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# c 

for all multivalued dependencies in x of the form ½½ Ô. 0 is a superkey for schema M.     ANSWER: Fourth normal form : A relation schema M is in fourth normal form (4NF) with respect to a set  of functional and multivalued dependencies if. where ë M and Ôë M. at least one of the following holds 0 ½½ Ôis a trivial multivalued dependency.      6  .

      p  .

p.

p.

  6  .

   .

÷ ÷÷    ÷     .

  .

         .

  .

   .

                                 .

                                    .

               .

                 .

    .

             This table is difficult to maintain since adding a new hobby requires multiple new rows corresponding to each skill. This problem is created by the pair of multi-valued dependencies EMPLOYEE#--->SKILLS and EMPLOYEE#--->HOBBIES. A much better alternative would be to decompose INFO into two relations: .

p.

 .

p and p.

  .

c.

p.

 .

p 6 ÷÷      .

  .

                       .

     rp.

   ÷÷  ÷            .

              .

   .

r  .

..     A Relation schema R is said to be 5NF if for every join dependency {R1. 6 6 6  . R2. Rn} that holds R. . 0 The join dependency is implied by the set of FD. over R in which the left side is key of R.. one the following is true 0 Ri = R for some i.

       .

              !  " #\$      " #\$    !  %  %    %  %  .

 !  %  !      .

The problem with the above table structure is that if Claiborne starts to sell Jeans then how many records must you create to record this fact? The problem is there are pair wise cyclical dependencies in the primary key.  . That is. and finally to know the buyer you must know the vendor and the item. in order to determine the item you must know the buyer and vendor. and to determine the vendor you must know the buyer and the item.

6           & '( ) '*) ( '*+ ! .

   . .-.

   .

÷ ÷  .

÷ ÷        !   !  " #\$                " #\$           !  %  !  %            %    %      + .

there exist tuples Y3 and Y4 in © such that  Y1 /Y2 /Y3 /Y4   Y3Ô /Y1Ô  Y3Ë Ô /Y2Ë Ô  . The multivalued dependency ½½ Ô holds on M if.   ÷ ÷        " #\$                  %  %                 %  !                       met M Me a relation schema and let ë and Ôë M. in any legal relation ©(). for all pairs of tuples Y1 and Y2 in © such that  Y1 /Y2 .

then ½½ Ôis a Y©   Y   on schema M. we shall thus concern ourselves with { those relations that satisfy a given set of functional and multivalued dependencies      . Y4Ô /Y2Ô   Y4Ë Ô /Y1Ë Ô   ÿf the multivalued dependency ½½ Ôis satisfied My all relations on schema . Every functional dependency is a multivalued dependency. we use multivalued dependencies in two ways: c To test relations to determine whether they are legal under a given set of functional and multivalued dependencies 2 To specify constraints on the set of legal relations. ½½ Ôis trivial if Ôë or Ôâ /. Thus.  As with functional dependencies.