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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jmatprotec

**A parametric FEA system for ﬁxturing of thin-walled
**

cylindrical components

**Yan Wang ∗ , Jianfan Xie, Zhijian Wang, Nabil Gindy
**

University of Nottingham, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

**Article history: Machining of thin-walled components has increasingly become a difﬁculty for manufactur-
**

Received 18 May 2007 ers. Advanced digital analyses have been developed by many researchers to model, predict

Received in revised form and reduce errors induced by machining processes. Fixtures for thin-walled components

26 October 2007 to increase the rigidity of components, improve dynamic performance and reduce machin-

Accepted 20 November 2007 ing cost have been widely used in industries. However, modelling to simulate the impact

of ﬁxture on the quality of thin-walled components is seldom reported. Moreover, today’s

machining shop ﬂoors, characterized by a large variety of products in small batch sizes,

Keywords: require ﬂexible simulation tools that can be quickly reconﬁgured. Parametric technology is

FEA a key to implement it.

Thin-wall This paper proposed a parametric ﬁnite element analysis (FEA) system that can automati-

Cylindrical components cally mesh components, assign material properties and boundary condition, and create FEA

Parametric ﬁles ready for calculation with limited human interference. The system is focused on thin-

Abaqus walled cylindrical components, including straight thin-walled cylinder, conic thin-walled

cylinder and angle-varying thin-walled cylinder. Based on the FE prediction, whether or not

a ﬁxture is required and the impact of a support ﬁxture on the component quality can be

assessed.

© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

**1. Introduction The problem has been addressed by many researchers
**

(Thevenot et al., 2006; Brave et al., 2005; Tsai and Liao,

Thin-walled components have been widely used in the 1999; Ratchev et al., 2002, 2004a,b,c,d; Mehdi et al., 2002a,b)

aerospace, automobile and power industries where weight using advanced simulation tools for modelling, predicting and

matters. In modern global manufacturing, companies are reducing errors. The main concerns are focused on two issues:

under enormous pressure to reduce manufacturing cost and vibration and deformation. Vibration contributes to poor sur-

improve component quality. On one side, aggressive machin- face ﬁnish as well as shorter tool life and spindle life, and

ing strategy is often applied on the thin-walled components deformation is the main contributory factor of dimensional

to increase machine removal ratio, leading to larger machin- error. Regarding the dynamic aspect of the machining of thin-

ing force, thus larger machining deformation and larger proﬁle walled components, Thevenot et al. (2006) proposed a model

error. On the other side, the tolerance on components is tighter to determine the optimal cutting condition during machin-

than before. Under such contradictory situations, machining ing process, in which the dynamic behaviour of workpiece

of thin-walled components has increasingly become a difﬁ- with respect to tool position was introduced in the stability

culty for the manufacturers. lobes theory. Experimental approach to validate the 3D lobes

∗

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: yan.wang@nottingham.ac.uk (Y. Wang).

0924-0136/$ – see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.11.216

The dynamic the component behaviour of thin-walled cylindrical components under turn- NR the number of nodes in the radius direction of ing operation was studied by Mehdi et al. j. j and k symmetry CS the coordinate system on the centre of the top Z(i. 2004b. j. (2002a. Tsai and Liao (1999) component developed a ﬁnite element model along with end milling FIX2 constraint on the top end surface of the com- cutting force model to analyze surface dimensional error ponent in the peripheral milling of thin-walled workpieces. E1(i. 2002a) and experiments NT the number of nodes in the thickness direction (Mehdi et al. Poisson ratio ponent DT element size in the thickness direction of com- construction was reported. k) surface of the thin-walled cylinder ˇ The angle of the component in the radius DL element size in the length direction of the com. j. k) The distance from the node N(i. Brave et al. 2005.b). Ratchev et al. j. j. k) The X value regarding the CS of node N(i. j and k experiments. geometry and setting S The number of section of the angle-varying conditions. Considering high speed milling. k) b The angle around the z axis of the reference YS1 boundary condition on Y direction for X sym- between two nodes N(i. Brave et al. Once the problem has thin-walled cylinder been modeled and predicted. k) the identity number of a node and is a function model.. direction representing the symmetry boundary ponent condition DR element size in the radius direction of the com. k) element vector of element C3D20 and is a func- similar dynamic behaviours. Brave et al. which is the function of YS2 Boundary condition on Y direction for of XY variables i. der thickness Tsai and Liao. Ratchev et al. material removal simulation (Ratchev Lp the length of the pth section of the angle- et al. sur- FIX1 constraint on the bottom end surface of the face dimensional error is produced.b) during the ith step with the purpose of identifying the problems generated dur- Tol Tolerance in the thickness direction on the ing thin-walled structure machining.b. k) Boundary condition. varying thin-walled cylinder 2004d). j.... j.. the geometry and thickness variations of the work- of i. In the ID(i.. k) and N(i. thus. 2002. the machine tool does not during the ith step remove material from components as planned.c) were focused on NL the number of nodes in the length direction of prismatic components under milling operations. (2002a. (2005). F machining force speciﬁed by user Due to the deﬂection of tool and workpiece induced FCi the force boundary condition on component during machining operation. 2006. and deﬁned the param- k eters governing the stability of the cutting process in the R/R0 Internal radius of the top surface of the thin- case of thin-walled workpieces. containing the component two parts: simulation (Mehdi et al.. j. k) to the z axis tubes with steel and aluminum alloy. k) element vector of element C3D8 and is a func- (2005) suggested a method for obtaining the instability lobes tion of i. j. Mehdi et al. j. j. The experimental part vali- walled cylinder dated the simulation by performing the test on thin-walled R(i. j and k piece during machining are taken into account by modelling IDe the identity number of element the helical ﬂuted end mill with the pre-twisted Timo- IDnm the identity number of the mth node of a ele- shenko beam element. covering force modelling for end milling walled cylinder (Ratchev et al. k) a the oblique angle of conic thin-walled cyinder XS boundary condition on X direction for XY sym- ap the oblique angle of the pth section of angle.c). j. k) The Y value regarding the CS of node N(i. k) node vector and is a function of variables i. j. k) The Z value regarding the CS of node N(i. 2002b). j and the machined workpiece surface. k + 1) metry BC(i. The method was validated by tion of i. 1999. conducted extensive ment research regarding thin-walled structure using ﬁnite ele- L the total length of the straight or conic thin- ment analysis (FEA). The simulation part took into account of the component the damping due to rubbing between the tool ﬂank and N(i. (2006). Peripheral milling operation was ponent simulated and the tool was assumed to be more rigid than E Young’s modulus the workpiece. thin-walled cylinder Advanced models with experiment validation were pro- T Thickness of the thin-walled cylinder posed in Thevenot et al. j and k when both machine structure and machined workpiece have E2(i. j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 339 Nomenclature X(i. LET the number of ﬁnite element across the cylin- The researches in (Thevenot et al. 2004a. metry varying thin-walled cylinder Y(i. j.. means to reduce errors should . Tsai and TLi The tolerance constrains on the component Liao (1999). using different oper- of the reference coordinate system cylinder ating condition including dimensions. (2004a. Ratchev et al.c) and error compensation (Ratchev et al.b. 2004a). j.

340 j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 Fig. a ﬁxture is often required to hold the when pushed by ﬁngers. straight cylinder in Fig. having the same thickness but different angle at differ- nent are increasingly becoming unacceptable.g. Trent Engine varying-angle conic cylinder (Fig. but simulation of L. are composed of nents in the same part family are often very similar to each other. The types of thin-walled components considered in the sys- which have already been deﬂected. angle a shown in Fig. Error compensation by offsetting component at this other end to increase the rigidity of the the tool path is useless for this type of components. leading to improved machining efﬁ. can be speciﬁed by user.. S−1]. system. (3) material prop. Sup. the parametric FEA system can undertake four func. C3D8 and the 2nd order brick element C3D20. in pressa. for the pth sec- amount of repeatable FEA work can be easily reduced or elim. It is not feasible for the very thin-walled monolithic components. radius of the top surface Rp and the length Lp . the internal radius R0 of the top surface of be up to 90% of the total FEA work in many cases. 2002. However. it is necessary to support the thin wall of and improve the dynamic performance of the tool-component component using support ﬁxture. 2004d) proposed a method of error compensation by offsetting the tool path according to 2. the varying angle thin-walled cess and often needs professional skill. e. the research deformation. If yes. 1 (c)) refers to the conic thin-walled cylinder required to build an FEA modelling for each different compo. CPF. length parametric CAD software. 1(a) is treated as a special case using ﬁnite element analysis (FEA) is still a manual pro. (b) conic thin-walled cylinder. 1 thin-walled components behaviour in machining processes (b). internal inated by employing a parametric FEA system.b). tions automatically with few interactions from the user: (1) node generation. The input As components are becoming increasingly less in volume parameters of the FEA system for thin-walled cylindrical parts and larger in variety to cater for customer needs. internal radius R of top surface. 1(a)). whether or (iii) Material parameters including Young’s modulus E and not a support ﬁxture is needed can be assessed ﬁrstly against Poisson ratio v. and (c) varying angle thin-walled cylinder. the number of sections S. The time and effort cylinder (Fig. whilst p ∈ [0. However. Written in Visual elements across the thickness direction. Abaqus is used for the FEA solver. and has variables including a constant wall of time is wasted on doing the repeatable work. how to support the compo. the variables are angle ap . Such a huge the component. The machining regarding support ﬁxture for very thin-walled components is forces. (a) Straight thin-walled cylinder. This method is effective only if the system component is still rigid enough to resist machining forces. For thin-walled cylin- casings are very thin cylindrical components having roughly drical components. In this paper. are of concern and thus are considered in the FEA. material removal rate. (ii) Machining force F and quality requirement (tolerance) Tol. Moreover. compo. If excessive machining defor- height. point force. the ﬁxtures in (Koelling. Based on the FEA. conic cylinder (Fig. be employed. even when a very small tem are straight cylinder (Fig. and how much improvement the machining strategy value for this one is 2. Two types of solid ele- erty and boundary condition assignment. The 2nd order . The default nents. a method of parametric FEA system for thin-walled cylindri. The assumptions of the parametric FEA system are: elastic ciency and reduced machining cost. The casings are so ﬂexible. deformation and tolerance in the thickness direction still lacking. (4) steps (loading ments are selected for the system: the 1st order brick element sequences). If the accuracy requirement of components is port ﬁxture is often required to increase component rigidity still not achievable. For example. Pro/Engineer. that they deﬂect even mation is encountered. A huge amount ent section. this basic. which could thickness T. 1(b)) and force is exerted on the component. the support ﬁxture allows much increased 1998. (2) element generation. which means there are two ﬁnite can achieve can be further investigated.g. components. 1 – Components types and geometry parameters. of conic cylinder with a = 0. cal components is proposed. tion. e. (Ratchev et al. The components geometry can be easily updated in (i) The geometry parameters including thickness T. the tolerance requirement. 1(c)). rigid ﬁxture/support. (iv) Number of elements across the thickness LET . it is in general held at this end surface for 2 mm thickness against approximately 500 mm diameter and the machining of the thin wall. Frame work of the parametric FEA the predicted deﬂection.

From the tolerance constraints Tol. the Z(i. the developed software can generate the FEA input ﬁle ready to be The node vector N[i. k] = [ID(i. which are regenerated automatically. j ∈ [0. where . ET = LET . e. . respectively and IDe is the element ID num- T ber. The node number ID(i. X(i. k) = [IDe . Y(i. the contact between machine tool and component. respectively. the max. ET . the IDn m is the ID number of the mth node of the element DT = . k) = NL NT k + NL j + i + 1 (8) Mesh generation is the procedure of discretization of solid geometry and includes the generation of node and generation of element. The procedure to generate FEA ﬁle is detailed in Section 3. 1) is built on E2(i. NL − 1]. m ∈ [1.1 and 3. . ID(i. j. k) of the node N(i. which are the num. 20] (7) speciﬁed variable LET . k). FEA input ﬁle generation A global coordinate system CS (shown in Fig. can be or 1/2. j. is function Int(number) is used to round a number down to the nearest integer. j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 341 element C3D20 is preferred as it is more computation efﬁcient NL = EL + 1 for C3D8 element (3) and more accurate (ABAQUS. . k). j. 2(a). needs NL = 2EL + 1 for C3D20 element (4) to be predicted accurately. for conic and straight thin-walled three directions. and then in the direction around the centre axis. . NT − 1] run on ABAQUS. is represented as imum machining forces exerted on the components with or without ﬁxture can be estimated. Based on the input information. . around the centre axis and along the length direction. j. . j and k. j. D L = DT and DR = 1. j. k) = DL i (9) Fig. Two situations are considered in the software: and the X. respectively. Since the FEA is parametric. . Whether or not the machin. Z(i. m ∈ [1. k). Y. NL − 1]. Y(i. IDn m. j. Z(i. k). IDn 1.2 explain the automatic generation of node and element for where DT .g. j. IDn 20] the centre of the top end surface of the cylinder. . E1(i. . k)] are the node number tolerance Tol. . NR and NL be the number of node in the As shown in Fig. and increases ﬁrstly in the length direction and secondly DL DR in the thickness direction. Sections 3. and are functions of variables i. are L ˇR The node number starts from the node whose position is (R. j. . j ∈ [0. j. NR − 1]. j. IDn m. where i ∈ [0. j and k. NT − 1] and k ∈ [0. k) = [IDe . Let NT . k). 3. j. . k) of conic thin-walled cylinder. The 1st order element is used for contact analysis when the 2nd order element is inap. Node and element generation for C3D8 element bers of elements in these three directions. j. which is the number of elements across the thickness. the thickness.1. Z values regarding the global coordinate system components held at one end surface and component held on CS. k)] (5) ing force F speciﬁed by the user is appropriate can be evaluated by comparing the deformation induced by the force F with the where ID(i. DR and DL are the dimensions of the element across the C3D8 element and C3D20 elements. . EL = Int and ER = Int (2) 0. NT = 2 ∗ ET + 1. k) of a node N(i. j. . k). j. NR = 2 ∗ ER + 1 and propriate if local deformation or stress at the contact position. 2004). . thus. 0). j. ER and EL . 2 – The node vector N(i. IDn 8] for C3D8 element. j. For a user for C3D20 element.5DT (1) LET and is a function of the variables of i. IDn 1. k). and the where i ∈ [0. j. and k ∈ [0. k]. 8] (6) 3. NR = ER + 1 and Z(i. for the C3D8 element and C3D20 element: cylinder. k) is NT = ET + 1. j. the FEA input can be and C3D20. the size of an element on the internal wall of the cylinder is pre-deﬁned as where E1 and E2 represent the element vectors of element C3D8 and C3D20. if the geom- element vectors are expressed differently for element C3D8 etry of components is slightly changed. NR − 1]. to be explained later. N[i. X(i. . The both end surfaces.

then E1(i. is R(i. j. X(i. IDn 8. j. j. j. to is the same as that in Eq. j. k) to the z axis of the CS. let b be the angle around the Z axis of After the node generation. IDn 20. j. j. k) = ID(i. element by the software. k) of the node N(i. 4 – Flow chart of node generation for C3D8 element. which are the node ID numbers of E1(i. j ∈ [0. and Lp . the highlighted iteration body shown in Fig. (15) IDn 8 = ID(i + 1. j. IDn 1. S − 1]. k) should be modiﬁed as If[any two of the three variables i. . R0 and a0 are the length. j. k) ∈ Lu . As shown in Fig. j and k. shown in Fig. y. the z coordinate value of the node N(i.. there is a middle node on each of the 12 edge of the 2nd order solid element C3D20. k)tan(a0 ) + DT j if 0 < Z(i. k) sin(b k) (12) is shown in Fig. the IDn 1. j. NT − 1]. Node and element generation for C3D2D element u=0 u=0 As shown in Fig. j. j.342 j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 Fig. Fig. a C3D8 element b = DR /R. j. R(i. j. k) is an element composed of eight nodes. Rp and ap are the length. k) are the same as these in Eqs. j. 6. Y(i. j. where IDn 1. j. j. j. . i ∈ [0. k)] below: Print N(i. ET − 1] and k ∈ [0. k). . k) to the FEA ﬁle u=0 p p+1 +DT j if Z(i. k). j.. which pth section of the component. EL − 1]. j. (11) and (12). and there is no node on the centre of the element surface. 4 for the 1st order element C3D8. NL − 1]. 5 – Element E1(i. k) − Lu tan(ap ) Print E1 (i. k). The ﬂow chart of the iteration for the ID(i. . j. As shown in Fig. the iteration will be skipped if any two of the three variables i. X(i. j. k). k) and its nodes. j. it is necessary to generate the the coordinate system CS between nodes next to each other. k) and Z(i. j. k) = R(i. 5. j. 4 and the high- Fig. k) tan(a) + DT j (10) j. Lu (14) 3. IDn 8] R(i. j. and p ∈ [1. internal radius and angle of the top surface of the top section of component. where i ∈ [0. j and k are odds = false N(i. Y(i. (9). j. k) . k + 1) p E1 (i. internal radius and the angle of the The distance of Node N(i. 3 – The node vector of angle-varying thin-walled cylinder. Z(i. k are odds. j. k) = Rp + Z(i. k) in relation to the i. k). 5(b). j. ER − 1] is similar to Fig. the Z(x. j. j. The X and Y is the centre axis of the cylinder. where L0. k) = R + Z(i. which . k) = R(i. .. which is changed z). The R(i. j. j. 3. k) = R0 + Z(i. 4 for a node N(i. starting from the node whose node number is ID(i. 4 except the highlighted part. NL − 2] and k ∈ [0. lighted body is modiﬁed as below. j. k) is different from that in Eq. j. in other word. k): coordinate values of the node N(i. k) cos(b k) (11) j ∈ [0.2. . k) shown in Fig. 2(b). j.. j ∈ [0. . With the initial value of IDe being zero. k). k) = [IDe1 . k) is shown in Fig. X(i. (10): IDe = IDe + 1 R(i. Y(i. k) to the FEA ﬁle End if Iteration for element generation of E2(i. where i ∈ [0. NR − 2]. k). the ﬂow chart of C3D8 element generation is the same as that For varying-angle thin-walled cylindrical parts. . k) < L0 (13) IDn 1 = ID(i. NT − 2]. j. . .

2k) assigned if the geometry and boundary condition are sym- metrical about the X axis or the Y axis. IDn 1. k).1. The vector of a boundary condition is a function of variables i. 7(b) needs to be modelled. DF1 and DF2 are the ﬁrst and the last constrained DOF (degree of freedom). 6(b): geometry with extra boundary condition to reduce the cal- culation time. 8 – Flow chart for boundary conditions and steps. j. 2j.3. j.2. N Set is the node or node set on which the boundary condition is applied. . 2k + 1) 3. 2j + 2. are the functions of ID(i. . Y and Z regarding the CS. it is desirable to model part of the component Fig. Material properties The parameters of material property are Young’s modulus E and Poisson ratio v. Boundary condition and steps Boundary condition includes displacement and force bound- ary condition. which will be automatically IDn1 = ID(2i. k) to the FEA ﬁle boundary condition are symmetrical about the XZ plane of the CS. j. only half of the geometry with extra boundary condi- 3. . 7 – Symmetry boundary condition. k) and its nodes. k) = [IDe1 . NT − 1] and k ∈ [0. respectively. j. N Set.3. are shown in Fig. . 6 – Element E2(i.. which are input by user. j ∈ [0. NR − 1] and is represented as BC(i. respectively. DF2 is optional and is left empty if it does not exist. Material property and boundary condition and tion shown in Fig. k) = [Type. IDn 20] As shown in Fig.. j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 343 Fig. DF2. Mag] (18) where “Type = 0” for displacement boundary condition. DF1 and DF2 are 1. Fig. j. 3. . if the component geometry and its Print E2 (i. where i ∈ [0.3.3. The X symmetry steps boundary condition can be represented by the constraints of Y direction on the nodes N Set whose X coordinate value is 3. Boundary condition—X symmetry ( = ) E2 (i.3. 2 and 3 if the constrained DOF are X. NL − 1]. If the component geometry and boundary condition is symmetrical. 7(a). DF1. j. k. and “Type = 1” for force boundary condition. The variable introduced to represent that part IDe2 = IDe2 + 1 of the component is variable . Mag is the magnitude of the displacement or the force. (17) IDn 20 = ID(2i. .

Y. X and Y symmetry ( = 1/2) where N set = {ID(NL − 1. k) = [0. 3. Int(1/2NR ))] (21) deformation in the thickness direction. 2. Held on the bottom end surface The initial condition is that the component is ﬁxed in X. Int(NR /2)).344 j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 zero: 3. 3. j. 1. k) = [0. i ∈ [0. N Set.3. 1. N set. 0] (19) Z directions of the end surface. j. k). j ∈ [0. The boundary condition vector is j ∈ [0. j. k) = [0. FIX1 = BC(i. Tolerance Tolerance Tol. YS1 = BC(i. 0] (22) 3. NT − 1] and k ∈ [0.7. NL − 1]. j.5. N Set. (a) Conic cylinder and (b) angle-varying conic cylinder. and for i ∈ [0. 3. 9 – Interface of the parametric FEA system.3. The tolerance Tol may Fig. . In this case. If the geometry and force and displacement boundary condi- tion are symmetrical about both the XZ plane and YZ plane 3. 0) and ID (i. j. the are displacement boundary condition is XS1 = BC(i. 2. j. . . the boundary constraints of X and Y symmetry ponent whose z coordinate value is zero. regarding the CS. 0]. is the maximum allowed where N set = [ID(i. N Set. k) = [0. whose z coordinate value is S−1 L for conic cylinder and p=0 Lp for angle-varying cylinder where N set = {ID (i. j. k).6. k) = [0. a user input variable. j. j. 0] (23) where N set = [ID(i. in Fig. j.3. 7(c) should be employed. 0] FIX2 = BC(i. j ∈ [0. NT − 1] and k ∈ [0. 1. NT − 1]. NT − 1] and a ﬁxture is required to hold the top end surface of the com- j ∈ [0. N set.3. NR − 1]}. NL − 1]}. .4. 0)] (20) where N set = {ID(0. NR − 1]}. Held on the top end surface of the CS. Y symmetry can be regarded as X symmetry by assigning an appropriate coordinate system CS. j. only 1/4 geometry of the components as shown If the machining deformation of the component is excessive. YS2 = BC(i.

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 345 Fig. . 0). j. the boundary condition vector for the tolerance is FCi = BC(i. the boundary condition tolerance is applied on the node ID(i. 0. . 3. . . 0. RF NL −1 ) (25) where Di is the deformation induced by machining force F on where RFi is the reaction force on the nodes ID(i. 0.8. 0). therefore. There are NL nodes in the length direction. . NL − 1] in vector for the force is the ith steps. ID(i. force speciﬁed by the user is acceptable. (25) can be used to assess whether or not the machining that supports components on the thin wall is then required. Di . .3.3. If Eq. 8. k) = [0. . F] (26) TLi = BC(i. Steps Similar to the boundary condition vector for tolerance. 0. and bottom surfaces of components are constrained. . Assuming the force is applied on the maximum allowed machining forces. NL steps machining force F is applied on the nodes on the thin wall is applied. . . . RF i . Tol] (24) To meet the tolerance requirement. of components during different steps in order to calculate the ing different steps (loading sequence) in order to calculate the machining deformation. 9 – (Continued ) be applied on the nodes on the thin wall of components dur. Let us assume that the node ID(i. .9. 0) where i ∈ [0. Force boundary condition 3. . 0. 0. F is the machining forces input by user. ID(i. . DNT −1 ) < Tol (27) F < F max = Min(RF 0 . 0). . (26) cannot be satisﬁed when both top tolerance Tol is applied. ﬁxture Eq. the maximum defor- The maximum allowed machining forces Fmax should be mation Dmax induced by the machining force F on the wall of less than the minimal reaction forces on the nodes where the the component should be less than the tolerance Tol: Tol is applied on: Dmax = Max(D1 . 0) during the ith step. . . . k) = [1. 0) where the the node ID(i. 1. j. 1. The ﬂowchart of steps iteration is shown in Fig.

Since the geometry parameters of these large components.forkardt. Huang. J. S. Milling error tolerance and machining forces. Rigal.html. Modelling and of components are considered: straight thin-walled cylin- simulation environment for machining of low-rigidity der.346 j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 2 0 5 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 338–346 Brave. specialchucks/page7.forkardt. prediction and compensation in machining of low-rigidity erated automatically.com/products/ property assignment. conic thin-walled cylinder and angle-varying thin-walled components. Expanding mandrels for very thin-walled cylinder. issued 27th January. S.. Dynamic behaviour of a thin-walled cylindrical workpiece during the turning process. Based on user input. simulation of peripheral milling of thin-wall low-rigidity In this paper a parametric FEA software system is devel. vibration and increase material removal 569–580. boundary condition. Transaction of Fixture is an effective means for thin-walled components to ASME. 5. K. 9(a) and (b).. Towards deﬂection ponents is seldom reported.. 2002. http://www. Altuzarra. S. S. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 1998... A. No. D. U. Becker. Liu. Govender. version 6. 2004b.. Lopez de Lacalle. S. Journal of to build a simulation is repeatable. thin-walled structure milling. A. including geometry parameters 153–154. an FEA input ﬁle is generated and ready for calcu- Part 1. Part 2 216.. ary condition and mesh generations. Three types 481–491. 2004c. Karlsson & Sorensen. Stability limites of milling considering the ﬂexibility of the workpiece and the machine. L. and much of the work model for end milling of low-rigidity parts.. 1999. parts. both end surfaces... FEA simulation is highly demanded to realise a ﬂexible and Ratchev..... J. 1669–1680. 638–644... material thin-walled rings.F. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 124. International Journal of Machine tools & Manufacture components ﬁxed at one end surface and components ﬁxed at 44.com/products/ two components are different. W. Huang.. 129–134. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 94. reduce deformation. the current modelling process Ratchev. The research regarding ﬁxture for thin-walled com. It has been recognised that prediction and compensation in machining of low-rigidity modelling of the machining process of thin-walled compo. http://www..A. the interfaces for the user specialchucks/page8. S. nents is important. Dessein.. 67–73.. the input. W. Huang. . G.5. 2004a.195. material property. After comparing the deformation induced Integration of dynamic behaviour variations in the stability by machining forces to the tolerance. Transaction of ASME. Nikov. 1329–1641. Cazenave-Larroche. I. Liu. Clamping solution for interface includes ﬁve parts: geometry parameters. Becker. C. L. W. of the components. Tsai. oped for thin-walled cylindrical components. Parametric technology for Materials Processing Technology 153–154.. System introduction Campa. Liao. V.... Apparatus and method for precision machining ABAQUS. S. Conclusions Mehdi..N. D. International Journal of ponents is needed. ratio. USA. it is possible to assess lobes method: 3D lobes construction and application to whether a ﬁxture to support the wall of the thin-walled com. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 124. Hibbit. Sanchez. J. 2002b. Play. 134–138. A. Material removal reconﬁgurable manufacturing of the thin-walled components.. Rigal. S.. R. Dynamic behaviour of a thin-walled cylindrical workpiece during the turning process. Once the user speciﬁes Mehdi. Finite-element modelling of static surface references error in the peripheral milling of thin walled workpieces. S. of metal rings. J. US Patent.A.. Ratchev. 235–246. Koelling. Ratchev.J. 2006. Moualek. The user Commercial product of Forkardt. S.F.. Nikov. Advanced in Engineering Software 35.A. 2004d. However. Liu.. 2004. Becker. are slightly different as shown in Fig.. Experimental approach and validation.. component type: conic thin-walled cylinder or angle-varying Commercial product of Forkardt. force and tolerance assignment.. A ﬂexible force is still dedicated and time-consuming. Analysis user’s manual.. lation on the FEA solvers. structure using FEA. Two situations are taken into account: parts. the user needs to select the Journal of Machine Tool and Manufacture 45. Advanced Manufacturing Technology 27. International After starting the software. 4. Inc.. G.. Ratchev. K. E.A. 2005. 2002a.. the FEA input ﬁle can be gen. O. Play. J. Journal of Material Processing Technology cylinder.html. Part 2. bound.711. Cutting process simulation. Arnaud. Thevenot. 5. 562–568.

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