi-
ness firms in 44 States, and the District of Columbia, and educa-
tional institutions and other nonprofit institutions in all the States
and the District of Columbia, participated in the awards. Five per-
cent, of the awards went to labor surplus areas located in 17 States.
Subcontracting eff’ecteda further distribution of the prime contract
awards. NASA’s major prime contractors in 29 States and the Dis-
trict of Columbia reported that their larger subcontract awards on
258-738 0 - 61 - 12

NASA effort had gone to 1,678 subcontractors in 46 States and Dis-

trict of Columbia, and that 72 percent of these subcontract dollars
had crossed State lines.
Major Contract Awards
Among the major research and development aggregate contract
awards by NASA during the period were the following :
(1) North American Aviation, Inc., Downey, Calif., NAS9-150.
Design, develop and test three-man earth t o moon and return Apollo
spacecraft. Awarded $257 million ;cumulative awards $2,073 million.
( 2 ) Gruimman Aircmft Engineering Corp., Bethpage, N.Y.,
NAS9-1100. Lunar excursion module development for the Apollo
program. Awarded $185 million ; cumulative awards $759 million.
(3) Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., S a n h Monica, Calif., NAS7-101.
Design, develop and test three-man earth to moon and return Apollo
and associated ground support equipment. Awarded $97 million ;
cumulative awards $599 million.
( 4) The Boeing Co., New Orleans, La., NAS8-5608. Design, de-
velop and fabricate the s-IC stage of the Saturn V vehicle and con-
struct facilities in support of the S-IC stage. Awarded $78 million;
cumulative awards $733 million.
( 5 ) North American Aviation, Inc., Downey, Calif., NAS7-200.
Design, develop, fabricate and test the S-I1 stage of the Saturn V vehi-
cle. Awarded $73 million ; cumulative awards $678 million.
( 6) General Electric Co., Daytona Beach, Fh., NASw410. Over-
all integration, checkout and reliability of Apollo space vehicle system.
Awarded $61 million; cumulative awards $411 million.
(7) General Motors Corp., Milwnukee, Wis., NAS9497. Guidance
computer subsystem for Apollo command service module. Awarded
$47 million ;cumulative awards $230 million.
(8) Chrysler Corp., New Orleans, La., NAS8-4016. Fabricate, as-
semble, checkout and static test Saturn S-I stage. Provide product
improvement program and space parts support. Modify areas of
Michoud Plant, assigned to contractor. Awarded $37 million ;cumnla-
tive awards $319 million.
( 9 ) International Husiness Machines Corp., Rockville, Md.,
NAS8-14000. Fabrication, assembly and checkout of Instrument
IJnits for Saturn I B and V vehicles. Awarded $29 million; cumu-
lative awards $93 million.
P E m o m E L , m A G E m m , P R O ~ R E ~ N sTm, p o R T ~ C T I O N S 165
(10) The Boeing Co., Seattle, Wash., NAS1-3800. Develop and
fabricate lunar orbiter spacecraft systems. Awarded $21 million ;
cumulative awards $123 million.
(11) General Dynamics Corp., San Diego, Calif., NAS3-8701.
Management and engineering support services for Centaur program.
Awarded $21 million ; (new contract).
(12) North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, Calif.,
NAS8-5604. Procure 1,500,000-pound thrust F-1 rocket engines with
supporting services and hardware. Award $19 million ; cumulative
awards $187 million.
(13) General Dynamics Corp., San Diego, Calif., NAS3-3232.
Develop, fabricate and deliver Centaur vehicles and support quip-
ment. Awarded $15 million ; cumulative awards $300 million.
(14) Bendix Corp., Owings Mills, Md., NAS5-9870. Operation,
maintenance and support services for the Manned Space Flight Net-
work. Awarded $15 million ; cumulative awards $26 million.
(15) North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, Calif., NASw-
16. Develop and fabricate 1,500,000-pound F-1 rocket engine.
.Awarded $13 million ; cumulative awards $333 million.
(16) TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., NAS94810. Gemini-
Apollo mission trajectory and Apollo spacecraft systems analysis pro-
grams. Awarded $13 million ; cumulative awards $23 million.
(17) Hayes International Corp., Birmingham, Ala., NAS10-1751.
Fabricate Saturn V service arms, Saturn S-IB access arms and related
equipment. Awarded $13 million ; cumulative awards $30 million.
(18) Bendix Corp., Owings Mills, Md., NAS5-9968. Operation,
maintenance and logistic support of portions of the Space Tracking
and Data Acquisition Network. Award $12 million; (new
( 19) International Business Machines Corp., Rockville, Md.,
NAS8-11562. Launch vehicle digital, data adapters and
associated hardware for Saturn IB/V vehicles. Awarded $11million;
cumulative awards $37 million.
(20) United Aircraft Corp., Windsor Locks, Conn., NAS9-3535.
Develop Apollo prototype space suits and portable life support sys-
tems. Awarded $11 million ; cumulative awards $20 million.
Major Contractors

The 25 contractors receiving the largest direct awards (net value)

during the report period were as follows :

Net d u e OJ
Contractor and phce of contract perjormunce. (thmands)
1. North American Aviation, Inc., Downey, Calif.*_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $397, _ _ _ -708-
2. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp., Bethpage, N.Y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 193, - - 454
3. Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., Santa Monica, Calif.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 117, 360
4. Boeing Co., New Orleans, La.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 105,170
5. General Electric Co., Huntsville, Ala.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 94, 384
6. General Dynamics Corp., San Diego, Calif.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 55,023
7. International Business Machines, Huntsville, Ala.*-- - - - - - - - -. --- 50,833
8. General Motors Corp., Milwaukee, Wis.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 48,626
9. Bendix Corp., Owings Mills, Md.*-- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 45,553
10. Chrysler Corp., New Orleans, La.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 37, 199
11. Radio Corporation of America, Huntsville, Ala.*_- - - - - - - - -. - --- 31, 074
12. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif.*_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 25,203
13. Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif.*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 512
14. United Aircraft Corp., West Palm Beach, Fla.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 23, 665
15. Sperry Rand Corp., Huntsville, Ala.*_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 17,750
16. Hayes International Corp., Birmingham, Ala.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 17,551
17. Aerojet-General Corp., Sacramento, Calif.*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 271
18. Honeywell, Inc., St. Petersburg, Fla.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16,669
19. Philco Corp., Houston, Tex.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _14, _ _ _113
20. LTV Aerospace Corp., Dallas, Tex.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 12,570
21. Brown Engineering Co., Huntsville, Ala.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10,401
22. Trans World Airlines, Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Fla.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9, 173
23. Collins Radio Co., Richardson, Tex.*--- . _ _ ___________________ 8,774
24. Union Carbide Corp., Sacramento, Calif.*_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 ,_9 6 2_ _ _ _
25. McDonnell Aircraft Corp., St. Louis, Mo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ 7 , 6_34 _ _ _
*Awards during year represent awards on several contracts whlch have different principal places of
performance. The place shown Is that which has the lamest amount of the awards.
Note: Data for individual companies include awards on R . & D. contracts or $1O,OOO and over and on all
other contracts of $25,OOO and over.

Labor Relations
NASA's labor relations experience for tlie first 6 months of 1966
demonstrated n significant decrease in the total number of man-days
lost due to work stoppages at NASA centers. I n this period, the loss
amounted to 13,057 man-days, while during the first 6 months of 1965,
losses of man-days due to strikes totaled 44,874 days.
Strikes at industrial pltints producing NASA m:Lterinl were fewer
than expected during completion of triennial negotintiolis in tlie aero-
space industry. However, some incre'wed incidence of strikes in the
electrical industry has affected production of critical components for
NASA projects, particularly in the Apollo Program. NASA hns
benefited in this regard from settlements obtained by represent at'ives
of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service and the Department
of Labor.
PERSONNEL, A L W A G E ~ W E , P R O ~ R E M E N T , SUPPORT ~ C T I O N S 167
NASA intensified its efforts in preventive labor relations at all cen-
ters, particularly those concerned with the manned space flight pro-
gram. By initiating frequent conferences with the center labor rela-
tions offices, NAiSA made significant progress toward coordinating
labor relations efforts at all major centers with procurement planning
and facilities management. Consequently, the Agency was able to
anticipate and resolve labor relations disputes as these matters de-
veloped between NASA contractors and unions representing their
The Service Contract Act of 1965, mentioned earlier in this chap-
ter, established increased stability in ldbor relations matters involving
service employees and may be expected to give this agency improved
performance from them. The Labor Relations Office administers mat-
ters under this Act; such administration parallels that of the wage and
fringe benefit schedules under the Davis-Bacon Act for construction
industry employees.

Technology UtiIization
NASA’s Technology Utilization Program continued to make sulb
stantial progress in its efforts to disseminate information resulting
from the Agency’s activities and to bring about its rapid and effec-
tive use by the non-aerospace technical community.
One-hundred and seventy-five subscribing member companies were
participating in the Regional Dissemination Center program-a total
nearly double that of a year ago. This increase in membershipand
the high renewal rate among companies introduced to the program
two or three years ago-indicates that the experimental dissemination
program has high potential for success. The special capabilities of
the regional centers-involving individualized contact, tailored serv-
ice, and rapid local information retrieval skills-definitely proved
beneficial to the participating companies.
NASA instituted a new program to improve the relay of informa-
tion related to biology and medicine technology to the biomedical
researcher. The Technology Utilization Biomedical Applications
Program iilvolves working in cooperation with various medical schools
and research groups throughout the country to link these outlets
directly with the store of technological information derived from space
research and development.
Interagency transfer efforts were further emphasized. The agree-
ment for a joint experimental program between the Small Business
Administration and NASA to develop techniques and methods by
which smaller companies can make maximum use of results of the
Technology Utilization Program moved from planning to implemen-

tation. Also, Regional Dissemination Centers established special an-

nual membership fees of $500 or less t~ encourage smaller companies
to attempt to obtain the benefits of advanced technology. Addition-
ally, working through several of the SBA’s field offices, 3 Regional
Dissemination Centers were actively servicing 16 of the smaller com-
panies which the SBA and NASA jointly selected as a good test to
accomplish the purposes of the agreement.
Discussions between NASA and the Officeof State Technical Serv-
ices in the Commerce Department, concerning the relationships be-
tween the new State Technical Services Act and the NASA
Technology Utilization program, proceeded to a point where full
cooperation between the agencies was being achieved. Such coopera-
tion should enhance the effectiveness of the NASA specialized experi-
mental program and contribute to the Commerce Department’s more
general approach to the transfer of government-generated informa-
tion t o industry.
Joint programs with several other agencies of the Federal Gov-
ernment were also discussed and preliminary steps taken to work out
productive programs. Efforts were underway with the Vocational
Rehabilitation Administration, The Atomic Energy Commission, and
the Office of Law Enforcement Assistnnce (Justice Department).
NASA continued to expand its efforts to identify and evaluate in-
formation about its technical innovations rind contributions to selected
areas of technology. Such information wits being published in the
form of Tech Briefs and other Technology Utilization publications
and distributed to the scientific and technical trade journals and to
other news media. Over 800 Tech Brief announcements-covering
electrical/electronics, energy sources, materials, chemical, mechanical,
and life sciences fields-have been published. More were published
in the past (last fiscal) year than in all previous years combined.
Special publications published in the past year included four more
state-of-the-art technology surveys : Plasma Jet Technology, Han-
dling Hazardous Materials, Microelectronics in Space Research, and
Magnetic Tape Recording. Seven of these technical surveys have
been published, and ten others are in preparation. Other special pub-
lications of the period included such titles its Metal Forming Tech-
niques, Medical and Biological Applications of Space Telemetry,
Technical and Economic Status of Magnesium-Lithium Alloys ( P a r t
I), the Electromagnetic Hammer, and Tungsten Powder Metallurgy.
New and improved procedures were developed for alerting the in-
dividual user to those items of current information specifically related
to his research and development work. To improve the link between
the user and the store of information, NASA initiated studies of
equipment for searching the literature at the user’s place of work:
consoles linked by telephone lines to the central computer system
would enable the individual user to query the system immediately,
directly, and a t will.
Information processing was made more efficient by cooperative ar-
rangements among agencies for disseminating and receiving neces-
sary information in immediately usable form. Compatibleprocedures
of cataloging new information, exchange of materials used for the
storage and retrieval of information, and standardized techniques for
making information available in microform are examples of coopera-
tive arrangements now in effect to avoid duplication of effort, to re-
duce unit costs, and to contribute to the timeliness of service.
Relationships With Other Government Agencies
The Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board continued
to coordinate the space and aeronautics programs of NASA and the
Department of Defense (DOD). The Board completed the annual
review between NASA and DOD of the planned construction of new
facilities and expansion of existing ones for the fiscal year 1967
budget. The purpose of this review is to eliminate unwarranted dupli-
cation of such facilities. The Board also continued the planning be-
tween NASA and DOD to provide for the efficient use of secondary
payload space on the launch vehicles and spacecraft of both agencies.
Each agency’s excess secondary payload space will be cataloged and
I n another effort, the Board completed a comprehensive review of
possible missions and concepts for reusable launch vehicles and hyper-
sonic propulsion, and a detailed evaluation was continuing. It also
completed a review of the research and development programs of
both agencies in the areas of large liquid-fuel engines, large solid-fuel
engines, and small nuclear power sources.
The Joint Navigation Satellite Committewomposed of represen-
tatives of NASA, DOD, FAA, Interior, Commerce, and Treasury-
continued to study the needs of the various Government agencies in
the area of navigation. The relative costs and technical merits of
using various navigation systems, including navigation satellites, were
being considered.
The assignment of selected military personnel to tours of duty with
NASA continued. As of May 1, 1966, 64 Army, 29 Navy, 8 Marine
and 223 Air Force officers were on duty with NASA.
NASA and the Air Force established responsibilities and proce-
dures for the joint investigation of space program accidents. Also,
NASA and DOD set up general procedures for acquiring, modifying,
testing, and managing the Apollo range aircraft to provide telemetry
and communication support for Apollo and other national missile and
space programs.
A NASA-DOD Manned Space Flight Policy Committee (MSFPC)
was established to coordinate the manned space flight programs of the
two agencies. Additionally, the two agencies created a special board to
coordinate manned space flight experiments. These experiments will
be carried as secondary payloads on a space-available basis on selected
DOD flight missions and as primary or secondary payloads on NASA
flight missions.
The DOD and NASA established procedures for sharing the annual
costs for operation and maintenance of Apollo ships and Apollo range
instrumentation aircraft. Finally, arrangements were made for
DOD to provide lunar and other extraterrestrial mapping, charting,
and geodetic support to NASA.
Appendix A

Congressional Committees on Aeronautics and Space

(January l-Jnne 30,1966)

Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences


L. HOUND,Florida
Chairman. F. MONDALE,
WALTER Minnesota
THOMAS J. DODD,Connecticut GEORQED. AIKEK, Vermont

House Committee on Science and As+ronautics


?nu?& WILLIAMR. ANDERSON, Tennessee
OLW E. TEAWE, Texas I , E s m L. WOLFF, New York
.JOSEPH E. KARTH,Minnesota WEBTON E. VNIAN, Michigan
EMILIO Q. DADDAXIO, Connecticut JOSEPH W. MARTIN,Jr., Massachusetts
.J. EDWARD ROUSH,Indiana WILLIAM J. GREEN,Pennsylvania
WILLIAMF. RYAN,New York JAMESG. %TON, Pennsylvania
D O N E’UQUA,Florida AIPHONZO BELL,California
ROYA. TAYWR,North Carolina DOXALD RUMRFELD, Illinois
GEORGE E. BROWN, Jr., California EDWARD 3. GURXEY,Florida
Appendix B


(January 1 J u n e 30, 1966)
Vice President of t h UnitedI States
Secretary of State
Secretary of Defense
JAMES E. WEBB,Administrator
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Atomic Energy Commission
Executive Secretary
Appendix C
Current Official Mailing Addresses for Field Insiuitotionr
(June 30,1966)

Installation and telephone number I Offlcial Address

Ames Research Center: 415961-1111- Dr. H. Julian Allen, Direotor-...Moffett Field, Calif. B4036.
Electronic Research Center; 617- Dr. Winston E. KO&, Director-. 575 Technology Square, Cam-
491-1500. bridge, Maas. 0213%
Flight Research Center; 8@5-2% Mr. Paul Bikle, Director_ _ _ Post
_ 05ce
__ Box
._ 273,Edwards,
3311. calif. 93523.
Goddard Space Flight Center; 301- Dr. John F. Clark, Director---- Greenbelt, Md. 7~7771.
Goddard Institute for Space Studies; Dr. Robert Jastrow, Director.... 2880 Broadway, New York,
212--UN€-3600. N.Y.loa7.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory; 213-354- Dr. W. H. Pickering, Director-_. 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena,
4321. calif. 91103.
John F. Kennedy Space Center; Dr. Kart H. Debus, Director--. Kennedy 8 p m Center, Fla.
305-867-7110. 32899.
Langley Research Center; 7CB-722- Dr. Floyd L. Thompson, Dire* Langley Station, Hampton, Va.
7961. tor. 23365.
Lewis Research Center; 216-433- Dr. Abe Silverstein, Director--. 21ooO Brookpark Rd., Cleveland,
4ooo. Ohio 44135.
Manned Spacecraft Center: 713- Dr. Robert R. Oilruth, Dimtor. Houston, Tex. 77058.
George C. Marshall Space Flight Dr. Wernher von Braun, D h Huntsville, Ala. 35812.
Center; -77-1100. tor.
Michoud Assembly Facility; 604- Dr. George N. Constan, Man- Post Offlee Box 26078. New
25x3311. ager. Orleans, La. 70126.
Mississippi Test Facility; 601-688- Mr. Jackson M. Balch, Manager.. Bay St. Louis, Miss.39520.
KSC Western Test Range Opera- Mr. Joseph B. Schwartr, Acting Post 05ce Box 425, Lompac,
tions Division; 805-86&1611. Dlrector. calif. 03438.
Plum B m k Station: 41W325-1123.-- Mr. Alan D. Johnson, Director.. Sandusky, Ohio 44871.
Wallops Station: 703-VA44411------Mr. Robert L. Kreiger, Director. Wallops Island, Va. 23337.
Western Support Offlce;213-451-7411. blr. Robert W. R a m , Director. INJ Pic0 Blvd., Santa Monica,
Calif. 90406.

Appendix D

Principal NASA Officials ut Washington Headquarters

(June 30, 1966)
JAMESE. WEBB_ _ _ _ _ _ . _ Administrator.

Jr _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Deputy Administrator.
BREENEM. KERIL- _ _ _ _ _ _ Assistant
_ _ _ Administrator
_ _ _ . for _ Office
_ _ of
Policy Analysis.
DR. RICHARDL. LESHER_ _ _ _ _ Assistant
__. Administrator
_ _ _ . for Office of

Technology Utilization.
WALTERD. SOHIER ___.___ General
._._ Counsel.

ARNOLDW. FRUTKIN_-. - - -. -. - - - - - - - Assistant Administrator, Office of

International Affairs.
RICHARDL. CALLAGHAN- - - - - - -.- - - - Assistant Administrator, Office of
Legislative Affairs.
.-. - - - - -.-.- -..- - - Assistant Administrator, Office of
Public Affairs.
WILLIS H. SHAPLEY- - - - - - - -..-. - - -. - Associatc Deputy Administrator.
WILLIAMR. RIEKE_ _ _ _ _ - -. .-. .- - - - - - Acting Deputy Associate Adminis-

trator, Office of Administration.

WILLIAMB. RIEKE_ _ .-. _ . . - - - Assistant Administrator, Office of
Industry Affairs.
DEMARQUISI). WYATT__. - - -. ------ Assistant Administrator, Officc of
ADM. W. FREDBOONE,USN (Ret.)-._ Assistant Administ,rator, Officc of
Defense Affairs.
EDMOND C. BUCKLEY..--.- - -..- - - - - - - Associate Administrator, Office of
Tracking and Data Acquisition.
DR. MAC C. ADAMS __.____...___..._ Associate Administrator, Office of
Advanced Research and Technc
DR. GEORGEE. MUELLER _ _ _ _ Associate _ _ _Administrator,
__._ Office of
Manned Spacc Flight.
DR. HOMERE. NEWELL _.____ Associate
.__ Administrator,
_ _ _ _Office of

Space Scicncc and Applications.

(Telephone Information : 963-7101)

Appendix E

NASA's Historical Advisory Committee

(June 30,1966)
Chairman: Prof. MELVIN KRANZBERQ, Case Institute of Technology and Exec-
utive Secretary of the Society for the History of Technology


Dr. LLOYD V. BERKNER, President, Graduate Research Center of the Southwest

Prof. JAMES LEA CATE, Department of History, University of Chicago
Dr. A. HUNTERDUPREE, Department of History, University of W i f o m i a
Prof. Worn GRAY,Department of History, George Washington University
Dr. LAURENCE KAVANAU, Executive Vice President, Space and Information
Division, North American Aviation, Inc.
Mr. MARVINW. MCFARLAND, Chief, Science and Technology Division, Library
of Congress
Prof. PAUL P. VAN RIPER, Cornell University
Dr. ALANT. WATERMAN, Former Director, National Science Foundation

Ezeclltiue Secretary: Dr. EUQENEM. EYME,NASA Historian

Appendix F

NASA's Inventions and Contributions Board

(June 30, 1966)
Chairman_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ERNESTW. BRACHETT.
Vice Chairman_ . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ PAUL
__ G_

Ezecutive Secretary- - - - - - - - - _ _ -. - -.- - - JAMESA. HOOTMAN.

Members _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ROBERT _ _ _ _ _ F. ALLNUTT.

Appendix G

Patent Woiverr Granted and Denied for S e p d e Inventions Upon Rrcommenda+ionof the
Agency's Inventions and Contributions Bwrd

(January 1-June 30, lesS)

Invention Petitioner Action on


Bitsense matrix for magnetic film memories; improved Sperry Rand Corp ................ Granted.
low-impedance switch; improved bibsense matrix
Heat-transfer garment ................................ United Aircraft Corp- ............ Do.
Construction of liquid cooled and heated suit ......... ..... do ............................ Do.
Control apparatus ..................... ............... Honeywell, Inc ................... Do.
Inorganic solid-film lubricant (incorporating alumi- Midwest Research Institute. ...... Denied.
num phosphate).
Inorganic solid-film lubricant (incorporatingpotassium ... do ............................ Do.
silicate and sodium fluoride).
Improved insulation means for high-voltage transmis Qeneral Electric Co............... Qranted.
Miniature single-pole donble-throw switch. ........... Collins Radio Co ................. Do.
Nonlinear circnit ..................................... Qeneral Electric Go............... Do.
Chromium-vanadium brasing alloys.................. Avco Corp ........................ Denied.
Digital operational computer ......................... Laboratory for Electronics, Inc- - Qranted.
pH Measurement of high-purity HzO ................. Beckman Instruments, Inc- .___._ Do.
Color television data-display system .................. Douglas Aircraft Corp- ........... Do.
Electron multiplier ................................... QCA Corp....................... DO.
GSFC semiconductor information and retrieval sys- Booz-Allen Applied Resemh, Do.
tem. Inc.
Control apparatus ................................... Honeywell, Inc ................... DO.
Integrated circuit ..................................... Electro-optical System, Inc....... DO.
Color photography- .................................. Edgerton, Germeshausen& Do.
Grier, Inc.
Drawing pen humidor ................................ Mer1 L. Home R&D Consultants, Do.
Nonlinear circuit. .................................... General Electric Co............... Do.
Balanced magnetic comparator- ...................... Stanford Research Institute ....... DO.
Heat-flow control device for maintaining uniform North American Aviation, Denied.
temperatures in Surveyor.
Feedback amplifier ................................... Consolidated Systems Corp-. ..... Granted.
Ion-producing apparatus- ............................ DO.
AC compensator..................................... Hughes Aircraft Corp ............. Denied.
Improved fuel cell.................................... General Electric Go............... Granted.
Fire arrester for fuel cell gaslines...................... DO.
Combined suppressor modulator vacuum gage........ National Research Gorp.. ........ Do.
Annular magnetic hall accelerator-. .................. Electro-Optical Systems,Inc ...... Do.
Process for preparation of electronic grade materials Monsanto Co ...................... DO.
and epitaxial structures.
Composite coating.................................... North American Aviation he.---- DO.
Rotating mandrel for assembly of inflatable devices G. T. Schleldahl Co ............... Denied.
and specifically adapted to form film structures.

Appendix H

Patent Waivers Granted and ,Denied for All Inventions Made During Performance of Contract
Upon Recommendation of the Agency's Inventions and Contributions Board
(June 30,1868)

Contract description Petitioner Action on


A stellar attitudemeasuring system_____......_.__..__ American-Standard, Advanced Denied.

Tech. Labs Div.
Study of ferrimagnetic materials for use in computer S p e w Rand Corp______.._...____ Granted.
memory system.
Development of satellitatracking equipment. -. - -. - -. General Dynamics/Electronics- -.- Do.
Study for development of long-lived cathods for use in Hughes Aircraft Co__...________. Do.
ion-propulsion engines.
Study of interactions of magnetic materials using Honeywell, Inc__...______.._.._._ Do.
coupled Alms with closed flux geometry.
Plan, study, design, fabricate, test, and deliver gas- United Aircraft Corp _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Do._ _ . . . .
management awmbly for space recovery capsule.
Space envimnment seals test program _______________ __
- - - -. ...-......- - Denied.
Feasibility study and system design for passive lunar Hughes Aircraft Co_ _ _ . _ .Granted. .______
Feasibility study for shutdown and restart of C/SM United Aircraft Corp ____ _......__ Do.
and LEM fuel call modules.
Oxygen-reclamation system by reduction of carbon -..-do ____________._____ DO.
dioxide to oxygen and carbon.
Rocket engine RL-IO, R. & D ______________.......... __._do-. ___......__........_..--.. Do.
Detoction of extraterrestrial micmrganlsns _ _ - .__ ._Beckman
__ Instruments, Inc..__ .... DO.
Use of Energy Beams-Fabrication Semiconductor Ion Physics Corp. ___......... ..-. DO.
R. & D. of multi-plate cell utillcing silver electrodes.. Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. ........ Denied.
High-temperature protective coatings for refractory Union Carbide Corp__.._.......__ Do.
R. & D. of structural concept for lightweight planetary Aeronautronic Division of Philco Granted.
entry capsule. Corp.
Study of vibration-measurement laser methods-..---- Sylvania Electronics System.. .... DO.
Feasibility study for twin IMU guidance system. -. ~ - AC Spark Plug/AC Electronics Do.
Div. of OM Corp.
R. & D. of the RL-10 rocket engine. ___.________...._ __
United Aircraft Corp.. _..__..._ Do.
An extended fuel cell performance study . _ _ _ - -._- _
_ ___ __
o __ DO.
Study of nuclear radiation methods for me-ment oi Industrial Nucleonics Corp- - - - -. . Do.
mass flow rates in oxyogenic applications.

Appendix I



(January 1-June 30,1966)

Awards Granted Under Provisions of Section 306 of the Space Act of 1958

Contribution Inveutor(s) Employer

Attitudecontrol system for sounding Aerojet-Qeneral Cow.

Howard J. Robbins, Zbiggie E.
rockets. Zebrowdri.
Nutation damper for satellites _______ Manfred E. Kuebler_ _ _ _Marshall
___ m Flight
S p_ .__ Center.
Low-Noh, single-aperture, multi- Paul A. Jensen__..______. _______
Hughes Aircraft Co.
mode mouopulse antenna feed
Inflation system for balloon-type John M. Thole, W a l l m 9. Ooddard Space Flight Center.
satellites. Eraisman, Robert M. Geophysics Cow.


258-738 0 - 67 - 13
Appendix J

Awards Granted NASA Employees Under Provisions of the Incentive Awards Act of 1954

(January l-Jnne 30,1968)

Contribution Inventor(s) Employer

Alternating current electromagnetlc Instru. Rodney K. Bogue..............Flight Research

ment . Center.
Heat flux measuring system .................. Richard D. Barter ............. Do.
Controlled visiblllty device for an aircraft- - -.
Kirk 9. Irwin .................. Do.
Two-axis controller ........................... Richard 0. Musidc. Robert R. Do.
Ballard, and William L.
Cryogenic connector for vacuum use.......... Philemon K. Platt ............. Ooddard Space
Flight Center.
Moment of inertia test flxture ................. Joseph H. Conn ................ DO.
Fluid flow meter- ............................ Danlel J. Grant ................ Do.
Method and apparatus for determining elm Abe Kamplnsky ............... DO.
tromagnetic characteristics of largesurface,
m a passive reflectors.
Apparatus provlding a dlvertlve fleld patterr DO.
and attltude senslng of a spln-stablllzed
Apparatus for measuring swelling charactel Thomas J. Hennigan... ........ Do.
istics of membranes.
Device for measuring electron-beam intensltler Thomas P. Sciacca and Alfred no.
and for subjecting materials to electror 0. Rubanks.
lrradiatlon in an electron mlcroscope.
Rotary Bead Dropper and Selector........... Luc Secmtan.................. DO.
Tumbler system to provide rnndom motion-. George A. Rinard and John D. Do.
Ampemhour Integrator- .................... John Paulkovich ............... DO.
Temperature-actuated inflation devlee.. ...... John M. Thole, Karl F. Plitt, DO.
and Allen M. Blggar.
Sidereal frequency generator.. ................ Paul F. McCaul and Raymond Do.
L. Oranata.
Inflatable support structure. ................. James E. Pleasants ............. Langley Research
"G" conditioning sult .................... Clinton E. Brown and Ralph Do.
W. Stone, Jr.
Vsrlable-sweep aircraft.-. .................... Edward C. Polhamus and DO.
Alexander D. Iiammond.
Wind tunnel airstream modulator ............. LaiirPnce K. Loftin, J r ......... Do.
Sclid-propellant rocket motor- ............... Joseph G. Thebodaux, Jr. ___.. Do.
Meteorite detection apparatus- ............... William H. Einard ............. Do.
Self-sealing, unbonded, w k e t motor nozelc Robert L. Gungle ............. Do.
Automatic force-measudng system.. .......... Donald R. Rummler ......... Do.
Connector, electrical. ........................ James W. Mayo and James E. Do.
Rotating space station simulator- ............ Donald E. Hewes .............. DO.
Support technique for vertlcally oriented Robert W. Herr ................ Do.
launch vehicles.
Pressure applicator.- ......................... Carl V. Rumble.-. ............. DO.
Pipette safety device- ........................ Dwlght Q. McBmlth........... Do.

Awards Gronted N A S A Employees Under Provisions of the Incentive Awards Act of 1954-

Contribution Inventor(s) Employer

Fast opening diaphragm- - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Doetr

__ K._ Oertel
_ _and __ Roger
__ D._ _Langley
. Research
Bingtson. Center.
A r h r i v e n vortex heater and accelerator_ _ _ _ Slllton
__ ___________
A..Wallio- - - - Do.
Techniques for insulating cryogenic fuel con- Liam R. Jackson ____....___.... Do.
File card marker- - ____ _. -.-.__ __ __ __ __ __
_. - - Betty Lea 8. Phillips------ ---. -. Do.
Hydrofoil wate---.- _______.___. Edward L. Hoffman Do.
Electrostatic thrustor with improved insulk David C. Byers, Paul M. Lewis Research
tors. Margosian, and Glenn E. Center.
Plasma device feed system_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Shigeo
__ Nnkaniski
. . _ .and
__ Eugene
____ Do.
v. Pawlik.
Fluid jet nmplirler WiUiam 8. Qrilfin Do.
Automatically deploying nozzle exit cone Donald R. Ward _______________ Do.
Method of improving reliability of roller Erwin V. Zaretsky, Richard J. Do.
bearings. Parker, and William J.
Superconducting alternator.. __ __ __ ___ __
- - - - - - rohn C. F a t a n _ _ _ _ . _ _ Do.
Laser rod_____ ___ __ __ __ ___ _____ __ __ __ __ __
- - - - John C. Evans, Jr., and Henry Do.
W. Brandhomt, Jr.
Inductive liquid level detection system _ _ . _ Vincent
_ _J. _Grebe, John A. Priw DO.
letti, Paul W. R&e, and
Alex Very.
Small plasma probe_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______________
__ F._
__ - ______ Do.
Plasma probes. - ___.___._ .______._____.._._ __ James F. Morris, Richard F. Lewis Reseaieh Center
Tlsehler, and Paul Beckman. and High Tempera-
ture Instruments
Superconducting alternator_.__ __
- - - - - - - - - - - - - John C. Fatan_ _ _ _ _ .Lewis _ _Research
Tank construction for space vehicles __________ Josef F. Blumrich and Carl A. Marshall Spare Flight
Loy. Center.
Method and apparatus for monitoring and Billy K.Davis-..-. _.________.. Do.
controlling metal-arc welding processes.
Magnetomotivemetal working device-- - _____ Robert J. Schwinghamer and Do.
Leslie E. Foster.
Preparation of polybemoxaeoles ______ __ __
- - - - James D. Byrd.. _.______...... Do.
Adaptive tracking notch filter system. _______ Michael T. Borelll, Harry J. Do.
Daniels, and Hans H.
Evacuation port seal- _______._.._._____...-.- John A. Woller _._____...------. Do.
Technical abstract tube-flaring machine...--.Willis Q. Qroth___....________. Do.
Low-temperature aluminum alloy_ _ _ _Philip __ C._Miller
_.__ Do.
Appendix K


( J u n e 30, 1066)
NASA released the following new educational publications during the first 6
months of 1966. They a r e available to the pul)lic without charge from the Media
Development Division, Code FAD-1, National Aeronautics and Space Admin-
istration, Washington, D.C. 2Orri6. Other publications a r e listed in a folder
supplied from the same address.

Booklets and Folders

NASA Astronauts.-A picture booklet giving background informntion on the
astronauts along with a brief description of their training procedures. 24 pi).
A View From Ranger.-Describes the Ranger lunar photographic missions, show-
ing the flrst close-up pictures ever taken of the moon. 68 pp.
Tracking.-A booklet about NASA’s world-wide tracking and dnta acquisition
networks. 20 pp.
Report F r o m Mars.-An illustrated booklet describing the Mariner I V mission
to the planet. 52 pp.
Space Jobn, Learning About Rpacc Carcern, and 7 Rteps to a Carfer in S p a f f
Rdence and TechnologU.-A series of booklets bringing together ideas and
suggestions on career guidance a t the elementnry and secondary school levels.
16 pp., 24 pp., and 24 pp.
Project Qemini.-The major highlights of the Gemini program. Also behind
the scenes in launch vehicle and spnrecraft fabrication, astronaut training,
and launch and recovery operations. 52 pp., illus.
Communications Satelliten.-An illustrated booklet describing NASA’s communi-
cations satellites in lay language. Echo, Relay, Syncom, and the commercial
satellites Telstar and Early Bird a r e discussed in detail. 22 pp.
Thc Planetarium.-A report by the TJniversity of Bridgeport (Conn.) on projects
for elementary school classes in the University’s planetarium. 80 pp.
Propul8ion for Drep Space.-Projects to develop power sources f o r future space
exploration at great distances from the earth. 32 pp.
Introducing Children to Space.-A handbook for teachers of children 5 through
11 years of age. Projects and illustrations are described at each age level.
168 pp.
he880n Plan-Manned Space Flight.-A set of lesson plans on the Mercury,
Gemini, and Apollo Projects generally used by teachers to set u p learning
situations in the classroom.
NASA Foeti
Descriptions of NASA’s programs, with photographs and diagrams of space-
craft and launch vehicles. (Sheets are designed for bulletin board display or
for insertion in looseleaf notebooks.)
A Report From Mariner ZV.--A Anal report of the results of the Mariner I V
fly-by of Mars. 8 pp.
Explorer XXIX ( T h e Geodetic Satellite) .--Description of the role of Explorer
XXIX in discovering more about the earth, and the use of satellites in geodesy.
8 PP.
The Laser.-An illustrated summary in layman’s terms of the laser beam and
its role in NASA’s exploration of space. Laser applications in medicine, metal-
lurgy, and communications are described. 8 pp., v. 111, no. 6.
Living in #pace.-An account of the ingenious life support systems devised by
science and industry to enable spacecraft crews to remain in space for extended
periods of time in an earth-like environment. 12 pp.
Orbiting Solar Observatory.--The O S 0 mission to learn more about the nature
of the universe. 8 pp.
nerO8paCe Bibliography, 3rd edition.-A current listing of aerospace books,
periodicals, audio-visual aids, and other resources keyed to show grade levels.

Motion Pictures
NASA released these new motion pictures during the flrst 6 months of 1966.
They may be borrowed-without charge other than return mailing and insurance
costs-from the Media Development Division, Code FAD-2, National Aeronautics
and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. 20546. (Other Alms are listed in
a brochure supplied from the same address.)
Research Project X-15.-28 min., sound, color (16mm). History of the joint
NASA-Air ForceNavy X-15 program from the early hypersonic flight studies
by NACA through the flights of the. rocket-powered research airplanes.
Log of Mariner IV.-28 min., sound, color (Mmm). Summary of the flight of
the Mariner IV spacecraft to the vicinity of Mars.
Returns From Space.-28 min., color, sound. Produced by NASA’s Manned
Spacecraft Center. Depicts some of the effects of the aerospace industry on
our daily lives.
Appendix L

(January 1 J u n e 30, 1966)
The following selected Special Publications, issued by NASA's Scientific and
Technical Information Division, are sold by the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Ofece (GPO), Washington, D.C. 20402, or by the
Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information (CFSTI) ,
Springfield, Va. 22151.
Progress in Development of Ncthods in Bone Densitometry (NASA S p a ) . * -
Proceedings of a conference held in Washington, D.C., March 25-27, 1965, spon-
sored by NASA, NIH, and the American Institute of Riological Sciences, t o
exchange information in methods of studying and measuring calcium loss due
to bed rest and immobilization. 204 pp. GPO, $154.
Rioenergetics of Space Siiita f o r Lunar Rrploration (NASA SP-%I).*-A
study of the problems in the design of space suit systems for space travel and
exploration. 140 pp. GPO, $1.00.
The following monographs ( SP-92 to SP-100) describe Significant achievements
in diwiplines covered by the Space Science and Applications Program :
Significant Achieuemmte in Space Bioscience. 39584964 (NASA SP-92) .* 128
pp. GPO, $0.55.
Significant Achievemcnte in Space Communications and Navigation. 1958-1964
(NASA SP-93) .* 68 pp. GPO, $0.45.
Significant Achievcmcnte in Ionosphere and Radio Phipien. 19.58-1964 (NASA
SP-95).* 60 pp. GPO, $0.45.
Significant Achiievements in Natellite Mctcorolog?/, 1958-1964 (NASA SP-96) .*
141 pp. GPO, $0.80.
Significant Achicvemcnts in Particles and Fields, 1.958-1.964 (NASA SP-97) .*
94 pp. GPO, $0.50.
Significant Achievcmenta in Planetary A tmoaphercs, 1958-1964 (NASA
SP-98) .* 60 pp. GPO, $0.45.
Significant Achievements in Planetology, 1958-1964 (NASA SP-W) .* 72 pp.
GPO, $0.45.
Significant Achievcmenta in Solar Physics, 1958-1964 (NASA SP-100) .* 96
pp. GPO, $0.50.
Human Rcsponsc to Suetaincd Accdcration (NASA SP-103) .*-A review of
the literature on physiological effects, tolerance, and performance of humans
under conditions of prolonged acceleration. 136 pp. GPO, $1.00.
Involuntary Hypohydration and Other Factors Infliienring Water Consumption
in Man and Animals: A Reudew (NASA SP-llO).*-A review of the literature
on water consumption in relation to dehydration and rehydrntion in man and
animals. 34 pp. GPO, $0.30.

*Released during thld period.

Ranger V I I I Photographs of the Moon (NASA SP-111) .*-This volume in-
cludes 170 pictures taken by the A, B, and P cameras of Ranger VIII. 187 pp.
GPO, $6.50.
Ranger I X Photographs of the Moon (NASA SI’-l12).*-This volume includes
170 pictures taken by the A, B, and P cameras of Ranger IX. 187 pp. GPO,
NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems (NASA SP-83) .-Papers
of a conference at Langley Research Center, May 10-12, 1965 327 pp. CFSTI,
Proceedings of Second Symposium on Protection Against Radiations in Space
(NASA SP-?l).-Papers of a conference at Gatlinburg, Tenn., October 1964,
sponsored by AEC, NASA, and USAF. 551 pp. GPO, $3.25.
Proceedings of the Apollo Unified S-Band Technical Conference (NASA
SP-87) .-Presentations at Goddard Space Flight Center, July 14-15, 1965,
describing Godda,rd ground systems in support of the Apollo Manned Space Flight
Network. 302 pp. CFSTI, $3.00.
Proceedings of the Technology Status and Trends Symposium (NASA
SP-5030).*-Record of a conference held at George C. Marshall Space Flight
Center, April 1965, program to bring reusable space technology to the attention
of American industry. 248 pp. GPO, $1.50.
Selected Casting Techniques (NASA SP-5044) .*-A method of wind-tunnel
model construction using a casting and plasticizing technique developed at
Langley Research Center. 21 pp. CFSTI, $1.00.
A Technique for Joining and Sealing Dissimilar Materials (NASA SP-5016) .-
A boltless attachment and sealing method conceived and used at NASA’s Lewis
Research Center. 8 pp. CFSTI, $0.25.
Technical and Economic Status of Magnesium-Lithium Alloys (NASA
SP-5028) .-General characteristics, current applications, and economic con-
siderations for future use of the magnesium-lithium alloys. 45 pp. GPO, $0.25.
Medical and Biological Applications of Space Telemetry (NASA SP-5023) .-
Biotelemetry systems developed in the space effort and in civilian applications.
66 pp. GPO, $0.45.
X-15 Research Results W i t h a Selected Bibliography (NASA SP-60) .-A
semitechnical summary of the X-15 program from the early hypersonic flight
studies by NACA through the first 120 flights of t h e three rocketwwered
research airplanes. 128 pp. GPO, $0.55.
Ranger V I I Photographs of the Moon. Part 11: Camera “B” Series (NASA
SP-62) .--Reproduction of the 200 photos from the B camera. 217 pp. GPO, $6.50.
Proceedings of the Conference on Space Nutrition and Related Waste Problems
(NASA SP-70) .-The proceedings of a conference held in April 1964. Approxi-
mately 60 papers with discussions by conferees. 400 pp. GPO, $2.75.
NASA Symposium on the Analysis of Central Nervous System and Cardio-
vascular Data Using Computer Methods (NASA SP-72) .--6oo pp. CFSTI, $4.50.
Electrical Power Generation Systems for Space Applications (NASA SP-79) .-
A summary of several papers and committee reports on electric power generation
systems f o r space application. 40 pp. CFSTI, $1.00.
Bioastronautics Data Book (NASA SP3006) .-Carefully selected applied
research data from the life sciences in consistent engineering units accompanied
by metric scales. 400 pp. GPO, $2.25.
Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1963: Chronology on Science, Technology, and
PoliOy (NASA SP40@4).-A chronology of the significant aerospace events for
1963. 610 pp. GPO, $2.00.

Physic8 O f Nonthermal Radio SOUrCes (NASA SP-46) .-Proceedings Of a

conference of astronomers and physicists, December 3-4, 1962, a t the NASA
Goddard Institute f o r Space Studies. The papers cover radio observations,
optical observations, and theory of nonthermal radio sources outside the solar
system. 171 pp. GPO, $0.75.
AAS-NASA Symposium on the Phusics of Solar Flares (NASA SP-50).-pro-
ceedings of a conference of American, European, Asian, and Australian scientistq
reporting on research progress in solar flare activity. 466 pp. GPO, $3.25.
Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on the Peaceful Use8 Of SpaCC
(NASA SP-51) .-Thirty papers delivered at the Conference held in Boston,
April 29 to Mas 1, 1964. 226 pp. GPO, $1.50.
Quasi-Qlobal Presentation of TIROS I I I Radiation Data (SASA SF%).-
Explanatory text, illustrations, and colored maps of the reflected solar radiation
of the earth-atmosphere system on July 16, 1961, superimposed on various synop-
tic analyses for meteorological analysis. 24 pp. GPO, $2.00.
Concepts f o r Detection of Extraterrestrial L i f e (NASA SP-56) .-Devices and
instruments planned for inclusion in vehicles designed to land on planets surh as
Mars. 54 pp. GPO, $0.50.
Ranger V I I Photograph8 of the Moon. Part I : Camera “A” Series (NASA
SP-61) .-Reproduction of the 199 photographs taken by the A camera of Ranger
VI1 from 1,300 miles to 3 miles above the surface of the Moon. 266 pp.
GPO, $6.50.
Clarity in Technical Reporting (NASA SP-7010) .-Basic principles of techni-
cal reporting for engineers and scientish 25 pp. GPO, $0.15.
The International System of Units-Physical Constants and Conver8ion Fac-
tors (NASA SP-7012).-Deflnitions of the basic units of the Systeme Inter-
national and tables for converting from U.S. Customary Units. 20 pp. GPO,
Advanced Bearing Technology (NASA SP-38) .-The fundamentals of friction
and wear, fluid fllm bearings, and rolling-element bearings, application of fuii-
damental principles to the solution of unique and advanced bearing problems.
Bdmond E. Bisson and William J. Anderson, Lewis Research Center. 511 pp.
GPO, $1.75.
Conference on the Law of Space and of Satellite Communications (NASA
sP-44) .-Proceedings of a conference organized by Northwestern University
School of Law, May 1-2, 1963, as part of the Third National Conference on the
Peaceful Uses of Space. 205 pp. GPO, $1.50.
A‘pace-Cabin Atmospheres. Part I-Oxygen Toxicity (NASA SP-47) .-A w-
view of the literature on toxicity of oxygen at pressures of less than 1atmosphere
and the relation of oxygen to other factors, such as radiation effects and lung
blast. 61 pp. GPO, $0.40.
SpaCe-Cabh Atm08phfrC8. Part 11-Fire and Blast Hazard8 (NASA 8P-48) .-
A summary of the open literature on the subject. 119 pp. GPO, $1.00.
Metcorological Obsewationn Above SO KilOmetW8 (NASA SPAS) .-Three
Papers on meteorological rockets, network data, and rocket soundings from a
conference on Meteorological Support for Aerospace Testing and Operation,
July 11-12.1963. 57 pp. GPO, $0.40.
Project Mercury Summary Includino Re8Ult8 of the Fourth Manned Orbital
Flight, May 15 and 16, 196s (NASA SP4Ei).-A review of the U.S. manned
space flight program, particularly the results of the Anal mission of Astronaut 1,.
Gordon Cooper. 4.44pp. GPO, $2.75.
Second United States Manned Orbital Space Flight (NASA SP-6) .-Results
of the MA-7 flight by Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, May 1962. 107 pp. GPO,
Third United States Manned Orbital Space Flight (NASA SP-l2).-Results of
the M A 4 flight by Astronaut Walter Schirra, October 1962. 120 pp. GPO, $0.70.
Project Merczcry--a Chronologv (NASA SP400l).--Major events in the flrst
US. manned space flight program. 238 pp. GPO, $1.50.
Results of the Project Mercurv Ralli8tic and Orbital Chimpanzee Flight8
(NASA SP-39) .-71 pp. GPO, $0.45.
Space, Science, and Urban Life (NASA SP-37) .-Proceedings of a conference,
March 1963, on the applicability of the national space program to the problems
of urban growth. 254 pp. GPO, $1.75.
The Observatory Generation of Satellites (NASA SP-30) .--Missions and engi-
neering designs of the Orbiting Geophysical Observatories, the Advanced Orbiting
Solar Observatory, and the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. 62 pp. GPO,
Ariel I : The First International Satellite (NASA SP43).-Project summary
of the satellite launched April 26,1962. 76 pp. GPO, $0.70.
U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 196L-Updated tables of atmospheric parammeters
to 700 kilometers, incorporating results of rocket and satellite research through
mid-1962. 278 pp., hard covers. GPO, $3.50.
Short Glossarv of Space Terms (NASA SP-1) .-Brief definitions of technical
terms frequently used by space technologists. 57 pp. GPO, $0.25.
NASA-Industry Program Plans Conference, 1963 (NASA SP-29) .-Statements
describing NASA's organization, present plans, and possible future projects pre-
sented f o r the information of industrial management as a partner in the national
space program. 231 pp. GPO, $1.25.
Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids (NASA SP-31) .-
Proceedings of a symposium sponsored jointly by NASA, the Air Force, and the
Xational Bureau of Standards. 587 pp. GPO, $3.50.
Proceedings of the NASA-Univer8ity Conference on the Science and Technology
01 Space E x p l o r a t h , Chicago, Ill.. Nouemher 1962 (NASA SP-11) :-
Volume 1: NASA's role in space exploration ; developing special skills for
research in the space sciences; impact of the space program on the universi-
ties ; the role of the university in meeting national goals in space egploration ;
radar astronomy; the sounding rocket as a tool for college and university
research ; geophysics and astronomy ; lunar and planetary sciences ; celestial
mechanics and space flight analysis ; data acquisition and processing ; control,
guidance, and navigation ; bioastronautics. 429 pp. GPO, $2.50.
Volume 2 : Chemical rocket propulsion ; nuclear propulsion ; power for space-
craft ; electric propulsion ; aerodynamics ; gas dynamics ; plasma physics and
magnetohydrodynamics ; laboratory techniques ; materials ; structures. 532
pp. GPO, $3.00.
The scientiflc papers presented at the conference are also available as separate
summaries :
Geophysics and Astronomy in Space Exploration (NASA SP-13)------ 35
Lunary and Planetary Sciences in Space Exploration (NASA SP-14)_-- X
Celestial Mechanics and Space Flight Analysis (NASA SP-15) ____-___ 36
Data Acquisition from Spacecraft (NASA SP-16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Control, Guidance and Navigation of Spacecraft (NASA SP-17) _______ 40
Chemical Rocket Propulsion (NASA SP-19) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 40
Nuclear Rocket Propulsion (NASA SP-20) _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-_ _45 __-----
Power for Spacecraft (NASA SP-21) _________-_____________________ 25
Electric Propulsion for Spacecraft (NASA SP-22) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ 35
Aerodynamics of Space Vehicles (NASA SP-23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Gas Dynamics in Space Exploration (NASA SP-24) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 40
Plasma Physics and Magnetohydrodynamics in Space Exploration
(NASA S P - 2 5 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - -50
Laboratory Techniques in Space Environment Research (NASA SP-26) _ 40
Materials for Space Operations (NASA SP-27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Structures for Space Operations (NASA SP-28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Suggested Method for Plating Copper on Aluminum (NASA SP-5025).*-
Application of the phosphate anodyzing process in copperplating commercially
pure aluminum and several aluminum alloys. 12 pp. GPO, $0.20.
Metal-Forming Tcchniqucs (NASA SP-5017) .-Metal-forming methods for
sheet and plate materials used by the aircraft and aerospace industries; also
experimental methods such as magnetic forming and hot-drape forming. 52 pp.
GPO, $0.40.
Plasma Jet Fechnologi! (NASA SP-5033) .-The industrial potential of plasma
generators in materials testing, coating nnd spraying, chemical synthesis, and
other industrial operations. 200 pp. GPO, $1.00.
Hantllivg Hazardour Afatcrialn (NASA 81'4032) .-Methods for safe handling
of highly reactive materials (such a s liquid hydrogen, pentaborane, fluorine, and
hydrazine). 96 pp. GPO, $0.45.
Elasfir 0riflcr.v for Gun Rrnringr (NASA SP-M29) .-An plastic oriflce for the
control of fluid flow in a pressurized gas bearing. 12 pp. GPO, $0.20.
Selected S h o p Tcchniqiws (NASA SP-WlO) .-A handbook for machinists,
mechanics, and workers in related crafts. 102 pp. GPO, $0.60.
Tungstcn Powder BfetaZZrcrg~/ (NASA SP-5035).-Recent developments in
tungsten powder metallurgy technology as related to spnee vehicles and the less
traditional applications. 40 pp. GPO, $0.35.
Jficrocleclronics i n Spacc Xcsrarcli (NASA SP-50.11).--A hurvey of contribu-
tions to the microelectronics fleld from NASA research progrnms. 130 pp. GPO,
The Elcctromagnctic Hammcr (NASA SP-50.14).-A report on $1 method of
using electromagnetic forces for removing the distortion from welded coin-
ponents. 22 pp. GPO, $0.25.
Advanced T'aluc TcchnoZog]/ (NASA SIVi019) .-A report on present valve
problem areas, research and development activities in these areas nnd the newer
trends and techniques. 181 pp. CFSTI, $5.00.
Micropowcr Logic Circuits (NASA SP-5022) .-Illustrated descriptions of
digital logic circuits developed for very low pnower logic systems in space vehicles
and adaptable for use in nonspace computer systems. 15 pp. CFSTI, $0.75.
*Released durlng thls period.
Measurement of the Heartbeat of Bird Embryos with a Micrometeorite Trans-
ducer (NASA SP5007).-Description of a pair of piezoelectric beams arranged
to serve as springs and acceleration detectors, originally designed to detect the
impact of meteorites on spacecraft and satellites. 10 pp. CFSTI, $0.50.
Selected Welding Techniques (NASA SP-5003) .-Tools and methods developed
by NASA for welding aluminum sheet and plate. 25 pp. GPO, $0.30.
#elected Welding Techniques, Part 11 (NASA SP-5009) .-Recent technological
developments in welding. Welding tools and techniques used in welding alumi-
num sheet and plate a t George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. 34 pp. GPO,
Effect of Low Temperatures on Structural Metab (NASA SP-5Ol2).-Data
developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. 55 pp. GPO, $0.40.
Precision Tooling Techniques (NASA SP-5013) .-Novel tooling techniques
with possible industrial applications developed a t Marshall Space Flight Center.
25 pp. GPO, $0.25.
NA8A Contributions to the Technology of Inorganic Coatings (NASA
PP-5014) .-Thermophototropic coatings, thermal control coatings for space
rehicles, solid lubrication coatings, thermal insulation coatings, application of
coatings to substrates, measurement of coating optical properties, and refractory
metal oxidation-resistant coatings. 268 pp. GPO, $1.00.
Conference on New Technology (NASA SP3015).-Proceedings of a conference
on ways of transferring space research knowledge to the industrial community.
156 pp. GPO, $1.00.
Space Batteries (NASA SP40CM).-Three sealed battery systems for space-
craft ; discussion of ways of sharing current test d a t a by space contraotors. 53
pp. GPO, $0.25.
The Measurement of Blood Pressure i n the Human Body (NASA SP-5006).-
Summary from the open literature for nonmedical scientists and engineers. 34
pp. GPO,$0.30.
A comparatively new subseries of Special Publications assembles engineering
and scientific data in convenient form for those working in specific fields ; some
titles follow :
Charts for Approximate Thermodycamic Propertics of Nitrogen-Oxygen Mix-
tures (NASA SP-3017). 116 pp. CFSTI, $1.25.
Charts f o r Equilibrium and Frozen Flows Across Plane Shock Waves i n
Carbon Dioxide (NASA SP-3018). 129 pp. CFSTI, $1.00.
Charts for Equilibrium and Frozen Nozzle Flows of Carbon Dioxide (NASA
SP-3019). 78 pp. CFSTI, $0.75.
Charts of Isentropic Exponent as a Function of Enthalpy for Various Gases i n
Equilibrium (NASA SP-3020). 10 pp. CFSTI, $0.50.
Equilibrium Thermodynamic Properties of Three Engineen'ng Model3 of thc
Martian Atmosphere (NASA SP3021). 162 pp. CFSTI, $2.50.
Magnetic Fields Due to Solid and Hollow Conical Conductors (NASA
SP-3022). 132 pp. CFSTI, $1.00.
Models of the Trapped Radiation Environment. Volume I : Inner Zone Pro-
tons and Electrons (NASA SP-3024) .* 56 pp. CFSTI, $1.00.
Models of the Trapped Radiation Environment. Volume I I : Inner and Outer
Zone Electrons (NASA SP-3024) .* 88 pp. CFSTI, $1.00.
Tables of Energy Losses and Ranges of Electrons and Positrons (NASA
SP-3012). 127 pp. CFSTI, $4.00.
Tables of Energy Losses and Ranges of Heavy Charged Particles (NASA
SP-3013). 131 pp. CFSTI, $4.00.

Equilibrium Thernzodynamics Properties of Carbon Dioxide (NASA SP-3014).

66 pp. CFSTI, $3.00.
Charts f o r Equilibrium Flow Properties o f Carbon Dioxide in Hypervelocitlt
Nozzles (NASA SP-3015). 71 pp. CFSTI, $3.00.
Venus and Mars Nominal Natural Environment for Advanced Manned
Planetary Mission Programs (NASA SP-3016). 48 pp. CFSTI, $2.00.
Tables for 8upersonic Flow Around Right Circular Cones at Small Angle of
Attack (NASA SP3007). 422 pp. GPO,$2.25.
Tables o f the Complex Fresnel Integral (NASA SP3010). 294 pp. CFSTI,
Thermodynamic and Transport Properties f o r the Hydrogen-Oxygen Sy8fcm
(NASA SP-3011). 419 pp. CFSTI, $6.00.
Thermodynamic Properties and Mollier Chart for Hydrogen f r o m 300" K to
?O,OOO' K (NASA SP-3002). 64 pp. CFSTI, $1.75.
Tables f o r Supersonic Flom Around Right Circular Cones at Zero Angle of
Attack (NASA SP-3004). 422 pp. GPO,$2.25.
Energy Rpectra and Angular nistribUtiOn8 of Electrons Transmitted Through
Sapphire ( A120s)Foil8 (NASA SP-3008). 108 pp. CFSTI, $256.
Tables of the Composition, Opacitlf, and Thermodynamic Properties O f Hydro-
yen at High Temperatures (NASA SP3005). 186 pp. CFSTI, .$3.00.
Tables of Floza Propertits of Therrnallf/ Perfect Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen
dliztures (NASA SP-3009). 114 pp. CFSTI, $4.50.

+Released durlng thle pedod.

Appendix M

Major NASA Launches

(January I-June 30.1986)

Name, date lauuched, mission Vehicle site ’ Results

La& ballistic flight to test Apollo itt tie' J O 1
~1--. Pmgram to develop and qualify Apollo
spacaCran atmospheric flight spacamaft laaneh escape system and
abort capabilities, Jan. 20. earth landing system completed.
ESSA-I (Environmental Survey Delta [naugurated the worldwide T I R 0 8
Satellite No. I). Feb. 3. operational satellite system. Tv
cameras provide 460 cloud pictares
daily for weather analysis and fore
casting-more than 88 p e m n t of the
photographs meteorologically useful.
Reentry heatiug test, Feb. 9 _______ Heat shield containing low-density
phenollcnylon tested reentering the
earth’s atmosphere at 18,ooO miles an
Apollo Saturn launch vehicle de- AS-201 ____ ___ _. FiRt uprated Baturn I (Saturn IB)
velopment, Feb. 28. mission with flight type S/C modules
t o check heat shield adequacy. Un-
manned suborbitalflight sucmssfuUy
ESSA-II, operational meteorolog- Delta- E T R - - . Supplied the worldwide network of
i d satellite, Feb. 28. Automatic Picture Transmission
(APT) stations with photographs for
local weather forecasting, as the 5mt
operational global A P T satellite.
Qemini VIII, the 6th manned Titan; Atlas- ETR. - Astronauts Armstrong and Scott made
mission of t h h project, Mar. 16. Agena target 6% revolutions of the earth in the 10
vehicle. hours and 42 minutes of the mission.
Spacecraft rendezvoused and docked
with the target vehicle durfag the
4th revolution. Flight was termi-
nated ear!y Cue t c an intermittent
short in a thruster’s electrical control
Centaur vehicle development tesi Atlas-Centaur. E T R - - Seventh AtlwCentaur development
(AC-8). Apr. 8. flight. Carried m s s model of Sur-
v e y o r l u n a r l a n d e r s p m f t . Failed
to complete suceessiul second burn
due to hydrogen peroxide depletion.
First Orbiting Astronomical Ob Atlas-Agena- - ETR.- Observatory to investigate ultraviolet.
servatory (OAO-I), Apr. 8. X-.and gamma rays. Ceased opera-
tion after 20th orbit because of a
failure in the power system.
Nimbus 11, second meteorologica T h W t - WTR.. Provides first worldwide day and
satellite in the series, May 15. augmented night weather mapping for more
Thor-Agena. accurate forecasts than Nimbus I;
extensive infrared photography meas-
urea the heat balance of the entire
earth daily.
See footnoteat end of table.

Mojor NASA Lounchcdontinucd

Name, date launched, mission Vehicle site ' Results

Geminl 1X rendemvour and dockiw Titan; Atlas- Malfunction in the Atlas launch ve-
mission, May 17. Agena target hlcle resulted in an erratic trajectory
vehicle. and 1 0 s of the Agena target vehlcle.
Mission recycled and redesignated
Explorer X X X I I geophysical sate1 Delta _ _ _ _ETR..
__._ Similar
. _ to Explorer XVII (launched
lite. May 25. April 2, lW), the satellite studies the
neutral components and ch8rged Ions
of the upper atmosphere.
Surveyor I lunar soft lander, May 31 Atlss-Centaur.. ETR.. Transmltted more than 11,200 high-
resolution close-up and telephoto TV
pictures of the moon's surface and
parts of the spacecraft. These
photographs provlded essential data
for the Apollo manned lunar landlng
Gemini IX-A (the recycled 0emin Titan; Atlas ETR.. Astronauts Staflord and Cernan made
I X mission of May 17), June 3. with a ~ g - 45 revolutions of the earth during the
mented target 72 hours and 21 minutes of the mis-
docking sion. Rendezvous accomplished.
adapter However, crew was unable to dock
(ATDA). with the ATDA (backup for the
Agena target vehlcle) because the
shroud protecting the adapter during
ascent falled to separate. Extrave-
hlcular activity was carrled out for
2 hours and 5 mlnutcs. But use Of
the astronaut maneuvering unit was
prevented by fogglng of the astro-
naut's helmet and visor.
000-111, the thlrd Orbiting Geo Atlas-Agcna B. ETR.. Carries 21 scientific experiments-the
physical Observatory, Juns 6. most ever flown by tho U.S. Studles
complex Earth-Sun-lnterpl ann t a r y
space relatlonshlp. C o m p l e m e n t s
measurements being made by 000-
I and -11. Achleved fill1 3-8x0s Sta-
bllization as planned.
PAGEOR-I, a Passive Geode:ic Thrust-aug- Van- Second geodetic satellite In coordinated
Earthabiting satellltr, Jnno 23. mented Thor- den- program of NASA and Departments
Agena D. of Commerce and Defense to obtain
Air data for preclslon mapplna Of the
Force oarth's s'irfaee.

I ETR-Eastern Test RanKe, Cape Kennedy, Fls.

WI-Wallops Island, Va.
WSR-White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex.
WTR-Western Test Range, Point Arguello, Calif,
Appendix N

NASA Lounch Vehicles

Payload in pounds
Vehicle Principal use

Launching small scientific satellites,

reentry experiments, and probes
(Explorer XXX, BERT ION engine,
SECOR V, French-built FR-1).
Launching scientific, meteorological,
and communications satellites
TIROS IX, Orbiting &lar Observ-
atorie3-OS0 I and 11, Ariel, TeE
star I, Relay, Syncom 11,Interplane-
tary Monitoring Platforms (Explorers
X X I and XXVIII), Energetic par-
ticles satellite (Explorer XXVI).
Thrust Augmented Launching scientific, meteorological,
Delta (TAD). communications, and Bioscience sat-
ellites, and lunar and planetary
probe8 (Pioneer VI, TIROS K,
TIROS operational satellites OT-3
and OT-2,Syncom 111, Commercial
Cornmanications Satellite Early Bird
I Radioastronomy Explorers, Bio-
satellites A-F, INTELSAT I and
I1 communications satellites, inter-
national satellites for ionospheric
Thor-Agena. - ~ __ -. Launching scientmc, wmmunications,
and applications satellites (Echo 11,
Nimbus I, Polar Orbiting Geophysi-
cal Observatory, Orbiting Geophysi-
cal Observatory II).
Thrust Augmented Launching geophysics and astronomy
Thor-Agena (TAT), and applications satellites (OGO C,
D, and F,and Nimbus B).
Atlss-Agena--- __ ~ Launching heavy scientific satellites,
and lunar and planetary probes
(RangersVII,VIII and IX, Mariners
I11 and IV, Orbiting Geophysical
ObSmatow-OQO-I, OAOA).
Atlas-Centaur. - ..- -. Launching heavy unmanned space-
craft as lunar soft landers (Surveyor,
Atlas D ___......_._.. Launched manned Mercury space-
ModiAed Titan 11.-. Launching unmanned and manned
Qemini spacecraft.

Saturn I_ _ _ . _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ . _ Orbiting Pegasus I and I1 spacecraft

to detect and report on meteoroid
collisions, and launching Project
Apollo spacecraft.
Saturn 1B _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ . Launching Project Apollo spacecraft.
Saturn V- _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Do.

1 Only NASA application Pmfect Mercury-2,500 pounds in llCmile orbit.


258-738 0 - 67 - 14

Appendix P

Grants and Research C d r o c t r Obligated*

(January 1-June 30,1886)

N O R Ol-OOl-a13 ..-......Alabama A&M College, C. 0 . LEE._ _ ___.________._.._.
_. ... $14,917
s1 Radiation Effeets in the Metabolisn of Phospholipids in
the Central Nervous System of Albino Rats.
NsO(T)-30__....._______ Alabama, University of, E. RODOERS ________
______ 230.
_ _____
53 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N G R Ol-oO2Mo. _ _ _ Alabama,
___ University
__ of, E. T. KINZER _____. __ __ __ __ 12,320
Periodic Motion in the Neighborhood of Libration Points
of the Restricted ThreeBody Problem.
Alabama, University of, R. A. MANN. -......-......-. . 23,850
Investigation of Voltage Breadown in Space Environ-
NsG(T)-18. ________..._
Anbnrn University, W. V. PARKER _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _225,700 __._____
93 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR Ol-oMo08...___... Anbnrn University, W. A. SHAW ______._._..._______ 28. 5@l
Computer Techniques for Multivariant Function Model
Generation, Emphasizing Programs Applicable to Spacc
NOR 01-003-011___...__. Auburn University, P. P. BUDENSTEIN-..- __....__ -....-.. . 51. OOO
Investigation of Thin Film Dielectries in Electric Fields
Utilizing Electron Mieroseope.
Auburn University, A. T. FROYHOLD __.._.._____.__......... 19,015
Investigation of Electrical Conductivity in Amorphous
NSR 01-005005-.....-.- Auburn University, R. I. VACHON ____.......... .___.__ 89,700
A2 A Summer Institute in Space-Related Engineering.
NsG-201 _....____.__.___ Alaska, University of, 6. CHAPMAN..- .- .-. __.-...- - - __ __ ____
55 A Theoretical Stndy of the Ring Current and Geomag-
netic Field Phenomena.
NsG(T)-131___...-. ..... Alaska, University of, IC. M. RAE- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _._ . __55.600
s2 The Training of 3 Predoctoral Graduate Students in thc
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 0241-027 . _ _ _ Alaska,
_._ University
. of, C. 8. D E E m__________________________ 77,287
Spectrophotometry of Planetary Atmcrsphem from X-15
NSR 02-001-025 __..___._ Alaska, University, K.B. MATHER ........__._..__._._______ 107,554
Conduct Sounding Rocket Investigations of the Auroral
Alaska, University of, D. L. CEAUVIN ______.___._._._.__ 7,043
A Rocket Facility Feasibility Study.
'The grants listed in this appendix are reported to the Congress in compliance with the requirements of
the grants statute, 42 U.S.C. 1891-83 (72 Stat. 1793).
Contracts havc prefix NASr or NSR; grants have prefix NsG or NOR; transfer of funds to Government
agencies have prefix R. Earlier grants and contracts are listed in appendices of previous NASA Semiannual
Reports to Congress.

NSR 02-001-035 _________
Alaska, University of, K. B. MATHER........................ $75, ooo
Construct and Operate 4 Image Orthicon Television SyS-
tems to Detect Artificial Auroras being Emitted by a Parti-
cle Accelerator to be Flown on an Aerobee 150A Rocket in
the Fall, 1886.
NSR ou)ol-O35 ......... Alaska, University of, K. B. MATHER........................
A1 Ground Based Television Support for Particle Accelerator
NsO(T)-32--. ........... Arizona State University, W. J. BURKE ...................... 141.800
93 The Training of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciencea and Technology.
NsO 161................. Arizona, University of, 0.P. KUIPER ........................ 214, Mw)
9 6 Planetary Spectrosoopic Studies and Selenodetic and
Physical Studies of the Lunar Surfaces.
NsO-480................. Arizona, University of, L. E. WEAVER-.. .................... 91,877
9 3 Research In, and Application of, Modern Automatic Con-
trol Theory to Nuclear Rocket Dynamics and Control.
NsO-646 ................. Arizona, University of, 0. A. KORN......................... 21.500
53 Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Advanced
Hybrid (Digital-Analog) Computer Systems.
NsO-732 __.._ ~._ __ _ _ __
._ - Arizona, Unlversity of, W. 0.T r m . ........................ 70.056
8 1 Oeneral Stndies Related to Photographic and Phot+
electric Slgnal Deteetion in Space.
NsO 732................. Arhona, University of, W. 0. T ~ r r r.-....................... 55, am
5 2 General Studies Related to Photq(lraphic and Phot+
electric Signal Detection in Spaca.
NsG(T)-33-. ............ Arhona, University of, H. D. RHODES ....................... 212,400
s 3' The Training of 12 Predoetoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 034C%OM ........ Arizona, Unlversity of, J. V. RUND .......................... m, w)
Asymmetric Photochemistry of Metal Complexes.
N O R 03402471. ....... Arliona, Univenity of, T.BOWEN.. ......................... 125. OOO
Cosmlc Ray Investigations of Elementary Particle Phe-
nomena at Very High Energies.
N O R 08-002476 _ _ _ _____
Arizona, University of, P. E. DAYON........................ 12.960
Study of Chemical Products of Surface and Near Surface
Lunar M a g m a t h .
N O R 03-002-ORl._.___.__Arizona, University of, A. M. J. OEHRELS .................... 27,640
Photometry and Polarimetry of Minor Planets.
N O R 08-0024Ql_._____._ Arizona, University of, H. D. CHRISTENSEN. ................ 400. ooo
Multidisciplinary Research P w r a m in Space Science and
N O R 03-002-101......... Arizona, University of, H. C. F R I...~...................... 36. l7?
Investigation of Possible Relationships between Solar
Activity and T m R i n g Growth.
NSR 03-Wr.0111.... ..... Arizona, University of, H. J. JOHSNON ......................
A1 Feasibility and Design Study of a Prime Experiment in
Stellar Photometry and Polarimetry in the Ultraviolet, lor
the Orbtinu Astronomical Observatory.
NsO-451................. Lowell Observatory, J. 9.HALL.............................. 175.480
91 Studies in Planetology, Including Collection and In-
terpretation of Planetary Information.
NsO 713................. Arkansas, Unlversity of, M. K.TEETERMAN ................. 55. h76
91 Investigation of Lasar Properties Relevant to the Meas-
urement of Different Physical Parameters.
NsO(T)-12............... Arkansas, University of, V. W. ADKISSON.................... 177, OOO
53 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpwsRelated Sciences and Technology.
N O R ocoO1-015. Arkansas, University of, M. K.TESTERMAN ................ ?i.9in
Investigation of Turbulence Utilizing Laser Doppler
NsG-18 __.____..__._.__ California
__ Institute of Technology, E. E.SECHLER.--. _ _ _ ____ $72,765
53 Study of Cylindrical and Conical Shells with Large Radius
to Thickness Ratios.
NsG-56 __........________ California Institute of Technology, II. BROWNAND B. 140.342
57 Investigations of Prohlems of Lunar and Planetary Ex-
NsG-126 _.__......_.._.._ __
California Institute of Technology, R. B. LEIOHTON-- ___.. 280,145
63 Space-Related Research in Selected Fields of Physics and
NsG(T)37- ...._
~ ...... California Institute of Technology, F. BOHNENBLUST. __
- - - .. 289.1CQ
53 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduatc Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NGR 05-002-031 .......--California Institute of Technology, F. STRUMWAS~ER ......... 57,071
51 Neural Control of Hibernation in Mammals.
NGR OFro02-@36____.. ... California Institute of Technology, J. E. MCKEE _..__._.____. 48,715
s1 Investigation of Biochemical Stabilization of Aqueous
Solutions of Organic Compounds by Unsaturated Flow
Through Porous Media.
NGR 05-002-044___...... California Institute Of Technology, S. EPSTEINAND C. C. 201,282
Geochemical Investigations of Lunar Materials.
N G R OS-OO~WXI~........ California Institute of Technology, A. J . ACOSTA ____.._. ..-.- a,OM)
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Cavitating Hydro-
foils in Cascade.
NsG-101 .._.........._.California,
.. University of (Berkeley), M. CALVINAND M. 319.654
Studies of Reflection Spectra, Meteorite Analysis, Paleo-
biochemistry, and Biochemical Evolution as Basis for Study-
ing Extraterrestrial Life.
NsG-243.. -.. ... __ _ _ _ _
California, University of (Berkeley), S. SILVER ___..____ ...___ ?,031,108
55 Interdisciplinary Space-Oriented Research in the Physical
Biological, Engineering and Social Sciences.
NsG-354 _ _ . _ _ _California,
____ University
___ of_(Berkeley),
_ _ _ C. A. DESOERAND E.
s 3 POLAK.
Advanced Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Auto-
matic Control and Information Systems.
NsG-38i.. ._____._.......California, University of (Berkeley), K. A. ANDERSON _______ 86. OM)
53 Study of High Energy Radiation Associated with Solar
Flares and Auroral Zone Phenomena.
NsG-513.. .-...
... _______California, University of (Berkeley), N. Pace ..__._..__ ____.. 110,700
5 3 Primate Hemodynamics and Metabolism Under Con-
ditions of Weightlansnass, for the Purpose of Defining and
Verifying an Experiment Suitable for Use in a
SsG-wO_.____._..___._._ Califamia, TJniversity of (Berkeley), 11. JOXES AND T. JUKEI. un, MO
5 2 Space Physiology-Studies of Methodology and Instru-
mentation for Measurement of Physiological Variables
Under Space Flight-Like Conditions.
NsG(T)-lli ........._.California, University of (Berkeley), S. S. ELBERG.- ...._.... 324, OM)
5 2 The Trsining of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NGR -7. .___ California,
. _ _University of (Berkeley), W. B. N. BERRY-. ____
- 11,366
S I Study of Growth in Recent and Fossil Invertebrate Ex+
skeletons and its Relationship to Tidal Cycles in the Earth-
Moon System.
NGR o54)03-091- _ _ _ California,
. _ _University
_ of (Berkeley), D. A. GLASER _____ loo.
s 1 Automatic Counting and Identification of Living Micro-
NGR o5-003-125 California, University of (Berkeley), C. W. CHWRCHMAN
AND 159,860
A study of Technological and Urban Management,
Emphasizing the Basic Aspects of Using Technological
Knowledge Developed in Various Fields in Solving Urban

N O R WllO3-134 ________Calllomla, University of (Berkeley), M. CALVIN AND A. L.
Analytlcal Techniqufs for IdentlBcatlon and Study of
Organic Matter in Returned Lunar Samplas.
N G R (LW-143.____.._. Califomla. Unlversity Of (Berkeley), D. J. SAKflISON AND 30. ooo
V. R. AWAn.
Optlmlcatlon of D e n of Space Experiment from the
Standpoint of Data Processing.
NASr-212 ............- ___Californla, Unlverslty of (Berkeley), a. C. PIMENTEL....--. - 131,352
A3 Develop I n f m d Spectrometer Suitable for Space Vehicle
Study of Planetary Atmospheres.
NASr-220 _ _.._ ...
_ . . Callfornla, University of (Berkeley), M. CALVIN.. ......-.
. .-. ... 95,674
9 3 Scanning system for Marlner space vehlcle.
NSR OHKX3-117___....__ Califomla. Unlversity of (Berkeley). H. E. WBITE- - __...-. .. 13.035
A1 Development of Currlculum Materials In Space Biology
for Secondary School Students.
N O R aMo1-006____...__ Callfornia, Unlverslty of (Davis), J. P.HURLEY ..._ _ _ _ _ _ 14.355
5 1 Self-Consistent Study of Trapped Radiation in the Q-
magnetic Field.
N Q R O540448. _ _ _California,
___. Unlvenity
_ of (Davis). C. F. KELLYAND A. 11.
Invartigntion of the Phyalologlcal Effects of Chronic
N O R 06-lW-010 ___...._.California, University of (Davis), E. L. BE=, A. SMITH_ _ _ .M, 186
EUect of Changes In Apparent Welght on the Etficlency
of Eynthetk Sterolds to Alter Calcium Metabolism.
California, University of (Davis), F. Xi. KRATZER __.___.-. .-. 33.188
Effect of Changes in Apparent Weight on the Efeciency
of Synthetic Steroids to Alter Calclum Metabolism, Em-
phasizlng Quantltatlve Aapects of Hormone Admlnistration
and Various Dletary Constltuents on Calcium Accretion
and Resorption.
NsO(T)-86__.........___ Califomla. Unlvenity of (Ca JoUa), F. T. WALL.. _______ ~... 188,800
5 2 Tho Trslnlng of 10 Pmdoctolal Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Bcienoea and Technology.
NsO 218..-. ____.._. . Callfomla, Unlvenity of (Loa Angelen), 0. J. F.MACDONALD.
~. 71, €47
8 2 Theoretlcal Investillattons of the Constitutlon of the Moon
and Planets.
___ __
NsO-237 ... ....._... California, Unlvenlty of (Los Angelfs), W. LIBBYAND J. 750, ooo
57 Interdlselplinary SpaeeOriented Research in the Physl-
cal. Blological and Engineering Sclencas.
NsO 313._._.........._ Callfornia, Unlverslty of (Los Angeles), W. WETHERILL__._ __
52 Isotoplc Chemistry of Meteorities, Including Studies of
Variatlon In Isotoplc Abundances Among Discrete Speci-
NsO 314 ............._._ California,
_ UnlVWSlty Of (LOS Angeles), a. C. KENNEDY-.... 27.887
82 Rasesrch Studies on the Hlgh P r w u r e Solid Phases of
Inert Oases, Particularly as They Might Relate to Planetary
NsO-423 Callfornla, Universlty of (LosAngel-), F. R. SHANLEY -.-..- 77. Mo
81 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Optimum Struc-
tural Design for Space Structures.
NsO-605 _ _ _...._ ..._ _Callfornla,
. Unlverslty of (LosAngeles), W. H.ADEY-.-.....-. 72. Mw)
82 A Study of Bmin Function Through Advanced Computer
Techniques for Analysis of Electro-Encephalographlc Data.
NsO 623 ...............- Califomla, Unlverslty of (LoaAngeles). D. R. LINDSLEY -.--.. 51.497
81 Neurophysiological Studies of Perception.
NsO(T)-4 ..-...-. .._ _ Califomla,
. University of (Los Angelas), W. F. LIBBY -.--.... 308.100
8 4 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpaeeRelated Sciencas and Technology.
NOR OS007441. ...... Callfornia. University of (Los Angeles). Z. S E K E R A . - - - - . . - - - - 75, m
81 Feaslbillty Studles of Coordlnated Radiation Experiments
From Meteorological Satellites.
N O R OS-OCt7-066 _________ _________
California, Univeraity of (Ias Angeles), A. Y.WONO $29,720
81 Investigation of Interaction Between Ion, Beams and
N O R 05407477 _________
California, University of (La Angeles), I. R. KAUN _ _ _ _41.962 __.
Investigation of Techniques for analysis of ancient sedi-
menta and extraterrestrial materials.
N O R 05k07-030.. _______
California, University of (Los Angeles), J. KANE........-. _ _ _ 19, OOO
Studies in the Motion of an Ensemble of Bodies in the
Solar System.
N O R OS-OCt7-OW _ _ _California, _ . _ of (La Angela), O. A. STLINER-
_ _ _UniveRity _____ 2%
Management Sciences Investigations.
NOR OS-OCt7-091_____._._ California, University of (Los Angeles), Y.MINTZ ____________ w 8M)
Investigation8 for Optimization of the Design of Meteoro-
logical Satellite Systems by Numerical Simulation Experi-
NOR 05-007-OD9 . _ _ _California,
_ _ _University
__ of (LosAngeles), R. E. ROBERSON-..- 29,212
Investigation of Spacecraft Rotational Dynamies and
NSR o5-007- _________ California, University of (IasAngeles), W.M. KAUL.4. - - - ___ 31,281
Conduct Lunar Orbiter Selenodesy Studies.
NsO(T)-130.. ___________ California, University of (Riverside), R. B. MARCK _ . _ _ _75,800
5 2 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Oradnate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R O5-008-CO5_._.___._ California, University of (Riverside), J. CALLAWAY. _._____._ 14,953
Atomic Scattering Theory.
NsO-318 ______...._._.._. California, University of (San Diego), L.E. PETERSON.. ...- 204, 000
94 Studies for X-Ray and Gamma Ray Astronomy.
N s Q - 3 1 L ___._._.._._._
California, University of (San Diego), O. 0.COLES __._._____ 30. OOO
s 3 Geochemistry of Trace Elements in Meteorites and Re-
lated Materials.
NSO-321.. .- ._.
.-. ____ __
California, University of (San Diego), J. R. ARNOLD _________ 165, OOO
s 3 An Investigation of the Cosmogenic Radioactivity and
Origin of Metorites, and of the Geochemistry of the Solar
NsO-357 ______.._._._____ California. University of (San Diego), O. BURBIDGE __.__._._ 67,576
s 4 Theoretical Studies in Astrophysics.
NOR 05-ooQ-Ou)..._.__.. California, University of (San Diego), J. H. TAYLOR _____.... 56,318
s 1 Investigation of the Sensitivity of Central and Peripheral
Visual Fields.
NOR OWWB430__.._____ California. University of (San Diego), R. H. LOWERG ___._ 16O_
Physical Processes in the Magneto-Plannadynamic Arc.
N O R 05oMI-032...---...California, University of (San Diego), S. L. MILLER __........ 167,445
Feasibility Study on Miniaturisating an Automatic
I m i n o Acid Analyzer for use on an Apollo Mission and
a Marg Voyager Mission.
NOR 054W-043...._.___ California, University of (San Diego), H. UREY AND B. NAGY. 83.000
Study of Techniques for Organic Oeochemicnl Analysis
Lunar Sample Material.
NASr-116 ................ California, university of (San Diego), C. E. MCILWAIN ___._._ 64,569
A9 Conduct Analytical, Theoretical and Experimental
Studies of Oeomagnetically Trapped Particles.
NsO-91.~......~. ~ .California,
.. ~. ~ . University of (Santa Barbara), W. C. WALKER.... 35. ooo
s 4 Investigation of the Optical Parameters of Certain Solids
in the Spectral Region Between 3.000 and 300 Angstroms.
NFG(Tb146.. . ..... California, University of (Santa Barbara) E. L. ORIGGS
~ ~ ~
..... 84,800
Thc Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spacc-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR W 1 O m California, University of (Santa Barbara), J. M. SLOSS..-. ... 14.382
Elliptic Differential Equations.
NOR W l M l o California, University of (Santa Barbara), W. C. GOGEI... . 28,176
Interrelations of perceived size and distance.
N O R aw24-co3 Institute of Medical Sciences, K. H. FINLEY .......... .. .. . 34, O i L
Role of the Vsscular System of the Brainon Causation of
Damage from the Stresses of Radiation and Oxygen Excess.

NSR 05-013-008......... Long Beach California State College. C. T. DEAN-...........
Development of AenSpsut Materials for Enrichment Of
the Curriculum in AeraSpace Education in the Public
NASr-21(@7) ............. Rand Corporation, 8. OREEN~ELD. ......................... 75, ouo
A8 Research on the Scientific Utilkatlon of Meteorological
Satellite Data.
NASr-21(12) ............. Rand Corporation, M.A. Mnitoous ......................... ?45, io0
A1 Development of Procedures for Examining the Economic
Impllcation of Manned Space Exploration.
NASr-21(13) ............. Rand Corporatlon, 8. DOLE .................................. 112, wo
Conduct a Contingency Planning for Space Emergencies
NOR 05-CU2-001. ....... Scripps Clinic & Research Foundation, D. FRANKUS ........ 49,920
Applications of UltraJonk Doppler-Sonar Techniques to
Cardlovascular Instrumentation in Humans.
NsO-178 ................. Southern California, University of, 0. L. WEIMLER .......... 50. OOO
S3 Interactions of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation with Solid
NsQ-343 ................. Southern California, University of, R. SIMHA ................ m, 097
52 The Mechanism and Interpretation of Glass Transition
Phenomena in Polymers.
NsQ-433................. Southern California, University of, J. P.HENRY............. 91.980
8 3 An Experimental Investigation of the Role of Experiences
in the Etiology of Animal and Human Physiological and
Behavioral R e s p o m to Situational Stress in Later Life.
NsO(T)-?5. ............. Southern California, University of, M. C. KLOETZEL. ........ 250.4on
9 3 The Training of 12 Predoctoral 0raduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 06-018-007 ......... Southern California, University of. O . L. WRIWLER.......... 20,810
8 1 Measurement of Absolute Photon Flux uslng a Super-
conducting Bolometer.
N O R O!i-illa-Cm ......... Southern Calllornia, Universltyof, 0. A. BEXEY............ 49.477
SI Study of New Techniques for Analysis of Manual Control
NOR oW18-044 ......... SouthernCalifornia, Universityof, W. C. BIEL................ 400. oui)
Multidisciplinary Research in the S p w R e l a t e d Engi-
neering, Physical, Biological and Social Sciences.
NOR OWlfJ-052.. ....... Southern Callfornia, University of. R. 8. MACMILLAN. .......
Investigation of Bio-electrodes.
NSR oM)lE-O65 .......... Southern California. University of. R. H. EDWARD@.. .......
Summer Institute in Space Technology.
NSR OW18-OS.. ....... Southern Calllornla, Unlversity of, J. W. EHREIREICH- ......
Exploratory and Developmental Study for a Southern
California RDC for TU.
NASr 4W7) .............. Stanford Research Institute, F. T. SMITH.................... 40.720
A4 Conduct Theoretical Research on Low Energy Electronic,
Ionic and Atomic Impact Phenomena.
NASr 49(oir).............. Stanford Research Institute, F. T. SMITH....................
A5 Conduct Theoretical Research on Low Energy Electronic,
Ionic and Atomic Impact Phenomena.
NASr-49(14)............ Stanford Rosearch Institute, D. L. CHAMBERLAIN ..........
A3 Experimental Stndlcs of Possible Mcchanlsms ol Bolldiw
Between Glass and Polymeric Materials, Including In-
vcstigatlon of the Formation of Silicon-Halogen Bonds that
Might Serve a? Precursors to Silicon-Carbon Bond-.
NASr-49(15)............. Stanford Research Institute, N. K.HIESTLR ................ i4.955
A4 Development of Meaningful Standard Procedures for
Evaluating the Effect of Thermal Environments on Ablat-
ing Materlals.
NASr-49(19).---.~. .... Stanford Research Institutc, F. A. HALDEN ................ 50.360
.4 2 Research on the Optimum Parameters for the Growing Of
Refractory Carbide Single Crystals.
NsQ-30 Stanford
___..__ __ UIIiVeraity,
_ _ _0. __ _ ___
VILLAS0 _ a.
_ _______________________ $70,300
56 Electron Content Distribution and Temporal Variation
in the Ionosphere by Means of Scintillation and Faraday
Rotation of SateUte Radio Trsnsmissions, Including Con-
sideration of Latitudinal Effects of Magnetic Storms.
NsG.81 .................. Stanford University, J. LEDEBBERQ __________________________ 269,460
96 Cytochemical Studies of Planetary Microorganisms.
NsG-133 ................. Stanford University, R. H. CANNON AND L. FLUOQE-LOTZ. - loo,ooo
SI Space Vehicle Attitude Control Systems.
NsQ-174 _____.__. __
.- ._ - Stanford University, R. A. HELLIWELL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, ooo
53 Investigation of Experimental Techniques for Measure-
ment of Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic Phenomena
in the Ionosphere.
NsG-215 ................. Stanford University, F. MOBB~LL AND L.MORBEU __________ 74,967
s3 Investigation of the Electrophysiological Correlates of
Vigilance and Learning, Inclnding Consideration of Phe-
nomena Related to the Adaption of Humans to Monotonous
NsG-290 ................. Stanford University, 0 . BUNEMAN _____ ____ _________ __ ______
- 43, ooo
53 Study of Randomization of Electron Energy in Plasma
Thermionic Diodes.
NsG-377 ................. Stanford University, V. R. E~HLEMAN _______________________ 'w am
53 Theoretical and Experimental Radio and Radar Studies
of Lunar and Planetary Ionospheres, Atmospheres, and
Surfam, the Sun,and the Interplanetary Medium.
NsG-378 ................. Stanford University, W. M. FAIRBANK . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _70, _ OOo
93 Gravitational and Resonance Experiments on Very Low
Energy Free Electrons and Posltrons.
NsG-555.................Stanford University, G. L. PEARSON _________________________ 150. ooo
91 Investigations and Analyses of Gallium Phosphide's Met-
allurgical, Electrical, Mechanical and OpticaI Properties and
Their Significance in Solar Energy Conversion, Leading to
Verification by Experimental Models.
NsG-582................. Stanford University, R. H. CANNON AND W. M.FAIBBANK.- 180. ooo
94 Investigations, Theoretical and Experimental Analyses
for a Zero-G Satellite Development, and SchiE Gym Test of
the General Theory of Relativity.
NsG-622................. Stanford University, A. 8. TETELYAN- . _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 32._OM)______
S2 An investigation of the Mechanism of Strengthening and
Fracture in Composite Systems.
NsG- ................. Stanford University, N. J. HOPP............................. 11.833
s1 Buckling of Spheres Under External Pressure.
NsG-703 ................. Stanford University, P. A. STUBROCX_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 35,075
51 Theoretical Studies of Turbulence in Plasmas.
NsG(T)-76. ............. Stanford University, H. HEFFNEB- ______________ ~ ______ 324. ooo. _ _ _ _
93 The Training of 15 Pmdoctoml Graduate Students in the
SpacRRelated Sciences and Technology.
N G R ocroa)-o36......... stallford University, R. C . ATKINSON- - _____________________ 56,870
91 Study of Decision Making and Information Processing.
N O R 05-02(MB5.. ....... Stanford University, V. R. ESFILEYAN....................... 62.700
s1 A Theoretical and Analytical Study of Telemetry Occul-
tation Data Available from the Mariner Program.
N O R ocroaM66--.--.-. Stanford University, W. E. SPICER .......................... 43,949
s1 Photoemission Studies of Solids.
NOR 05- ......... Stanford University, R. E. KALMAN ....................... 42,819
A1 Research on Stability snd Stochastic Optimum Control.
NOR 05oLO 077......... Stanford University, F. W. CRAWFORD.. .................... 59.875
s1 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Nature and
Characteristics of Spaee-Related Plasma Resonance Phe-
NOR 05-mO-oR4......... Stanford University, 0. D. SEERBY......................... ?o. ooo
51 Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystal-
line Non-Metallic8at Elevated Temperature. with Emphasis
on the Mechanisms of Creep.

NOR O5+ZO44I ......... Stanford University, D. BERSHADER .........................
SI Experimental and Analytical Studies of Plasma Transport
NOR O54X20-103 ......... Stanford University, 8.E. HARRIS........................... 180. MM
Investigation of Laser Dynamics, Modulation, and Con-
trol by Means of I n t n C a v i t y Time Varying Perturbation.
NOR 05-020-115 ......... Stanford University, R. J . P. LYON.. ........................ 190.030
Field Infra-Red Analysis of Terrain Surfaces.
NOR 05-020-llR ......... Stanford University, J. B. KYSER............................ OOo
Study of Spark-Temperature Measurements BS a Means of
Deducing Static Temperature.
NOR 054'20-134 ......... Stanford University, W.M. KAYS ............................ 55.744
Mass Transfer to a Turbulent Boundary Layer with Step
Chanws in Boundary Conditions and Variable Free-Strearn
NOR 05-020-137 ......... Stanford University, L. STRYER AND A. K0RNBERQ.- ....... 5d. 464
Structure and Function of Proteins and Nucleic Acids.
NOR 0.5020-165 ......... Stanlord University, M. CHoDoROW ......................... 100, oa,
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Collectivc
Microwave Phenomena in Solids.
N O R 05+M-166-. ...... Stanford University, A. L. SCHAWIOW....................... 45,0011
Investigstlon of Coherent Infrared Sources of Radiation.
NASr-136 ................ Stanford University, 0.0. VILLARD ......................... 75.570 '
AG Research to Obtain Information About the Electron
Content in the Ionosphere and its Variation.
NSR 05- ......... Stanford University, M. ANLIKER............................ 97. IM)
A2 A Summer Institute in Space-Related Engineering.
NSR W2&109 .......... Stanford University, H. T. HOWARD ......................... 30,388
Data Processing for Radio Propagation Investigation in
Pioneer A.
NSR ob023161......... Stanford University, W. BoLLAY............................. 57, m
Summer Program in Systems Design Engineering.
R-0603ol)l ............. U.6.N.-Naval Ordnance Test Station, E . RAWER ........... 66.827
A 1...................... Theoretical and Experimental Research to Provide
Quantitative Knowledge on the Influence of Surfw Energy
and Structure on the Electron Emission Properties of
RM-039001 ............ U.S.N.-Paciflc Missile Range, F. E. WHITTENBURG .........
AI Install Precision Instrument No. PI-200 Tape Deck, Special
Reel, Universal Mounting Board and Megacycler In PMR
Safety Van. and Make Available to UCLA for Ionosphere
IMsturbanco Experiments.
NsO(T)-QZ.. ............ Colorado School of Mines, A. R. JORDAN ..................... 60.300
sz The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG(T)-45 .............. Colorado State University, W. H. BRAQONIER.. ............. 146.400
S3 The Training of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 06-002432 ......... Colorado State University, W. R. MICKEL~EN ................ 97,420
Advanced Electric Propulsion Research.
NOR 06-002-041......... Colorado State University, R. J. PAINTER .................... 6.530
Investigate the Problems Concerning Bounds for Zeros
of Polynomials.
NASr-147 ................ Colorado State University, W. E. MARLATT..................
A4 An Investigation of the Temperature and Spectral Emis-
sivity Characteristics of Cloud Tops and of the Earth's
NsO(T)-46. ............. Colorado, University of, E. J. ARCHER.....................
5 3 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in tho
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NASr-86 ................. Colorado, University of, W. A. RENSE....................... 51.368
A4 Investigation of the Solar Ultraviolet Radiation.
N O R olHW033 ......... Colorado, Universlty of, A. BUSEMANN ...................... 23,629
Optimal Trajectories Between Elliptical Orblts.
N O R otHWO34 _________ Colorado, University of, W. A. RENUE_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a% 897. _ _ _ _ _
Ultraviolet Radiation Rweareh to Support Rocket and
Satellite E k h r Ultraviolet Experiments.
N G R 06403452. ___..___ ______
Colorado, University of, C. A. BARTE ~ _ _ _ _ _ _3 _ ______
Theoretical and Experimental Research Program in
Physics of Planetmy Atmospheres.
NsG(T)-49 ____.___....__ Denver, University of, W. C. MILLER____..__._____._..___ lOB, OOO
93 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-382___....____..____ Denver, University of, R. C.AYME________...._..______ a,OOO
81 Study of Atomic and Molecular Collision Procesfs by
Beam Techniques.
NsG-518 ___.___....______ Denver, University of, 8.A. JOHNSON _________ 150,
52 Multidisciplinary Research in Spaee-Related Science and
N G R O W 0 4 4 3 5_....___. ____
Denver, University of, T. R. REHY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _25, _ OOO
Bubble Growth Parameters in Saturated and Subeooled
Nucleate Boiling.
NSR OWM-039 ___....... Denver, University of, J. 0. WELLES___.._.__......._._______ 86,895
Analysis of the Utiltcation of NASA Generated Techno-
logical Information in Five Industries.
R-30_____._____........_ - U.S.National Bureau of Standards, R. 0. MERRILL AND R . 6. 80, OOO
Conduct Studies of the Electron Qonduct, Distribution,
and Temporal Variation in the Ionosphere. using Scintilla-
tions and Faraday Rotation of Satellite.
R-68 ___....______.._.__.. _________
U.S. National Bureau of Standards, J. J. KELLEHEB 60,OOO
A2 Conduct R e s e k h Relevant to Frequency-Sharing Com-
R-83-------....____._..__ U.S. National Bureau of Standards, D. T. FARLEY.___....__ 150, OOO
A3 Partial Support of Observations and Experiments a t the
Jicamarca Radar Observatory, Emphasizing Incoherent
Backscatter Studies of the Magnetosphere.
R 102.-......__....____.. U.S. National Bureau of Standards, R. B. SCOTT-.______...-- 87,500
A2 Support of Solar Flare Patrol by a World-Wide Network of
Observatories, for the Collection of Dataon Solar Flares and
Associated Ionospheric Disturbances.
R 133..--...........___.. U.S. National Bureau of Standards, W.CALVERT _____...._._ 62,900
A3 Design and Construction of Three Prototypes and Two
Flight Models of a Resonance Relaxation Probe for the In-
vestigation of the Ionosphere from a Sounding Rocket Plat-
R-W-OONM6 ---.. -. -.-U.S.National Bureau of Standards, D. CEELTON.
..- _.___-..... 160,OOO
Conduct Critical Evaluation for the Thermophysical
Property Data from the Scientific Literature for Materials
at Temperatures from Cryogenic to Ambient.
R-06-0&05i -....- ....-.-U.S. National Bureau of Standards, F. E. ROACH _.__.____. .. 10, OOO
Provide Qualified Personnel to Assist in the Brlehg and
Debriefing of Astronauts Relative to Observation of Oec-
Astronomical Phenomena.
NAsr-195 ----. ..- University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, A. L.
......-. @.m
Development of Improved Means of Scientific Ballooning
and Conduct of Scientific Balloon Flights.
NASr-213 -.--..........__ Western State College of Colorado, T. D. VIOLETT-.--.-- -.--- 13,189
A2 Provide for the Flight of a Rocket Spectrograph to Ex-
amine the Lyman-Beta Line of Solar Emission.
NsG-m. .-....--.......Connecticut,
_ University of, W. E. HILDING____._-.---......-. 67.387
s2 Analytical and Experimental Heat Transfer and Flow
Mechanics Studies Of High Velocity Vapors Condensing in
Small Tubes.

NsG-309 _________________
Connecticut, University of, D. P. LINWRPF _.._-__.--..-----
€34 Analytical and Experimental Research on Reducing the
Sensitivity of Sampled Data systems to Parameter Var-
iations and Disturbances.
Connecticut, University of, N. L.WHETTEN
NsG(T)-47..____.___..__ ______ ----

93 The Tratning of a Predoctoral Graduate Students in the

Space Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-1tU _ _ . . _ _ _ Yale
__ _ _ _V.
University, _IIUGHE~
_ . __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - -_
-- ______._
94 Theoretical Researoh in Relativity. Cosmology and Nu-
clear Astrophysics.
Yale University, 9.R. LIPSKY
NsG-192 ._.._______._._.. _.________ - -. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
93 Experimental Mass Spectrographio-Gas Chromatographic
Techniqucs for Chemical Analysffl of the Atmospheric and
Surface Constituents of the Moon and Planets.
NsO-208 __..____._.____._
Yale University, 11. MOROWITZ ____________ 26,154

52 A Determination and Analysis of tho Properties and

Characteristics of Extremely Small Free-Living Self-Repli-
cating Cells.
NsGS74 _______
__.._ Yale
____ R. CALAMBOS _____ .._ _ ______
__ __ __ ____.72.Q20
52 Electrophysiological Studias of the Brain, Including Im-
provement of Experimental Techniques and Methodology.
NsO(T)M. . _ _ _ _ _ _Yale
_. University,
_ _ _ _ J. P. MILLER ________________________________ 324, OOO
83 The Training of 15 Predoctonrl Graduate Students in thc
Spnw-Related Bciencas and Technology.
N G R 07-004428. _ _ _Yale
__ University.
91 Plasma Physics in Planetary and Solar Environments.
Yale University, W. E. LAMB
N O R 07-OM-iM5 ....____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____-.... ____
91 Investigation of the Basic Foundations of Masers and
NOR 07-004-040- - ..... . Yale, University, K.K.TUREKIAN ____.._.__
~ ____ _._~_. . 17,320
Trace Elements In Lunar Materials in Relations to
- of Formation.
NOR 07-004-041 _ _ _ _ Yale
_ University,
._. 11. J. MOROWITZ _____. _____.._...

An Examination of the Physical Foundation of Pre-

Biological Evolution.
NOR 07-004-042 __.._.__ Yale University, R. L.ARMSTRONG -........_ . _ _ _ _ _ _ 83,_OOo_ _ . - - .
Study of Mechanlsms for Lunar and Planetary Differentia-
tion as Revealed by Laborstory Experimentation and
Studies of Terrestrial Analogs.
N O R 074M-044___..._. Yale University, F. B. TUTEUR _____..__________.__. 7,w

Investigation into Methods for Decreasing the Minimum

Bit Rate in Long-Range Communications.
N G R 07-004-048- -...... Yale University, V. SZEREHELY- _.____.___.._.._.._._ ..-..-
20. OOO
The Gravitational N-Body Problem.
NSG-573--.. ____ __
...- -.-.-...- Delaware, University of. IC. W. BOER-. -. -. -.- - ..--.-- ~
9 2 Study of X-Ray and Electron Damage, and Phot*
Chemical Reactions in CdS Single Crystals and Layers,
Annealing of these Defects, and Influence of Desorption
Caused by Irradiation.
NsO(T)-ZQ. _ . _ _____ . . _Delaware,
__ University of, C. E. BIRCWENALL __._...-..-..
.... . 150.800
93 The Tralning of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NASr-132- - .-_. ......... American Institute of Biological Sciences, J. R. OLIVE.- - - - - - 190,OOO
AB Symposium on the Minimum Ecological Systems for Man.
NSR 09-lUHx)l. - ....... Carnegie Institute of Washington, B. H. RULE....-......- - - .
Modernize the Winch Telescope at Mount Wilson Observ-
NSG-586 --..~. ........... Catholic University, C. C. CHANG ....-....-......-------- -- ~
70. OOO
SI Theoretical, Analytical and Exparimental Investigatlons
of IIydrodynamies of Gaseous-Core Ring-Vortex and Cylin-
drical Cavity Reactors.
NsG 647................. Catholic University, P. P. H. MEUER........................ a.
92 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Spin-Photon
Coupling Effects in Paramagnetic Crystals.
NsG-649................. Catholic University, T. TANAKA- ........................... 26,220
92 Analysis of Radiation Damage in Solar Cells.
NsG(T)-39 .............. Catholic University, J. P. O'CONNOR ........................ 230, rn
s 3 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 08-005-022--...-.. Catholic University, B. DECICCO--.......................... 20.598
81 Genetic Studies of Hydrogen Bacteria and Their Applica-
tion to Biological Life Support Systems.
N G R 0 9 4 0 5 4 Z ........ Catholic University, C. C. CHANG ........................... 119,260
Diagnostics of Accalerating Plasma.
NSR 0945-031. ........ Catholic University, C. 8. BOWYER .......................... 173,641
Search of the Southern Sky for Galactic X-ray Soums.
N O R 09-13poo1 ......... Children's Hospital, J. C. Honcx ............................ 32, OOO
Investigation of the Effect of Stress on the Chemistry,
Metabolism and Biophysics of Collagen.
NsG (T)-98- ............. Georgetown University, J . B. HORIQAN ...................... 141,000
52 The Training of 8 Predwtoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-72; ................. George Wmhington University, L. H. MAYO................. 75,737
s2 Policy Studies of Interest to tho Government-Industry-
University Community.
NsG(T)-5. ............. George Washington University, A. E. BURNS................ log, 800
s 3 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in thc
SpaceRelated Sciences and Technology.
NASr-lil--. ............. George Washington University, C. W. SHILLING.-. ........... 47,501
A3 Review and Evaluation of New Technology in the Bio-
medical Field.
NASr-171 ................ Gcorge Washington university, C. W. SE~LLING .............. 4.138
A4 Review and Evaluation of New Technology in the Bio-
medical Field.
NSR OQ-010427......... Georgo Washington University, C. W. SHILLING .............. 57,36?
Scientific Comniunication Research in Space Biology.
NsG (T)-llO.. ........... Howard University, C. L. MILLER. .......................... 104.200
S? The Training of 5 Predwtorsl Graduate Students in the
SpaeeRelated Sciences and Technology.
N O R 09-011-w4......... Howard University, H. BRANSON ............................ 26, OOO
s1 Research in the Space Sciences.
N O R 094ll-OoF, ......... Howard University, F. SENFTLE ............................. 13,400
Investigation of Infra-Rcd Absorption and Low Anglc
X-Ray Scattering of TeWites.
NGR OQ-012-MI......... National Academy of Sciences, I. HERMANN. ................ 5, ooo
s1 Partial Support of International Biophysics Congress.
NASr-62................. National Academy Of SCienW, 5. 9.STEINBERG.............. 290, ooo
A6 NASA International University Fellowship Program.
NSR 09-012-036.- ....... National Academy of Sciences, H. HESS...................... 50. OOO
Conference Study of Cardiovascular and Respiratory
Physiology in Long Term Space Flights.
NSR 09-012-901 ......... National Academy of Sciences, C. LAPP.-. ................... 580, OOO
A4 NASA-NAS Resident Research Associateship Program.
NSR 09-012-K~......... National Academy of Sciences, H. ODISAAW .................. 255,850
A1 Support to the "National Academy of Sciences S P W
Science Board".
NSR 09-014-Mt1.... Science Service, Inc., W. DAVIS.............................. 4,070
Administering the NASA Trip Awards Made at the 17th
International Science Fair.
NsG-291 ................. Smithsonian Institution, R. E. MCCROSKY ................... 230,OOO
s2 Systematic In-Flight Photography and Subsequent Re-
covery of Meteorites.
NsG -689...-.. ......... Smithsonian Institution, K. FREDRIKWON ................... 100, OOO
5 2 Studies of Constituents, Compositions, and Textures of
Meteorites and Their Bearing on Theoretical Problems.

D ~ m o?
m CoLnusu-Continued
SmithsonIan Institution, R. H A E ~ EAND
NSR OD-015-018 ___..._._ R I. IZSAH ____....--
A1 Data Analysis in Connection with the National Geodetic
Satellite Program.
N8R ow)Is-m? _ _ _ _ Smithsontan
_ _ _ Institution,
_. 0. Q. FAZIO 48.427
A High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Experiment for
High-Altitude Balloons.
Smithsontan Institution, F. L. WH~PPLE___________..___
NSR 09-016433 _..__._._ m.896
Conduct a Meteor Research Program.
NsQ-36 _______...._.._.._
Soclety of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, N. GOOD- 39.800
8 6 WIN.
Independent Tracking Coordinatlon Program.
R-lM(06) __.____...._____U.S.Atomic Energy Commission, J. V. SLATER._ _ _ _ -- _.-15.iMi
A2 Conduct a Feasibfflty Study for an Experiment Suitable
lor Use in a Riosatelllta, to Determine the Efflect of the
Spacs Environment Complex on Insect Growth and De-
R-lM(07) ._______......._U.S. Atomic Energy Commisslon, A. H. SPARROW AND 25. OOO
A2 L. A. SCEHanrER.
Conduct Fedbility Studies for Experiments Suitable
for Use in a Blosatelllte to Detemlne the Influence of S p a
Environment on Mutation Process Using Controlled
Qamma Rag Exp08um.
R-lM(07).. ....._________U.S. Atomic Energy Commisslon, A. SPARROW_____ ~ ------- -
A3 Conduct Feasibility Studles for Experiments Sultable
for Use in a Biosatellite to Determine the Influenee of S p a
Environment on Mutation Prooess Using Controlled
Gamma Ray Exposures as a Standard.
R-lM(OB) _____.._._...__.U.S. Atomic Energy Commhlon. R. C. VONBORSTEL AND 216. OOO
Conduct Research and Development In Connectlon with
Two Blologlcal Experiments for Possible Includon on Bio-
R-lM(lO) ___..____......_U.S. Atomic Energy Commlsslon. 8. K.PENNY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ . _ _
Partlal Support for the “Radlation Shlelding Information
Center (Space Shlelding)”.
R-lM(10) ._.._.
_.._..____ U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 8. K.PENNY-. _ _ _ _ _ _ . . - - - -
A1 Partial Support for the “Radiation Shielding Information
Center (Space Shielding).”
Ra401QMO. ..........- U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. H. D. S I V ~ ~ K I_ -._. ____..
Support of the Planetary Quarantine Activities of Bio-
science Programs.
R-OhW-001 __...._..___ U.S. Department of Interior (Bumnu of Mines). T. C.
Multidisclplhary Research Program h a d i n g to the
Utilization of Extraterrestrial Resourn.
R-66 ..___._________..._.U.S. Dcpartment of Interior (Geological Survcy), F. E. 725, OOO
Studies of the Lunar Surfsee including Lunar Qeologlc
Mapping; Cratering and Other Crater Impact Mechanism;
Chemical Physical and Petrographic Properties of Material
of Possible Lunar Origin; and Ranger and Surveyor Data
Reductlon and Interpretation.
R-146 __...........__.___U.S. Department of Interlor (Geological Survey). R. M. 300.OOO
Infrared and Ultraviolet Studies or Terrestrial Materials.
R-0402(HM7 ............. U.S. Department of Interior (Geological Survey) ...-. --..... . 195,OOO
A1 Geological Training Program for Astronauts whlch Will
Includo Lectures and Seminars in Terrestrial and Lunar
Vulcanology and Impact Geology and Field Exercises.
R-OB420410 -...~ ~ ~ U.S. ~ Department
~ . of. Interior
~ . (Geological Survey), W. T. 83.500
Provlde Technical and Administrative Assistance in Pre-
paring Laboratory Suitable for Analyzing Lunar S-PlaS.

U.S. Department of Interior (Qeological Survey), L.C l a s s -

Conduct Studies, Evaluation and Anal- Relating to
the Planning and Development of Scientific Operations (and
Supporting Equlpment and Facilities) for Apollo Lunar
U.S. Department of Interior (Geological Survey), A.
Studles for Qmgraphy and Cartography Leading to the
Formulation of Spacetllght Experiments for Manned Earth
Orbital Fllghts.
R-61- .................... U.S. National Bureau of Standards, A. M.Bass _____________
A3 Investigate the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectra of Atom and
Low Molecular Weight Molecules.
R-80- .................... U.S.National Bureau of Standards, M. J. BERGEB ___________
A4 Conduct a Study of the Penetration of High-Energy Radi-
ation Through Matter.
R-127-.. ................. U.S. National Bureau of Standards, C. M. TcHEN.-.. ________
A2 Application of plasma dynamics and statistical mechanics
to p l a w a propulsion.
R-W-022-029.. .......... U.S. National Bureau of Standards, W. HAMEB- .............
A2 Prepare a Compilation of Critically Evaluated Data of
Electrochemical Properties of Solutions, Including Activity
Coefficients, Standard Electrical Potentials, Electronic Con-
ductivities, Ionic-Mobilities and Heats of Solution.
R-09422-0. ............ U.S. National Bureau of Standards, J. FALLER ...............
A1 Conduct a Solar Chromosphere Investigation during the
November 12,1988 Total Solar Eclipse.
R-09422-CE.. .......... U.S. National Bureau Of Standards, H. P. R. FREDERI68E--
A1 Conduct Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of
the Electronic Energy Band Structure of Solids.
R-09-022-042............. U.S. National Bureau of Standards, L. K.IRWIN ............
A1 Conduct Investigations to Develop One or More Methods
for Making Mechanical Complianca Measurements of Crack
Toughness Test Specimens and to Determine the Compli-
ance Characteristics and the Signi5cant Parametars of Se-
lected Specimens with Sufficient Precision that Compari-
sons can be made.
R MW...
.......... U.S. National Bureau of Standards, 0. SBAPIRO .............
A1 Investigate the Performance Characteristics of Electro-
mechanical Telemetering Transducers Required for Making
Meaningful Measurements of Physical Quantities; Develop
Techniques & Apparatus for Determination of these Charac-
R-48.. ................... U.S.N.-Naval Research Laboratory, F. B. IsaKsoN-..- - - -. -
A8 Provide Balloon Support a t Fort Churchill, During the
Summer of 1988 for NASA Sponsored Scientlsts.
R-107 .................... U.S.N.-Naval Research Laboratory, H. FRIEDMAN--. ....
A2 Research on Solar Instrumentation for Advanced Orbiting
R-107 .................... U.S.N.-Naval Research Laboratory. H. FRIEDMAN .........
A3 Research on Solar Instrumentation for Advanced Orbiting
R-147 .................... U.S.N.-Naval Rasearch Laboratory, 0. HICKS..............
A1 Meteor Photography Using TV Techniques.
R M 2 9 4 3 6 . . ........... U.S.N.-Naval Research Laboratory, R. TOUSEY and M. J.
Observation of the White Light Corona from a Rocket.
R-!IQ4%047............. U.5.N.-Naval Research Laboratory ......................
Provide the University of Iowa Van De Graff Services
for the Calibration PN Junction (PNJ) Experiments.
R-42 ..................... U.S.N.-OfIice of Naval Research, C. TOLHURST ...........
A4 Support of the National Research Council Committee on
Hearing and Bioacoustics and the .National Research
Council Committee on Vision.

Dfmsrn or CoLwYau-Con tinUed

R-48- .................... U.S.N.-Odl~ofNaval Research.. ..........................
A6 Fort Churchill Balloon Flights.
R-48 ____
__ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - U.S.N.-OWca of Naval Research ............................
A7 Provide SKYHOOK Flight Services for Four Balloon
R-122..--. .............. U.8.N .-OI& of Naval R-h, H. W. IInYS-._ _ _ _----- - - -
A2 Partld Support for the A d v h r y Center on Toxidogy
of the National Ahcadmy of Sciences.
R -128.................... U.B.N.-OWm Of Naval R-h, L. A. J ~ r i ~ k _a s_------
_ -. 49,225
A2 Conduct Studies of Auditory Information P I V W S S ~ ,
Emphasizing the Appllcatlon of Signal Detectability
Theary to Auditory Bensory R e s p o m .
R -144... ................. U.S.N.-OWce of Naval Research............................ im. o i ~
A2 Partial Support of a Series of Interdisciplinary Conferences
on a Variety of Biological Subjects to be conducted by the
New York Academy of Sciences.
R ~ l _ _ ... _...._.. U.S.N.-Offh Of Naval Research ............................ 3, OOO
Fifth Internatlonal Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynam-
R-65 ..................... U.S. Weather Bur0fUl, F. W. REICEELDERrER ................ 65.WJ
A4 Partial Support of the Severe Storms Study Program to
Include Obtaining Information on the Relatlon of Oust
Intensity Level with Radsr Reflectivity and the E m i o n
Effaets of Atmospheric Particles on Aircraft at High Mach
N O R lO-OY2-001..~~ ..... Florida Southern College,B. 8OKOIX)FP. ..................... 2% 7R5
Investigation of Space Flight Malaise and ita PossibIe
Relation to Serotonin.
NsQ "24................. Florida State University, C. H. BARROW.................... 78.113
s3 A Study of Polruitatlon of the Decameter-Wave Radlatlon
from Jupibr, with Particular Emphasis on the Correlation
between Jupibr and Solar Activity.
N8O-24i ................. Florida State University, L. MANDELKERN.. ................. 58.363
83 A Study of Crystallization, Cross-linking and Dlmensional
Changes Durlng the Crystal-Liquid Phasa Transition of
Oriented Polymeric Systems.
NSQ(T)-50.. ............ Florida State University. J. K. FOLOER. ..................... 168,
93 The Training of 10 Predwtoral Oraduab Students in the
Space-Relatad Sciences and Technology.
N O R lO-OO5-OlB. ........ Florida State Universlty, H. QAWRON ....................... 32.500
81 Photaehemlcal Transformation of Acetate into Algae Cell
NsO-542 .................
Florida, University of, L.E. ORINTER .....................
92 Multidisciplinary Program of Research in Space-Related
Sciences and Technolwy.
NSO-rn................. Florida, University of, A. E. 8. OREEN......................
81 Theoretical Investigations In Atmospheric Physic3 (Radi-
ation in Planetary Atmcspheres).
NSQ(T)-13. ............. Florida, University of, L. E. QRINTER ..................... 217.800
93 The Training of 12 Predwtoral Graduate Students in tho
SpaceRelated Sciences and Technolwy.
NOR 10005-036 ......... Florida, University of, 0. E.N Emu... .....................
Impact of Shell Type Structures wlth Continuous Media.
N O R 10605-039......... Florfda, Universlty of, J. J. HRm. .........................
Investigation of Structures with the Field Ion Microscope.
N O R l(Mo5-1X0.. ....... Florida, University of, R. T. SCBNEIDER .....................
Investigation of SpeetraIn the Vacuum UV and Soft X-ray
R W .
N O R l&OOSOS4 ......... Florida, Univemiity Of, R. T. QCHNEIDER .................... 4fJ.000
Investigation of Material Releasa and Electric Current
Emission from Electrodes. Particularly In IIlgh VfmUm.
NOR 1(Mo5-on..... Florida Universlty of. R. T).WALKER.. ..................... 92.016
Om Rolubillties and Transport Properties in Fuel Cell
NSR 1o(zHw7-.. _______
Florida, Univenlty of, H. C. BROWN ________________________ $25, ooo
ConductAnalysh and SynthesisofElastomers forusewith
Liquid Fluorine.
NsO 621................. Miami, University of, H. 8. ROR~BTSON- .................... 20, 000
92 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Anode
Spot Oscillations in Alkali Vapor Plasmas.
NsQ-888................. Miami, University of, 8.W. Fox ............................. 1% 860
93 Investigations in Space-Related Biology, Including Mole
enlar Evolution and Relevant Aspects of the Extraterres-
trial Environment.
NsQ(T)-126. ............ Miami, University of, 3. A. H A R R ~... ....................
N 1 6 2olJ
92 The Training of 8 Predootoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Science8 and Technology.
N G R 10607-010......... Miami, Universityof. E. H. MAN............................
Multidisciplinary Research in Space Sciences.
NOR l(Mm-012......... Miami, University of, M. L.KEPLINGER ..................... 108,480
s 1 Investigation of the Toxic Effects of Fluorine.
N O R 10407-02. ....... Miami, University of, 0. W. LEWIS.......................... 28,675
Study of Protein Nutrition as Maintained by Synthetic
Polysnimo Acids.
N O R 10-007-026-....... Miami, University of, 9. F.SINGER .......................... 3, OoO
Partial Support for a Conference on ObservationalAspects
of Cosmology.
N O R l(Hwn-028. ....... Miami, University of, 8.F. SINGEB .......................... 47,282
91 Research in Atmospheric Measurement Technlqnes.
NSR 10407432~ ........ Miami, University of, 5. F. SINGER .......................... 39.400
Summer Institute of Fundamental Concepts in Environ-
mental and Planetary Sciences.
NSR l(M07-032 ......... Miami, University of, 8. F. SINGER ......................... 2,700
A1 A Summer Institute on Fundamental Ooncepts in En-
vironmental and Planetary Sciences.
NOR lMw#Hx)5. ....... South Florida, Universityof, H. K. E. WURYB.............. 12, 800
Mathematical Techniques Connected with Problems in
Positional Astronomy.
R-39-. .................. U.5.N.-Naval School of Aviation Medicine, D. E. BEISCEIER.. 40,m
A3 Conduct Research on the Effect of Very Strong Magnetic
Fields and of Magnetic-Field-Free Environments on Man
and Animals.
R-75. ................... U.S.N.-Naval School of Aviation Medicine, H. J. SaaEPEn-.-
A3 Continued Support for Investigation of Energy Dissipa-
tion Characteristics in Tissue for Ionizing Radiation in
R-I-. ........... U.S.N.-Naval School of Aviation Medicine, D. E. BEISCEIER.. 'agso
Study of the Effects of Vibration, Especially Those In-
volved in Space Vehicles, on the Chromosomes and Cellular
Structure of Tradescantia, Drosophila, and Neurospora,
which 818 being Flown in the Biosatellites.
NsO-545. ................ Emory University, T. FORT ................................. 16,415
s 2 Difference Equations with Varying Difference Interval
and Differential Equations with Almost Periodic Coef-
NsO(T)-123. ............ Emory University, C. T. LESTER-........................... 76,800
9 2 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 11401-OMI. ...... Emory University,V. P. Pomvrc ........................... 50,938
s 1 Study of Cardiovascular Adaptation During Long-Term
NsO-337 ................. Georgia Institute of Technology, J. A. KNIGET ............... 75, OOO
s 1 Chemical Reactivity of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen
Atoms at Temperatures Below 100O K.
NsO4.57................. Georgia Institute of Technology, K. 0. PICHA................
9 2 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Science and Tech-

258-138 0 - 61 - 15

NsO(T)-l.. _ _ _ . _.-
_ GWrgia
. _ .Institute
__ of Technology, M.J. Goom____.._.____ ... m,
8 4 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsO(T)-126 ____..__.._._ Georgia. University of. 0.B. H m F___._____...._____ .._._ 182. m

8 2 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Stndents in the

Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Hawaii, University of, W. PONQ
~ ~ 0 - 3 2 ___...._.___._..
8. AND K.WATANABE.-. ...- ._ n,m
8 2 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Electron
Emhion, Conductivity and Luminescsnca of Selected
Solids Under Vacuum Ultraviolet Excitation.
NsG-676.-..............- Hawaii, University of, J. L. WEINBERO__....._________._...
8 2 A Photoelectric Study of the Night-Sky Radiation over
the Visible Spectrum.
NsG(T)-lDB .-......~.... Hawaii, UnIVerSity of, W. OOBTEB..._______....____.._.
8 2 The Training of 5 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spaca-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 12-001-012___..._._ Hawali, University of, J. J. NAUGHTON _____.._.__._..-_.--
8 1 Elemental and Molecular Constituents in Volcanic Vola-
tile Systems, Emphesiring Compounds of Biological Im-
NGR 12-001-020 ___.._.__ Hawaii, Universityof, T. A. ROOERE ____...____..__.__. 105,403
Phyaiologlcal Studies of Highly Motivated SubJects in
Severe Environments.
NSR 12401-019-: ....... Hawaii, University of. J. T. J r r r ~ m r_____.....__.__.._..
s ... 1,700,m
A 1 DesIgn, Development, Fabricatlon and Installation of
84” Telescope Suitable for Lunar, Planetary and Stellar
Nsd(T)-135 ___.......... Idaho, University of, M. L. JACKSON ____....____..__..-_...- 70.800
8 1 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-98.. ______._._...___ Chicago, Univelslty of, E. N.PARKER ____...____ 68,346
85 Theoretical InvestIgatIons of the Effect of the Solar Wind
in Interplanetary Space, and its Assooiation with Ter-
restrial Phenomena.
NsG-144.- -.. _ . _ _ _
~ .___
Chicago. _
University of, P. M ~ Y z R -_.....___._..___..-_...--
. 319.556
86 Composition, Energy Spectrum and Intensity of Primary
CosmIc Radiation.
NsG-179 ___....._..._____ Chicago, University of. J. A. SIMPEON. - _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _=A188 ..____.
86 Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Energetic
Particlm and Electrodynamical Promsea in Interplanetary
Spaca and in the Vicinity of Planets.
NsO-352 ___.______._... .. Chicago, University of, M.H. COHZN. __.....___...__.____.. 100, m
93 Theoretical and Experlmental Investigations of Super-
NsO-366___..._........_. Chlcago, University of, E.ANDLBS-..._____....___._._..--.. lOe,W
84 An Investigation of the Origin. Age and Composition of
NsO-441.......- __
__._ -.-Chicago, University of, H. FIBNUD=C.MORAN. - .--__ -. ...-- 150. m
83 Investigation in SpscbRelstad Molecular Biology, In-
cluding Considerations of the Molecular Organization Of
Extratamstrial Matter.
NsO(T)-2.. ____._.__.._. Chicago, University Of, W.A. WICK ____ ~ _________ 294.700
84 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students In the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 1Mol-OW- ....... Chicago, University of, C. R. O’DELL_ _ ___ ~ _ __
_ - __- - - -.- -_ _14,357
91 Study of Comet Talk by Photoelectric spectrophotometry.
Chicago, Universityof. J. A. S I Y ~ N_
NSR 1 M o 1 - 0 5 9 ~--..-... - _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _5% _2a8
A? Reduction and Preliminary Analysis of PiOnWr 8paOe-
craft Experimental Data.
NsG 694 _________________
Illinois Institute of Technology, H. Wmtsmm _______ _______
91 Turbulence C&cients and Stability Studiea for the
Coaxial Flow of D i s s h h r Fluids.
NsG(T)-25.- ____..._____ IllInoia Institute of Technology, A. GRAD .................... m,800
93 The Training 01 12 Predoctoral Graduate Studenta in the
SpamRelated Sciences and Technology.
NASr-22 _____ __ ___ __
- I I T Research Institute, E. J. Haw~ama
__. __________ ___ __ __ 52 895
A6 Research on Life in Extraterntrial Environments.
NASr-85(01)_ _ _ _I_ IT _Research
_._ Institute,
__ W.
_ 0._DAVIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67,600
A6 Research on Radiative Energy Transfer on Entry into
Mars and Venus.
NASr-65(03)__._.____.__. IIT Research Institute, L. CONROY__________________________ 180,800
A8 NASA Technology Utilization Program to IdentUy and
Evaluate NASA Sponsored Technology which May be of
Use or Interest in Non-Space Applications.
NASr 65(03)___....._____ IIT Research Institute, L. CONROY _________ 10,820
A9 Evaluation of Technolcgical Developments Resulting
from the National Space Effort.
NASr-65(10)__.....______ IIT Resesrch Institute, C. A. STONE_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _' _ BOOO
A3 Conduct Scientific and Engineering Studies Related to
Manned Space Science Problems.
NASr-65(10)________..... IIT Research Institute, C. A. STONE_ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _39.537 _____..__
A4 Space Flight Experiments Problems.
NASr-65(11)_____....._.. IIT Research Institute, J. A. GREENSPAN ________ 17,765
A2 Airglow Observations During NASA Mobile Launch
Expedition Number One.
NASr-65(12)_ _ _ _ .IIT __ Research
_ _ Institute,
_ _ _ C. _HENDERSON ______________________ 43,171
A2 An Aircrsft Borne Experiment to Determine the Temper-
ature of Fe XIV Ions Throughout the Solar Corona During
the Solar Eclipse on November 12,1966.
NASr 65(14). . _ _ _ _ IIT _ Research
___ Institute,
___ P. DICKERMAN ___________ 2,402
A1 Conduct a Review of Accomplishments in Solar Physies.
NASr-65(15) _____________
I I T Research Institute, J. A. CAMPBELL _____________________ 3%957
A Study of Martian Shelter Technology.
NASr 65(16). ._._..______ IIT Research Institute, R. L. BARNETT ______________________ 43,la
Conduct a Study of High Performance Structures.
I I T Research Institute, T. OWEN_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . . _
N A S M ( l 7 ) _.____._._.__ 21,696
Conduct a Spectroscopic Investigation of Water Vapor in
the Atmosphere of Venus.
NASr &%(la) IIT Research Institute, R. C. GREENWOOD
_._......____ ___..------------- 88.209
Conduct an Investigation to Establish the Practical
Feasibilityof the Neutron C a p t m Gamma-Ray Techniques
for Determination of Lunar and Planetary Surface Com-
NsG 228__.._..._..._____ Illinois, University of, W.D. COYPFON- __.____________._ a
92 Study of Radiation Effects in Semiconductors,
NSO 376____...__..._____ Illinok, University of, R. PEACOCK AND F. PROPST___-._._.- 108,419
s 3 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Underlying
Processes and Techniques of Low Pressure M e m m e n t .
NsO-504 _._..____..._.._. Illinois, Univemity of, H. W.KNOEBEL _____..____._-_-.-- 77. ooo
S? Study of Electron Density and Collision Frequency Ob-
tained from Differential Absorption and Faraday Rotation.
NsG-511 ___......__...... 1llinois;University of, 6 . A. BOWEILL ___._____..----------- 23,630
8 3 Investigation of the D and E Regions of the Ionosphere
by Ground and Rocket Methods.
NsG(Tb24.. -. __- -..
..-. Illinois, University of, D. ALRRRT ______ ___._.----......------ 310,500
s 3 The Training of 15 Predoctod Graduate Students in the
SpamRelated Scieness and Technology.
N O R 14-012-CQ4 .__._ Illinois,
__ Universityof,
__ J. H. BOYER __._...___...--------.-..- so, ooo
Nitrogen Chemistry Significant to Primordid systems.
N O R 14405474___....._ Illinois, University of, H. W.ADES___._.______..--------....- 19,920
s 1 Physiological Responses of Central Vestibular Pathways
and Diffuse Ascending Systems to Vestibular Stimulation.

NASrdO................. Materials Research Laboratory, Inc., E. J. RIPLING. ......... $34,775
A8 Experimental Studies of Stress Corrwion in Titanium,
Stainless Steel and Other Elevated Temperature Strnctnal
Alloys, at Elevated Temperaturn and in the Presenee of a
NsO 547................. Northwestern Univedty, A. B. OAYBEL .................... 30,000
8 2 Theoretical and Erpsrimental Studies of Magnetoaerody-
namlc Drag and Shock Stand-Off Distance, Using Simple
Aerodynamic Shapes.
NsO 597................. Northwestem University, J. A. RmrK ...................... 6% 665
82 Optical Study and And- of Transient Lunar Phe-
NsO-605................. Northwestern Univedty, 0. HERRMANN .................... 67,111
8 2 Stability of Nonconsematlve Systems.
NsO (T)-17.. ............ Northwestern University, R. H. BAKER..................... 288, Qoa
83 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 1uwI-041......... Northwestern University, 8. 8. HUANO. ..................... n,ooo
Study of Celestial Objects of High Angular Momenta.
NSR 14-007-0!9l___.____. Northwestern University. K.0. H r m r ..................... 3, M i
Symposium on Optical Astronomy Experiments from
Manned Spacecraft.
NsQ-807.. ............... Southern Illinois University, J. H. LAUCENER.. ............. 85.870
81 Study of Advanced Structural D d g n Concepts for Future
Space Missions.
NsO (T)-l63. ............ &uthern Illinois University, W. E. 8lMEONr ________ __ .--_-- . =,800
The Training of 8 Predoctoral Oraduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 1cOoRM)B......... Southern Illinois Universlty. D. T. HAIMO ................... 8,950
Transform8 Related to Generalized Heat Equations.
NsQ 446.- ............... Association for the Advancement of Mental Health Research 18. 500
82 and Educatlon, Inc., F. C. CLARK.
Experimental Study of Effects of Schedule and Stimulus
Parameters on Monitoring and Observing Behavior.
NOR 11- ......... Hall State University, E.MONTAOUIC- ....................... 19.960
Study and Analysis of Space-Related Developments in
Physlcal and Biochemlstry.
NsO-603.. ............... Indiana Unlversity, JT. R. JOHNSON ......................... 81, ooo
82 A Theoretical Investigntion of the Steady-State Iuter-
Action Between Radiation and Matter in Stellar Atmos-
NsQ(T)-15.. ........ Indiana Unlversity, L. L. MERRITT-......................... 240,600
83 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spacs-Related Sciences and Technology.
NQR 15433437......... Indiana University, W.D. N r r r ............................. 32,640
SI An Experimental Invastlgation of the Neurological Cor-
mlates of Information Remptlon.
NsQ-339.... ............. Notm Dame, Universlty of. U . F. D'ALELIO................. 54,480
sa Synthesis of Heat Resistant Polymers and D l m t e d
NsQ(T)-05.............. Notre Dame, University of, P. E. BEICENER-................ 192, OOO
83 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Oraduata Students in the
Spuca-Related Sciencea and Technology.
NOR 15-004-013......... Notre Dame, University of, J. D. NICOLAIDES.. ............. 15.180
D-Reglon Turbulence Study.
NOR 15-004-017......... Notm Dame, University of, J. T. STARR-.................. 80.280
Applicatlons ofthe, "Oermlrse Animal" to Spaes EWlogY.
NsO4OL.. ........... Purdue University, K. L. ANDREW ..........................
82 High Pmislon Spectroscopy with ApplicatioW to the
Study of the Atomic Spectra of the Carbon OrOUP, to
Secondary Standards in the Vacuum Ultraviolet, and to
the Development of Computer Methods of Data Analysis.

NsG-643 ____________ Purdue

_..__ University, G . R. COOPEE ...........................
92 Study of Simulated Extratermtrial Snriaces by Random
Signal Radar Techniqnes.
NsG-663................. Purdue University, J. C. HANWCK _________ __ __ ____ ___._
83 Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Synthesis of
Self-Adaptive Communication Systems.
NsGJ82................. Purdue University, B. A. REESE............................
81 Investigation in chemical rocket propulsion.
NsG(T)-27. ............. Purdue University, F. N. ANDREWS .........................
53 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Stndents in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NGR 15407-00k_ _ _ _ Purdue
__ University.
.__ P. F. Low...............................
81 Effect of Water Properties in Thixotropic Clay Systems
on Biological Activity.
N G R 154&5-021--------- Purdue University, F. N. ANDREWE .........................
s1 Multidisciplinary Research in Space-Related Science and
NGR 15405422----..--. Purdue University, R. OLDENBURGEE ____._ ..___ - -.-.- .-._.
Flow of Single and Two Phase Fluids in Lines.
NOR 16+%02~3---.--... Purdue University, R. A. HOLMES and R. M. H O ~ E_____.. R
Remote Multispectral Sensing in Agriculture.
NSR 154l5-W___._..__ Purdue University, Y.8.TOIJLOUKIAN ......................
Conduct a Comprehensive Program for the Compilation
and Analysis of Thermal Radiative Properties Data.
NsG(T)45. ............. Iowa State University, J. B. PAGE. ..........................
93 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Scienees and Technology.
NSG-233 ................. Iowa, University of, J. A. VANALLEN ........................
94 Theoretical and Experimental Studies Related to the
Particles and Fields Associated with the Major Bodies ofthe
Solar System and with Interplanetary Space.
NsG-576 ................. Iowa, University of, K. R m .................................
92 Two-Dimensional Elastic and Viscoelastic Prohlems with
Star-Shaped or Curvilinear Polygonal Boundary.
NsG(T)-6............... Iowa, University of, D. C. SPRIESTERSBACH ..................
s4 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NASw-17 ................ Iowa, University of, J. A. VAN ALLEN.-- ....................
A5 Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Detailed
Properties of the Geomagnetically-Trapped Corpuscular
Radiation; Observationsof Explorers I, 111,IV,and Pioneers
I11 and IV;Studies of the Corpuscular Radiations in Inter-
planetary Space.
Iowa, University of, D. A. GURNETT .........................
A Very-Low-Frequency Radio Noise Experiment to be
Flown on a Javelin Sound Rocket.
N s G m ................. Kansas State University, M. E. NOBLEAND D. A. TRUMBO..
5 2 Analytical Studies in the Learning and Memory of Skilled
NsD-6W. ............... Kansas State University, J. L. BaowN- .....................
S I Multidisciplinary Research on Space-RelatedSciences and
NsG(T)M.. ......... Kansas State University, J. L. BROWN. .....................
s 3 The Training of 10 Predoctoml Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsD-477-........... Kansas, University of, R. K. MOORE........................
5’2 Investigation of Earth Radar Returns From Topside Iono-
sphere Sounders.
NsG(T)-55. .......... KanSas, University Of. W.P. SMITH ..........................
5 3 The training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.

N O R 17-003404-....... Wichita State University, W. EVEFSMAN-.. .................. $18,823
Investigation of Vibration and Dynamic Response Prob-
lems Associated with Centrifugally Stabilized Disk and
Shell Structures.
NOR 1 7 a 6 . ....... WichitaBtate University, D. T. HIGDON .....................
Determine Response of Time Varying and Nonlinear
Systems to Random Inputs.
NsO456. ............... Kentucky, University of, K. LANGEAND F. CLARK ........ 160,OOO
8 3 An Investigation of Gravity Level Preferenoss and the
EBects of Oravltational F o m on Small Animala and
Primates, and of Techniques for Related S p m Flight
NsO(T)-122.-. .......... Kentucky, Universlty of, A D. KIRWAN- .................... 163,800
8 2 The Trainlng of 8 Predactoral Graduate Students In the
Space-Related Scienoss and Technology.
NOR 18-001-017......... Kentucky, University of. D. C. LEIGE....................... 31, SI?
Thermo-Mechanical Inveatigatlons of Non-Newtonian
N O R 18-001420~....... Kentucky, University of. 0 . W. DIILOn.- ................... 42.477
Coupled Thermo-MechanicalEffects in Solids.
NBO(T)-l36 ............. Louisville, Unlversity of, R. L.BARBER ..................... 95,400
8 1 The Training of 6 Predactoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 18ooux)6- ....... Louisville, university of, W. J. MCOLOTFIUN .................
8 1 Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research in the Physical,
Engineering and Life Scleness.
NOR lIMou)(n- ....... Louisville, University of, E. FOULKE ........................ 10.610
8 2 Study of Use of Loeation and Locstlon Intensity Patterns
in Electro-Cutaneous Communhatlon.
NsO(T)-19. ............. Louisiana State Unlversity, M. OOODRICH................... 170. OOO
83 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 1W1-012 ........ LoulsianaState University, R. W. HUOGETC AND K.P I N K A U . 169,957
Cosmic Ray Investlgatlons Utilizing an Emulalon Cham-
ber-Calorimeter Combination.
NOR 1W1-016. ....... Louisiana State University, R. W.PIKE-.................... 3s.199
Evaluation of the Enewy Transfer in the Char Zone
During Ablation.
NOR 18-008-001- ....... Northeast Louisiana State College, D. E. DUPREE ........... 18, 016
Study of Multivariate Functional Models b y h a s t Squares
NsO(T)-64. ............. Tuiane University, J. L. SNELL .............................. 198, OOO
53 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spece-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsO 338................. Malne University of, T. H. CURRY ........................... 76, OOO
5 3 Interdisciplinary Studies in Space Related Science and
NsG(T)-116.-. .......... Maine. University of, F. P. EGGERT..-.. ..................... 94.300
8 2 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsO-450.. ............... Institute For Behavioral Research. I. GOLDUMOND
Experimental Studies of Perceptual Procassas.
............. Johns Hopklns University, H. W.Moos ......................
9 3 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Funda-
mental Properties of Rare Earth Crystals.
NsOb20................. Johns Hopklns University. J. PRIG-CRUET..................
9 2 Psychocardiovascular Reactions During Conditions Of
Weightlessness in an Orbiting Satellite.

NsG(T)43 ______________Johns Hopkins University, 0. W.S-ER ______._._._____

53 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Qraduate Studenta in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NSR 21401-039 ___._..__ Johns Hopkins University, E. C. MOBELEY.-______________ __
Study of Computer Storage, Retrieval, and Analysis of
S p m Medicine Data.
Maryland, University of, E. MASON_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _

An Investigation of the Forces Between Atoms, Moleonles

and Ions at Small Separation Distances for Use in the Evalu-
ation of Properties of Gases at Very High Temperatures.
Maryland, University of, R. W. KRAOSS
A Study of Psychophysiologyin Controlled Environments.
Maryland, University of, D. A. TIDMAN- - - - ____.________-__
Theoretical Investigations of the Dynamic8 of Astro-
physical and Geophysical Plasmas.
Maryland, University of, T. D. WJLKEBSON _ _ _ _ _ .. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Particle Phe-
nomena in the Interplanetary Plasma and of the Excitation
and Ionization Cross-Sections of the Hydrogen, Helium,
Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms and Molecular Combinations.
___ Maryland, University of, T. D. WILKERSON ______.____...
NsG-359 _._.__.______. ---.
93 Research on Measurement of Atomic Transition Proba-
bilities of High Temperature Gases.
NsGdQ8. . _ _._..__-
___ Maryland,
_ _ _University of, W. RHEINBOLDT- - ___._ - - ___..-----
93 Multidisciplinary Research on the Application of Hlgh
Speed Computers to Space-Related R+eseareh Problems.
NsQ-615--.. __.._.....___Maryland, University of, W. C. ERICKSON AND M. KOME.
Studies in the 11 Meter Range of Radio Astronomy UShg
High Resolution and High Sensitivity Antenna Arrays at
Clark Lake.
NsG-695._._._.___.______ Maryland, University of, H. LASTER _____._ -- - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
52 Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Space Science,
including Consideration of Rocket, Probe, and Satellite
NsQ (T)-3- -.
...-.......- Maryland, University of, R. BAYPOIID--- - -..- - __ - ..___..--..
s4 The Training of 12 Predoetoral Graduate Students in the
SpacsRelated Sciences and Technology.
NQR 21-002-040 __....._ Maryland, University of, R. 0. GRENELL. ____._____...--..--
5 2 Study of Protein Hydration in Isolated Cell Surface
NOR 21-002-060 ___...._ Maryland, University of, R. T. BETTINQER _...___..----..---
s1 Ionospheric Invadigations with I n Situ Probes.
NOR 21-GQ2-073._...___ Maryland, University of, H. R. QRIEM.______.......---..-..
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of P l W a
NOR 21-002-096.__..... Maryland, University Of. R. T. BETTINORB. _...__..--..... ..
Selected Studies in Atmosphere Physics.
NOR 21-002-109 _ _ . .Maryland,
____ University of, C. 0.AXLEY-- ___.___.._..----. .---
Feasibility studies and techniques for laser ranging to
Optical RetmReflection on the Moon.
NSR 2140!2456-........ Maryland, University of, H. E. TOMPKINS ___..___.---...--.-
A2 A Summer Institute in Space-Related Engineering.
NSR 21-002-077. .._._.__ Maryland, University of, D. L. MATTHEWS AND T . D. WILDER-
Conduct an Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
of the Wide-Range Energy Spectra of Electrons in the Dtst-
urbed and Undisturbed Ionosphere.
R 21-018-001 _.._....__._U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Conduct an Investigation of the Physiology and Metab-
olism of Hydrogenomonas Eutropha.
R-21-0ONE9- - .........- U.6.N.-Bureau of Naval Weapons, R. B. KEBSHNER-. -..--.
A1 Conduct a Study of Advanced Concepts for Extra-
vehicular Protection and Operation.

U.S.N.-Naval Ordnanca Laboratory, E. T. HOOPER ____.____

Research on Improved Space Magnetometers of the Flux-
gate Type.

American Academy of Arts and Sciencea, E. P. STEVENSON.-

Study of Long-Range National Problems Related to the
Development of NASA Pragram.
Boston College, J. A. DEVZNNY __.__.___________._
The Training of 3 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spw+Related Science8 and Technology.
Boston University. R. 8. BEAR______._._____._.__
The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spw+Related Sclenw and Technology.
B m d e i s University, N. 0.KAPLAN.
A Comparative Study of the Evaluation of Enzymes and
Nucleic Acids.
Brandeis Univenity. H. WmaBrRG-. - __.___--------
The Training of 6 Predoctorai Graduate Students in the
SpamRelated Beienw and Technology.
Clark University, D. E. LEE_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ . .
The Trainingof3Pmdoctoral Graduate Studentsin Space-
Related Sciences and Technology.
Harvard University, D. H. MENZIL.. ___ ._ ____._____...-
Study of Ground-Based and Space Vehicle InIrared In-
strumentation for Thermal Photography of the Moon and
Planets. Including Experimental Pmgrams at Elelected
NsG-89_____ _ _
-... __
.... Harvard University, D. H. MENEEL.--. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

83 Multimlor Photoelectric Photometry of the Moon. Venus,

Mars,and other Planets.
NsG-262 ...-.........-. Harvard University, W. H. Swmr--. ___ ___________
~ ~ ______..
54 Interdlseipllnary Studies of the Effects of High Protons on
Biologic System. Including Participation in the Nation-
wide Cooperative Study on Shielding Materials as Related to
the Apollo Mission.
Harvard University, W. H. S w r m____..._.__._______ 5, OOO
Interdisciplinary Studies of the Effects of Hlgh Protons on
Biologic Systems, Including Participation in the Nationwide
Cooperative Study on Shielding Materials as Related to the
Apollo Mission.
NsG-282 _ _ ..-
.._ __.
. ~. .____.
... Harvard University, C.FRONDEI .-. ........ . _ _ .. _ 10
.. _ _ _ 0, m
52 Minerological and Petrographic Studies of Meteorites.
NsG 438 ___.......____... _____
Harvard University, L. GOLDBERG-. -. ....- . _ -_
__ O00
93 Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Ultraviolet
Solar Physics.
Harvard University, B. BUDIANSKY.-. ~ - ________. A8.072
Theoretlcal Investigations in Structural Mechanics with
Particular Emyhaais on Fracture Mechanics and Thin Shell
NsO-686______ -. __
......- ___
Harvard University, H. J. EMIT€.-. ..________...______
53 Long Wavelength Extension of Solar Radio Burst O h r -
NGR 22-(M7-001......... Harvard University. L. GOLDBERG. -.... ..-. _._________
R-h on the Application of Manned OrbltlnR Tele-
scopes to Solar Olnervation.
NOR 224i-lM8 .._...___ Haward University. A. E.BRYWN._ _ _ _ _ . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -
Investigation of On-board Computer Teohniques for
Space Navigation.
Harvard University, E. 5. BARGEWRN _____._______.--
Infrared Absorption Spectrophotometry of Organic E I -
tractives from Preeambrinn Sediments.
N 0 R 22407-070... .-.... Harvard Universlty, R. A. MCFARLAND .___.____.__--------
H u m Standards for Apollo, EmphMhing Envimn-
mental Influences on Performanee.

Harvard Univemity, 0.8. HAWKINE _________________________

Inve&Igatim of Proprties, Flux, and Trajeetorles of
College of the Holy Cross. R. C. QUNTIR
Investigation of the Effect of Spaca Environment on Rel-
ica Qratings.
Lawell Institute CooperaMve Broadcasting Conncil. D. M.
The Production of a Berias of Thirteen '28-Minnte Edncs-
tional Television Programs, Entitled Science Reporter.
Lowell Institute Cooperative Broadcssting Council, D. M.
Prodnction of a Series of Thirteen (la) ZE-Minnte Ednca-
tional Television Programs,entitled Science Reporter.
NsG(T)-ll. ___ __ __ ._._. _________________
Lowell Technological InstitUb, J. L. STEELE
The Training of 2 Predoctoral Qradnate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Massachusetts Qeneral Hospital, M. SmMAN AND E. A.
Experimental Investigation of Automatad Techniques for
Studying Sequential Learning and Memory.
Massachusetts Institute of Teehnology. N. J. GRANT_ _ _ _ _ . - - -
Research on Mechanisms of Alloy Strengtheningby Fine
Particle Dispersions, with Particular Emphasis on Selective
Reduction of Non-Refractory OxIdes, Stability of Metal-
Metal Oxide Systems, and Solid solution Matrices in Metal-
Metal Oxide Alloys.
NsQ-ZlL.. __ __ - ____ - __ __
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, K.BIICYWN.- ___ __
52 Detection and Identification of Life-Related Matter by
Mass Spectroscopy.
NsG-234 __..._...._______ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, J. F. R W T ~ _E_ ~_ _ _ - -
54 Investigation of Radar T ~ h n i g u and~ Device3 Snitable
for the Exploration of Planet Venus.
NsQ-235 _ _ _ . _ _ Massachusetts
____ Institute
__ of_Technology.
___ D._0.M A R QAND ~
Research in Organizational and Management Concepts
Suitable for Large-Scale T e c h n o l o w - B d Enterprises.
with Particular Applications to NASA.
NsQ-254 _ _ . .__ ._ _ _ Massachusetts
____ Institute
.__ of Technology, W.MARKEY __--------
54 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation to Determine
Optimum Guidance, Navigation, and Control System and
Instrumentation Concepts and Conlignration for Long
Term Earth Orbiting and Interplanetary Spsceerafts.
NsQ-2.54- ._ _ __.____...._ Massachusetts Institute of Technology. W. MARKEY --------.-
51, Theoretical and Experimental Investigations to Deter-
mine Optimum Guidance, Navigation, and Control Bystem
and Instrumentation Concepts and ConEguration for Long
Term Earth-Orbiting and Interplanetary Space Craft.
NsG-330_________.... ..._Massachusetts Institute of Technology, C. H. TOWNE3 AND
53 A. JAVAN.
Properties of Optical and InIrared Masers.
NsG- 334... ............--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, R. a.Gallager ---.---
53 Techniques of Communication in the Space Environment.
NsG-369___.. ...-....... Massachusetts Institute of Technology, J. R. MELCHEB- - ..--
53 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations in Electro-
hydrodynamics (EHD) and Wavetype Magnetohydro-
dynamics (MHD).
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, B. ROSS1 AND G.
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Inter-
planetary Medium and in Gamms-Ray Astronomy.
NsG-419___.. .--. .. .-.-. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, A. H. BARRETI. - -..-
53 Electromagnetic Investigations of Planetary and Solar
Atmosphere and the Lunar Surface, including Ballwn-
Borne Experiments and Constructions of Laboratory
Prototype Inshumentation.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, F. 0 . 8 c H Y u ~___.-__

~. S l y 671
Partial Support of Mnltidlsoiplinary Studies in the Neuro-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, J. V. HARXINGT~N.-.1,510,OOO
Multidisciplinary Research in the SpwRelated Physical,
Engineering, Social and Life Sciences.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Y. T. Lr and L. R. 104,780
Studies of Human Dynamic S p m Orientation, Using
Techniques of Control Theory.
NsQ(T)-ZQ- _____._....__ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, H. L. HAZEN_ _ _ _ .318,200 ____
83 The Training of 15 Prsdoctoral Graduate Students in the
8 p w R e l a t e d Bciencea and Technology.
N O R 22-CO2-052_ _ _Massachusetts
____ Institute
._ of Technology, J . A. FAY.- _ _ _- _ _35._Ea5 __.
81 Problem In JIB Plasma Acceleration.
N O R 22-0&075_.._._.__ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E. OROWAN...- ___._ 38,102
81 Fatlgue Mechanisms in Crystalline Materials.
N O R 22-009-102.~..~.... Massachusetts Institute of Technology, K. BIEMANN _____ 168.638
Study of Mass Spectrometric Techniques Applicable to the
Search for Organic Matter in the Lunar Crust.
NOR 22-W-114. _ _ _Massachusetts
_ _ _ . _Institute of Technology, 0. Fiocco ____.. ..____ 30,350
Investigations of Dust in the Upper Atmosphere by
Optical Radar.
N O R 22-OIB-117._ _ . _ _ _ _ _Institute of Technology, H. BRIDGE
Massachusetts _____ 78,760
Data Reduction and Analysis on Experimental Data from
the Mariner IV SpacsCran.
N O R 22+121._.______ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, L. TRILLING._________ 49,375
Theoretical Investigation of the Processes of Energy and
Momentum Exchange at a Gas-Solid Boundary.
N O R 22008-123 _ _ _ .Massachusetts Instltute of Technology, F. P R E ~ _ ~ . ._ _ _ _ 30.200
Experimental Techniques in Lunar Passive Seismography.
N O R 22439-124_________ Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 0. C. NEWTON, JR.-. 48,492
Studies in Control Optimization, Stabilization, and Com-
puter Algorithms.
N O R 22008-12S_________ _________
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, H. C. OATOS 49. wo
Studles on the Relationships between Crystalline 8truc-
ture and Superconductivity.
N O R 22008-131_______._ ________
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a. FIocm.... 49,464
81 Sensing of Meteorological Variables by Laser Probe
N O R 22008-135_ _ _Massachusetts
____ Institute _____
_ . of Technology, 8. H. CUNDALL 21,850
Response of Building Btructurea to Environmental N o h
of Seismic, Acoustic and Aerodynamic Origin.
N O R 22-009-140 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, L. L. SUTRO. - _ _ _ _ 57,945 _..
Simulatlon of Animal Computing Bystems.
N O R 22008-168 ____...._ Massachusetts Instltute of Technology, J. L. MEIRY,Y. T. 33,
Bio-Physlcal Evaluation of the HumanVestibular Bystem.
NOR 22-OIB-168.___.__._ ____
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, J. F. REINTJEB-.. 42,880
Studies in Thrashold Logic.
N O R 22-OIB-163___._._._ __
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, R. P. RArUsE- - _ _ . 97,Mw)
Investigation of Solid State Millimeter Wave Power Oen-
eratlon and Amplllication.
NOR 22-00&167 ___...... Masachusetts Institute of Technology, 0. R. HARMEON_____ 93,867
Techniques for Ruling Improved Large Diffraction Orat-
U S .
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 0. SIYYONS..-.-.
.. __ 72,OOO
Techniques for Messurement and Interpmtatlon of the
Physical Properties of Returned Lunar Samples.
NOR 22008-182 ___...___
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 0. B. BENEDEK AND 33.958
Spectmm and Polarization of Laser Light Scattered by
Ferromagnetic 80llds.
NASr-249. -..- -.
.... Mmachusetts Institute of Technology, J. V. HARMNOTON.- - 323.056
A2 A Study of a Radio Probe for the Extended Solar Corona.
NSR 22-OOD-138 _________
Mrvrsachusetta Institute of Technology, L. L. BWBO _________
Techniques for Automatic Object Recognition of Extra-
terrestrial Life.
hi-husetts, University of, E. C. MOOBE_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 106,
_ ooo_ _ . _ _ _ _
The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
New England Medical Center Hospitals, P. W. NEURATE-_-. 29,358
Study of Biomagnetism and Ferritin.
Northeastern University, 8. 8. SANDLER- - ___.______.___. 21,418__
Theoretical Study of Certain Antenna Problems for Radio
Northeastern University. A. A. VERNON--- _.___._______.
... 78,
The Training of 5 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Northeastern University, R. BAm AND A. W. CAWON_ _ _ _ 62,880
Reliable Solid-state Cfrcnits.
T d s University, P. H. FLINT ___________ _______
The Training of 4 Predoctoral Qraduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Tufts University, D. H. SPODICK.-. _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _16, _ QSU
Investigation of Atraumatic Techniques for Monitoring
Cardic-Vascular Conditioning.
R-125 ____ _____
.. U.S.A.F.-Cambridge Research Laboratories, R. K. SOBER-
____.___ 42. OOO
Construct, Test and Analyze Data from Noctilucent
Cloud Dust Collection Payloads to be Flown on a Series of
Aerobee Rockets.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, R. F. MOBTON--.. __________ 80,700
The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.

Detroit, University of, A. SZWTKA____.___________...__

20, OOo
Synthesis of Morphine-Like Substances from Simple
Henry Ford Hospital, L. D. PROCTOR_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 23,240
Develop Data Processing Proesdure and Apply t o E E G
Records Obtained from Gemini 7 Astronauts; Consider
Application and Proceduret o Subsequent Astronaut’s Elec-
troencephalograms and other Biological Data.
NsG-475___________..... . Michigan State University, L. G. AUGENSTEIN ____________ .__ 84. m l
52 An Investigation of the Molecular Basis and Orgsnization
of Nerve and Brain Function.
NsQ(T)38 ______________ Michigan State University, M. E.MUELDER _______...___._._ 230, ux)
53 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG (T)-150. - -.....- - - -. Michigan Technological University, D. a. YERG _____- - -..... 56,700
The Training of 3 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spsce-Related Sciences and Technology.
N Q R 2347-&Il_____..._ Michigan Technological University, C. E. WOBK __._____... .. 6,282
s1 Investigation of the Influence of Cyclic Prestressing on
Fatigue of Metals.
NSG-2 _ _ _ _ _ _Michigan, ___. _ . . _of,
University _ F..J.
_ _ __.____.........__..-. 40,500
s5 Investigation in Space Communication Theory, Including
Topics Related to Random Processes, Filtering, Telemetry,
Statistical Methods, Modulation, Information Transmission,
and Mathematical Techniques.
NsG-86 __...... .-........ Michigan, University of, J. A. NICHOLLS __.__................ 42.098
S6 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Dynamics of
Reacting and Charged Particles in Solid Propellant Rocket
Motor Nozzles.
NsQ-115 __.._.._..__._.__ Michigan, University of, G. F&UCHI AND D. VINCENT. - -. ... 35. OOO
s5 Investigation of the Electromagnetic Properties of Mate-
rials for Application to Masers,Lasers, and Other Solid State

NsO-124 ________..___.. __Michigan, University of, J. W. FREEVAN ___________ ._________
84 Research on Basic BOientiAc Principles Pertinent to the
Selection and Metallurgical Treatment of Alloys for Struc-
tural Use in Supersonic Aircraft.
NsO 124__........._.__. . Michigan, University of, J . W. FREEMAN ____...___.__..__
85 Research on Basic Scientific Principles Pertinent to the
Selectlon and Metallurgical Treatment of Alloys for Struc-
tural Use in Supersonic Aircraft.
NsO-525 ..............-.- Michigan, University of, A. NAOY _____________._____
82 Theoretical and Experimental Investlgatlons of Plasma
Waves, Spaee Vehicle Plasma Sheaths, and Ionospheric
Electron Temperatures.
NsO 640__.....______._.. Michigan, Universlty of. H. C. EARLY._ _ _ _ _ _ _.___.
_ _ .- ._ _66,872.
93 Study of Techniques for Acceleration of Partlcles to Hyper-
velocity by an Electrically Heated Propellant Plasma.
NsG 880___....__........ Michigan. University of. V. C. LIU-. ______....________ 43.110
81 An Inveatigation of Plasma Kinetics, with Emphasls on
the Interaction between Rarefled Plasmas and Moving
Michigan, University of. 0.C. MOELER _..____________ 144.170
Novel Teehniquea for Rullng Improved Large Diffraction
Mlchigan, University of, M. R. HOLTER ____ .-._ _ _ _ _ __ . . _277,724
Investigations in Multispectral Imagery.
Michigan, University of, F. D. MILLER _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 262.100 ______
The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Beiences and Technology.
Michigan, University of, A. M. KUETAE I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _
Investigatlou of the Interaction of an Electric Arc in
Transverse Electric. Magnetic and Flow Fields.
NOR 22-CQb-130 _________Mlchigan, University of, R. A. SAWYER AND W. W. MC- 14.460
Investlgatlon of Spectral Response of Various T y p a of
Detectors in the Extreme Ultraviolet.
NOR 2Mo6131_____ Michlgan, U n i v d t y of, F. T. HADDOCK _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _loo, _OOO_____
Investigate Fegslbllity of a Kilometer Wave Orbitlng
NOR !?3-C06169 _________Michigan, Unlversity of, W. P. TANNER ________.._..___._ 14.055
Optimal Learning in Detection Situations.
NOR 23606166 _________Mlchigan, University of, W.ANDEMON _________ 14.352
A Theoretical Study of the Flutter of Long Cylindrical
Shells, Stiffened and Unstiffened. In Supersonic Flow.
NOR 23606185 _________Michigan, University of, J. R. P. FRENCH .................... 12,289
Investigate the Use of New Bioelectronics in Relating
Occupational and Card10 ascular Stresses.
NASr M(03) __________ __
Michigan, University of, F. L. BARTMAN _____ _ _ _ _ _ _
.~ -----.-- 300.7oo
A3 Development of Laboratory and Flight Experimental
Techniques Directed Toward Obtaining Data to be used
in Interpreting Satelllte (TIROS and Nimbus) Radiation
NASr M(08)_..._________ Michigan, University of, R. W. P E W AND R. M. HOWE_--.-.-
A3 Develop On-Line Man-Machine System PerfOlormanW
Measurement and Display Techniques.
NASr M(M).-........... Michigan, University of, J . A. NICHOLL~ _..____..----.-- -----
A2 Studies of Detonation Phenomena and its Relatlon to
Liquid Rocket Motor Combustion Instabllity.
NASr M(08)..........--- Michigan, Universltyof, L. M. JONES.. ___...---.-- ----------
A2 Experimental Rh- in the Measurement of Atmos-
pheric Structure by Satellite Observations of Stellar Re-
NASr M(10)-...........-Michigan, University of, L. D. FILKINEL - - -.._- -- - - -- - - - - - - - - m?Qm
NaVigatIOn Satelllta Studies.
NASr M(11)____.......__ __
Michigan, Unlversity of, L. M. JONES. - - - .-- _ -- .- .- - - - - - - - - 37.072
Develop Grenade and Sphere Instrumentation.
NA8r 84 (12) ____________ Michigan, University of, H. F. ALLEN________________________ W.1Q6
Design EngIneerlng and Fabrication for Ins*rllation of
Meteorological Instruments in a NASA Aircraft for Atmas-
pheric Radiation Measurements.
NsO(T)-lO!2 _____________ Wayne State University, I. E. HILL _________________________ 95,400
8 2 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Oladuata Students in the
((pace-Related Sciences and Technology.
NA8r-175 ________________ Wayne State University, B. W. PINCE________________________ 27% OOo
A2 A Program to Acoelerata the Indostrial Utilization of
New Knowledge Emanating from Aerospaca Research and
N s W _________________
Mayo Foundation, E. H. WOOD______________________________ 133,465
8 5 Studies of the Ed& of Accslewtion on CardiovasCnlar
and Respiratory Dynamics.
NsO-?sl________.__._____ Minnesota, University of, J. R. WINCKLEB AND E. P. NEY.- 460. OOO
83 Studies of Cosmic Rays, Astrophysics, and Energetic
Electrons in Space, Including Balloon Rocket Flight Expe
NsO-517 _ _ _ _ _Minnesota,
_ _ _Univenrity
_ _ _of, ._F.HALBEBo
___ _______________________
9 3 Ground-Basad Studies on Internal and External Bynchro-
nization or Desynchmnizationof Mammalian Rhythms with
Special Reference to the Mouse.
NsG(T)-7 _______________ Minnesota, University of, B. CBAWOED ________ 277,700
8 4 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduata Students in the
Space-Related 8cienc.a and Technology.
N O R aMocroM- _______
Minnesota, University of, C.J. WADDINGTOIP_______ ~ _________ 82,06u
81 Measurement of gamma Ray Flux of Varloos Celestial
Point S o u m a from High Altitude Balloons.
N O R aMow6B- _______
Minnesota, University of, H. M. T s w m A ___________________ 50,070
81 Techniques for Continuous Growth of Hydrogmamnss
N O R 2coowB3- _______
Minnesota, University of, W. B. CEEmN .................... 599. OBB
81 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Beienea and Tech-
nology Utilization.
N O R 24405470. _______ Minnesota, University of, C. C. Haw0_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 30.OOo
81 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Me-
chanical Strength of Solids.
N O R 244Ocro91- ___....Minnesota, University of, R. J. Gommm ____-------------- 26.350
Investigation of Thermal Convection in a Horimntal
Layer of Fluid When Heated from Below.
N O R 244O5-&25_ _ _Minnesota,
.___ Universityof,
_ R. PLmKETT__-----....-.....-.-- 18, ooo
The Investigation of Optimum Structural Design Under
Dynamic Loading.
NASr-248- - ._ __.._ ._ Minnesota, University of, A. 0. C. NIEB...__ __...--..------- 133,636
A1 Further Investigation of the Neutral Constituents of the
Atmosphere in thc 1CO-Mo k m Altitude Range.
NSR 244OH147-.___._._ Minnesota, University of, R. I. C o w s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ .m
250, -----------
A2 Organization and Administration of a Manned Space
Science Study Group in Physica.
NSR u-005471_.___._._ Minnesota, University of, 0. 6. MICEAELSEN_____.---------.- 35,931
A1 Training Program in Environmental Contamination and
Environmental Health.
NSR zcOo5-003 _._._.... Minnesota, University of, P. KELLOOO ________..-.-----.---.. 50,126
Design and Construction of Prototype Instruments for a
Sounding Rocket Investigation of Electrostatic Waves in the
NsO-6M ____....__..._...Mississippi State Univeristy, R. 0. TISCEER__._..------...-- 14,785
s2 Influence of Metabolic Accumulation of Products of
Hydrogenomonas Cells and Their Continued Growth.
NsG(T)-106. . _ _ . . _Mississippi
__ __ State
__ University, J. C. MCKEE ___.-------........ 67.200
62 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technolqy.

NGR 2wol-+XX1_________ Missiasppi State University. 0. E. JONRE ________.____
81 Microwave Speetroswpic Identifieation of Atmospheric
NsG(T)-118 _ _ _ _ _ Mississippi,
___ UniVeRity
..__ of, _
L. NOBLES________._.____
82 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG(T)-139 _ _ _ _Southern
___ Misshippi,
__._ _ _ of, R. 9. Owmoa_____....-.
81 The Trainlng of 2 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NASr @3(03)_ _ _ _Mldwest
_ _ .Research
___ Institute,
_ _E. _ SNEEOAS-. ______ ~ ___.----- 119,272
A7 Evaluate Technological Developments Resulting from
the National Space Effort.
Midwest R w m h Institute, Y. L. LUKE.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _74,870
NASr-63(@7)_____..._____ __.___
A2 Conduct Research on Approximate Methods for Use In
Predicting the Nonlinear Response Characteristic8 of Thin
Shells and Plates.
Mldwest Research Institute. E.SNEEOAS-._ _ _ _ _ _ _
NASr 63(08). _____._.._._ 19, f343
Project ASTRA, Stimulation of the Industrial Utliization
of Spsce Technology.
NASr 63(09). .._____.___
Midwest Research Institute. H. GADBERRY _ . _ _ _ _ _2s, _ 320
To Study the Feasibility of a NASA Contractors and
SubContrwtors C apabilitiea Center.
Missouri, University of (Columbia), E. MARSHALL
NsG(T)400. _.__.__._.___ _ _ _ _ _ _ --- - - 212,400
83 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 2gooMo3 _________
Missouri, University of (Columbia), W. A. HAAS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - 150, ooo
91 Multidisciplinary Research in Space-Related Physical,
Engineering and Life Sclencw.
NOR 2goocoll_________ Missouri, University of (Columbia), C. W. GEERKE _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - 6.m
81 Gas Chromatographic Techniques for the Identification
and Study of Nucleosides.
NOR 2tWW026 _________
Mlssourl, University of (Columbia), F. E. SOUTH _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 50, ooo
An Investigation of Mammalian Adaption to Deep Hypo-
thermia and of Hypothermia Hihernatlon Relationships.
NsG(T)dB _ _ _ _ _ Mlssourl.
_ _University
__._ of _
. _W. BOECH ___________________- 11%600
93 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpacaRelated Scienees and Technology.
NsG(T)-74 ______________
Saint LOUISUnlvenity, H. HOWE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
83 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NSG-185 _________________
Washington University, M.W. FRIEDLANDER ____...___._.--- 78,880
s5 Invesiigation of Primary Cosmic Radiation Using Spark
Chambers and Nuclear Photographic Emulsions.
NsG 581___........._..__
Washington University. 0. E. PAKE _________ 30%.OOo____
92 University Wide Resesreh Prugram in Space-Related
Science and Technology.
NsG(T)-86 ______________
Washington University, 0. E. PAKS ______..__.._____. 249. ooo
93 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG 4N_.............._ Montana
. State University. I. DAYTON _.___.___.---.--- ------
93 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Scienee and En@-
NsQ(TF113 ...--........Montana State University, L. D. 8. SMITH___.---.-- ---------
92 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spaee-Related Sclenees and Technology.
Montana, University of, F. 9. HONKALA
NsG(Tbl4-l _.__...__..__ ___._ - - - -_- - -_-- -----
92 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NSG(T)-M _ _ _ _ _Nebraska,
_ _ _Universltyol,
_.___ M.. HonsoN ...___.__---..-- --------
82 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpaceSciencea and Technology.
N s W _________________Nevada. University Of, H. N. M O ~ O O AND D. C. COONCY-- $14067
83 Experiments on the Etlecb of ExobiologicalFactors on the
Growth, Cellular mtmtrnctnre and Cytochemtstry in
NsG(T)+Jl______________ Nevada, University of, T. D. O’B- _______________________ aa,100
83 The M u g of 6 Predwtmal Graduata Students in the
Space-Relsted Befencea and Technology.
NGR 28601-015 _________Nevada, University of, M.J. H~BBABD _______________________ 78,470
81 O m d Data Support at Geologic Test Stand.
N G R 29-001-016 _________Nevada, University of, F. WINTERBERG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘4802
Investigation of the Propagation of Plasma Waves in
Inhomogeneous Plasmas.
NsG(T)-128 _____________Dartmonth College, J. F.HOBNIO ____________________________ 10B,800
8 2 The Trsinlng of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 3001-011. _______Dartmonth College, B. U. C. SONNEBUP ..................... 29,MJs
91 Study of the Strncture of the Magnetopause, Utilizing
Satellit+Obtained Magnetometer Data.
NsG-614____.___.._._____ New Hampshire, University of, R. E. HOUSTON _____________ m,ooo
8 1 Study the Possible Relationships Between Lower Iono-
spheric Effects Observed by VHF Absorption Techniques,
and Cosmic Ray and Geomagnetic Activity.
NsG(T)-Ol__________.___ New Hampshire, university of, E . 8. MILIS __________________ 114. OOO
9 2 The Training of 6 Predoctord Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 3(M02-018. _______New Hampshire, University of, E . L. CHWP ________________ 17.662
81 Investigation of Energy Levels in Foil Excited Atomk
NGR 30402421- _______New Hampshire, University of, E.L. C m ________________ 115, OOO
Investigation and Development of Techniques for Solar
Neutron and Gamma Ray Detection.
NsG-186.. _ _ _ _ _ Princeton
_._ University,
___ H.
_ H._H_m ___________________________
_ 38,192
52 X-Ray Diflraetion Of L m - T m M a t e W .
NsG414 .___...._________ Princeton University, L. SPITZEB ____________________________ 301, OOO
s 4 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Ultraviolet
Atomic and Molecular Spectra of Astrophysical Interest.
NsG 641_ _ _ _ _Princeton _ _ . .University,
___ __ ________ 50,
_ CJaI
92 An Investigation of Pre-Ignition and Ignition Pra?essss
in the Combustion of Metals.
NsQ 665_ _ . _ . _ _ Princeton
_._ University,
____ R. _
_ ____________________ 21, OOO
9 2 Constitutive Eguations for Nonvisearmetric Flows.
NsO(TI-38 ________._..__ Princeton University, C. S. PIITENDBIGE ___________________ - 324,OOO
9 3 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Qradnate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 31-001M7- _ _ _ Princeton
.__ University,
_ E. D ~ B I____________________________
N 24,730
Dynamica and Wind Pro5le Measurement Capabilities of
Lifting Sensors.
N O R 3 1 ~ 1 - 0 5 8_
- _ _Princeton
.__. University, E. H. D O ~ L_ L ________ 18,935
Investigation of Non-Linear Problems and Mathematical
Methods in Aemlasticity.
NOR 31401-068- _ _ .Princeton
___ University,
_ L. D. DAVISSON ____...---.---...--.-- 15, MI
Study of Advanced Communication Techniques.
NOR-31401-704- _.__._ Princeton University, 0. L. MELLOR- - - ..--...------....---- 58,030
Investigations of Turbulent Boundary Layers with
Suction, Cross Flows and Wall Curvature.
NASr-216- _ _ . _ _Princeton
___ University,
___ I. _ _ - ______..._.__.__________
A2 Experimental and Analytical Studies in Advanced
Nuclear Propulsion Concepts, Including Fundamental
Energy Exchange.
NASr 216 ___.._____..___ Princeton University, J. OBEY_-________----..-------------- 30,CJaI
A3 Experimental and Analytical Studies in Advanead
Nuclear Propulsion Concepts, including Fundamental
Exchange Processes.

Princeton University, D. T. HARRIE_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .m _oo

o_ _ _ _
Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket
Princeton University, C. 8. PITTENDRIQH .................... 74, 550
Experimental Analysis of Circadian Rhythms under
Terrestrial Condltlons.
Rutgers State University, H. C.TORREY ____________ .____ 178,
_ ooo_ _
The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpacsRelated Sciences and Technology.
Stevens Institute of Technology, R. A. MORQAN ______ 144
The Training of 8 Predoctoral Oraduate Students in the
Spsee-Related Sciences and Technology.
- ooo
Stevens Institute of Technology, H. M E I ~ ~ N_E_R_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _15.
Proximity Effects Between Supemnductlng and Normal
Stevens Institute of Technology. J. 0.Daunt _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ . - - -
Investigation of Dasorption Cooling.
__ __ __
U.S. Army Electronlor Command. - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - .

Modifying Existing Radar (AN/APQ-97 (XE-1)) In-

stalled in YEAPA Aircraft.

New Mexlco State University, C. W.TOMBAUQH. _____ 120,073

Photographic, Photoelectric and Spectrographic Observa-
tions and Studies of the Planets.
New Mexlco State University. R. LIFFELD_ _ _ _ _ _ _24,615 _____
Theoretical and Experlmeutal Studles In Long Wave
Length X-Ray Speotroscopy.
New Mexico State Unlverslty, M. E. THOMP~ON. ~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - 161,800
The Training of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students In the
SpnmRelated Science8 and Technology.
New Mexico, Unlverslty of. A. ERTEZL-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Study of Electromagnetic Scattering from Terrain wlth
Particular Application to the Moon and Planets.
New Mexico, Unlverslty of, W.W. OFLANNEMANN. ___________ 15,315
Hall Effect for Low Voltage, High Current DC to AC
New Mexico, Universlty of, V. R. REQENER _________________ 86, i
Experimental Techniques for Making Zodiacal-Light
Observations from an Orbiting Solar Observatory.
New Mexico, University of, A. STEQER- ________ 142_ 800 _ _ _ _
The Training of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Belences and Technology.
New Mexico, Unlverslty of. C. a. RICHARDS _ _ _ _ _._ _ _ 19,389
Numerical Study of the Flow in the Vortex Rate Sensor.
U.S. Atomic Energy bommlssion- - - ........................ loo. OOO
- Design and Develop a Dual Mode Neutron Oenerator
NsO-394..- ... Adelphi
.- Univexxlty, R. GENBEUQ---_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

83 Idhltldiselplinary Rasearch !n Space-Related Sciences and

NsO(T)-Q!I. - ._.._.---... Adelphi University, M. JENNINQS ____.....__.________
82 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Qrsdunte Student8 in the
Space-Related Sclences and Technology.
NsO(T)-lll.. -. ....-...- Alfred University, E. E. MUELLER.._ _ _ _ _ _ --_- - - -_ . _ _ _ _ - - -
92 The Training of 2 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spsee-Related Sciences and Technology.
NSR 33-C03-009__...._._ American Institute of Aeronautic8 and Astronautics, J. J.
A Sdentlflc and Technical Information Servlm. Including
Abstractlng and Indexing, Covering Published Aerospace
NASrU-... ......-.... Bell Aerosystems Company, A. E. MIRTI_ _ _ _ _ -_ - - -_ - - _ - - -6,873
A1 Conducting Research on Zero-Gravity Expulslon Tech-

NsG409 _________________
Brooklyn, Polytechnic Institute of, M. E. BLOOY ____________
92 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations in the El-
tromagnetic, Radiative and Thermodynamic Properties of
IOnoniZed FlOWS Of G m , and in P ~ I M Boundary Condi-
tions at Conducting and Non-Conducting Walls.
NsG-569 _________________
Brooklyn, Polytechnic Imtituta of, H. J. JUBETSCEKX _ _ _ _ ___
82 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Electronic
Properties of Thin Films.
Brooklyn, Polytechnic Institute of, A. B. GIOBDANO
NsG(T)-71______________ _____.___
83 The Training of 15 Predoctoial Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 33406-017 _________
Brooklyn, Polytechnic Institute of, Q. OSTGB ________________
81 Study of Photosensitized Decomposition of Hydroper-
City College of the City University of New York, H. LIJSTIG-
NsO 197_______.__.._____
84 Theoretical Research in Astrophysics.
NOR 33-013411 _________
City College of the City Univemity of New York, D. R.
Dynamic Response of Structural Elements to Sonic
NsG(T)-lOB _ _ _ _ City
_.__ _Pork,
of New __ M._REES_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _
92 The Training of 6 Predoctoial Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
._Clarksou College of Technology, H. L. SBUWIAN_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _
92 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spaee-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsQ-232 _________________
Columbia University, W. A. CASSIDY ______________
93 Research on Quantities and Conmtrations of Extra-
terrestrial Matter Through Samplings of Ocean Bottoms.
NsG-302 _________________
Columbia University, R. A. QBOM ___________.____
83 Theoretical Research in Plasma Physies.
NsQ-360 _________________
Columbia University, R. Novrcx ____________________________
52 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Helium
and Lithium Atoms and Ions with Emphasis on Excited
Energy Levels and the Mechanism of Energy Transfer from
Metestable States.
NsG-442 . _ _ _ _ _Columbia _ _ _ .H.
_ _ _University, _ M.
53 Theoretical and Experimental Investigationsof the Micro-
wave Properties of Planetary Atmospheres.
NsG-445 _________________
Columbia University, H. M. FOLEY ______.__________..
82 Theoretical Research in Astrophysics.
NsO-445 _________ ______ __
Columbia University, R. Noncx _____ _ _ _ _ __-. __________
83 Theoretical Research in Space Sclence.
NsQ(T)-%.- ____________
Columbia University, R. S. HAWOBD ________________
53 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in thc
SpneRelated Sciences and Technology.
NOR 334@3437- _______
Columbia University, J. E. NAFE ___________....---_._____
91 Research in Theoretical and Experimental Geology and
NQR 33-008-056 - ._____
Columbia University, 0 . L.ANDEBBOH _________------_.__
The Measurement of Physical Properties, Including the
Gruneisen Constant, on Lunar Geological Specimens.
NQR B-OB-061. ___._..Columbia University, P.W. QAST_____.________._._._
Study of Alkali, Alkaline Earth, and Lanthanide Ele
ments in Lunar Materials.
NSR 33-0W-M _ _ _ _ Columbia
_ _ .University,
_. W. A. OWENS____._.__.....___._......
A1 Summer Institute for S p w Science.
NSR 3CWXMtN__.._.._ Columbia University, J. IMBBIE ______.___._.....-...-.-..
Summer Program in Space Physic8 and in Space Science
and Engineering.
NASr 109- - _____________
Cornel1 Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., A. HEETZBEBO _._..-.
A 6 Experimental and Theoretical Rasearch on the Flow Of
High Temperature Hydrogen Through Jet Nozzles.

258-738 0 - 67 - 16

NEW YonK-Continued
NASr 119. - ___._______..
Cornel1Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., A. HERTZBERO ____.-- $74,935
A4 Conduct a Research Program to Determine the Non-
Equilibrium Flow Field and the Optical Radiation Around
Vehicles Traveling at High Altitudes and Super-orbital
NSR _ _ _ .Cornell
_ _ Aeronautical
___ Laboratory, Inc., C. E. TREANOR_-__.- 68,900
Conduct a Study of Energy Transfer Processes in Ionized
NSR 3 3 4 0 9 4 & . -
___.. Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., L. BOODAN. - - __-.-.- bo, 554
Development of the Laser Beam Scattering Technique for
Gas Density Measurements in Rocket Base Flow Fields.
NsG-382 _ _ _ _ _ _ Cornell
_ _University,
_ . _ _T. _ GOLD-
_ __ __ __ . . - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 136,_OOO_ _ _ _ _
8 3 Lunar Surface and Solar System Studies.
NsG-382_ _ _ _ _ _ Cornell___ University,
. . . _ _T._GOLD
_ ______________._._....- 116, OOO
84 Lunar Surface and Solar System Studies.
NsG(T)-rK(_ _ . _ _ .Cornell
___ University,
___ F.
._8. ERDMAN -_____.._.._..______ 288,000
8 3 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Relnted Sciences and Technology.
N O R 33-010424- _______
Cornell University, 0. PETTENOILL__..___________..__ 115,794
Radar Studies of the Lunar Surface,Emphasizing Factors
Related to Selection of Landing Sites.
N G R 33-010029 ___..____ Cornell University, L.R. GERMER____________...__ 31,610
Research on the Adsorption and Chemical Reactions of
Atoms and Molecules on the Surface of Crystals.
NSR 33410-026__.._.___ Cornell University, M. 0. HARWIT ________..._..._____ 218, m
Far Infrared Rocket Astronomy.
NsG 155_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Dudley
_ _Observatory,
_ _ . _ _C. _L. _HEMENWAY
_ __________...__.... 150, OOO
s 3 Collection and Analysis of Micrometeorites.
NSR 33-o26-001______.__ Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., J. LEDERER ______._ 73.439
A4 Listing and Evaluation of ProJects Relating to Turbu-
N8R 3342W l B . ________
Fllght Safety Foundation, Inc., J. COLLIN8 AND J. L. HALEY. 59,742
Analysis and Testing of Aircraft Seats.
NsG(T)-121.. _______
.__ Fordham
_ University, J. F. MULLIOAN ______ _______
.... ~ . _ _ _70,800
92 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG(T)-lSl______.____._ New York, State University of (Buffalo) A. W. HOLT_____... 108, m
The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Scienees and Technology.
NOR 33-016-016.....--.- New York, State University of (Buffalo), J. F. DANIELLI __._ loo,OOO
Multidisciplinary Research in Theoretical Biology.
NsG(T)-119 _ _ _ _ _ New
__ York,
.._ Stnte
._ of (Stony Brook), D. Fox ___.._ 86,100
8 2 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 33-015-035 _ _ _New __ York,
_ . University
_ of (Stony Brook), L. L. SEXOLE.
Investigation of Properties of Interstitial Elements in the
Refractory Metals.
NsG 76_ _ _ _ _ _ New _ York
__ . _ _R.
University, _ C._SAENI
_. _ __ _.________..._____
8 6 Theoretical Investigations in the Field of Molecular
Quantum Mechanics and Transport Properties of Diatomic
NsG-217 _ _ _ _ -...
__ __
New_ York
_ _University,
_. H. A. TAPZOR _..__..__.. .__
~ .-....-.
_ 55,434
9 2 Study of the Photolysis of Carbon Dioxide.
NsG499 __________._.._.. New York Univenity, J. E. MILLER______..___..---..--- -- 68.931
84 Theoretical Research on the Properties of the A t m w
pheres of the Earth and Other Planets and on the A t m a
pheric Effect of Solar Activity.
NsG 617..... -. -. New York University. B.J O S E P H ~ -N-. ..
. _.. _- -.
_......- - - -
9 2 An Experimental Investigation of Spin-Lattice Inter-
NsG-883_ _ _-. .-.
_ ._New
. York University, L. ARNOLD AND M.SCHWARTZ.--. --.- 30,000
9 2 Experimental Rasearch in Geophysics and Astrophyslm.
NsG(T)40. __________
.-. New York University, J. R. RAOAZZXNI _ _ _ _ _ _ _ --------
~ _-- --- 2@4lxm
9 3 The Training of is Pmdoctoral Graduate Students in tho
Spaat-Related Sciences. and Technology.

NOR M 6 - 0 8 8 _________
New York University, H.FErEYllrr_________________________
s. 1 Investigation of Computer Techniques for Analyzing
Three Dimensional Oeometric Con6gurations.
NOR 83-016-067 _________
New York University, M. A. RUDEEMAN _______________
81 Selected Topics in Astrophysics.
NOR 33416-066. ________
New York University, 8. P. SEEN___________________________
81 Study of High E n e g y Nuclear Reactions and 8-
Radiation Shielding.
NASr-lBa ________________
New ___________________ ____
York University, C. J. -
A3 Investigate the Chermlcal Kinetiesol Reaotlons that 0-
in Advanced High Energy Propellant Combustion.
NsO-48 __________________ ______________
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, E. H. HOLT-
8 7 Investigation of the Properties of Gas Plasmas by Mi-
wave Techniques.
NsO-100 _ _ _ _ _Ransselaer
___ Polytechnic
__._ Institute,
_ _8. .______________
E. Wmrmy
8 6 Interdisciplinary Materials Reaearch Program.
NsO 113_________________ _________
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, J. M. OEEENBEEO
83 Theoretical Research on Interstellar Dust and Its Inter-
action with Ultraviolet Radiation.
NSG-281- _______________ ______ _____ _ _ _
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, P. HAETECX~

83 Chemistry of Planetary Atmospheres and Comets.

NsQ 280_ _ _ _ _Rensselaer
___ Polytechnic
.___ Institute,
J. _ _ ____________.
94 Studies of Radiation Damage to Semi-Conduetors and
Thin Metallic Films by High Energy Electron, Proton and
Neutron-Gamma Radiation.
NsO(T)-10 ______________ _______
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 8.E. W r n m m Y - - - -
84 The Tnrining of 15-Predoeotral Oraduste Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 33-018-014. _______ _________________
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, R. J. ROY
81 Adaptive Pattern Recognition Techniques and Related
Control Theory.
NGR 33418-082. _______ ____ __ ________
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, R. Di P m
Gas Bearing Daslgn Study.
NsG-20B _ _ _ _ _ _ Rochester,
___ University
_._ of,_W._Vm ._ m ~_AND ____
c C. R. W ~ N
s4 Microbiological and Chemical Studies of Planetary 8011s.
NsO 20B--. _ _ _ . _ Rochester,
___ University
___ of,______________ ________
_ ~

9 6 Microbiological and Chemical Studies of Planetary 80ilss_-

_______ __ _______
Rochester, University of, P. W.BAWMEISTEE
NsG-308 _____._._.__.____
8 3 Investigation of Multilayer Optical Filter8 with Partlcnlar
Emphasis in the Spectral Region from 12M)A to 28ooA.
NsG(T)-73---. __________
Rochester, University of, W. 0. FENN_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _
8 3 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NGR-33-01%042- ..--..Rochester, University of, M.F.W N _____________._.._
s1 Cosmic Ray Research.
NASr-14- _ _ _ _ _Rochester,
__._ University
.___ of, _
R. _
E. HOPKINS __._..__._.._.._____
A7 Ilgsearch on C)ptical Instrumentation Suitable for Iu-
corporation in an Obriting Astronomical Observatory.
NASr-14. _ _ _ _ . _ Rochester,
. . _ _University
____ of _
R. E. HOPKINB ________.._.._......
A8 Studies and Investigations of Optical Systems.
NsG-W ___.._._..____._.St. John’s University, M.A. P i s m o _______________.......
92 Investigation in Sono-Chemical Sterilization.
N s G 4 ____._....._..__.
Syracuse University, D. V. KELLEB _________________
5 2 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Adhesion of
Metals in High Vacuum.
...-..Syracuse University, K. SCBBODER- ____._.__......._.......-
s2 Experimental Sudies of Creep in Metals Under Elevated
Temperatures and High Vacuum Conditions.
NsG €93__..__._.Syracuse........ University, R. SLEPECKY ___....._..___._.___------.
s 2 Studies of Trace Elements in the Sporulation of Bacteria
and the Germination of Bacterial Spores.
NsG(T)-78.____......_._Syracuse University, F.P. PISKOR ..___._______._..___.---.-
5 3 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG 227___.__._..._._.._Yeshiva University, L. F.LANDOVITZ _______..._............
S I Studies in Astrophysical Sciences.

NEW Yosx-Continued
NsG(T)-lU- - ___________
Yeshiva University, A. GELBART- ___________.___ - $106, ZIxJ
8 1 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 33-0B-018- _ _ _
__ University,
_. J. L. LEBOWITZ __._______ 35.000
Rasearch in Space Physics.
NsG-152 _ _ _ _ _Duke __ University,
___ T._0._ W n_a o N.
_ ._
__ _ _ _ _ _ .- _ _65,122 _____
55 Satellite Electrical Power Conversion Systems and Cir-
cult Protection.
NsG(T)-16. ___..__ ~ _____
Duke University. R. L. PREDMORE. ......................... 177, OOO
53 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NGR44401M5-. _ _ _Duke. _University.
__ J. J. GERGEN ___________ 100,
_ ooo
51 Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research in the Physical,
Engineering, and Life Sciences.
NASr-236 _ _ _ _ _ _ North
__ Carolina
___ Science
__ and
. .Technology
_ Research Center, P. 55,939
Regional technology transfer program.
North Carolina State University, W. J. PETERSON _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 212.400
53 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 34-002417 _ _ _ _North
__ Carolina
.__ State University, W. H. BENNETT _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - 17,414
51 Transverse Instabilities cf Magnetically Self-FocusingStreams
in Plasmas.
N O R 344OMZ4 _________ ____
North Carolina State Univesrity. F. 0. SMETANA _ _ _ _ _ ~
51 Study of Transpiration Effects on Pressure Indicators in
the Transition Regime.
NOR 344OW33___....__ North Carolina State University, F. 0. SMETANA _ _ . _ _ _18,313 __.---
Studyof the Aerodynamic and M a s TransferChara2terls-
tics of Parachute Fabries.
NOR 344324M _________
North Carolina State University, F. D. HART _ _ _ _ _ _25,200 __.---
Research Studies of Statistical Energy Methods in Sound
and Structural Vibration Analysis.
N O R 344024B.--. _____
North Carolina State University, F. J. TISCHER ____--------- - 29,415
A Study of Electro-Optical Data Processing and Reduc-
NOR 3cooaM2 _________
North Carolina State University, E. R. MANRING ____ - _ _2 - 1 ,-
m- - .
Photometry of Vapor Clouds, Releasad Above the Earth.
NsG(TI43 ______________
North Carolina, University of, C. H. HOLMAN-.. _____..----- 235,800
53 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 34403421_ _ _North__ Carolina,
_._ University
_ of, H. A. TYROLER ______-------- 43, OOO
81 Study of Assessment of Community Health Factors near
Major Aerospace Installations.
NOR 344034%. ._____..North Carolina, University of. J. W.HANlON _ _ _ _ --_
- .-- 22.500
The Application of Linear Programing t o Functional
NASr-222 _ _ _ _ . _ Research
.__ Triangle
___ Institute,
___ R. _M. BURGER ________ 54,988
A2 Feasibility Study of Piaotransistor Accelerometer.
North Dakota %ate University, 0. 8. SMITH-.- - - - - - -
NsG(T)-132 ____.._._._._ - ---. -100
53. -
52 The Training of 3 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
XsO(T)-152 ____.........
North Dakota, University of, C. J. HAMRE __--.....-..--- --- 42,800
The Training of 2 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technolow.
Battelle Memorial Institute, H. R. BATCHELDER.. --..-
NASr-l00(M)______...... ~.
A5 T o Assist NASA in Evaluation and Preparing for Dis-
semination of NASA TechnoloKical Developments which
have Non-Space Applications.
Battelle Memorial Institute, J. F. FOSTER
NASr-100(03).. ____._._.. __.-.-----...--..-
-- Qoo
A3 Experimental Research on Techniques and Procedures
lor the Cultivation of Hydrogen Fixing Bacteria.

Battelle Memorial Institute, R. E. MARIXQER ________________

In~&igatiOn Of the P h m %paration d IKOn-NicLel Alloy
in Metallic Meteorites to Investigate the Time and Tem-
perature Involved in their Formation.
Case Institute of Technology, 0.K. MAWARDI.. _____________
5 5 Experimental and Theoretical Research in Plasma Dy-
NsG-5K.- ______________
Case Institute of Technology, L. R. BMW ___________ ______

8 2 Special Functions and Solntion Representationsof Partial

DiPlerential Equations.
NsO 638_________________
Case Institute of Technology, I. F. WALLACE _________________
8 2 An Experimental Investigation on Modified Eutectic Al-
loys for High Temperature Service.
NsO 6M_ ________________
Case Institute of Technology, 8.V. RE - _______ _______

5 2 Investigation of the Effects of Hydrostatic Pransnre Cy-

cling on the Mechanical Behavior of Body Centered Cubic
Refractory Metals and Alloys.
Case Institute of Technology, L. QORDON ....................
The Training of 12 Predoctoml Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Case Institute Of Technology, R. J. ADLE8 ___________________
Research in Computer Solution of Set or Non-Linear
Algebraic Equations.
Case Institute of Technology, J. L. KOENIO_________ __ ______.
Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate
under Selected Conditions and Methods of Preparation.
Case Institute of Technology, 5. OETBACE....................
Basic Scientiflc Research in Fluid Phpsles.
Case Institute of Technology, A. B. KUPEB __________________
Impurities and Interface States in the SiOZ/Si System.
Case Institute of Technology, W. H. KO .....................
Investigation of Implantable Multichannel Biotelemetry
Case Institute of Technology, 5. OSTRACR....................
A General Study of BoiUng In A Swirling Flow.
Case Institute of Teobnology, I. OEEBER ....................
A Summer Institute in Space-Related Engineering.
Cincinnati, University of, C. CROCKETT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Training of 10 Predoctoral Oraduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Cincinnati, University of, R. P. HABEINGTON-- ___ - .___.____
Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research in the Physical,
Engineering, Life and Social Sciences.
NsO-437_ _ _ _ _Fels __ Research
__ Institute,
.__ E._5._ ___________________
8 2 Experimental Studies of Reinforcing Brain Stimulation,
Including Consideration of Behavioral Consequences.
Hiram College, L. €3. 8-ER _________.__________
Investigation of the Effects of Ion Bombardment on Single
NsQ(T)-M. - _ _ _ _Kent
._ State
__ Univendty,
___ J. WHITE
_ __________.______._
53 The Training of 4 Predoctord Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NSR 36-007-013_ _ _ _
Kent_ State
__ University,
_ . . Q. H. BBOWN ________________________
Partial Support of a Confereuce on Liquid Crystals.
NsQ-213 ___....._..______
Ohio State University, C. LEVIS____.____......_______
84 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Electro-
magnetic Scattering and Radiative Properties of Termin
with Emphasis on Lunar-Like Surfaces.
Ohio State University, H. 8. W l u s s ________._.._._.....___
NsQ-295 ___..._..__._.___
82 Biological Effects of Prolonged Exposure of Animals to
Unusual Qaseous Environments.
NsQ-552. -.-..
___ Ohio
. _University,
_ C. V. HEER___________.._________
51 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Meas-
urement of Angular Rotation with Photons.

Ohio State University, R. ARHITAQE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _0- -1-%- -400

The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpaceRelated Sdenees and Technology.
Ohio State University, F. H. 8-TO _____._______.. 7% mo
The Training of 3 P0stM.D. Students in the Field Of
Aerospace Medidne.
Ohio State University. J. D. LEE________._______ 23,OOO
Boundary Layer Studies in an Arc-Heated Wlnd Tunnel.
Ohio State University, M. H. R m _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ 9,151 .____-
Ranking Problem in Multivariate Norms1 (Statistical)
Ohio State University, F. H. BECK__________..___-- 78,W
Stress Cormdon Cracking of Titanium Alloys.
Ohio State University, I. I. MUELLER_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 61.333
Data Analysis in Connection with the National Geodetic
Satellite Program.
Ohio University, T. CULBERT ________________________________ 7%400
The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sdences and Technology.
Toledo, University of, A. N. SOLBERG. ...................... 75, OOO
The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
U.S.A.F. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories. 50, ooo
Provide Partial Support for an A h F o m Project Leading
to the Development of a Methodology for Providing a Com-
puterised Data Bank for Manipulation and Analysis of
Informatlon Related to Space Task Descriptions.
U.S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare, K.H. LLwls ---- 105,800
Conduct an Investigation of the Ecology and Thermal
Inactivation of Microbes in and on Space Vehicle Com-
Western Reserve University, B. 8.CHANDRA~EKEAR _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - 30,OOO
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Elm-
tronic Transport Phenomena in Semimetals.
Western Reserve University, K.J. CASPER ___________________ 56200
Fundamental Studies on Sed-Conductor Radiation
Western Reserve University, F. H. HURLEY _______ 192,_ OOO _ _ _
The Tralning of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related 8dencea and Technology.

Oklahoma State University, J. A. WIEBELT_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 29,254

Study of Self-Regulating Spacecraft Temperature Control
Oklahoma State University, M. T. EDMUON _ _ _ _ _ _212,400 _____
The Tralning of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spac+Related Sciencea and Technology.
Oklahoma State Unlversity, L. FOLKS. .___ __ __.----.-...-
__. 10,800
Statistical Methods and Subjective Probability.
Oklahoma State University, 0. W. ZUMWALT ___..---. -. ...- - 21,640
Numerical Methods for Computing the Ditlusion of DiS-
turbances on Sonic Boom Wave.
NASr-7--. - - - - - - -..-.
-..- Oklahoma State University, F. C. TODD _ _ _._ ..._ _ .-
.... ..-- 35, ooo
A8 Shock from the Hypervelocity Impact of Microparticles
and from the Giant Pulse from a Laser
NsG(T)38.. ............ Oklahoma, University of, C. D. RIQGS.-..__._._...-....---- - 212,400
93 The Training of 12 Pradoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciencea and Technology.
N 0 R-374X3-026... ..... Oklahoma, University of, C. D. RIQGL- - - -. .- ...-.- - - - - - -- - 200,000
Multidlsciplinary Research Program in Space Science and

NsO(T)-88 ______________ Oregon State University, H.P. HAMEN _______________ _____ ~

53 The Training of 10 predoctoral Graduate Students in the

Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR a9003-00C ________ Oregon, University of, R. V. Hnt___________________________
51 Investigation of and Methodology for Measnring O&
Impedance During Stress.
NsG(T)-U ______________ Carnegle Institute of Technology, A. F. STBEELEB ___________
53 The Training of 16 Predoctonrl Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 39-KB46 ____.____ Combustion Institute, B. LEWIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ ______
Partial Support of the Eleventh Symposium (Intern
tional) on Combustion.
NsO(T)-l47 _____________ Drexel Institute of Technology, C. GATLIN ___________________
The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Btudents in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NGR 3 9 4 0 4 4 7 _________D m l Institute of Technology, C. GATLIN ___________________
Multidisciplinary Research in Space Science and Tech-
NSG(T)-134 _____________ DuquWe UniVerSiW, H. HePETIT _________________________ ~

51 The Training of 2 Predoctoral Gradnata Students in the

Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NSR aBoo6-016 _________ Franklin Institute, W. W. SWGABTE ________________ ________ ~

Conduct a Stateof-theArt Survey of Fluid Film Bear-

NSR 39406418 _________Franklin Institute, R. M. GOODMAN _________________________
A4 Research in Life Sciences Instrumentation Pertinent to
Studies in Space Biology.
NSR 3W06-Om.. ______ Franklin Institute, M. H. HALPEBN __________________________
A1 To Study the Effects of Reproducible Magnetic Fields on
Growth Cells in Culture in a ConstantStimulus Environ-
NsG-28'1_____________.___ Haverford College, L.C. GBEEN_____________________________
83 Investigation of the Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum of FE 11.
NsG(T)-57_ _ _ _Lehigh __ University,
___ R..D._ ______________________________
53 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Scieness and Technology.
N O R 3S4W7-007 ____..__ Lehigh University, R. W.KBAFT ______________..__
51 Investigation of the Solidification Structure and Proper-
ties of Euctectic Alloys, includlng Consideration of Proper-
ties Contml.
N GR 3S4W7-017- - ____ - - Lehigh University, A. KALNINE _____________ __ __ - ._
- - - .___ -
Analysis of Large Deformation of Shells.
NGR 39-ax-013- _______MeUon Instituta, 5. 5. POUCK __________________ __________. ~

X-Ray Detection of Disordered Orthopymxenes in ML+

NGR-31Pm-014- _______MeUon Institute,E. 0. H w r ~ ________________ ________.____

Investigation of stress cormsion cracking of Titaninm

NsG-85. __.._____._____._ Pennsylvania State University, I. W.Horn__________________
5 2 Static and Dynamic Tension and Cavitation Inception in
Pennsylvania State University, W.I. Ross- _______.._.____.
NsO-114 ____....__.______
54 Study of Ionospheric Electron Content and Distribution
Using Satellite Transmissions.
NsG-134- __...__.._._.___
Peunsylvania State University, J. 8.NISBIT_________._._....
55 Theoretical and Analytical Research on Electron Densi-
ties in the Upper Ionosphere, Including Studies of a Rocket
and Separating Capsule Experimental Technique.
NSG(T)-22. - _ _
-._ . Pennsylvania State University, M. N. MCGEABY
.___.. - ___ .... _ _ _ _
93 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpaceRelated Sciences and Technology.
NOR 39-cm.015- _______
Pennsylvania State University, P. EBAUGE-_._____._._.__._
€41 Multidiseiplinary Space-Related Research.

PetlI&VWll8 state UnfveISity, J. L. SHEARER _______--_____

Research and Development of On-Board Control Systems
and Elements for Aerospace Vehicles.
Pennsylvania State University, B. R. F. KENDALL. _________ 37,042
Study and EVdU8tiOU of the ConstantMomentum MIW
Spectrometer for Ion Analysis in the D and E Regions of the
Pennsylvania State University, K. VEDAM-- _ _ _ _ _ - __ 32,-OOO--___
Mechanisms and Kinetic8 of Oxidation of Silicon in Air.
Pennsylvania, University of, M.ALTMAN. ___ __ ___ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ -675. OOO
Research on Conversion of Various Forms of Energy by
Unconventional Techniques.
Pennsylvania, University of, E. T H O R O G . ~..D..-.......... 32,490
Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixing Nodules of Common
Crop w a s .
Pennsylvania, University of, A. N. HIXSON .................. 283.800
The Training of 15 Pawdoctoral Graduate Students in the
Spaee-Related Sciences and Technology.
Pennsylvania, University of, W. M. PROTHEROE-. _ _ - - - _m, _ 810
Conduct Investigations of the Solar Corona During the
November 12,1866 Total Solar Eclipse.
Pennsylvania, University of, K. A. FEQLEY-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 40,470
Study of Oimballess Inertial NaVigatiOU Systems.
Pennsylvania, University of, R. M. SHOWERS_ _ _ _ _ _ _----- ~ --- 40, 495
Research In Aerospace Microwave Technology.
Pennsylvanla, University of. P. S. BALAS _____________ _ _ _ _ _ _ .25. ooo
Operations of a Power Information Center at the Unlver-
sity of Pennsylvania.
Pittsburgh, University of, A. J. COLN........................ 30,
Owchemical Research on Stony Meteorltea and Tektites.
Pittsburplh, University of, P. F. JONES ....................... 272, OOO
The Training of 15 Predoctoral Oraduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Pittsburgh, Universtty of, E. C. ZIP^ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ 28,622
Studies of the Excltatlon and Colllsional Deactivation of
the Measurable AS State of Nitrogen in the Aurora and Day
N Q R 34011435......... Plttsburgh, University 01, E. OERJWOY ...................... I). 919
81 New Formulas for Colllsion Amplitudes and Relatrd
N Q R 39411-038. - - - -. . Pittsburgh, University of, W. 0.VOGT. ...................... 28,623
Stability of Solutions to Partial Differential Equations.
NASr-169 ................ Pittsburgh, University Of, N. WALD .......................... 126,607
A4 Automatic Analysis of Cytogenic Material.
NASr-170 ................ Pittsburgh, University of, T. M. DONAHUE .................. 9% OOO
A2 Helium OeOCOrOna Measurements from Sounding Rockets.
NASr-23L. ............. Plttsburgh, University of, A. KENT .......................... 300, OOO
A2 Program to Accelerate the Industdal Applhtion of A e m
space Related Science and Technolow.
NSR 39-011-054..-~ .--.. Pittsburgh, University of, L. A. Sa~ro....................... 21,530
Technology Utikation Survey on New StIUCtW81 Design
NsO(T)-140-. ......... Temple University, G . H. HUDANIR ......................... 74,400
91 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
R-105.................... U.S.N.-Naval Air Engineering Center, 0. L.SANWALD-.. . 77. OOO
A2 Conduct an Investigation of Turbine Disk Burst Pro-
NsO (T)-I54- ............ Vili8nOVa University. A. H. RUmRD .........................
The Training of 2 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 394234M _________ Villanova Unlversity, T . YANQ.............................. 30.240
81 Study of Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis and Deslgn.
NSO (T)-l27. __ __.
- _.__ .- Brown University, R. B. LINDSAY m,XQ
S2 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 4O+%OOQ _________ ____
Brown University, P. F. MAEDER ~ ._._..._._______._.._
Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research Program.
loo, ooo
NOR 4WW2-015 _________
Brown University, J. P. LASALLE _____.________._.._... 56,549
51 Theory of Differential Equations and Their Relationship
to Dynamical Systems Theory.
NOR 4040MBi_ _ _Brown.__ University,
___ J. LOFERSKI ____._...____._._
____.._...... 26,598
81 Photovoltaic Effects in Semiconductors, including Con-
sideration of Radiation Damage.
NsO(T)-72 _ _ . _ _Rhode
_._ Island,
__ University
___ of, _
P. H. NASH_.__.._________.... @, 5Lml
63 The Training of 5 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsO(T)-44_ _ _ _ _ Clemson
_ _University,
_ _ _ V. _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._
. .HuR~T-. ___123,300
83 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpaccRelated Sciences and Technology.
NsO (T)-115- - - -- __ __ ____
South Carolina, University of, R. H. WIENEFELD____.__...._ 124,300
52 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG(T)-138. _._._._____ _______________
South Dakota, University of, W.W. GUTZMAN 85,200
91 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-539 _________________
TeMessee, University of, N. M. G ~ B - -______..._..._.___
. 103.051
5 2 Theoretical and Experimental Very High Resolntion
Spectroscopic Studies of Line Shapes of Atmospheric Gases
and of Absorption Bands of Inorganic Solids.
TeMessee, University of, W. E. STAIR_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _37,820 .____._.._
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Visco-Type and
Buffered Shaft Seals.
Tennessee. University of, D. C. BOGUE_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _7,911 __.._._.__
Study of Constitutive Equations in Two-Dimensional
Tennessee, University of, H. A. SMITH __.____________.__. 212, u)o
The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Tennessee, University of, J. E. SPRUIELL- ____......_._..__._ 15,560
Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Rela-
tion Between Atomic Structure and the Physical Properties
of Metallic Solid Solutions.
NGR 43401-021. __...._
Tennessee, University of, C. THOMAS _____.__._._...._....... 300,OoO
Multidisciplinary Research Program in Space Science and
Tennessee, University of, I. 8. BEADLEY
N G R 43-001-028 ___.._.. _._.._....._........ 11.345
Principal Solutions of Non-Oscillatory Linear Differential
Vanderbilt University, R. G. STEARNS
NsO 465____.....__._.... and C. W.WrLsoa .... 6,100
52 A Study of the Structural Deformation and the Mechanics
of Origin of the Wells Creek Meteorite Impact Structure on
the Surface of the Earth.
Vanderbilt University, R. T. LAGEMANN- ____ -
...._.__ .--. 228, OoO
s 3 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG(T)-155 __._.._____._
Baylor University, J. D. BRAGG ____________.__.....-.-...... 35,300
The Training of 2 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR u-oo3-018- _______
Baylor University, J. J. GHIWNI_.__________................ 34, ooo
Studies of Liver and Gsstrointestinal Tract Irradiated
with Protons.

258-138 0 - 61 - 17

N8R IM03-021___...... Baylor University, N. R. BURCH _________.______._ $5,625
8tudy of Electroencephalogram (EEG) Reoords.
NsO-269 _ _ _ _ _ _ Graduate
___ Research
.__ Center
__ of.the
_ F. 8. JOHNSON.. 928,876
8 6 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Related Bcienee and
N G R ______
Graduate Research Center of the Southwest, F. 8. JOHNSON - 132,136
8 1 Investigations into the Mechanism and Ratea of Atmos-
pheric Mixing in the Lower Thermosphere.
NOR cH)o(-030. - ______
Graduate Researoh Centerofthe 8outhwest, W. J. HEIKKU.. 68,331
81 Study of Electron Colltsion Frequency under Ionospheric
NGR ICOOC038. - .- _ _ .Graduate Research Center of the Southwest, W. J. H E I K K ~ ~ A . - 43,764
Laboratory Evaluation of Ionospheric Langmuir Probe
NOR 4 4 - W - O C ____..Graduate Research Center of the 8outhwest, M. CAHEN and f4000
Research on Gravltational Waves and Other Problems in
General Relativity.
N8R 44404-017_ _ . _Oraduate
_ _ _Research
__ Center of the Southwest, J. A. FBIER 34.681
A2 and W. J. HEIKKU.
Design and Construct 6 Ionospheric Probes in each of 3
Nilre-Apache Rocket Payloads.
N8R lCOOC028 _ _ _ _ Graduate
_.._ Research
_ Center of the Southwest, T. W. FLOWER- 188.927
Rocket Probes for the Upper F-Region.
N8R ceOM-o(l___..____ Graduate Reaaarch Centerof the k t h w e s t , W.J. HEIKKILA.. 180, OOO
Rocket Investlgatiou of Auroral Zone Disturbances.
N8R- _________ Graduate Research Center of the Southwest, K. 0. 88.202
Processing and Interpretation of Data for Pioneers A & B.
N8O-267 _ _ _ _ _ _ Houston,
___ University
__._ of,_J. ORO
.__ ______________________________ 71,816
82 Btudies in Organlc Casmochemlstry, including Considera-
tion of Compound Formation under Primitive Earth Con-
dltlons and of Organic Material in @.elected Meteorites.
NsG(T)-62. __________ ___ Houston, University of, J. C. ALLRED-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 177,_OOO_ _ _ _
83 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Btudents in the
8paee-Related 8ciences and Technology.
NOR cH)o6Qo _________ Houston, University of, ORO, ZLATKIB,LOVELOCK A N D
BECKER ________________ . __99.600
Carbonaceous matter in returned Lunar Samples.
NQR 44-00641_..._._._ Houston, University of, J. R. CRUMP _________ 160.
Multidisciplinary 8paee-Related Research.
NOR CeOoMm . _ _ _Houston, ___ University
._ of, C. GOODMAN ______.____.....__ 70, OOO
Interactions of Hydromagnetic Wave Energy with Ener-
getic Plasmas and Other space Related Beientiflc and Tech-
nical Investigations.
NOR 44-00647 _________ Houston, Universlty Of, R. D. BKINKHORN, P. J. KNOPP _..-- 49.996
Estimation of Transition Matrices, Abelian Groups,
Btructure of Near-Rings, and Metrication of Topological
NOR ......... Houston, Universityof. R. D. 8HELTON. ____...__...-- ------ 61.366
Advancement of the General Theory of Multlplexing with
Application to (Ipnce Communications.
Na R 4 M o M w I____ - -.-. Houston. University of, C. GOODMAN- - - - - - - - - -.......- - - - - 80, OOO
Study of Solar Flare Partlcle Events and Related Solar
N G R 4MoMw2. _____ -.. Houston, University of, N. 8. KOVAR..-. .--. ....-. .......- - 12,376
Investlgatlon of the F-Corona From Elpace.
NGRU-O@5-043 .____.... Houston, Universityof, J.OROAHD R. BEcKER -.-...- ----- 196,943
In 8itu Organic Analysis of the Lunar Surface.
N8R 44-005416 ---......Houston, University of, C. J. HUANO _ _ _ ---.-.-
~ _ _ -_ - - -. - _ 9%400
- -_
A1 A Bummer Institute In 8paoaRelated Englneering.
Rice University, F. R. BEOTZEN- - __________ _______________
,o O
Studies of the Physics of Solid Materials Including Investi-
gation of the Basic Laws Governing the Behavior of Mids a t
High Temperatures.
NsG(T)-Q _______________Rice University, F. R. B ~ E.... ........................
N 267,403
84 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR u-oo(Hm ________Rice University, F. R. BROTZENAND A. J. DE~SLER..- ._._ m
Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research.
NGR 4 4 4 x 6 4 5_________
Rice University, A. MIELE................................... 19,680
Optimum Hypersonic Lifting Wings.
NOR 1MMH)59 _________
Rice University, E. ALTENBWL _____ _________ ____ __
-- -. 22,080
Effects of Ultraviolet and Heavy Particle Radiation on
Drosophila Qerm Cells.
__ ___ ___
NASr-209- - ._ _.Rice University, B. J. O'BRIEN.............................. 188,227
A4 Investigations and Analyses of Particle and Light Flux in
Aurorae and Air-Glow Using Rocket-Borne Instrumenta-
NsG 708 _________________W t h e r n Methodist University, 0.W. CRAW?ORD ........... 46,957
92 Study of Semiconductor-Dosimeter Characteristics, as
Applied to Problems of Whole Body Dosimetry.
NsG-711_______________ Southern Methodist University, H. A. BLUM ................. 17, 250
82 Heat Transfer Across Surfaces in Contact.
NsQ(T)-BB ______________Southern Methodist University, C. C. ALBRITTON-. __________ 90,CmJ
82 The Training of 5 Predoctoral Oratuate Students in the
Spaee-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 44-007-CNX ________Southern Methodist University, C. C. ALBRITTON ............ 100,000
91 Multidisciplinary Research in Space-Related Soience and
NOR 44-007-016 ________Southern Methodist University, W. R. RUNYAN ............. 11,184
A Study of the Absorption Coefecient of Silicon in the
Wave Length Reglon Between .5 and 1.1 Microns.
NASr-94(06).-- ___ ___
__. Southwest Research Institute, U. 8. LINDHOLM .............. 59,785
A2 Conduct Research Investigations in the General Area
of Shell Dynamics.
NASr-94(08)_.____ __ __ __
Southwest Research Institute, F. C. WHITMORE- ............ 11,685
Experimental Studies of a Tunnel Diode Oscillator-Super-
conducting Bolometer for the Ultrasensitive Detection of
Infared Radiation.
NsG 239................. Texas A&M University, H. E. WHITYORE- .................. 150,OOO
94 Interdisciplinary Space-OrientedResearch Program in the
Physical, Life, and Engineering Sciences.
NsQ(T)-8............... Texas A & M University, W. C. HALL-...................... 274,400
94 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Qraduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 44431-024-----..- Texas A&M University, H. A. LUTHER,9. SIMS.............. 39.870
91 Comparative Study of Some Numerical Solutions of
Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations.
NOR 44431M6--.---.- Texas A & M University, R. E.TEOMAS- ................... 32,874
Study of the Simulation of Atomspheric Processes in a
Wind Tunnel.
NsG(T)-105 ............. Texas Christian University, E. L. SECREST ................. 93.500
92 The Trainin of 5 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-RelatedgSciencesand Technology.
NOR U-OOWOK-----.. Texas Christian University, C. B. ELAM ..................... 25, OOO
81 Integration of Stimulus Cues in Control Decisions.
NSR 44-02M06......... Texas Institute for Rehabilitation & Resesrch, J. F. LINDSEY. 171.183
Development of Computer Technology for Medical Data
Analysis of Project Apollo and Follow-on-Missions.
NsG(T)-82. ............. Texas Technological College, F. D. RIGBY.................. 141,600
53 The Training of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-353. ............... Texas, University of, A. A. DOUGAL ........................ 39,935
93 Continuation of Research on Propagation and Dispersion
of Hydromagnetic and Ion Cyclotron Waves in Plasmas
Immersed in Magnetic Fields.

~ ~ 0 - 4 ___..__..___.....
32 Texas, University of, C. W. TOLBERT ______._____._..._. $150, 000
53 Investigation of Millimeter Wavelength Radiation from
Solar System Bodies.
NsO(T)-83 __.___..._____ Texas, University of, W. 0. WAALEY. _..._____._..._..__.. 288.m
93 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N O R 44-012443. - ....--Texas. University of, W. H. HARTWIG ______....___........-.. 50,
Theoretlcal and Experimental Investigations in Digital
N O R 444120(5. ___._.. Texas, University of, J. H. MACKIN. ___..........._..__..--.. 24,802
A Study of Ignfmbrites In the Cordilleran Region as a
Basis for Interpretation of Lunar Plains.
NOR 444lzouI. - . _ _ _ . _ University of, R. D. TAPLEY.
Texas, ._____....._.._.__..--.. 16.800
Investigation of Methods for Deflnlng Optimal Open-
Loop Control Procedures for Continuous Powered S p a
NOR 44-012-018~ ....--Texas, Unlversity of, A. W. STRAINNand A. H. LAORONE- 89,916
Remarch on the Characteristics of Clear Air Turbulence.
NOR 44412-055- ....-- Texas, University of, J. N. DOUGLAS.. _ . _ _ _ _ _ . _88,861 ______
Polarlzation and Time Structure of Jovian Decametric
Radlation and the Structure of Interplanetary Plasma.
NASr-242- - _._..._____._ Texas, University of, H. J. BmrTH.-.. ____.___..__._.___ 1,200,000
A3 Deslgn, Development, Fabrlcatlon and InstaIlatlon a t
McDonald Observatory of 1WInch Telescope Sultable for
Lunar and Planetary Observations.
NSR 44412439- _ _ . _ Texas,
__ _ _ of, L. D. CADY
University ____ ~ ...................... ~
65, OOO
A I Reductlon of Astronauts' CIlnlcal Medical Hlatory Data
for Use on Computers.
NsQ-440 _________________ Texas Woman's University, P.B. Mncs ..................... 32.800
8 3 An Experimental Investigation of Skeletal Mineral Lo-
in Humans and Pigtall Monkeys During Immobiliratlon.
R-123. ___
- - - - _ _ _ _ ___- __ - U.6.A.F.-Aerospace Medical Divislon, D. FARRER _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 73, ooo
A I Initiate Development of a FUght QuaUfled Experiment on
Mica In Long Duratlon Zero-O.
NaO(T).-Se. _______ ~ _____ Brigham Young University, W. P. LLOYD ___________ _ _ _ _ - - - 71,100

8 2 The Training of 6 Predoctoral Graduate Students In the

Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsQ(T)-80..-. __________ Utah State Universlty, J. 9. W u m s _ _ _ _ _ . _ . _ _ _ 115,200
83 The Training of 6 Predocotral Graduate Students In the
Space-Related Science8 and Technology.
NsQ(T)-79.. _ _ . _ _ Utah,
___ of,
_ __________ 177,
_ ooo_ _ _ . .
8 3 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sclences and Technology.
N O R 45-003425-_ _ _Utah, __ University
_. of, F. L. S T ~ A N S O N
...___.___.._____-- wz,721
Investigation of Metaorological Measurement Technlquas
up to 100 Kilometers.
N O R 46003-027- _______ Utah, University of, R. W. GROW_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 25, _OOo ____.
Theoretical and Experimental Investlgation of SoUd State
Mechanisms for Generating Coherent Radlatlon In the
Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regions.
N O R 4 5 oo3-028-.....-. Utah. University of, M. L. WILLIAMS- _.________-.__--....- -. 19.879
Tho Mechanics of Fracture In Viscoelastlc Medla.
NsO(T) -28.. _____ -...... Vermont, Unlversity of, W. H.MACMILLAN- __
- - .___ - ooo
- - - -. - - -88,
93 The Training of 5 Predoctoral Graduate Students In tho
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 48401-008. ....... Vermont, Universltyof, C. D. COOK-.____.__---.---.- ------ 150,ooo
9 1 Multidisclpllnary Research Program in Space SCbnces
and Engineering. with Particular Emphasls on Bio-En-
NsQ 602_________________ Old Dominion College,W. M.P P B I T ___________
C ~ ~ B I ________
, ~
8 2 Defect Annealing to Irradiated Semiconduetors.
R 47-015401 ____________
U3.A.F.-Aerospace Rasssrch, T. GOLD ..................... 94,828
Radar Studies of the Lunar Suriaes, Emphasing Factors
Related to Selection of Landing Sites.
NSR 47-007-0W _________
Virginia Associated Research Center, W. H. MCFARUNE ____ 61, OOO
A2 A Summer Institute in Space-Related Engineering.
NsG(T)-ll._.___._____._ Virginia Polytechnic Institute, F. BULL _____________ ________
93 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Oraduata Students in the
Spaes-Related Sciences and Technology.
N G R 47-OO4-W- _______
Virginia Polytechnic Institute, J. A. JACOBS- _____._.____._.. loo, OOO
9 1 Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research in Enginwring
and the Physical and Life Sciences.
N O R 47-OO4-W- - ______
Virginia Polytechnic Institute, J. A. JACOBS AND F. BULL ____ 54000
9 2 Multidisciplinary Space-Related Research in Engineering
and the Physical and Life Sciences.
N O R 47-m-018- _ _ _ Virginia
_ _Polytechnic
._ Institute, W. E. C. MOOBE _____________ 17,900
Study of Techniques for Determining the Presence of
Anaerobic Bacteria.
NsG-340 _________________
Virginia, University of R. L. R m x Y________________________ 40,104
8 2 A Study of Thin FilmVacuum Deposited Junctions.
NSG-W-. _______________
vk@lh, University Of, F. L. HEREFORD- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 275,_ OOO_ _ _ _ _ _
5 2 Multidisciplinary Research in the S m R e l a t e d Sciences
and Technology.
NsO(T)-l4 ______________
Virginia, University of, F. L. HEBE~ORD. ____________._...
53 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
SpamRelated Sciences and Technology.
N O R 47-005422- _______
Virginia, University of, J. W. BEAXS_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e,_ _ _ _ _ _
s1 Investigation to Increase the Accuracy of Newtonian
Gravitational Constant, 0.
N O R 47-005-028 _____ ____
Virginia, University of, E. 8. MCVEY __________ 4, OOO
9 2 Investigation of Systems and Techniques for Multi-
Component Micro-Force Measurements on Wind Tunnel
N O R 47-00E-026 _________
Virginia, University of, E. 9. McVEY- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 60,077
s3 Investigation of Systems and Techniques for Multi-
Component Micro-Force Measurements on Wind Tunnel
N G R 47-00546 _________
Virginia, University of, 0.F. HAQENA-. ________ 85, _OOO _ _ . . _ _
Research in the Field of Molecular Collision Phenomena
using Molecular Beam Techniques.
NOR 47-005-049_ _ _Virginia,
_ _ .Universityof.
___ F. R. WOODS--.. ___________._._._ 11,382
An Investigation in Irreversible Macroscopic Phenomena.
NGR 47-005450 _________
Virginia, University of, E. J. GUNTER ________.________._....
~ 2% m
Dynamic Stability of the Rigid Body Rotor.
NsO-567 _ _ _ . . . _William
___ and_ Mary,
__ College
__ of,_R._T. SIEGEL _______ 253,200
53 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Sciences and Tech-
NsO-567 _ _ _ _ _William._._ and_ Mary,
_ College
___ of, W.
_ __________.....__ - 25, m
5 4 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Science and Tech-
NsO-710 _ _ _ _ _ _ William
_._ and_ Mary,
_ .College
___ of, J.
._ D. LAWRENCE _.._~ ________ . 28,270
s2 The Measurement of Light Scattered by the Atmosphere
from a Laser Beam.
NsG(T)-141.. - _ _ _ _ William
._. and _ _ College of, R. T. SIEQEL-. ..-...-_
_ Mary, .-...... 59, Qm
s 1 The Training of 3 Predoctorel Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 47-006422 _________
William and Mary, College of, H. R. GORDON .___ _ _ _ 12,655
Studies of the CO1 Laser.
N G R 47-W-026___..William
.... and Mary, College of, H. FRIEDMAN .....-------- . . ll.m
Improving Performance in Absolute Judgement Tasks.
R4WW5-001____._____...U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 0.J. WICK_...-.-.--....-. 60,ooo
A1 A Study of Tungsten-Technetium Alloys.

NsG(T)-l 00.__....._..__ Washington State University, J. F. SHORT .__.__._.____...___. $133, 100
62 The Training of 8 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR lgOol-GO4_ _ _ _ Washington
_ . . _State
_ University, B. A. MCFADDEN ____._....__.. n,9@2
Study of Intermediary Metabolic Processes in Hydro-
genomonas Facilis.
NsG-484.. ....-...... .. Washington, University of, J. I. MUELLER -...._ _ _ ..-.--.
__._ 300.
62 Multidisciplinary Research Activity in the Materials
Sciences with Emphasis on Investigation of Inorganic Non-
Metallic (ceramic) Materials.
NsG(T)-87 .....--.......Washington. University of, J. L. MCCARTHY.. .____._.__._..- 217.400
93 The Training of 12 Predoctoral Graduate Students in tho
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NsG-633 ____._._._..._...West Virginia University, J. LUDLVM..._____.__....___.-.- 50. 000
92 Space-Related Studies in the Physical, Life, and Engineer-
ing Sciences.
NsG(T)-21. ._......_.._. West Virginia University, J. LUDLUM..- _..._______.__.--- 174,000
83 The Training of 10 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Tcchnology.
N O R 4001-013---...... West Virginia University, A. D. KENNY ___.____.____.._......
Calcium Homeostasis in Stress and Immobilization.
N O R 4001-014._____... WestVirginia University, J. F. PARMER __________.____
Research on the Solar Reflectance and Terrestrial Emit-
tance Characteristics of Louvered Surfaces.
NOR 4001-019______... West Virginia University, W. H. MORAN ._______....._.---.--- Z.3U
The EBeet of Changlng Gravity and Weightlessness on
Vasopressin Control Systems.
- ....... Astronautics Corporation of America, R. D. SEINB'ELD---.-. - 118,688
A4 Support 8ervice.gfor the Stable Platform and Star-Tracker
Equipment for use on the X-16 Ultraviolet Astronomical
NsO(T)-149. -.____._. __
Marquette University, L. W. FRIEDRICH.______.___..--.-- 35,400
The Tralnlng of 2 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
Wisconsin, University of, J. HI-ELDER
NsG 275___._...._......_ AND R. ALBERTY. 650.000
8 4 Multidisciplinary Research in Space Science and Engi-
neering with special emphasis on Theoretical Chemistry.
Wiseonsin, University of, P. 9. MYERS.____.....___...--.--
NsG-(inl _..___._____._... -- 40, OOO
8 2 Study of Oscillatory Combustion and Fuel VaporiZatiOn.
Wisconsin, University of, A. D. CODE._..______._.____..-
NsG-818 .___._._......... 140. OOO
s 1 Investigations and Studies of Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra
and Associated Instrumentation.
NsCI(Tb23___._........_Wisconsin, University of, R. A. ALBERTY _....__....-.-.... -- 292,500
8 3 The Training of 15 Predoctoral Graduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
N o R-6o(nMI ......... Wisconsin, University of, L. A. HASKIN.-. -.-.- ~.- .-
..- -- - - - - 3. OOO
Neutron Activation Analysis for Rare Earths, lantha-
nides, and yttrium, on simulated lunar samples.
NsG-858 ---..._..........
Wyoming, Universityof. J. C.RELLAMY _...--....----------- 80. ooo
5 2 An investigation of functional kinds, inter-relationships
and end-purpose utility of elements of scientific satellite
operations, including consideration of information forms Or
NsU(Tb143 ...... ....
~ Wyoming, University of, R. H. BRUCE....-...- -------------- 72.700
s 1 The Training of 4 Predoctoral Uraduate Students in the
Space-Related Sciences and Technology.
NOR 51401404..~...-. Wyoming, Universityof, R. J. BESSEY .--...- ---------------- 0. 000
Study of Chromospheric Spicule Structure3 and Lifetimes.
NGR-5U)003 _________
Adelaide, University of, W.C. ELTORD _________.______._ 4,180
Investigations of Mass Distribution of Shower Meteors.
Auckland, University of, J. E. TITIXEBIDGE
NsG-54 _____._...____..__ ________ 14, OOO
86 An Investigation of the Propagation of Radio Signals from
Arti5cial Satellites, Including Consideration of Ionospheric
Electron Content and Irregularities.
NsQ 47!3- _ _ _ . _ _Iceland,
__ University
___ of,_
T. _
. _ _ ________.__.._....._. 3. OOO
92 Partial Support for a Continuing Determination and Re-
cordation of Geomagnetic Field Intensity.
N Q R 6M12-00!2_ _ _Israel
__ Institute
_._ of _
Technology, A. BERKOVITE-. _.__._..._.__. 8,680
Determination of Strain of Metal Alloys in the Primary
Creep Region Under Conditions of Varied Stress and
Mnnich, University of, F.MOLLER
NsG-305 ._.______..._..__ ___________._.__.._...-.- 4,500
93 Investigation of Atmospheric Properties Based Upon
Evaluation of Infrared Radiation Data Obtained from
TIROS Satellites.
Southampton, University of, E. J. RIcE4RDs.- ._......------
N O R 52-025-002_..__.... 5% 500
Investigation into Helicopter Rotor Noise.
Southampton, University of, E. J. RICHARDS.--.
N O R 5Z-OWKKi ___..____ ______.....-62.550
Investigation of Building Structure Response to Sonic
Toronto, University of, J. B. FRENCH
NsG-367. ___._.__._..____ __.._.......___.._._....63.816
s2 Study of the Performance of a High-Energy Molecular
Beam Apparatus, and the Interaction of the Beam with
Monocrystalline and Engineering Class Surface8 in an
Ultra-Clean High Vacuum Environment.
NOR 52-026-012_ _ _Toronto,
_ _ .University
_ _ . of. S. J. TOWNSEND ____....-....--.---..18,834
Investigation of Operations of Magnetohydrodynamic
Power Generators.
N O R 52WJ29434_..._._._
Western Ontario, University of, A. 0. DAVENPORT 39.850
Investigation of Ground Wind L w d s on Space Vehicles.
Appendix Q

Institutions Currently Participating in NASA's Prcdoctoral Training Program

( J u n e 30, 1966)
Adelphi University Illinois Institute of Technology
Aluhnma, University of Illinois, Univemlty of
Altiskn, University of Indinnn University
Alfred University Iowa State University
Arizona S t a t e University Iowa, University of
Arizona, University of J o h n s Hopklns University
Arkansas, University of Kansas Stnte University
Auburn University Kansas, University of
Hnylor University K e n t S t a t e University
Boston College Kentucky. University of
Hoston University Lehigh Universlty
Hrandeis University Louisiana S t n t r University
Rrighnm Young University I,ouisville, University of
Brooklyn, Polytechnic I n s t i t u t e of Lowell Tecbnologlcal Institute
Hrown University Maine, University of
California I n s t i t u t e of Technology Jfarquette University
California. University of, a t Berkeley Maryland, University of
California, University of, n t Los Anpeles Mnssachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology
California, University of. at Riverside Blaasachusetts, University of
California, University of, a t Snn Diego Mitimi, Univemity of
CallPornia, University of, at Santa Rnrbnrti Michigan State University
Cnrnegie Institute of Technology Mlchignn Technolopical University
Case Institute of Technology Bfichignn, UnIrerRity of
Catholic U n i v e d t y of Amcrici Minnesota, University of
Chicago, University of hfississippl State University
Cincinnati, University of Missinsippi. University of
Clark University Missouri, University of
Clnrkson College of Technology Missouri, University of, n t Itolln
Clemson University J l o n t a n a State University
Colorado School of Mines Montana, University of
Colorado S t a t e University Nebraska, University of
Colorado, University of Nevada. University of
Columbia University New Hampshire, University of
Connecticut, University of New Mexico S t a t e University
Cornel1 University New Mexico. IJniversity of
Dnrtmouth College S e w Tork, T h e City University of
Delftware, Unirersity of New York, S t a t e Univrrmity of. a t Huffulo
Denver, University of New York. S t a t e Unlverslty of, a t Stony
Drexel Institute of Technology Rrook
Duke University S e w Tork Univerdty
Duquesne Universlty North Carolina State of the I:nlvernity
Emory Vnlrrrsity of North Cnrolinil
Florida S t a t e University North C U r O l i I I H . Unlversity of
Vloridn. University of North Dakotn State University
Fordhnm University North Utikota. University of
George Wnsliinpton University S o r t h e n s t e m University
(:rsorgetown University Il'orthwestein U n i w r d t y
Grorgin Institiitr of Technolog) S o t r e Ihinie. Vnlvrrsity of
(:eorgIn. University of Oh10 s t t i t r UniYerRity
Hiiivtiii, University of Ohio I;nivrrrity
Hoiistoii, University of Oklshomn S t a t e I:nlVWSitY
Howard University Oklahoma. University of
Idrho. University of Oregon S t a t e University
Pennsylvania S t a t e University Texas Technologlcal College
Pennsylvania. University of Texas, University of
Pittsburgh, University of Toledo, University of
Princeton Universlty T u f t s University
Purdue University Tulane University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Utah S t a t e University
R h d e Island, University of Utah, University of
Rice Universlty Vanderhilt University
Rochester, University of Vermont, University of
R u t g e r s T h e S t a t e University Villanova University
St. Louis University Virginia Polytechnic Instltutr
South Carolina, University of Virginia, University of
South Dakota, University of Washington S t a t e University
Southern California, University of Washington University (St. Louia)
Southern Illinois University Washington, University of
Southern Methodist University Wayne S t a t e University
Southern Mississippi, University of West Virginia University
Stanford University Western Reserve University
Stevens Institute of Technology William and Mary, College of
Syracuse University Wisconsin, University of
Temple University Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Tennessee, University of Wyoming, University of
Texas A&M University Yale University
Texas Christian U n i r e r d t y Yeshivn University