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iprising the principal treatises of Shri-

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Comprising the principal
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lt. Shrimat Shankaracharya s Atmanatma Viveka and purpose of the 34 s setting forth the scope Vedanta Philosophy* III. a resume of 83 s the Vedanta Philosophy VI.. Yedant Sara of Sadanand Swami. Shrimat Shankaracharya Shri Vakyasudha Atma Bodha. V. 1GO &amp. 40 69 IV. . Shrimat Shankaracharya s (Direct cognition of the Unity Aprokshanubhuti of Jiva and 1 Brahma) II. PAGE. Shrimat Shankaracharya wisdom Crest Jewel of 103 s VII. I.. . Shrimat Shankaracharya Charpat Pangari.TABLE OF CONTENTS.


6. pains and ultimately of time and space by realizing the Immortal Ego. Vedanta Sara of Sadanand Swami giving a short sume of the Vedanta philosophy. forth the Sankaracharya s Atmanatma Viveka.PREFACE. : Sankaracharya s Aparokshanubhuti (Direct cognition of the Unity of Jiva and Brahma). Shri Vakyasudha. Charpat Panjari. particularly before knowledge. Crest Jewel of wisdom. Sankaracharya s 5. teaching the annihilation of egoism to realize the Universal Atma. setting 2. treatises It contains English Translations of a few celebrated on the subject 1. both in the East and those who do not know Sanscrit. It is in the hope of laying before aspirants to spiritual the West. . the theory of the Higher self and the mode of its realization that the book is published. re 4. venture to assure our readers that a careful study of mind treatises will lead them to an exalted state of the will raise We these which them above the sphere of physical sorrows and enable them to overcome the limitation. the Vedanta philosophy. scope and purpose of 3.




1. t He who by the light of knowledge takes away. BY S rimat S ankaracMrya with TRANSLATED BY notes MANILAL NABUBHAI DVIVEDI F. prepared themselves for being initiated into the by every effort frequently meditate upon the truths herein inculcated. . n ^ n realising the Hence forward is expounded the course of .DIRECT COGNITION OF THE UNITY OF JIVA AND BRAHMA. the easy acquisition of final absolution bonds forged by igi\or&amp. tries to realise its primal identity with Brahma. e. I* the bow to S ri Hari-f- to Is var the highest happi all-pervading. for (from the who have sufficiently secrets of this Science. melts away all the eu * The ego Ishwar Brahma avidya the common substratum of the three . best instructor.tf\ce-avidyd) let those only Irivisible. i. uddha jiva (6th principle) as it were contemplates upon the creator and yet the destroy er_of_all avidyd igno rance. (material ness.States of sleep.lt. the wwrr 5551: 2. dream and waking. the one_ cause instrumental as well as final) of the Universe.S.T.

. fJpw: fF^N^^T ^f^: * I IIMI The determination that the only eternal and permanent principle of the Cosmos is Atman (the Subject of all perception^ and that every thing else is opposed in its very nature to this Atman tion (i. ft *ff 5. and by propitiating are the deities &c.( 2 ) 3. is impermanent) as being the objectf fixed (theoretical determination. beginning from the Satyaloka (the highest heaven) to the Marty aloka (this world). is pure Indifference which consists in the loss of desire for the enjoyments of the senses. is called the Right know/edge (2) of objects. Such of percep cause of In a ^RTSK u also or: i f .* rn That 4. tions one s Indifference (1) and the other (3) preliminary qualifica acquired by the performance of duties peculiar to own caste and creed. the difference. all as for the dung of a crow. e. by austerities.

oh my Fate. and in one s self ) is called S radd/id the perhaps chief! y (5) . is the height of Uparati (3) and the patient suffering of all pain or . Dama and four others. of deviating from the right path) ia called Samddhdna (6). a constant readiness to part with every thing Theosophiat Vol. Now the effects (3) of Indifferences : tfama. P. the 7. or the utter incapability arising from such a state. to know and realise that Paramdtman . (as also. the controlling of the Antaskarana) complete restraint over the bent of the external senses (over our bodily acts) is S ama called Dama (2). words of those who interpret them the teachers. No.e. 282. . 9. e. excessive desire. V. Faith in the words of the Upanishads. 12. sorrow is the state of happy Titikshd* (4).. I be free from the bonds of this world birth and rebirth this strong and all absorbing desire constitutes the fourth and preliminary stages * &quot. When and how shall. last of the four Desire of Absolution (4). absorption of the mind in the one paramount aim of all exer tion the Sat the Universal Atman (i. as well also in the 8. . The in the world&quot. almost voluntary absence of all desire for such objects.( 3 ) Wlf^farf 6. (i. 1 a n The entire turning away from all objects of sense. The abandonment of is all previous impressions ma turing themselves into tangible effects called now (1) . cessation of desire.

from both of them : 14. : \\\\\\ a mere collection 13. nor can I be any one of the senses (for the same reason). into knowledge (c) the various fancies the antasharana must be tlie (as understood by us) creator This is &c.( 4 ) 10. but by perceived nun 12. . (a) I certainly cannot be this body of the various Tatvas . and melts away . seriously must set himself f*RTirFf PRT ^r% 11. One who having passed through the said preliminary for final absolution stages desires knowledge to think. \\\\\\ Knowledge . I must certainly be something quite apart This is &c. (6) Everything emanates from ignorance. (a) ? Who am (cQ I? is (6) How is this evolved ? (c) Who ? is its creator What the material of which it is made This is the form of rational thought. is not produced by any means other than as the objects of this universe are never right thinking just the help of light.

the ever existent undecaying. ignorance and the incomprehensibly minute but unique and fancy. whereas the lingadeha or astral body is bound by many :* what ignorance could surpass that of those together ? who confound these two 18. There is no doubt that is Jam I am the very ego.). Dnyanendriya + 5 Karmendriyas + Buddhi + . : 19. e. (seeing everything without perception. e. snft 16. The Atman is i.The material cause of these two. which ft iran* ^ir ^ faTT^Rr : i 17. spirit : and one. The 5 Pran* +5 Ahankara = 17. e. the subject of all the everpresent witness. spirit is free from e. all conscious Intelligence and all holiness : the deha blood. which common to one with that supreme ego. all men. Delia conditions (as organs of sense &c. which is unique is incomprehensibly small. just as the earth is the cause of jars etc 15. The one Atman. This &c. the Sthtiladeha or physical body is all flesh and inert) and therefore unclean what ignorance &c. the ever present Universal all i. the ordinary means of knowledge). (i. 17. (d) is This &c. undecaying everlasting sat. is The Atman is the governed and therefore external the internal governor of this deha which what ignorance &c. : * i.

will retort. should rest contented with identifying this ego with * its (temporary tenement) deha 1 It may be argued that if the light of the Atman is unlike that of fire etc. where did any one observe the absence of darkness. That is enlightens all the objects of this the self-illuminating power of Atman. for reason of the latter being impotent to dispel all darkness. for the light of the universal Atman being present everywhere ? The Vedantin.fr ^faftraft *RPT: I qo 21. it is only on account of the illumination proceeding from the Atman that darkness or fire or any such thing becomes comprehensible. It is very strange that people though always talking of this deha as and therefore apart from something belonging to me (the subjective Atman) He who possesses it. It is that self-sustaining light which illumines all and is not opposed in its nature to any thing. apart from him. like one see ing ajar of earth talking of it as seen by him. which has no the presence of darkness in any the or 23. which Universe it is not any ordi : nary light like that of fire power to interfere with same contiguous place. : eternal and therefore existence whereas the dehas are non-eternal (subject to change) and non-existence incarnate what ignorance &c. itself: \\\\\\ The Atman is permanent.* any other thing. 22. and therefore.20.lt. The Atman is the illumination of the Universe and is all purity itself. the deha darkness (evolved from ignorance) what ignorance &c. Praft ft s|&amp. .

is non-existence itself. 27. : The deha surely can never be the substratum of this the deha which. The Deha &c. This is called real knowledge by the wise (who have realised the Atma- tatva. It is. with it. without any form. ever-existent and self-illumined. conscious intelligence the Universal Atman. Rajas from all conditions. undecaying and unique.( 7 ) sr: m&n jRfag^ 24. / . ft: ir- The is ego i. The deha &c. The ckha &c. and ego real joy. free from all conditions. Infinite. free from imagination. Immortal. free from every impurity ignorance caused by Avidyd Immoveable. e. Brahma. all not within the reach of all comprehension. and by nature all existence.) 5$: The ego is free from all change. ter. Holy. unique and one. again. eternal. It is unaffected 28. and pervading. The ego is beyond all disease. The Deha &c. and Unborn. by the three Gunas qualities of mat and Tamas motionless. the substratum of the ego the (subjective atman) being. undecaying 26. undescribable and or indestructible. ever free Sattva.

in your Ignorant fool when you have got the holy Atman. belonging to me&quot. How can this body then be the 31. and demonstrated by Reasoning. whereas the body &quot. cannot be any thing other than the body itself). How can this body &c. (If ! ego It implied in the S rutis. the substratum of the ego in man. mere nil ? uv&amp. The Atman. which is evidently different from and which is known as the Purushu (residing in the ! body of men. &c. 32.gt. Oh you own body the body. mere void. which is one and therefore different from the physical bodies on the other hand are many. is other than the body in as much as it is the only one of whom existence in the real sense of the word bub can you : predicate it is very difficult to be realised as such by people of your cast of mind. The ego is well-established as is ception. how can you is (in spite of is that this Atman nothing.( 8 ) 29. Oh ignorant within you to be that Purusha which is one know the 30. the phenomena even of your own which however you should assert that there may be something. which is : Atman ? wwrr the subject of all per the object this is proved from the fact of our* every time saying of the physical body as being mine&quot. .n with abandoning your hypothesis as incompatible consciousness and existence. in the form of the this testimony) assert ego). : &quot.

is 34. . well-known to us in our daily experience that the all change (caused by happiness. How could this body which is all darkness and illu mined by something quite extraneous.) How can &c- n 35. free Even in the Brihadaranyaka it is said this Purusha is from every thing How could this body besmeared with endless dirt be this Purusha 1 etc&quot. ego is free time. be this Purusha 1 .\ \\ Again the S ruti in the Purusha Sukta (the hymn to etc. n 36. old It is from though the body changes) whereas the physical body How can &c. misery or The ego remains the same in childhood. young age. n ^ n In the same S 37.lt.33. Atman are laid down in the is Oh lord of the ignorant S ruti ^TWT^T^&c. subject to many. ruti. (that ! of this is the Purusha than whom there nothing higher &c. \&amp. The characteristics. ^ n &quot. age. Purusha says. it is said the Purusha is self-illu mined &c. all this is Purusha How then can &c.

given in a manner after the principles of the Tarkasdstra (Nyaya). which inculcates the per 38. the substratum of the ego. &quot. . and indestructible. .* * For it leaves the state of final absolution open to some objections as to its utility or quality. after the des truction of its the results of actions done during any previous is made up of many things (not the object of perception.( 10 ) Even that part of the Vedas. How could this astral body ever be the Purusha ? 39. . life.. the Lord. baaed pn the duality of the cosmic principle. is subject to unstable. the Soul of All. is evidently different from these two the Purusha. to undergo. &quot. and as and therefore subsisting material coil. compasses but a very insignificant aim in life..:. Even the astral body is one). fffl .. every free from all conditions.. present in every one as n 41. and non-existent. is f w n 40. [. j* - . formance of various religious ceremonies (as contra-distinguish ed from that part which inculcates the usefulness of knowledge only) describes the one. eternal. Atman as different from the deha . limited. change. and thing in itself.. *n n Thus the enunciation of the difference between the two bodies and the Atman involving an (indirect) assertion of the reality of the material transitional Universe. ^o H Thus the Atman is bodies.

like the delusion of snake in a rope. it cannot admit of a Even the individual soul must then be accepted division. H As Chaitanya or absolute consciousness but uniform and unique. appears for the ti to be a snake. 1R ^F tfHlffT *FTT is II *&amp.( 11 ) ii VK it 42. it cannot admit of a second. The material cause . to be futile. 45. e.. 44. * *FTT 43. to clearly demonstrate the unreality of the difference between the two* i. however. The object however of this enunciation of the vital fundamental difference between the two bodies and the is Atman to dissipate (not to establish the reality of the material universe but) the ignorance of confounding or identifying the Atman with the dehas.gt. It yet remains. it remains clearly to establish that the dehas have no existence independent of. the whole Brahma itself and nothing t . and without the Atman. of this transitional universe can be it follows nothing else than Brahma universe is therefore that else. so does the unconditioned consciousness chit . As through ignorance the rope. (Brahma] appear in the form of this so-called material universe.

) ? 48. the distinction between the pervading and the pervaded or subject This. understood to be one. is illusory. fused all the material. its original cause.( 12 ) 46. ftfrmt ^ 50. it must be with Brahma. When the S ruti has by denouncing in loud terms the existence of any variety in this (Brahma). n 49. that all kinds of names. In as much as the u niverse exists in the Absolute Atman. from the effect. subject and object etc. . All is Atman&quot. forms. the distinction of subject and object etc. e.)&quot. and actions are sustained and through Brahma. but has fastened an separate &quot. The S ruti has not rested here. 47. there could be room the highest truth being realised. awful sin to the belief in the existence of the cause as away by Maya or illusion. I Moreover the S ruti plainly declares in. for little and object. In as much as it is ordained that &quot. is born and reborn often and often. all-embracing Brahma. instrumental and final causes into one unique consciousness. accepts any variety in this (Absolute Atman) passes from death to death (i. how could there be even the least shadow of any other thing (as the pervading and pervaded. in the words He who led and does not attain to final beatitude.

so should be the being made of gold is Brahma of that which proceeds from Brahma. In the condition in which the enlightened identify the whole with Atman. 53. or sorrow. are very dangerous and pernicious. The opinions of that ignorant man. . there could not exist the least shadow of distinction. The S ruti this soul is Brahaddranyaka has declared that and stands as the soul and substance of the Brahma. in the universe.( 13 ) 51. Distinctions crop up only so long as duality is main tained through ignorance. As the being golden of that which is eternal and unchanging. who abides by even the faintest distinction between Jiva and Paramdtman. but when the whole is seen as in and of Atman. there enters not the faintest tinge of delu sion. 52. in consequence of the cause of such delusion or sorrow being destroyed with the dissipation of the idea of duality. 54. 55.

( 14 ) universe though it be the subject of daily experi ence. The vide 54) in the is unreal like a dream in as its much as its existence even moment next birth is not provable. 56. . all which stands aloof from these conditions. Both however are not to be found in deep absorption. the ring in gold. or silver in a lump of naore. jar in the clay of Just as after mature contemplation one does not find a which it is made. and silver. again is not experienced in either. 1 1 ssr gprnfaft fail 58. all in mere name. all illusive creations of these three conditions are unreal. Thus. : . so does Jiva exist in Brahma. be free believing Jiva to be separate from Brahma. which 57. from the delusion of on deep meditation. For example dreams are unreal during waking nor is the waking condition possible in dreams. so on &c. being the mdyd with its three gunas the real. and unique one is the spirit. nent. The in nacre but jar exists in earth. so will the enlightened. these three gunas as the witness of n 59. perma . as in dreamless sleep. 60. and though it be the object of our constant intercourse (and therefore the living cause of constant delusion.

through ignorance only that people do not clearly understand 65. and through Brahma. so are all the various forms in the universe but mere manifestations of the Atman. this spirit tion of the various imaginary adjuncts can be grasped by the nega superinduced. or water in the mirage. as name. . 63. so do ignorant persons . or as a man is seen in a post. Just as it is earth alone that appears under the name of ajar.( 15 ) Just as blueness appears in the sky. or two moons instead Just as one sees a giant in vacancy a castle in the air of one in the sky. so does the Illumined spirit go under the name of the universe . so does the universe ap pear in the Atman. form &c t It is All intercourse proceeds of. that all the jars and pots that appear are but earth and earth alone. Just as all that appear is water whether in the form of waves or ripples on the surface. 62. see the universe as apart from Brahma. or as all again that appears is copper whether as pots or anything. 61. or just as they are the threads only that appear under the name of a cloth. If 3 ? 64.

The Atman though 69. are contemplating of a jar only. ^Tf i% t ever pure. is constant. so even though dealing with the unreal uniyerse. Just as the jar is all earth. were intuitively conscious of the all we pervading Brahma. I 67. so in the question at issue is that of Brahma and the unreal universe this is loudly declared by 68. so this body is all spirit . . when we Just as the consciousness of clay is forced upon our mind. Just as a cord is understood nacre to be a lump of silver. 70. rendered forcibly and as it are through it and in it. be the Atman. the divison of Atman and not Atman is made by the ignorant for no purpose whatever. Revelation and clearly verified by reason. 68. ever appears impure just as the same cord appears as a serpent and as a cord to an ignorant and a knowing man respectively.( 16 ) Just as the relation of cause and effect between clay and a jar. physical body to be a snake. or a lump of so do the ignorant determine the to .

or made of it. 77. so do &c. 76. real water. so &c.71. Just as to one sailing in a boat every thing appears to be in motion.lt. Just as one seeing at a tree through water sees it in verted. 75. so &c. Just as clay is confounded with the jar made of it. so does . Just as a &quot. . so &c.&quot. t or 73. r &amp. Just as gold is confounded with the rings made of water with the waves surging over it. 72. or the threads with the cloth.jaundiced eye sees every thing yellow.FCT^R t it.the material body appear as Atman to one view ing it through ignorance. ^ n the iron with the sword Just as the materials are confounded with the house. so Just as a post do &c. so do &c. is taken for a man or the mirage for H 74.

ff \\ ^4 ^r *ri|3T sTri i 83. 1 As the moon appears to be in motion through the clouds which really are moving. every thing appears illusion. As one should confound fire with a jewel or vice versa so &c. 1 84. so &c. With eyes which are as it were by nature in delusion. .( 13 ) 78. 80. Just as things which are prodigiously large appear small in consequence of distance. v As a floor of glass should be imagined to be filled with water or vice versa. Just as the circle made by a fire-brand. Just as the smallest objects appear very large when spectacles. so &c. 79. so &c. Viewed through powerful ft 82. 81. appears like the disc of the sun. so &c. so &c. so &c.

which appear to exist apart from it. enlightened one spend all your time in ever con^ templating upon the Atman.rnan ( the whole universe. by the help of right knowledge. As some one through confusion loses all distinction between the different points of the compass. proper realisation of Brahma. without repining or pain. even though he should have acquired fulj. I n 88. 87. so &c. (delusion) melts away in the. Just as the moon . In this manner then. the fruits of your Prdrabdha. consuming out. so &c. ffif in the (spiritual) ^R^RT^f PL. ! Oh ^ 90. 89. (on account of its reflection) appears to moving under the surface of water some one. movable as well as immov by the negation of all substance. 86. which. there hardly remains any room even to say that this material body is Atman. At. When is able. . .85. arises the delusion of matter (delia) Atmin. of by the law of Pr&mbd/ta. knowledge of the Almn-n. kno\ynj tp be. n We now proceed to explain the opinion often declared? the Sdstras that no body is free from the operations.

gt. could an sion. When material cause of where could the universe subsist? this ignorance is destroyed 94.( 20 ) n 91. That Karma acquired in a previous birth which is called 92. ^ y : n mains no room &c. truth sets up this (material) transitory universe 95. After the knowledge of the real has arisen.fr ^v ^FTT&amp. so also is this to take birth. rope to be in its place. \ f&amp. has no existence for a future birth) in as much as the (in the form of SanchUa man has no other birth to go through. The Vedantas understand a Just as some one should out of confusion so an ignorant man leaving aside the a serpent. . and when it does not take birth illusion. in as much as this material body (the plane on which the effects of Prdrabdha manifest just as themselves) are then reduced as it were to nothing there is no room for dream after waking. be said 93. How.TI% it ^f ?r: n ^^ u Just as the body at work during dream is a mere illu our physical body. just as earth of a jar &c. then. how again could it be said to exist? declare ignorance (and Brahma] to be the the universe.lt. there re for Prdrabdha. Pr&rabdha (with respect to the present life).

&quot. they moksha themselves in two glaring absurdities. moksha being thus rendered impossible Prdrabdha and will maintain the possibility of over and above involving the utility of the the way of knowledge will of the Ved&nta. once : so the great substance and support of the universe being nothing. Ipdy is thus a mere illusion. known. of distinctly the possibility of the action Prdrabdha (as well as the other two : Sanchita and Kriyamdna). the universe reduces n 97. l)e nullified). Hence &c described in tfieSrutis are for the enlighten of the ignorant only. As this physical. &c. ment The P/tmtf used in the Sruti the highest good of all is to negative being reached. The cord being fully known itself to the serpent disappears at.( 21 ) irnr 96. It. (1. 98. should If the ignorant still its action. all his Karmas are destroyed &quot. impossibility of a Prdrabdha Superior on account of there being a second even to Brahma: 2. . run counter to the teachings must go by the said Sruti (Vide^ therefore follows that we Dnydnmdrga Stanza 98) which directs the way to real knowledge. 99. where the Prdrabdha could there be any room for the play of Prdrabdha.

( 22 ) H|. . 5 J^s&. firm and active meditation. and it should be repeatedly studied.* the real yama-. RTydga. The same remark holds good.who require to be taken step by step to the realisation of the said truth). The fifteen stages in order are : 1 Yama. Mawna.. and all conscious Atman not and rigid practice (of the rules to be described) therefore one desirous of obtaining absolution must ever meditate upon Brahma. \2Pratyd- hara. 101 &amp. Knowing all these one must use all of tfiem towards acquiring a habit of constant. 103.gt. yogra. \\ \*\ is ii .6 jfifd^a* 7 Asana. . 3FT HITRR 3 II ^ oo (for the instruction of those . 14 Atmadhydna. comprises ten formulas of conduct.I)riksthiti.. realised without a constant ft 102. . 15 Samddhi. 4 9. for all other jillustrations to be cited from works on Hat ha yoga. all however tending to secure the mental condition described in 104. cal. The ever existent.8 Mulabandha. 13 Dhdrand. 2 Niyama. II H-T-n f^fr || The yama of JJaiAa or physi. 11 Prdnasamyamana. *v 104. we begin to propound the 15 stages necessary for the acquisi Hence forward tion of the knowledge described before. Dehasdmya^IQ. STT 100. ii- The natural restraint over ajl the senses is arising from the conviction of everything being Brahma.

The enlightened must ever try to possess that Mauna that indescribable Brahma which.hiyama the highest happiNiyama ness. ever enlightened Brahma everywhere. such are thought of by the wise. is the described in the Srutis. and separation from the heterogeneous (such notions as of the tmiverse and : Brahma beitg apart from each other &c. is the Ty&ga honoured by the great.).! 107. The abandonment df this illusion (of form and name) by the recognition of the non-material.( 23 ) II \ H 105. &quot. as leading to immediate absolution. though the mind turns back baffled from it. and though Words cannot describe it. . constant and invariably inseparable cdnsciousness of unity with Brahma).^ u t This Tydga must it seems be understood as opposed to the Tyaga or abandonment of one s duties and Karmas in life as understood by super&quot. e. The union with the homogeneous (i.* n \* n 106. is ever to be found in those who are devoted to the path of pure knowledge.. ficial Vedantins. This mauna is opposed to the ordinary practice of restraining thd tongue &c.

as opposed to the time observed in performing . ? ^o n That is the real &quot.^ (I t This kdla may be taken pranayama &c. to be simply n 110. of all up to Brahma and others. (place) wherein the .( 24 ) can describe that (Brahma) which words are not able to comprehend ? If this universe of illusion even were subjected to examination. Des a&quot. universe does not exist in the beginning. or end and which is to be found through the whole of this (material life. such as even the winking of the eye &c. Hence this may be the real 108.-109. the word Kdla indicates the real un interrupted and unique fountain of joy. abandon speech. is pronounced by the Advaiti. u \\ In consequence of its being the support and sustenance of all actions. (Brahma).)* n 111. that also is beyond the reach of Mauna (viz. tongue childish. middle.solitary. Who ment of all doubts as to the relation of Brahma and Jag at) where known to the wise as Sakaja Sthiii Native condition as the Mauna ordinarily known in the form of restraining the .

That which is is the origin of all Being. * As opposed to the 8 or any indefinite number of Asanas Padmdsana.( 25 ) n 112. That in which one can easily and uninterruptedly meditate upon Brahma is the most proper Asana. like that of the dead trunk of a tree.* the eternal and well-known container of the universe of being. and that on the original (ignorance) obstruction of the depends manas. as Sidhds-an of the body t u . the forcible straightening of the limbs. all implying certain positions accompanied by an amount of physical exertion and exercise. is the real Siddhdsana^ 113. and not any other interfering with one s ease and happiness. That is Dehasdmya by which the physical body (na turally crooked and distorted) becomes on account of its being viewed as of Brahma. That which whom 115. immersed in Brahma. is certainly the least of Dehasdmya. and that in which the Siddhas are ever sitting at ease. is the mulabandha to be always practiced. Mayurdsan &c. and is the only one to be taken up by students of Raja or mental 114. If this is not accom plished.

and not the one wherein the eye is fixed on the tip of Or. should view the whole of this transitional universe as Brahma. real concentration &c. the fixing of the (internal) ego on that in which the triad of the seer. having converted his internal eye into one of pure knowledge. through the process of viewing upon all ob as the mind and its creations &c. 118. The constant and permanent obstruction of all the senses (internal). t . That one. is the real concentration of the eye (Driksthiti) . sight and seen is reduced to unity is the 117. as in and of Brahma jects such is called Prdndydma.-\- * Compare the various Mudrds =33 3T of Hotha yoga.( 26 ) ir sr ?i% TC TfrnT : * TOmnroifoft 11 tt* n 116.

The latter holds and perhaps correctly holdsthat the shortness or length of the breath. should be known as resolving Pratydhdra. The former holds that the mind will be naturally and easily controlled all the avenues its of communication with the external world viz. is the real Puraka (the drawing in of the breath) J and then the immovable concentration on that very convic tion is the real kumbhaka (the retention of the breath in the lungs for some time).*^ It will be observed that the difference in the practice here indicated consti tutes the real point of difference between Hatha or physical and Raja or mental yoga. the ignorant will go on torturing their nose for nothing. the giant SH^T or the mind. and should be practised by those who are desirous objects into of absolution. and attainment of the condition of eternal Samadhi or concentration or identification with this principle of the universe but the ways leading to this end are different. Brahma&quot. The absorption all of the mind in the ever-enlightened Brahma by Atman. . 120. 121.( 27 ) 119. ireirfrr. The point to be reached by either is the same restraint over the mind and its creations. of the process indicated in the The order t Hatha yoga is 1st Puraka then Kumbhaka aud then Rechaka. The negation (as by resolving into Brahma &c) of this phenomenal illusion. whereas. the breath &c. This is the real course of Prdndydma* but to be followed by the enlightened. is the real Rechdka (blowing out of the breath retained in the lungs) and the conviction I am &quot. ^fawtfTO^^^wWffcw^f u . is but an indication of the State of the mind and that therefore instead of fruitlessly all this _ by shutting up cause of * and unnaturally stifling this breath we had much better curb the breath and everything viz.

\. existence consequent upon the full sense of Being I am Brahma&quot. arising from the recogni wherever it travels or goes. at the spur of the moment. 125. and by its being ever merged into Brahma is called conscious This natural course of joy should be studied by the wise only so long as they acquire the power of. and is described as &cj &quot. ter. is the condition arising from the conviction conducive to the highest joy. collecting and concentrating themselves. u mo 50 \ t \\ Even in Raj yoga ^mfa Z is sometimes concisely defined as II also as ^^l^^^W ^^T?^ ^IPT: U . The Hatha yoga has 5 5l .cT fo *fro Ho U \. The independent (free from any other idea as of mat . The negation of all mental action. by the mind s being 124. U *n&quot. ^. tion of The steadiness of the Brahma. reduced to a state beyond all change. U ^. is the real and mind great Dhdrana* 123.( 28 ) 1WT 122.

concentration . idleness . . he becomes entirely filled with that object or that void: so one who fixes his mind on Brahma becomes completely : i PfsfrcT?r?qr^ Ik . becomes sity the best of all accomplished successful ascetics. 128. The condition 126. transitory joy after another. to gradually evade all these One one knowing Brahma should try ft *TR?4 ft 129.( 29 ) Then he (the practitioner) being free from the neces of going through the said and similar processes. or evens on void. . desire of illusive en .* and dullness or torpidity of the mind. sleep temporary paralysis of the intellect being drawn off by egoistical immersion in objects of the universe . crop up in the way Such as being put : off the point of . 3 127. 3{^f^Fl ff STTrfT mind on some | If one concentrates his object. of such an ascetic cannot easily be described in words or con ceived by the mind. numerous joyments difficulties Even while assiduously practising Samddhi.

all the three worlds. the matter.( 30 ) full of fore Brahma. full of Brahma. with Brahma : as did Brahma. and are though men equal to brutes. f f rattan Those again who are clever at talking about Brahma. are Brahma itself and not those who merely talk glibly about . ^ ISO. One should there study to become perfect i. but are void of any real attempt towards reaching to that state and are fast bound to the ties of transitory pleasures. ft f% Thope persons who abandon this holy and sublime mental attitude of Brahma. various births). know this state by constant practice. sees Brahma everywhere. of ff Those who have reached to the perfection of this state Brahma. on the other hand. in consequence of this their pass and repass (in hypocrisy and ignorance. . and have thoroughly mastered it. have to 133. and knowing it grow perfect in Respect is due to them at the hands it of w I 132. ff f f% % 131. without uniting Sanakadika. the ever-existent. happy and virtuous beings who. Shuka and other Mahdtmas. ftffFfl ff% for a 134. live to no purpose. Hail to those. (The enlightened) never remain even their souls minute. e.

in the cause. essence. Every student should first contemplate arid grasp the cause as existing apart from its effect he would then constantly see by inseparable relation the cause in the effect. 139. well-directed thought will prove that on account of the relative nori -existence of the effect in the cause The cause is Hence reflected in the effect but not the effect the cause itself also could hardly be called the cause of that i. Perseverance in this direction brings about. 138. . must vanish as the active instrumental cause of any effect thing but should ever stand by itself all existence. the state of constant knowledge which ultimately leads to its spontaneous and natural unification with Brahma. Thus there will remain that effulgent universal This should speech. 136. the effect must be entirely dismissed (from the .e. all in . which transcends both mind and 137. in those whose minds are sufficiently enlightened. repeatedly be studied from such ordinary illustrations as of earth and the jar made of it &c. telligence and all joy. the Thus having contemplated the cause as reflected in effect.( 31 ) ff 135.

. seen All this universe visible or invisible. pervading indescribable Brahma. % 142. ever conscious. as one in sible .* 141. (implying the and sight) is one eternal consciousness. of the bee and the worm. and what remain be the ever existent. \\\v\\\ This with the parts set forth above is R&ja or mental yoga mixed with Hatha or physical Yoga prescribed for those who 1 43. bliss of identifying easily attain to the condition of eternal happiness. through his mind being ever filled with the himself with this universal consciousness. fcttfeir The enlightened should always look upon the universe and of Brahma. lost great portion of their taste for the pleasures of * The bee takes hold of any small worm and even while it is alive puts it into a small whole of clay specially prepared. The worm thinking in its dark prison of the bee and bee alone. 140. and blocks up the opening. the will cause will cease to be such. removes the clay and with it a sting awakens the worm which immediately flies out another bee incarnate. triad of the seer. remains there tilj the bee returning at its proper time. A man becomes that on which he resolutely and per This we infer from the ordinary illustration sistently thinks. all When will this is done. have already the senses.( 32 ) mind). by resolving the visible into the invi thus will he.

or to their favourite gods. &c . to those who are devoted to their teachers. ! To those whose mind completely ripe .yoga) is useful this yoga again being one easily accessible even 2 W 144.) this (Raja Yoga) alone (without any Hat ha or physical .( 33 ) sihrf g^fr is ^rrn ?\w u (by &c.

by some competent pretending to ^&quot. though scholar. Tr. is Nothing the Spirit which can be perceived by senses. and pain in this (state of existence) * Not Chandogya Upanishat. consi merits. also. no scholarship. [An apology &quot. the Spirit is like a thing This right discrimination of Spirit and Not-spirit perceptible.IN A. The Q. It has been a matter of no little wonder. that a dering the authorship of this pamphlet and its own intrinsic translation of it has not already been executed The present translation.Atmanatma is of Sankaracharya scarcely needed for undertaking.&quot.&quot. within a small compass. fully sets forth the scope and purpose of the Vedanta philosophy. a translation s celebrated Synopsis of Vedantism entitled Vivekah. however. .T. Sanskrit BY MOHINEE CHATTEEJEE.TION RIT ANT) (Translated from the OF SPI x ISTOT SPIRIT. is set forth in millions of treatises. discrimination of Spirit and Not-spirit Whence comes pain to the Spirit ? is given (below) : A. &quot.S. is dutifully literal except.I. the omission of a few lines relating to the etymology of the words 5IOT (Sarira) and (Deha) and one or two other things which. original M. By reason of its taking a body. This little treatise. of Sankardcharyd. is It is said in the Sruti* : there cessation of pleasure of a living thing possessed of a body. To one possessed of right discrimination.M.] appendix at the end. for Some other passages in the text the convenience of readers.( 34 ) DISOB.1 though interesting in themselves have no direct bearing on the main have subject of treatment.) F. been removed to an Til.

which. Why does it become so by Karma ? A. as much as it produces the concept am ignorant. by reason of the three qualities! and is said to be opposed. this want of right discrimination produced ? A. By what are desire and the rest produced A. igiioranca (BJ^R).. Anticipating the conten- This word. of everything . By desire and the rest (i. * the doing of a thing t This word. is ?.) Ignorance is without beginmn? and being the intermingling. something embodying nothing.&quot. it means generally misunderstood. is the power. as used does not exhibit the in. of pain can thus. By egoism (affsrorif :).&quot.&quot. o th a Deity and. By what again is egoism produced By want of right discrimination. produced by anything^ its 1 A. of the real and the unreal: (^^^). By Karma. *! Q. It that which does not &quot. Q.lt. fully realized. the identity. of the Self with Brahma (the is Universal Spirit).( 35 ) By what is produced A. Adhikarana Maid (note) TR..)) . is mean the negation Truth.* Q. the passions. the &quot. Rajas (foulness) and qualities.illusory.in.) Q.&quot. (Ignorance).an object of worldly desire.T. Is ignorance by. . by its own qualities. Vaidantic works. Q. By what By No. ineffable (S&amp. II TR. This portion has been condensed from the original TR. to Wisdom .is enshrouded &quot. Tr. wil be ^only when. e. The Sruti says.be -traced* to ^The origin ignorance and ifc will not cease until ignorance is entirely dispelled.t It is a. this taking of a body ? Q. Tamas (darkness) are the three Chandogya Upanishat. A. It means for the attainment of . J Satva (goodness). it is impossible to translate.-I &quot.

Conflict of Wisdom and Karma. it is supposed. (3). the Indifference one s actions in this world is desire (such inclination for the enjoyment of worldly objects of as garland of flowers. (2.( 36 ) tion that the eternal acts are proper and would therefore it is said that ignorance e. Q. A. include the TR. that Ignorance can only be removed by How can this Wisdom be acquired Q. and Brahma being to the only reality.. Then What comes of such acts ? Q. By discussion and Not -spirit. A.) false. 9 those enjoined by the Vedas. (1. Those who have acquired the four are the four qualifications ? qualifications. ? Therefore it is clear Wisdom.) and impermanent things ? A. lead to the destruction of ignorance cannot be dispelled by Karma. and the other five qualities. Q. by discussing as to the nature of Spirit Who What (1). are worthy of engaging in such discussion ? A. of Sama Possession one s actions both here and hereafter. food.) (i. in Buddhistic esoteric philosophy. as one has clination to of Rhambha. True discrimination of permanent and impermanent of to the enjoyment of the fruits (2). Certainly as to the Material Universe being illusive and. sandalwood paste women and the like) for the preservation of life. &c. iorms) * Rupa . ing liberated (from What is the right discrimination of permanent Q. A. An intense desire of becom material existence). Indifference things. (4). Urvasi and enjoyment in the society other celestial nymphs in the higher spheres of life beginning with Svarga loka and ending with Brahma loka* loka (the world ol enjoyment of the fruits to have the same amount of dis of whole range of These. beyond those absolutely necessary The same amount of disin for vomited.

Dama. is the repression of the external senses. for house holders to engage in such discussions * These terms will be .. . is samddhana and sraddhd.. *&quot. for the all organs of perception and the five bodily organs performance of external acts. and the bearing witli pain. they have such discussion). it to engage in. spirit. uparati. of the Yedanta philosophy.( 37 ) (3. wanders is any worldly object of desire. (literally Titikshd the desire to leave) is indifference all opposites (such. any other thing but Sravana what the sages say about the spirit).. worthless.. Restraining these from five other things but Sravana and the rest is dama-.- What are the six qualities beginning with titikshd. Whenever a mind. without ever diverging from them. Dama Q.). Sama not allowing (listening to (reflecting the repression of the inward sense called Manas. i. on the contrary. finding to the performance of the three exercises called samadhdna. Sama ? A. Uparati is the abstaining on principle from engaging in any of the acts and ceremonies enjoined by the shastras.. Nididhyasana (meditating on.. like Brahmacharins.. returns such returning Sraddhd is an intensely strong faith in the utterances of one s guru (4. heat and Otherwise.as pleasure cold. TR. &c.) Q. Sama. however.) and. engaged to Sravana and the it rest. is it is the showing of forbearance to a in person one capable of punishing. more fully explained in the appendix. Those who possess these four engaging in discussions as to the qualifications. and. Otherwise it is the state of the mind which is always engaged in Sravana and the rest. are nature of Spirit and Notno other duty (but.. and. at all improper. for liberation is called An intense desire mwimkahatworthy of vam. are the external senses ? What The A.e. the same). Manana on it). It is not. but.

What is Spirit man It is that principle which enters into the composition of besides the three bodies. What The are the three bodies ? A.J and witness of the three states. : return and enter into Bliss. decay. Q.gt. and ananda (bliss). It is said : What is produced by the (subtile) elements differentiated into the five gross ones. 19 the creative energy producing changes of Says the Shruti (Taittiriya Upanishat) Verily from these bhutas born.^ is born of Karmi and subject to the six changes beginning with birth. and which is distinct from the five ( sheaths (Kashas). Spirit with due reverence. Q. subjects treated of in Vedanta philosophy and does proper service to Discussion as to the nature of his guru. and 2V. t Bliss State in is M&yd Prakriti. Q. t This stands for Prakriti.tihQ subtile sukshama and the causal 1 (kdrana). cqsmic matter. gross (sthula^. such a course is highly meritorious. and being born by it they live. growth. five subtile H The These six changes are birth. Undergoing change of substance (parindm) as milk is changed into whey. Tr. Bliss are all it. is acquired by Karma. and they or Sakti. -Tr. irrespective of the state we Tr. That which the effect of the Mahabhutas (primordial subtile elements) differentiated into the five gross ones (Panchikritd).( 38 &amp. Tr. : elements thus produce the gross ones each of the five Is divided into eight parts. engages in the discussion of and Not-spirit is ? therefore a duty. death. What is the gross body is * A. : . reaps happy fruits. and the result is the gross element correspond ing with the subtile element.* chit (consciousness). being sat (existence). being in time. &quot. and is the measure of pleasure and pain. A. For it is said : Whoever.. perceive ft. * This stands for Purushg. whose parts predominate in the composition. to be in. four of those parts and one part of each of the others enter into combination. is called the body (sarira) par excellence.&quot.

on which the orb depends. The skin ? That which transcends the skin. What What are the organs of action ? A. tongue and nose. Q. is limited by the auricular orifice on which the dkds depends. which is centred in the black iris and has the power of cognising forms. five the effect of the elements not differentiated into and having 17 characterstic marks (lingas). A. taste. A. That which transcends the tongue and can perceive Q. The nose ? A. and manas and buddhi. A. feet. and which is capable of taking cognisance of sound.( 39 ? ) Q. What are the Jnanendriyas ? A. Q. skin. What It is is the subtile body A. five Q. A. ? vdch . of perceiving heat and cold. What The are the seventeen ? channels of knowledge (Jnanendriyas). The eye ? That which transcends the ocular orb. The tongue ? A. That which transcends the nose. the five organs of action. Q. hands. and has the power of smelling. Q. What is the ear ? That channel of knowledge which transcends the [physi cal] ear. Q. eye. [Spiritual] Ear. the five vital airs beginning with prdna. on which the skin de and which extends from bead to foot and has the power pends. Q. etc. Q. The organ is of speech (vach).

J These vital airs and sub-airs are magnetic currents. eye and nostril latest discoveries those of the left side. such a are governed by the right way that the motions of our left extremeties motions of our right hand limbs are subject to the left hemisphere. binding the tongue to the lower jaw and tongue. 11. Q. and ahankara form it. namely the passages in the head connected with. . and &quot. liga ture (frenum). buddhi. entirely disconnected with the former. The functions of these four components of antahkarana are respectively doubt* certainty. The modern physiology have shown that the third frontal cavity power or the faculty it is a well known of the left hemisphere in the brain in fact that the nerve tissues inter-cross each other (decussate) of the brain. head. with the body. apdna. eye the two eyes. existing with. The seat root of the throat.gt. What is the antahkarana chitti ?( Manas. Q. throat. of buddhi the face.&quot. Q. This path is well traced in the text. lips. The left year. and egotism. Z&amp. for it does not separate the lips into it the upper&quot. and nostril being the messengers of the right side of the head . of apana the fundamentum* are said to be : * The &quot.J beginning with prana.( 40 ) A. IV. the two nostrils and the two ears. Breast. How ? are the five vital airs. That which transcends speech. What are the eight centres ? Q. belonging to. human speech is located in the On the other hand. vyana. upper and neither lips. 269 &quot. named A. the right ear. A.. note in Theot A flood of light will be thrown on the text by an editorial so})hist. Antahkarana is the path of communication between soul and body. secret commentaries say seven . And adds to the seven centres the seven &quot. while the hemisphere of the brain. is the orgin of the hands ? That which transcends the hands on which the palms * depend and which has the power of giving and taking. A. : Tr. nether&quot. and which is located in eight different centres* and has the power of speech. vdch . udana and saun&na* Their locations of prana the breast. retention. in which speech resides. and conclusions of of Now this is purely scientific. Ed. and of ahanfara the breast.&quot. A. of of the mams is the chitfa the umbilicus. and effected by. mouth. palate. and dying vol. Prdna. What (The other organs are similarly described).

am under . undifferentiated into the five gross ones. bahni (fire). Mrityu (death). Functions of these are :prdna goes apdna descends. samdna reduces the food eaten into an undistinguishable state. Rudra. (air). of uddna the throat. uddna ascends. prachetd of the five channels of knowledge Dik. in the order in which they occur. p. (water). f said in the Sastras : It is also manas. s running thus : Karana s arlra (e. and vydna circulates all out. over the body. the umbilicus. opens the eye. 10.( 41 ) of samdna. characteristic mark. buddhi. See TheoSee also in this connection an editorial note in the sophist. and Kshet- rajnesvara* which is the great Creator and cause of every These are the presiding powers of ear. erructations produced by ndga. causal germs.This of that journal. which arises from the subtile elements. kurwa dhanan/aya assimilates food. Upendra. Brahma. this is said by those and arka The presiding powers (sun). devadatta causes : yawning. * It is ignorance (avidyd). Mr. Indra. Functions of these are krikara. ndga. and which is the means The five vital airs. Of these five vital airs there are five sub-airs. and vydna is spread all over the body. All these taken together form the linga sarira. What is the Kdrana sarira ? J A. devadatta and dhananjaya. term See S ankara s commentaries on the Brahma Tr. and krikara produces appetite versed in Yoga. 255. namely. of the perception of pleasure and pain. Chandra (moon).) described as the inner rudimentary or latent embryo of the it. 249. karma. and the others thing. and since it is body confounded with 1 arlra is often mistaken by the uninitiated for Linga Sridhara Swami in his commentaries on the Bkagvat Gttd Tr. Q. the furnishing the monad with the other two bodies. and when the proper time comes. Subba Row understands it in exactly the same way. t Linga means that which conveys meaning. IV. Vol. of this which is the cause of the other For an explanation Sittras. vdta the others are dik (akas a) and the rest. of which it embodiea Tr.&quot. the impression that I follow the best authorities in regarding Kdrana s arlra as surviving in devachan. and the ten organs form the subtile body. same number &quot. Aswini. g.

present. must not be supposed that avidyd is here confounded with prakriti.( 42 ) tion [of and which is without beginning. What is the state of dreamless slumber is ? A. objects are perceived by reason of desires from impressions produced during wakefulness. reflec Brahma] and productive of the concept of non-identity between self and Brahma. Tr. dreaming (svapna). it is evolved by a law embodied in prakriti itself. Q. (vehicle) Without a kdrana beginning. Q. which are im permanent. of dreamless slumber. bodies. is that it forms no link in the Karmic chain leading to succession of births and deaths. What is inanimate (jada)? A. It * What is . resulting A. essentially painful and subject to congregation and segregation. Of dreaming ? That in which Q.* ineffable. Q. What is impermanent ? That which does not exist in one and the same state in the three divisions of time [namely. What is Not-Spirit ? A.. Wakefulness (jdgrata). What That is the state of icakefulness ? in which objects are known through the avenue of [physical] senses. : &quot. Q. meant by avidyd being without beginning. A. * * * # of What are the three states [mentioned above as those which the Spirit is witness] ? A. It is the three bodies [described above]. its That which cannot distinguish between the objects of own cognition and the objects of the cognition of others. and the state Q. past and future. That in which there an utter absence of the percep tion of objects. inanimate (jada). is called the upddhi Know i. ineffable avidyd. (cause). the Spirit to be truly differ ent from the three upddhis e. A. It is also said two bodies. (sushupti).] Q.

Anandamaya of ananda (illusive bliss). wild Adhidaivika. What is the Annamaya sheath ? (life). Prdnamaya. i. conceals the sword. 7V. . &c. g.. Kdrikd. q.. &c. 255. external objects three kinds of pain are i. Tr. A. The gross body. Manomaya of manas.. is ? prdjna (One life. A. . The food eaten by father and mother semen and blood. e. from elements. animals. e. e.) What are the five sheaths Annamaya. Annamaya of prdna (finite is the transformation of anna J (food). What is the next sheath ? The combination five vital airs of the five organs of action. * That is to say. e. Vijndnamaya. the consciousness of Tr. t This subject is also treated of by the author in the Atmafoodha and has been admirably expounded in this journal for July last. produced.( 43 ) in the gross body in-dwelling of the notion wakefulness is visva (world of objects). the husk the grain.!&quot. See Sdnkhya Tr. and the form the Prdnamaya sheath. or the which womb the foetus. Gaudapada commentary to the opening Slok&. ? Why A. f A. t from thieves. prdnamaya Q. body during dreamless slumber Q. p.. the combination of which is is transformed into transformed into the shape of a body. thunder. a sheath is it shows the spirit which is infinite as without the six changes beginning with birth aa subject to those changes which is without the three kinds of It conceals the spirit as the sheath painll as liable to them. g.* in subtle body during during dreaming is taijas (magnetic fire). e. from within one s s self. head-ache. is by mistaking the gross body for self. : H The Adhibhautika. Manomaya. I This word also means the earth in Sanskrit. from external objects. g. v. Vijndnamaya of vijndna perception). Q. and in the causal The of&quot. e. &c. and jinandamaya. Adhyatmika. Q. It is the transformation of food and wraps up the spirit like finite. It wraps up like a sheath and hence so called.

wherein ignorance predominates and which produces gratification. which by reason of its thinking itself the actor. which never gives as the giver. Why is it called the witness of the three states ? That It is is to say.-f * Q. What is the Vijndnmaya sheath ? Q. goes to the other loka and comes back to this ?* Q. is as being possessed thereof. It inanimate as being both. which thirsty. bliss misery. which By never moves as thirst as if if in motion. A. wraps up and shows the spirit. ? is devoid of hunger and hungry and is Q. Tr t the stable basis upon which the three states arise and disappear. enjoyer. which is void of desire. it is the knowledge of the three states. which has no condition It ed happiness Q. A. Tr. the spirit which is speechless appears as if the speaker. devoid of sight as if seeing.. . the spirit said to be different from the three bodies ? Why That which is truth cannot be untruth. sheath so called the jiva (personal ego). It is the antahkarana. Q. consciousness inanimate. which never cognises as conscious which has no concept of certainty as being certain. What is the Anandamaya sheath ? A. Why is this wraps up and shows the spirit which never acts as the actor. A. past and future. Being the master of the three states. devoid of grief and delusion as if grieved and deluded. A. enjoyment and fruition as having them. &c. [The essence of] tho five organs of sense form this sheath in combination with luddhi.( 44 ) the manifestation of prdna. which is as never evil or A. as existing in the present. or vice versa. enjoyment etc. What It is the third sheath the five (subtile) organs of sense (jndnendriya) and manas. first from birth to birth. By is the manifestation of this sheath (vikdra) the spirit which devoid of doubt appears as doubting.

otherwise.)&quot. t Differentiated matter. attains moksha. How This is is is the spirit different from the five sheaths ? A. daughter. this is my son or sheath. superior [in order correctly understands it everlasting. this is my wife. The Q. or colour . . his self as one with of its being Brahma. [The spirit is] naught of sound. being illustrated by an example &quot. of touch. heresy of individuality&quot. The &quot. having no beginning or of involution] to frdkritift whoever as such attains mulct i (liberation. or attavudaol the Buddhists. What by being dnanda (bliss) ? A. chit and dnanda. cow. APPENDIX. spirit has been called [above] sat. Q. of taste. or the String of exist. the spirit can never be connected with these concepts it is different from : and witness of them For it said in the Upanishat &quot. names of from this Brahma. : This my &quot. non- dual and unconditioned. this is my dnandamai/a all. and is so on* . calf. I.&quot. Sloka 18 each other is .&quot. which its eternal.&quot. Drisya and drik the former is mdyd and the : different latter Brahma celebrated in * all Vedantic works.&quot. or of smell it is end.&quot. Tr. all drisya is described as andtma (not of one possessed of right discrimination is spirit These two Sanscrit words are thus described in the author Brahma ndmdvalimdld &quot. is meant by its being sat (existence) ? Existing unchanged in the three divisions of time and uninfluenced by anything else. In the opening Sloka spirit) and the s called drik. my &quot.( 45 ) Q. What The ne plus ultra of bliss. &quot. Q. of form.&quot. this is &quot. Manifesting itself without depending upon anything else and containing the germ of everything in itself. Whoever knows without doubt and apprehension A. What by being chit (consciousness) ? A.

) plan adopted in the following translation is. and is called because it shrinks with age or when the identity of self with Brahma is realised. so no amount of such Karma or ritualistic obser- yances can dispel that (spiritual) darkness Agnydnam. Of so many ways to Moksham. That relationship which Moksham. ritual. fyc. As fire is the most important of all the materials necessary for cooking.( 46 II. in the culinary process. as dirt cannot wash off dirt. ) S artra (body) is derived from the root s ri. While a small portion of such Karma has got wonderful power. But . so called on account of its being burnt up after death or at all events by Deha the three-fold pain in life ( vide supra ) THE ATMABODHA OF SRIMAT S ANKARACHARYA. Ques: Karma. which are the several means of attaining Moksham.. that the marginal numbers shall denote the respective numbers of the THE slokams in the original. or wisdom. 3. knowledge of (body) is from the root dah. which sinless religious observers. and by is desired by and dispassionate seekers Question : now be written. how is i. e. T... : Ans Since Gnydnam necessary ? Agnydnam and Karma are not other.. i. the latter cannot destroy the former. Narasimmiah. Nirvana and Gnydnam itself. e. The work called ATMABODHA. why should knowledge. or Ansiver : Gnydnam alone be the chief? exists between the fuel ? and the fire itself. to burn. and that the rendering shall be as literal and verbatim as possible. e. so Gnyanam is the most important of all the means for attaining &c. exists also between Tapas. g. 1.S. (Translated from the Sanskrit byB. P. will 2. after Moksham.. can wash off all Agnydhostile to each nam or darkness. F. to shrink.

or Light (spiritual) alone. and dies away with that fetter-like ignorance. : The sun far away from the clouds. e inasmuch as he has the knowledge of actions. How is it possible to attribute Kevalatvam. Ques : How it this worldly life. to Atmd which is appears in different. this samsdram. renders it pure. liberating Jiva from the fetters of ignorance. which off his is self-shining. can remove Agnydnam as the Sun drives Ques : opponent Darkness. as different et Oneness. 6. screening the sun from us. so the world of Ans. Ans: The knowledge just as the particles of the water-purifying seed sink down with the sediment which they separate from the impure water in the process of purifying the same. and is larger than the largest of them all. And no sooner the clouds vanish than the orb of light is seen to be one and the same. can one consistently deny the reality of this material existence. individuals ? Am aspect. or spiritual darkness Atmd peeping out When the cloud-like disappears. Ahankdra-prapancham which is samsdram. which knowledge establishes Dvaitam or duality ? Ques : of things in their true light (Vastuiatwa-gnydnam). but no longer so after the acquisition of true knowledge or Gnydnam. i. while ? we are enjoying Just as a dream. Bot to the sun who is all-shining and has a uniform existence. to one who pride is blinded by love and hatred. Agnydnam 5. or enamoured of it .( 47 ) Gny&nam 4. which seems to us to be a reality while we are dreaming. that one Atmd shines everywhere. non-duality. is not so after waking. but to the nature of such clouds. Still each patch of a cloud. appears to be all real or sub stantial so long as that one is involved in it. i. This analogy holds good in the case of through so many loop-holes of bodies. gives him a distorted and a special This distortion and difference in appearance is due. . How can Atmd have the quality of oneness.

are assigned through the Upddhis some caste. and burst in an ocean. of bitterness. which is the creature of Agami Air. is that which Sthula S ariram : is made up of five- five grand elements of Earth. sub-divisional parts of each of the five grand elements.. and pro- fessionless. only or causes or under the colour of Sthula Sukshma. As the its to the water itself. Sukshma. Sanchita Prdrabdha ment of pleasure Kirmi and which is the seat of the enjoy and pain. Water. becoming comming led with the universal Aka sa. seems Akas as divided. and. or finite spaces. to Atmd . and disappear in Upddane esvare or Material. who is Sachchiddnanda and who is casteless. Earth. So long as the All-supporting is Adcayam is non-dual Brahma reality not recognized. from gold in their quality similarly the creatures of diverse forms. yet they differ . soils. from contact with differnt yellowness. resulting arc attributed so.. Karma S ariras. the real silver in As the water bubbles rise. Panch ikaranam means the mixing together of the five-fold. nameless. suchwhen vessels are destroyed.cause-like Parametwara or God. under the other senses. the all-pervad cloaks of St/Ma. all Kdrana S ariras. Atmd. The Method of PanMkarnam. 9. name. . Param- Although the ornaments are of different shapes. Sachchiddnanda-svarupa 10. qualities which is naturally white and sweet. 8. &c. so long this world discovers belived in as a as mistakeably as one who the brightness of a pearl-shell. are not different from the Creator the though do not all-pervading. &c. The Ruler of mind and ing Paramdtma. with the destruction of such cloaks. omnipresent.( 48 ) 7. exist. Water. and profession. or Infinite Space. foldly sub-divided and Aka sa or Ether. exist. This divided appearance ceases This is like the bits of the of different vessels. 11. so the worlds appear. Fire. and 12. viz. joy and sorrow.

The process of such mixture five : Of the grand elements. and divide the other part into four subdivisional parts and the blending together of each of these . keep one part separate. you must mix each of these sub-divisional parts with into four and sub-divide the second part Without mixing these four sub- one sub-divisional part. two parts keep . For instance. parts again.. divide the Earth element into aloof one part. four sub-divisional parts successively with one sub-divisional part at a time of every other grand element is what forms Panchkaranam. of every (Here earth element is excluded). divide each into two parts. at a time. Atma. c. resulting from the & said process of mixture : TABLE OF PANCHIKARANAM.. other grand element The following table of Panchikaranam is intended to illus trate in detail the names of Manas. divisional parts with the first part of the earth element already set apart... .

(a). (d). do. + do. of Akasam and a part of Fire together produced (c). (c). + do.-The sense of Hearing. is as follows : grand element than the union of one of the four sub-divisional parts (a). do. first The unsubdivided vayuvdu. . Ak&$&m==Samandvayuvu. The first and unsubdivided portion of Akasam became AnthdhJcaranam. + do. From of Akasam and one sub-divisional part of Earth or Matter. By a similar process and a part of Water. of the union of a part of Akasam (b). Do. Do. resulting of Akasam and one submingling of fourfold-divisional parts The divisional part at a time of every other Akasam. THE EXEMPLIFICATION OF (a). (c). The sense of Touch. sprang Ahankdram. The sense of Smell. On the similar process as above a part of Vayuvu + a part of Earth= Apanavayuvu. half of Vayuvu became VydnaFlRE.teY=JiwhendriyamThe sense of Taste. A part + + + a part of v?a. Do. On a part of Fire the above process + a part of of Fire Ewth=Ghranendriyam. (b). (d). Do. - (b). THE EXEMPLIFICATION OF VAYUVU. Do. resulted Chittam. Vtyuvu=Twagendriyam.( 50 ) THE EXEMPLIFICATION OF AKASAM. from the com description of the Tatwams. Water zxPr&nav&yuvu. (d). A part of Akasam with a part of Wind or Vayuvu yielded Manas. A part Buddhi. Aks&= Srotrendriyam. Yvv^Ud&navdyuvu.

Buddhi. do. Twagendriyam (The sense of and Panindriyam (The sense Group of Vayuvu of Handling. Do. Again on the same process a part of Earth or Matter + a part of Wa. or or Skin). III. do. Form or Shape. do. + -h do. + Fire=sRupa. Vyanavayuvu. V^yuvu Panindriyam. a part of Water + a part of Earth = Gandha. The sense of Sight. of Panchikaranam (Panchikaranakadambam) : Anthahkaranam. Sam^navdyuvu. Touch. Sound. The sense of Hands. or Feet) these five form the Group of or Tejahkadabmani.( 51 ) The unsubdivided half of Fire became Cliakshurendriyam. and Padendriyain (The sense of Feet. (a). (c). Chakshuren driyam (The sense of Sight. (d). The sense of Speech. The (&). Vayuvu = Sparsa. Do. THE EXEMPLIFICATION OF EARTH OR MATTER. + + do. (b). Akasa Vagtndriyam. Do. Sparsa (Touch). The unsubdivided half of Water became Rasa. sense of Excretory Organs. Taste. + do. or Akasakadambam. Do. Do. (d). or Eyes). The (c). The unsubdivided half of Earth element became Oopasten ^ driyam. Fire Padendriyam. sense of Feet. and Yage ndriyam (The sense of Speech. or Hands) these five form the Vdyukdambam. or Ear). or Mouth) these five form the Group of Akasam II.ter=sPdyvindriyam. Srotendriyam (The sense of Hearing. The sense of Generating pr Generative Organs. Rupa (Shape or Form). THE EXEMPLIFICATION OF WATER. (a). Udanavayuvu. Manas. Sabda (Sound). Akasa=$a&cZa. Do. On the same process Smell. . The group I. Touch.

and Generative Organs). is born of smell or Sukshma elements . Hearing or Ear. eternal Sthula and or the prop and support of the other two The indescribable. Chittam. Annamaya.. Ghranendriyam (The sense of Smelling. and Samana) hesitating Manas. As you separate rice from husk and dust. Sukshma. Apana. which 14. Excretory Organs. Taste or Tongue. Love Decripitude. or Tongue). and Death. or Generative Organs) these form the Group of Earth or Matter or Prithvikadambam. five composed of Kosams. ourselves that that the means of Upddhi which causes But we ought to assure Upadhi is quite different from the three and thaj. is pure. Sight or Eyes. Gandha (Smell). : Sukshmasariram is . unconnected with. and Anandamaya) along witji Hunger. . Vyana Udana. and is the chief internal seat of the enjoyment of pleasure and pain. and Payvindriyam (The sense these five form the Group Ahankaram.. viz. Feet. Maya Avidya is the Sthula and Sulcshma dehams. that which is Nose and speech or Mouth. and know him to be separate from this body 16. is not to be found in Atma. of Sravana. of Excretion. the Sukshma. covered with divers-coloured clothes. or Excretory Organs) of Water or Jalakadambam. In brief. Thirst. Apanavayuvu. Sorrow.( 52 ) IV. by means Manana and Nidhidhyasana. and Smell or 13. frdnannayctt Manomaya. so the pure Atma. Rasa (Taste). 15. Jwa itself Sariras Sthula. is Ifdranadeham viz. Vignyanamaya. any of those outer sheaths. still As a crystal.. yam (The five sense of Generating. you should ascertain what is Atma. Hands. Sukshmasariram is the one internal seat of and pain experiencing that pleasure undivided into five parts. composed of five vayus (Prana. and Oopastendri- V. and the senses (Touch or Skin. or The Nose). and Karana is made knqwn by Ahamsabdam. Jiwhendriyatn (The sense of Taste. determining Buddhi. . is still untouched by. Pranavayuvu. though enveloped lay five Kosams. and different from. so. dehams.

Moharn. &c. senses. is A is reflected At ma. 20. move. . alone. Atma typify As so light characterises the sun. who shapeless and is pure mind 18. qualities and actions. and absent in Sushupti (Sleeping state). Atma. &c. so Atma. Manas. Atma is also devoid of Raga (Love). i. Ichchha (Desire) Sukha (Happiness). As tjie Moon. in obedience to his order. coolness and heat fire. covered with the objects of senses. shapelessly existing everywhere. with the determin Jiva. &c. But the Mumukshm or the Aspirants of moksliam (or Nirvana) must understand Him otherwise as unconnected with the action of any such senses. 22.. Sachchidatma. and seen by. which qualities are he issues of Buddhi. with these senses. (Indriyamshayamulu) seems to move. as the motion of water. the is not stained with Love. As we attribute blueness. Buddhi. Ananda. kasam. screened by the passing clouds. The attributes of agent and subject are as falsely attributed te Atma. and DuJikha (Misery). to t}ie moon herself. Nitya and Nirmcdatwa 24. &c.. Atma. Senses. seems to 19. must be known as the sovereign who dis interestedly supervises every deed and action of the Vazirs. in the absence of Buddhi. and who is an unconcerned witness of the actions of Anthdhkaranam which is made up of Manas.( 53 ) 17. This is the outcome of the jgnorant mind. So also only in the pure transparent substances. 21. Sath. Then of it is doubted what the characteristic feature or is. is reflected in. Swarwpa water. which everywhere. Chitta and Ahankara. wherein the moon is reflected. and without having any experience of the teaching of Srutis. 23. to the sky. so we ignorantly attribute body. the reflection of ing quality of Buddhi. to that Sachchidananda A tin a. e. &a. pretends to recognize things.. who is separate from Sarira. and act. and Buddhi. for they are present in Jagrat (Wakeful state) and Swapna (dreaming state) alone. Chith.

At ma has no Vikdram and Buddhi has no Gnyanam at any time. as the light enlightens the globes. Chittam. Why will not A tma be recognized by Buddhi. all miseries. itself known. and shows them out. themselves in return cannot enlighten or show out that light so Atma enlightens and enlivens the Manas. 27. When it is by Ahankaram. But the clear knowledge of the dis the source of all tinctions in the and all births two cases is the end of and re-births. becoming one with Anthahkaranam. This is how of redness Mumukshus ought 26. Ahankaram. Buddhi. if know Himself. For. and the fear of several births and re-births.. it is re no Gnydnantaram apart from A tma. &c. be in return enlight .. so to A tma. how does tma. tma is knowable by the help of M^h&vakyams. as one light does not require the help to make 29. plied that there is still is though not comprehensible cognization by Gnydnantamm. qualities. becoming one with . to understand Atma. Chittam. Now.. c. mistaking itself for manas. &c. and the senses. but these latter qualities of doing and seeing do not really exist in him. and burning so At ma (to all appearances)... fire. needs not other Gnyanam Then. 28. be known by Buddhi. of another said that A tma. imposing upon Himself other experience pleasure and pain ? fear is the necessary consequence of so the mistaking of . i. all fears. light who is but Gny&nam. Vedas. As ties the iron-ball. &c. and Manas. so A . without Himself. seems falsely to think that He Himself is the doer and the seer. regards possesses the quali the doer and observer. A As the mistaking a rope for in darkness for serpent A tma Jiva is pleasure and pain.. itself as Still Jlva.. while these globes. ened and enlivened by them.( 54 ) 25. which are so close to Him ? The fact is that. &c. what ? As the decisive word of a A tma cannot are the means of knowing Him lapidary distinguishes a precious stone from a worthless one. but cannot.

the distinction of Sushupti. because he has no senses. has not those six changes of Asti. (having no Manas). i.. Vardhatc. Jayate. e. am Nityah. desireless. and Sushupti or sleeping state). [What a Chela experiences by the help of a Guru. have no (naving no senses). who is above all Avidya.. actionless (having no distinction in all three Conditions of J&grat or wakeful state. 3135. Suhhma and Karana . I (Atma) (having no Buddhi) am Nirgunah. hunger and thirst. Love (Raga). age.. &c. so long is he sunk in that fear but no sooner does the distinction between . you should know once for all that all the bodies are creatures of Avidyd and are subject to decay and death. Hatred (J)wes7ia). Swtipna or dreaming state.. am Nishlcnyah.] It should be known that different A tmsl is because He characterised by &quot. both inclusive) Sravanamdhi which teaches us by Veddrtham (the meaning of Vedas) to see that which is on the other side of our physical sight. i.. than does the dread of the serpent vanish from one s mind. i. BO. Pannamatc. i. am Nirvikalpah. largeness and smallness of seas exists only in the presence of shores and disappears in their (shores) absence.] The author says. e. Therefore. is following five both inclusive. . So long as one fancies a serpent in a rope. from SthMa. tfanram*. sorrow and love arid that your Self is that Brahma. e. Apakshhjate and Vinasyate and that. . and is not affected by old &c. e. rope and serpent creep in. the author explains in the following three Slokams. 33...I&quot. and lies only in disquisition and not in the real import of the eternal Cf. he has therefore no sensations as well. everlast ing. &c. e. [Having explained (in Slokams 1530.( 55 ) which tell us that all the difference Jivdtma and Sarvagny&tma bliss of Paramdtmd between Kinchidgny&twa is chimerical. explained Slokams. i. That because Atma has no Manas (has no Pr^nam is pure. as Srutis tell us). Gunams or attributes . He has no Sorrow (Duhkha). Mananvidhi is now in the ^ 31.

a m pure and filling everything. 37. the creation of Avidya) am Nirmalah i.gt. am bound by any ties of affection. . . Hatred. itself. of this Atm a ?) &quot. eternal and un divided bliss.. as th e best medicine cures Or what is said above. am Nirvikarah. have no Ragadirupa Malinyam or the dirt of Love. non-duality..powers of A and Viskhepa. That by th/&amp. . Atma. in the aforesaid ways. c. freedom. and things.( 56 ) (having no connection with anything). oneness. and. origin. of varanam Brahma. fulfilled time.) 1 (To practise this Yoga Sitting in. i. am Nityamuldah. i. being desireless. i. The constant one-self beconiing practice of thinking. possessing pure Antahkaranam or internal sense (in A tma. and that which is endless and in &quot. i. destroys the . curbing passions. &quot. like (What is the Swarupam .I destructible in all the three periods of 36. A tma who other words mind).&quot. both of Mciyic a disease. I. it is said that one. am sinless and omni present (having no Lingadeham filled with Shodasakala or 16 kolas}. purity. How is it correct to assert the oneness of A tma while this perceptible world exists in Jdgradvakstal&quot.. meditate upon the identification of one-self with that A tma who is one and Anantam.. In response to the question. &c. is explained by Nidhidhyd- sana. e. viz. grandest desire of the MoksJiik form can be Srttvaria and Manana. am motionless. being full am that very Brahma who is the embodiment of 35. an endless entity pervading the inside and am always impartial and not of the whole universe outside Akasam. e. immersing this perceptible universe in must always meditate upon one s identification with tliat is like clear sky or A kasa.. 34. has no distinction of place. . formless (having no relationship). e. : . time. which naturally suggests 38. e. the eternal entity. e. . certain necessary methods and conditions will be explained. one should fixing Buddhi upon nothing else than Atma. . separate and (having no Antahkaranam. a solitary place. ..

the d ifferences of Triputibhavams cannot creep in and that Atma is Chit. &c. when -dawn brilliantly. the sun so. will assume that form which fills all space and possesses Sat. the Avidyaic belief that himself is body. [While is how it consistent Atma is always glowing in the form of Gnyanam. Himself. As. Antdhkaranam.] ing upon 41. Atma Again. by incessant meditation in Dhyanam or Gnyanam 42. [Now it will be told how to reject this world as the to ascertain that one-self is creation of Avidya and how Atma. and Anandam in brief. will. senses.] One. will vanish . which like fire. it may be asked.. burn to ashes the whole world of Agnyanam. expels the previous darkness. Gnyanam is created.How can the oneness of be asserted while the existence of is Triputi quite ?&quot. since Atma is the embodiment of Ananda. Gnyanam dispels Agnyanam or Atma shines like a glorious light.( 57 ) 39. it is said that. and one will see in one-self that undivided and indivisible Atma. class. Here it is Jiva and Atma is stated that. &quot. and Ekatwam or Kevalarupi. Atma 40. [From the 37th Niyamam was According to the above process. but only by the help of This seeming Gnyanam. rejecting everything that pertains only to shape. 40th Slokams (both inclusive) Manana Now the obvious result of meditat explained.. as the child of Avidya. as the identity and unification of known. removed by the following h illustrative explanation. shines most after mental darkness. palpable In reply. to say that He cannot be approached inconsistency during the period of Agnyanam. that pure Atma will be told. Chit.] . self-refulgent and self-shining. &c. will become . . that has the knowledge of the real nature of things. after a time ? is. the sun-like 43.




Just as the wearer of a neck-lace
tangible real thing


unconscious of

it it







away from

engaged upon something


than the neck-lace, and to him

practically not existing only when his mind is bear upon it so also the wiping-off of Avidya or
it is

brought to






enables one to

know Atma.



Atma, while


of Jiva and right to assert the identity natural for Jiva to have a separate existence



of delusion, which creates a thief out of the trunk a tree in the dead of the attributes night, leads us also to fancy

The same

or essence of Jiva in the

the true nature of Jiva


Omnipresent Brahma. But, when known, the essence of Jiva ceases to

be seen in Brahma.


the sun-rise helps a man, groping his

darkness, and ignorant of sides and directions ; Jiva resulting from the practical knowledge of the identity of and Brahma, roots out all the fanciful distinctions of I

way in utter Gnyanam,




Atma-knowing Yogi, with

sees the whole world as existing

Gnyanic eye, in himself and as his sole




[How can you


that this world, which



visible as

an independent


nothing different from

Atma ? The

as follovv s


This whole world


Atma and nothing

but Atma.



are no vessels, &c., which are not

made up

of matter, so there is

nothing wich
that possesses


not Atma.

or one Consequently, the Gnydnee,


sees or regards the whole world as his



The shirking off of the pre-existing three Upadhis, viz., Sthula, Sukshma, and Karana, and three attributes or Gunams is said viz., S^val -M$iasa, and Tamasa, by an Atma-Gnyani, is in this condition, with to }>Jw*$^Jcfi^ Such Gnyanee as ^

fty v|p J







the concomittants of Sat, Chit and Ananda, assumes the form
of Brahma, as an insect Bhramara.


assumes the form of a


Having tided over the great ocean of desire by the help of a ship and killed giants Love, Hatred, Gnyanam, the Yogee is seen possessing the means of Sama, Lama
Uparati, Titiksha, &c.. and fixing his Chittam on Atma. 50. The characteristic of a Jivanmukta is as follows


a Jivanmukta, having renounced all ex ternal pleasures as transient, and overwhelmed with the happi ness of knowing and seeing and becoming

The Yogee, who

(rather attaining)

Atmaswarupa, always shines most brilliantly by borrowed light as the light in a vessel or a globe.

and un-

[What kind



must a Jivanmukta lead



effects are all


Though he is a mere spectator in StMla, Sukshma, and Karana Dehams or bodies, the Atmagnyani or Jivanmukta must regard himself to be, like Akasa, intact with the
attributes of Sthulatwa, Stilcshmatuu, &c. ; though he knows he must be as an ignorant person and he must not everything,

have a liking

for the

enjoyment of the undesired-for pleasures
his efforts.

when such happen without

He must

pass over


pleasures as smoothly and as unconcernedly as wind. 52. [Where is Videha Kaivalyam when



and Karana Dehams

or bodies are all destroyed

As water mixes with

water, air with





Siikshma ann Karana Sariras, are destroyed, the Gnydnee becomes most inseparably and indivisibly one with the all-pervading form of Brahma.

after the three kinds of outer cloaks, viz., Sthula,





That something, than possessing which there is nothing more advantageous to be possessed, whose happiness or bliss is higher than the highest kind of happiness or bliss, and further than which nothing is to be known, is tcufca ee4rded as Brahma.




That something, after seeing which there is nothing more more to be seen after becoming which there is nothing in other words, there is no more rebirth and to become, or, is no more to be known after knowing which as oneself there


that something



That something, which fills everything brimful and which is of the form of Sath, crosswise, above and below which is indivisible or has no second to Chith, and Ananda is which is endless which is always present and which
; ;





one and one alone


that something



aa viewed by the Upanishads as everlasting, and as the unity the very form of perfect and undivided bliss, are regarded while non-Brahmic Dehas, Indriyas, or senses, &c.,




as false

and powerless





said that Brahma, Vishnu, &c., possess perfect [It is to obtain Then, why do not those, that perform sacrifices become Brah the Lokams or regions of Brahma, Yishnu, &c.,


himself ?]

bliss of Brahma, Vishnu, &c., replied that the whole of the perfect bliss of Atma. a unit in the great




smallBrahma, Vishnu, &c. possess a proportionately very small beings. amount of bliss, and are proportionately very

loves the non[While it is palpable that every body assert that Atma alone Atmic Deha, Indriyas, &c., how can you is the object of our love ?]




in milk,

deed or action, pervades everything, and every when we love anything or any work, we

not the thing or work, but the underlying





[Here below

it is







pervading everything and everywhere.]


neither thin nor

thick, neither short nor long,

neither lives

nor dies, possesses neither form, attribute, caste,

nor name,




and any time and acquires that all-occuping. 67.. does not care for any side. with its inherent brilliancy. being purified of all kinds of filth which is Samara. that believes in the fact that body. or. any place. Jiva. all The the source of 66. and From gnyana. in brief. pervading the whole it . alone can see the Omnipresent Sath-Chith one. that Omnipresent or Brahma visible alike to Agnyanic eye as well as to Guyana ChaJcshus ?] An Atmagnyani . and [Why is not Agnyana Chakshus 64. killing eternally happy and eternally . ball. the real wisdom. shines with 62. as shines like the burnt aforesaid. cannot see the Omnipresent Atma . &amp. &c. gold. cold. 63. &c. Sath-Chith-Ananda no other than Brahma. the off all the Agnyanic darkness and rising in the permeating.lt. are themselves Atma. and what cannot be enlightened by sun. Driving Hrudakasa. Brahma Himself. Ananda Atma while as a blind 65. is Brahma. Brahma . but... like the Gnyanic Sun (Bodha Bhanu) shines and enlightens the whole world. Like water distinct the existence of the world. it is is that Individual. in the mirage.( 61 ) 60. moon. moon. is a myth. Like a red-hot iron Atma. acquires omnipresence omnipresent and eternity. is is world yet there something nothing which distinct is and different from the not Brahma. true knowledge. &c. that is seen and heard. 61. and what lightens all these shining objects.. man cannot eye the brilliant sun.c. What gives light to sun. enlightens enlightened by anything else. Manana. He. by the gnyanam acquired by means of Sravana. luminous Swdmtmatirtha self-explaining (?) water he becomes and eternal. . or Taiicaconcluded that everything. as different from Brahma. world both inside and outside. without beiag its own light. &c. who has given up all kinds of observances. the all supporting Atma. stars.




To the

B. A.F.T. S,


The marginal numbers
in the original.



Translation refer

ta t&e

The following table illustrates the process 12. ture of the elements forming Panchikaranam.

of the


the letter


represents the undivided half of the

Earth Element.




A kasa or Ether
represents the fourth part of the remain ing half of the Earth Element.




A kasa
Mnemonic Table
of Panchikaranam








A tma




7th principle in man. (Vide on Atma, Manas, and Buddhi). 21,



the internal sense or sense of senses.


meanings of Karanam, vide Amaranighantu, 3rd Canto, 211 sloka.] The colloquial meaning of love, favour, &c., is vaguely and loosely applied to it; for true love or favour springs

from the heart of hearts or internal heart and
Manas, Buddhi

not superficial.

and Chittam.


Though apparently these

are one and the same, yet they are different from one another in their respective qualities. Manas is what is generally

Mind but in reality is it only the doubting mind while Buddhi is the determining Mind and Chittam is the unsteady and fickle mind. While Manas doubts and suspects everything, Chittam dwells only for a moment on an object and then passes on to another, and so on, but settles nowhere permanently, as Buddhi listless birds fly from branch to branch and fly again.

plays the part of a judge. It settles the issues of doubting Manas. This is the result of deliberation.

(Yide Gurubalaprabodhika, 1st Canto, Verse Garvobhimanohankaro, &c. Here Ahankdra is said to be that which causes the feeling of the superiority of self.) It is



the sense or love of personality. Mr. Sinnett, in Esoteric that the student must bear in mind Buddhism, (p. 83) says

that personality is the synonym for limitation." This sentence perhaps, in other words, means the limiting or confining

everything to one s self or person, and finding nothing beyond to be attributed to, and thus narrowing the sphere of true and comprehension. This love of superiority of apprehension one s person is the source of much evil as we all know.

Samdna Vdyuvu Its seat is in the navel or thereabout. It digests food and distributes the digested portion to all parts of the system, and causes the being to live healthily.

Vydna Vdyuvu


Its seat


in every

part of the body.


to create perspiration, horripilation, &c.




Uddna Vdyuvu
It gives the


Its seat is in the

neck or near the throat.

power of


It brings

up the sound.
Its function is to

Pr6.ua Vdyuvu
cause respiration.

Its seat

in the chest.

Its seat Apdna Vdyuvu Gude panah. Amaranighantu,


in the excretory organs.








expels matter and urine from the body.

For a more detailed explanation of this difficult subject of Panchikaranam, readers who understand Telugu are requested


M. R. Ry.

Telugu Sithdrdmdnjaneyam annotated by Palaparthi Nagesvara Sasthrulu. Part II, verses


41-42, pp. 86-90.

Ahamsabdam in this verse means the sound of I, i. e., the remembrance of personality or self-love. Jiva is full of
this quality

from which


is free.



or the five coverings or coats are



That physical body of flesh and blood which born of food and semen, grows by food, and is bulky and

composed of limbs.




made up

of five


Vdgindriyam, Pdnindrii/am, Padendriyam, P&yvindriyam and

Oopastendriyam) and five Pranams (Prdna, Apdna,, Vydna, Udina and Sdmana). Vide (the last and 2nd columns, from above, in the Table of Pdnchzkaranam given in the Translation
of the 12th Slokam.)

Is made up of manas Manomayakosam (doubting mind), Chittam (unsteady mind), and five Gnyanendriyams Tliwak, Chakshus, Srotra, Jihva, and Aghrdna Skin, Eyes, Ears, Tongue and Nose, respectively, for the explanation of which

terms read the 3rd column from above in the table of Panchi karanam in the 12th Slokam, horizontally.)
Is composed of Buddhi Vignydnamayakosam (determining mind and Sabda (Sound), Sparsa (Touch), Rupa (Form), Rasa (Taste), and Oandha (Smell.)

12th refer Read 19. Blind Desire and to acquire that resolute belief in the identification of oneself with Brahma. and to find out the real meaning of the Vedas and then to begin to actively meditate upon such real meaning. = To ripen. the purity Kinchidgrtyatwa : Sarvagnyatwa 31. Asti^To be dhate = To grow. to column from above horizontally and it.-Hearing or listening to the meaning of Vedds. Knowing a little or something. Nididhy&sana give . or Satchiddnanda Chith ^20. Parinamatc. (Vide 1st the table of PanctiiJcaranam.) Blissful. Sat: that undestroyed in wakeful hours. Perfect Bliss. Gnyanam : knowledge. Vardhate. tfravana . Var Parinamate die. : concile the : This meditation is used to enable one to the unnatural qualities. Thinking over such meanings and trying to re seeming inconsistencies. Knowing much or everything. and or exist. Jdyate=To be born. : Asti. Nirmalatva and serenity of form and body. and their functions which are the chief cause of the origin of this world. scient. and sleep. is 23. Omni and perfectly Sat. Nirmalatva. (GriyMd or omniscience adj (Delight or Bliss. viz. Apakslihjate. Vanity. &c.. 18. Revenge. A tma:Sat f : (Satya = true. Jdyate. : Nitya that which is existing always. 29. A nanda : eternal bliss. dream. Slokam. Hatred. or divine Chita. Which Chit : Nitya.) the Appendix on senses Indriyavishayamula:--The objects of Indriytims .( 65 ) itself which is com posed of eternal love and delight. VinasyatizsTo . A tma who omniscient) is eternal) + + A nanda Eternal. Vinasyati. lip Lust. Apakshiyate = To decay. 16. Miserliness. A nanda.

Hindoo boys have very often tried this experiment and succeeded. operation. It sits to look steadily into the face of the insect whenever the latter the bee stings it.) 41. Then the bee begins its . a green caterpillar with some tender leaves in the box and in Sanskrit as to every school . and work are more to be cared one s spiritual is is and on whose adopting depends the right course and on whose success in that line development. close the box. the spiritual or Gnydnam ledge. Avarandsctkti is that power which causes one to forget t that knowledge of oneself though one is seeing one s own self and.. Agnyanam 48. g. absorbing the difference between oneself and another. . : Satwagunams : : Spiritually best qualities. originates that difference again Vikshep&salifi of difference in : e. e. Dhy&nam is no other process than active contemplation or meditation of Theosophists. Antahkaranam is that internal sense whose purity. Tkriputi is the Sanskrit word for Gnyatru (the knower or one that knows). Guyana (knowing) and Gneya (that which is known. The fact of an insect assuming the form of a fly is 49. divine know which the result of the work of Antahkaranam working in right direction. Is that power which causes the knowledge i. The Make a paper box or a tube put a bee and process is simple. in wakeful 40. Worldly worst qualities. This punitory discipline moves a little. Jivantnukta Literally means one who has given up Jiva or life but really one who is in this world though not of it. and dreaming hours.( 66 ) 86. sleep. . firmness for. Rdjasagnnams Materially or worldly good qualities. the knowledge. known known BhramarakUanyayam. is the antithesis of the aforesaid Gnyanam. T&masagunam* : . This law is boy in India and abroad. Jag rat and Swapndvosthaa.

(4) Titikshd is being unaffected by heat and cold. Referring the reader to the article on the Qualifications for Chelaslnp in the September 1884 Theosophist in the opening page. till by the end of nearly a fortnight the insect gradually assumes through this dreadful active meditation and devotion the very form of the This bee with wings and flies off as a bee when the is both practically arid scientifically true. Dama. for a better explanation of these terms.( 67 ) continued for a week or so. creates such terror and fright in the insect that it entirely forgets everything. (1) S ama is controlling or overcoming the internal sense or passion. .. 52. This Jivanmuk-- ta gives no room for Ay ami and Sanchit karmams. This is the true meaning of Sannyasam or asceti cism. is enjoying the tranquillity of mind after the satisfactory explanations of the doubtful aud in finding tricate points or Mahdvakyams inculcated by the Guru (6) Samddhdna - . S ama. This explains also the tion of law of Affinity or Molecular attraction or Integra homogeneous particles and the molecular repulsion or disintegration of heterogeneous ones. Uparati gradually giving up the observance of all rituals and ceremonies as the acquisition of divine knowledge (2) is Dama (3) is increases. lid is opened. I shall here add my own explanation of the same with the view of assisting those readers that cannot convenient ly see the article referred to. (5) S radhdhd is loving the Guru. Videhakaivalyam: a man is called a Jiivanmukta. the Ruler of the universe. joy and sorrow. but the form of its terrible master bee nay . its self-existence. the Vedas and Sdstras. whose sole profession is the acquisition of Qnydnam. curbing the external senses or passion. 49. rather tranquilising one s own mind after finding one s Gruru s teachings corroborated by the explanations given in Sdstras. &c. for he .

give it a body. which . The S astras personify the same. Vishnu. is e. ing principle. must taste their Thus he called Prdrabdha which exhausts in its enjoyment. i. This is what is fruits whether sweet or sour. in store for his enjoyment but he is still subject to consequen He tial results of his past actions or actions of his past life. the sun rises in the sky.. suffers fully in his Sthula S arira which dies the moment the Prarabdha karma is exhausted. so compared to the sun. is As ka&a or sky of Hridaya or heart.tvagvna. the A This a figurative word. the Jivqnmulda. Brahma. and attains the Kawalyam or Moksham from which he never returns and therfore has no more rebirth. and which therefore is called Videhakaivalyani or literally body-less- nirvana. Here Brahma is the creat Siva. rises in the Hridaya to the sky. 57. Hriddkasa. and say that it 66. or heart which again is compared Gny&nam. is the embodiment pf Sa. He dies now once for all.( 68 ) neither is doing nor does any action whose consequence will be . &c.

such as blue. yellow. implied is this those are objects of perception (^J). many forms . No. entirely Anta^karna is the path pf communion former existing with. however.lt. remains all the same and uniformly one. which in the series can never be the object of any ultimate perception. 11. long. IV. etc. perceiving various forms. 268. body.II SHRI-VAKYASUDHA TRANSLATED WITH NOTES BY MANILAL N. F. belonging to. large. . ever unaffected small. and the eye is the subject of all our objective perception the eye. short. which possess the property : of * presenting themselves in Compare. 11 x n the object. [The rule of perception. Vol. is cognised by the mind. and dying with disconnected with the the Editor s note Theosophist. p. &amp. S.&quot.* n ^ n The eye. FORM ever present subjective A tman (spirit)..{ between soul . DVIVEDI. T. (the phenomena of) which again are objects of perception to the is . and those are subjects tr ^riftr nr^rrm f rlr *rr^^% ^| ^^rr^rq^ ^^ft in \\ o u * HI n and body.

. which does not shine by its own light. disbelief shame. &c. and is therefore not subject to change for that. belief. by parity of reasoning. never waxes or It shines by its own light and enlightens the whole : without any (exterior) help. which does is not shine independently ol visible matter. Nor is the absurdity that the all A tman tenable.] The keenness. remaining unique and unaffected. The substance implied is this that.\ n wanes.lt. nises the whole tion. as Ahank&ra subject iman enlightens the whole as ^r^T-^SF to . The same may. the skin. Again. slowness. viz. not free . The mind again is an object of perception the A tman cog phenomena of the mind. is (egoism). itself is both the subject and object of perception at therefore shines of perception. be said of the other organs of sense. or blindness of sight imply various forms}. fear. itself intelligence. A transformation. all properties in the eye.. etc. which remains one and unaffected. infimtum. (The A tman cannot be assumed to be the object of any further perception for such a theory would involve us in confusion ad.(Sf?). The (A tman) never appears or disappears. with regard to any the same perception which remain one and unaffected by^ the forms of the objects cognised. desire.( 70 ) or perception (?TS).) The Atman by its own lustre and illumines all other objects n &amp. imagina : doubt. as the ear. (present the eye under many cognised by the mind.

The Linga Deha.)* in : A reflection of the A tman . it is necessary to dispel the ignorance which interferes with the realisation and shining by . etc. ever remains the subject (5&quot.lt. the one implied by c^ in the Sruti fli3*?l% and is one with the implied by rTcT in the same. This It is subjective A tman is thus proved to be Paramatman. being be its own lustre yond change (PTT^NJIT) ( ^re^T3I ). Though in this manner A tman and Paramdtman are one and the same. T& f^rtw: ^TJi*rnft%3 ^ n ^ in ^ . and can never be object of any ultimate perception. which thereupon becomes spiritualized: believes of itself to * The unity A be all spirit. (The doer the subject of all action is Ahankdra and the Antaskarana or Manas is its instrument. n ^ n Buddhi enkindles it (makes the substantially material Buddhi believe itself to be entire This Buddhi is of two sorts Ahankdra and Antasspirit).2F) of all knowledge. karana. Thus Atman. Ahankdra identifies itself with the external physical body also. f q: Compare. &amp.iK^J of their unity. n n t n \9 n t Compare.( 71 ) from change all ( faf^NjIT ) as egoism. t^FT n ^ n Ahankdra with the reflection of tman is as inseparable as that of a heated ball of iron with the fire that heats it.

from the stand-point of dreaming and sushuptia. and through ignorance ^&amp. p.H. three conditions . rise to none. gives * The Vedantic philosophy teaches as much as Occult philosophy that cur Monad. 267. A R Of the reflection of the other two r%t these three..)* quite absent as in sleep.. the triad (spirit soul and the mind) enters into perfect union with the paramtaman the Supreme universal soul&quot. the state produced is sleeplessness which is dependent on Ahankdra (Thus all W when &quot.6 ir .Editor s Note Theosophist.e. with Ahankdra in the waking state. has. is respectively inherent (is from the as those per beginning of Ahankdra) through actions (i. wide awake. 11 j . merges into original ignorance.( 72 ) frfrr s&iftTq. When Ahankdra and when it is or waking. and 5th principles). with the physical external shell. the inherent identification of Ahankdra with . A tmdn is never destroyed whereas destroyed by the exhaustion of is that with wy and by knowledge respectively. viz. n t n The indentification of Ahankdra with the reflection of tman. 6th. waking. state of dreamless sleep of real actual soul-life from the occult stand-point. spirit by its identification becomes as it were lifeless. is the one called dream ) . formed during the waking state). u ^ u 3. IV.gt. the state produced in the astral body (jc^l. terrestrial conception While man is either dreamlessly profoundly asleep or in a trance-state. sleep ig and the physical body (^pfiff). and with the subject of all knowledge A tman. which appeared with induced. Ahankdra is half awake.. No. Vol. during its life on earth as a triad (7th. -. besides the condition of pure intelligence.

it is is the basis of all our ordinary proposed to from Maya or illusion.( 73 ) The Antaskarana. &c. which is made up of Manas and Ahankd/ra. identifying itself with the reflection of in dream. is essentially material in its nature. the impressions (^FWi) necessary the action of such WM as aifect the astral body ( fr$T?&quot. for creates. the waters of the ocean. as also the transformations of death and birth. Maya examine the genesis of this ^Q has two powers.* undergoes Maya and its powers.lt. Vikshepa and Avarana.??T (waves).. all knowledge. the objective realities (our interest in those realities) necessary for the enjoyment of such 3$ as affect the physical form ( ^J3^f ). dreaming and sleeping. This evolution form to that jy * may be described as the attributing name and Brahma which is all existence. . It experi ences the three states of waking. ft Having described how fel^f intercourse. from Brahma. in the waking state. beginning from the felf f to the all-embracing universe. Atman. to Compare. ) and. The astral body (Linga deha). and like the (foam) attributing of name and form as &amp. of which Vikshepa or extension evolves the whole world. 5| T (bubbles).

as it were. as the cause of this world. the witness of also shines as if it ( all the were ^tT. The aTr^T being des troyed by ?ffi ). the distinction enable between Brahma and creation becomes so far clear.. Similarly Erahma appears manipulated into many forms by the power (Avarana) which covers the tion (unreal distinction) between creation and Brahma. able Atman. t is for (by the force of Avarana Sakti) *ffa in our ordinary our ordinary intercourse termed sfte or soul. as fc&amp. to the latter and not to the former. ject also over the external one That which fe^i^U?:.gt.( 74 ) \\\\\\ That is another power of Mdya-Avarana or immersion which. one with the the external &quot. 3 By ^jZW^I the force of the same Avarana. e. throws. the witness of is. and ^J&amp. this illusion melts away. the veil of reality over the unreal internal distinction between the ob and the subject of knowledge. force of that distinc Here also.lt. phenomena and noumena. name and form. as between Brahma and creation. .becomes life i.3$fftr. viz. as it were. us to attribute all change ( fiRHT ). by the destruction of Avarana. which shines by the all reflection of the immov shell.

75 All intercourse implies five attributes and no more exis tence (ScT). Mental concentration . is of two is Nirvikalpaka the former again viddha and Shabdanuvitfdha. and the creation). one (desirous of final absolution) should meditate ou the Satchidanand Brahma.T pervading Brahma.lt. gods. and should ever mental as name and form practise well as physical concentration. animals In the elements. The course of realising Brahma Tatva (Samdd/ii or concentration. last two the unreal Jagat (world \fr\\\ Vdyu. are ever one and uni that which differs simply the form and the name. Chit and is Ananda. form (W). and Prithvi . the Sat. birds. Savikalpaka and of two kinds Drishyanukinds : : . Tcjas.) Neglecting therefore the unreal creation consisting of mere (abstracting all one s interest from the objects of this world). intelligence ( love (311^). ). and name ( STW ). Apas. Akdsa. and men form . The first three of these represent the all: fa&amp. as also in the different degrees of creation.

* . That is Nirvikalpa Samadhi in which. as the witness of the mental world the meditation upon the subjec the passions^ desires. Compare. and Satchiddnanda Brahma in this universe is (described in the S ruties). self-illumined and unique in itself The ^ijf^flfa^eramfais the &quot. unique. nominal * ( ST^Tjfa^ ) concentration. The meditation on the one. which is (described in the Vedas) as self-existent (that) eternal all-intelligence and love.( 76 is ) tive The SW^^Sr^ra^flirrfa Atman. The form. through the ecstacy. from ( of name and separation in any external object of sight. .. arising in the Manas. phenomenal ^ffjf^ ) concentration (like the internal mental one des cribed before). its original substratum. of the pleasure consequent upon the knowledge of one s self the mental (%W) as well as the nominal (K*%) are both over looked and (the mind) stands like the jet of a lamp burning in a place protected from the slightest breeze. as the only reality external. \\v\\\ I am fixing one s mind on Brahma&quot. &c. sat is external.

Prdrabdha or that part of Sanchita. with which compare. and Kriydma- na) is destroyed in the very bud. time to these six kinds of Samadhis. Ahankdra with Atman of the heart . which is being done at present in obedience to Prarabdha. at once split open all doubts vanish in a minute and all Karma (Sanchita. The identification of the phenomenal as well as the noumenai with the one eternal unchangeable Brahma being realis ed. has no stability in as much as its . there it naturally one or other of these Samadhis. Prdrabdha. the knot (of the unreal is identification of . cessation of all thought except the enjoy ment of the one eternal pleasure arising from the experience of the universal Paramdtman (which thus proves to be one with the subjective Atman shown as the subject of internal Nirvi- Every one should devote the whole of his Jcalpa Samddhi).( 77 ) The third (Nirvikalpa Sam&dhi) concentration is like the one described before. The egoism and in the physical body being annihilated being is in this manner. directed. Kriy&mana * This S ruti is taken from the Mandukya Upanishad. H ^ U . wherever the mind of the ascetic loses itself into Universal Atman thoroughly realised. [ Karma does not affect the absolved ascetic. of which this life is an e volute. runs its course and ends with this life or that.

and the third is .$ vsi it lip* .4. future manifestations on the plat-form .*] The unity of Aim an and Parmdtman or Brahma.. (or borne fruit. * Compare. of three kinds the the the one imagined as active in dreams. It is assumed to be Jiva only by imagina but by nature it is (one with) Brahma. Of these three.gt. plus the results of present Karma which are to bear store-house is . their fruit) also has no room through which all its for its operation for the Lingadeha.. has no existence. also u u \ \ u * u also 5T Prfttfi ST %?rftrf ^$ ^ ^ ^r^^: H &amp. it is first only which has any real existence. rffat ft nrer Jiva is sffa : *CRTO: qrwrffa: first is mil that portion of Brahma^ limited (by Avidyd and Ahankdra) the second is the which is reflection of the Atman into the Lingadeha ). 78 ) destroyed by the destruction of Lingadeha and that portion of past Karma. tion. how can it be Brahma itself ? a limited portion With this doubt in view. (If 3ffa is only of Brahma. of our physical frame become possible. Brahma). it is said) : Brahma) is simply imaginary (since it is des the merging of Ahankdra and Avidyd into Brahma tructible by by proper knowledge) and the veal thing is that which is limit limit (in The ed (viz. which has not yet Sanchita.

lt. attri butes the universe and the soul to it (evolves the universe from it. \\\3\\ Jiva and Jagat which exists from time immemorialf has any reality only till the time! of final absolution. that in .) \\\\\\ The reflection of its the fruits of Atman in Buddhi is the Jiva which Karma and this transitory universe . is inculcated such phrases as cTf^rftT (in the Clihandogya Upanishad) and not with the other Jiva* flPTT In Brahma exists Jlf&amp.ya in its two aspects of R^7 and which. covering the unique. It is therefore useful only so far as our ordinary intercourse is concerned (of * The duality Compare. . unchangeble Brahma. is enjoys the thing that is enjoyed by it.It is the unity of this imaginary Jiva with Brahma.

purely 1 two aspects of Vikshepa and Avais the rana. as such. sleep covers the ^rsrfrftqFrsifa and 5^^ and creates the SHTcTHIT^ ones in their place.( 80 ) des (This duality is of two kinds f^FT^?r and 3ft^&amp. in its The their place. quality of reflected A tman.1 ^U and evolves As these (Jiva Jagat) appear real only during the time of their (i.)t creation.lt. as it were. which.lt. potentially in 3GR and. e.) *W&amp. These are called the STlfcffinW : Jiva and Jagat.T. so Maya covers from it the ^r^ff^f 3ff^ and instead. t Compare. The Just as sleep resides in the comparison implied is this faf TORT. as . crftn* .* for the : and form given to the objects of this world is a mental and obstructive to absolution. Compare. existence. the name truction of the latter is necessary for absolution . Maya resides. in dream) they are called STffcW!%^ or imagi nary : kened * they are never felt in any other dream after one is awa from the original dream in which they were experienced. covers the whole of Jiva and Jagat (in sleep) and creates (in dreams) new ones in sleep.

.gt.) who are- Sffa-JTrfi. As sweetness. so is sition TOTH in the ^ST^IT^ Thus the propo enunciated in verse 37 established. but the Both are therefore unreal to the TrnrrfW ^T^.gt. as also at the time of Pralaya. both these disappear. The Pdrdmdrthika Jiva knows itself to be one with Brahma. ^TF^^nT^ 5ftt believe the s^r^fTft^ 3fTtf to b*&amp.( 81 ) (The previous illustration is thus carried to its legitimate and logical result. WHflW^ta ( ^1 ) knows both of them. \w\ So does the real . and sees nothing apart from it except perhaps the unreality of every thing besides it. s^ffl^ knows both of them to be false. (This sm^rfcfi 3T^ exists only so long as ^r^rft^T sffa exists. rrc^5fta&amp. broken by and also as the sgrgrSTfcff is one and unchangeable creation. coolness and other qualities of water.. Brahma alone sustaining . is in the xnftWTftl^ creation. are found in the waves that surge on its bosom. fluidity.) The STrf?Wn%^ ^fa whereas the believes 3ff3 the SJlfrRlffl^r 5fTcT to be real . only till the spell of so also is are Iff^ . In sleep. As the snfflffln%3 ^ffa and 3fT^ are real only till the dream and 3HT(T real is broken. absolved even. so also in those while living. to be false. and also in thJ foam that plays on the surface of waves : k . Mdya.

20.KJJTTO. f^?T.lt. ff&amp.lt.* So..So do the &amp. water. &amp.) in the JKflmrfto m^ the disappearance of foam. On qualities remain there as before. appear in the ^T3f also.T. 3Jfa its consti.T. and. the disappearance of the imaginary the ordinary its source. on the disappearance of merge into its source. the wave . *ftq(rat& . its again merge into its source. on ^ t ti Compare. tuents (**. through Tft^f 3HT^ and. fafi and aTR* all . which are inherent in the the witness of it. its qualities fluidity.lt. (Vide verse No. **&* ) ^^w into flow all these-the residuum on whose disappearance again emanated the into the source whence everything Universal Spirit witness af all. and the latter.fc.

is also an Upanishad. is at present are of reward lity to men attachment future incapable of performing. birth of a son. bj religious austerities. gnana kanda&quot. knowing the contents of the Ve da. and. and anta title of this k the end. the Ve danta-Sdra. absorbed in meditation on Bramha. &c. at of the a. and of the Angas. who was intoxicated with an : own wisdom To point out. and to destroy among to works of merit since. so long as the desire . a Sanyasij composed. that it is the sseuce of the V4dauU philosophy. and children from the crime of adultery . Ve da. instead of the severe mortifications of former yugas. fasts . He relations. the discourse which Krishna held with Arjoona. cherishing Ilia . who per forms the duties of the Shdstra and of his caste. according to the directions .vydsa obtained.OF SADANANDA SWAMI Translated by MB. W. and believes. that the knowledge of the only certain way of obtaining liberation. the author proceeds The meaning of : Vedanta which is. and therefore tke Work imports. Ve da. and that. from this comment. seeing every thing proceeded from Bramha. cows. &c. From Veda. which mankind idea of his : Bramha. remaineth. . men can never be delivered from liabi Shankaracharya wrote a comment on the Vedanta.^ is free from the desire of reward as the fruit of his actions from the guilt of the murder of Bramhans. . . that. who. and a disciple of Adwaita-nanda-parama-hangga. or the &quot. observes bestows alms who continues. birth. who practises the ceremonies which follow the offers the appointed atonements. After this introduction. Sara means essence. Branchen gr member* of th Vada. women. for the following reasons^ from this discourse wrote the vedanta To humble Kdkutst ha^ a king of the race of the sun. the last part of the Veda.

all in things will be absorbed is him again the and that therefore Brarnha All ceremonies are every thing. Devotedness to God to is and promote real happiness. there be some happiness. : jects. the in offering sacrifices. That which able Bramha. sought is the destruction of Bramha the inferior fruit is. 3. and unwavering Veda . this inferior fruit. page 397. the secondary one is sitting under its The chief fruit -of devotion. for a limited The primary a tree. the possession of a pure mind.( 84 ) description. and at other times is not. is changeable and what is unchangeable with the gods and of the happiness enjoyed : . is . the destruction of the universe (as earthen vessels of every when broken. return to the clay from whenca they were formed). present things that when Pythagoras taught. . Those things which perfect the knowledge of Bramha are between what 1. . whatever obstructs the knowledge of Bramha. [the soul]. it is successiv. is heir to Ve da. intended to exalt the character. purgations. The being who is shapes. with the temporary enjoyment of happiness does not desire who has obtained emancipation. is it through their sufficiently purified. is a fixed mind on Bramha. 4. the des :and the : truction of sin. is knowledge and residence with the gods . is Bramha. and in this form there is and assumes various sometimes exists. A worldly pleasure. the chief fruit inferior superior. If in ardent attachment to still. he is the first finite. the everliving. the fruit. arid the of sin. one . in this definition is included all created ob is finite divisible. cause but the world. . The desire of emancipation. which is his work. and always the same. after suffering received among the gods. inanimate. is the unchange none else. object of a person in planting shade. the inferior fruit is a He gods. period. which distinguishes distaste of all 2. and unruffled mind . connected with two kinds of fruit. the everlasting. repenting generosity faith in the the subjugation of the passions unof contempt of the world the absence . . Discriminating wisdom.

being acquired. but practised without being considered as a bar gain. and fixing the mind on that which is thus acquired these three added . arise in the is the desire after gratification should by any means crushed. clear ideas of their meaning. &amp. by a Sanyasi who walks according to the Veda. it was improper to renounce religious ceremonies. for we see. it terminates in real sarrow. that works should be performed to obtain divine wisdom. would lead to emancipation . by inference. On this account. . despise Hearing the doctrines of the Ve da nta philosophy obtaining.* then that by which this desire called Uparati . for the performance of which a person should obtain Those learned before such and such benefits. trated in the following comparison : Two persons being on a d Disgust. Those learned men who declare that permanent happiness is to be in the heavens of who could change able . men who wrote the comments on the Ve danta the time of Shankaracharya. have sought pleasure in God. but . and that power over the mind by which a person is enabled to reject every other study. and the renunciation of the world. . If. acquisitions. and those who desire emancipation. that the happiness which is bestowed in this world as the fruit of labour is inconstant whatever is the fruit of actions. knowledge of the rules to be observed by a student. which.lt. therefore the wise. sages. for as affec tion produces pleasure. is called Shama. but that the desire of reward ought to be forsaken .( 85 ) ^subjection to change. is called by the same name. tion secures uninterrupted happiness. taught. that works were not to be rejected. to a amidst the constant performance of is Shama and Dama. mind. is not permanent. Dama is that by which the organs and faculties are kept in subjection. that in seeking emancipation. have erred. that therefore works. distinguish between substance and shadow.. how ever. divine enjoyed the gods. it. . so separation but devo produces pain . and the undivided desire of were to be attended to which is illus emancipation.

profit Cold and heat. all imparting motion to and that which pervades the universe. that to obtain eman united. when shall I be delivered from this world. . w orks and divine wisdom must be and. procures liberation. in discharging the business of life. That which. The vacuum between the are one. is the or motion. and who. and the other. Formerly was the doctrine of the Vedanta. called Adhikdri. and of the Ve danta. this From hence r it will be manifest. by many proofs. &c. and loss. together with a subdued rnind.( 36 ) jou i-ney. that this is an error that works are wholly excluded. and gives life or motion to all. he is adhikari. and the latter. possesses these qualities. that is. This anxious wish.is he who depends on works. is termed Shraddha. called individuated spirit (jeeva). cipation. pervading cause that of life all is the members of the body. wisdom. This indifference. great suspense. throughout which this idea that the whole meaning of the Vedanta are com prised in this. The next part is inculcated. victory and defeat. and the other his carriage . is Bramha. but Shank&racharya in a comment on the Bhagavat-gita. is called Vishaya. that Bramha and individuated spirit are one. he who depends on. possesses the fruits of the The person who Vedanta . are termed Dwanda. shewn. Therefore. the first is in the greatest perplexity. one of them loses his horse. contemplates th After remaining for some time in fatigue with dissatisfaction. to all Indifference these changes is stiled Titiksha. that which pervades the members of the body.that knowledge alone. happiness and misery. and obtain God? is called Mumukshatwa. is not deceived. honout and dishonour. realizing every thing as Bramha. has. The first. they at length agree to unite what is left to each. Implicit belief in the words of a religious^ guide. is called Samadhi. Here end* the first part of the Vedanta. and in practising the duties of the Veda. . though 1 he ean accomplish his journey on horseback. and thus with ease accomplish their journey. which pervades the whole universe.

shall go the supreme journey. if they jijMietuary with me. the chariot . and the organs. every species created cannot possess life. by Bramhagnana. in .of the charioteer.appearance and thus.of realities. are inani . : &quot. all is. they are both pure life. Wherefore of [spirits] and the distinctions . excellent God.e This all is the meaning of are the whole of the not two . he. diversified. .If women jfcake . tho. the shastras he that he is is called Vishwatma the meaning . he is as respectable as the just man.( 87 ) separate trees In a forest. according to the creator. that which is Governors are living persons the of matter is with . is his work. thus describes the efficacy of the principle of abstraction one whose ways are ever so evil serve me alone. a spark of the divine fire which the soul of the Ibid page 341 Krishna. ia . . is called He is the first cause. Thales admitted the ancient doctrine concerning God. and one this inanimate. That wisdom by which a person realizes that individuated spirit and Bramha are one. principle or soul of the Enfield.&quot. the soul of all creatures. besides whom there is none else. or the knowledge Bramha.drawn from secular concerns all life is Ve da. . able world. Ve danta. is ever-living. the ever-living the spirit. This com . office parison fche is .f This Avidya is necessary to the e &quot.existing only for I. mate matter. of which one. mate the . the tribes of vaiahya shudra. is called Tattwa-gnana. the governor. . Those even who may be of the womb of sin . as the animating world. Therefore. page 143. are all artificial present purposes. or director of all things. according to the Stoics. Is of the same nature they are both pure ether and so Bramha and in . unchangeable. and change .&quot. dividuated spirits are one . and universal space. dead cannot sustain this out life . and through pride [Avidya]. world. or Bramha the world is inani All material bodies. that is. f &quot. this Avidya can never be destroyed but by the kowledge of spirit. &quot. . The mind is of man. moves That through the presence of which bodies and their members are put in motion. Though a man should perform millions of ceremonies. of : life in inanimate things arises from their nearness to spirits because of the presence in this manner. in the Bhagavat-gita.

but the body of any animal or plant. sorrow. and to point out the means of obtaining [re-union to] the everis called liberation. takes some flowers. page 406. blessed Bramha. and to come of . leads him to the knowledge of Bramha. and : : yet he is wholly under the power of error . of the man who under the influence of worldly substance .lt. fears. they may inhabit not only different gration to which human human bodies. who understands the Vedanta.present state only divine knowledge Jiva and Bramha are one is. by endeavouring to excite in his instructions. Sambandha g and teaches. with the necessity wrath. therefore.88 &amp. ) secures emancipation. the everlasting. called Pray oj ana imports. the substance of That : the second part of the Vedanta. the blessed Bramha. sorrow. souls are liable. Worldly attachment is thus illustrated a person observes a string on the ground. &c. . to an initiating priest. . so the is hopes. The third part is called . and requests his The guide. lust. person. into the body as a punishment for its crimes in a former state. g Union. and has obtained the knowledge of spirit. &c. h The Pythagoreans taught. the wise.. is unchangeable and has no equal. envy. The fourth part.&quot. vexed of transmigrations^ with anger. that the soul of man consists of two parts the sensitive. to remain there In the course of the transmi till it is sufficiently purified to return to God. and he attachment. Enjield. are excited by that which has no But is therefore placed among the ignorant. and the the divine soul of the world. This A fruits. produced from the first principles with the elements . desires. pride &c. All nature is subjt to the immutable atd eternal law of necessity. and imagines it to be a snake his fears are excited as much as though it were in reality a snake. a demon sprung from &quot. mind a contempt of the world. present. and sent down rational. that this part of the Vedanta was written to destroy completely that illusion by which this body and this organized world were formed. pride. that the Vedanta contains the knowledge of Bramha and that by the Ve danta the knowledge of Bramh& may be obtained. All things past. worldly intoxication.

[non-entity]. . Irnu knowledge of Brahma is called Adnyana. We cannot call illusion entity. every class and description. unspeakable energy Individuals. which the owl and other creatures labour. therefore wisdom is its possessor are not equivalent not the energy of spirit. nor can it be unreal. wisdom and spirit are the same but illusion forms its energy. by diffusing through them his own happiness. and the clay. who is the cause of all things. it assumes different shapes and in this respect resernBTes the . Ever Great. the incomparable which is without wisdom and without life. trees in a forest.( 89 ) or in the air. for clay (inanimate matter) he the The meaning of the word Bramha is. are Bramha. in all the shastias : . nor can it be called is an effect of this illusion^ an object of sight. for the universe which is soon as a person obtain^ destroy ecT. real. be called is real. so that they can This blindness cannot see nothing after the sun has arisen. Wherefore the ever-blessed/ Bramha he is entity. that was beholden to another. The mass of illusion forms is the inconceivable and the cause of sou Is are life. Molasses deposited in a quantity of rice diffuse their sweetness through the whole so Bramha. is destitute of discriminating This illusion is identified with Satwa. Tama gunas it is r. of God. That the everlasting.ot merely the absence of wisdom but as : . and single things. is called Awasta he is called the Ever-Blessed. illusion does not belong to the wise but it constantly belongs to him. for as is discriminating wisdom. which all God and individuated Property and terms . since . as well as the things If it be not admitted. for to these creatures it and [during the day] constant blindness. trees. illusion non-entity. In the same manner. who. that he is both the potter themselves. whether in the earth. . The whole mass of this illusion is one individuated. . we cannot therefore say whether it iswhich cannot be des entity or non-entity it is something This illusion resembles the tempoiary blindness under cribed. being opposed to tn. . Raja. makes all souls happy hence. owl-like. it will follow. and wisdom.

( 90 ) not the ener y of spirit. and in which the Satwa Guna prevails. rounds a person in a profound sleep. when every that earthly object ideas. . If it be he could for . is proportions diminutiveness of the receptacle. he appoints. existence. of the forms of his works and is known as the cause of all he &quot. call the mass of illusion.or subjection to false excluded from the mind. he assumes accomplisher of all his desires. illusion which becomes that in which refuge. in its is represented by a state of deep sleep. not conscious of anything:&quot. . and. from these quite happy. but that which sur Light is . . excellent because it is the cause of all things. . We who is called. other is world it things which compose the atomic and material universal cause. and creates all things : it is the cause of vacuum and all . therefore called the material cause and the At the dissolution of the universe. The living principle. as the charioteer directs the chariot. hearts of all. Pradonya. knows. of happiness. the all-wise. The of a person a heavy sleep. in the all. all things take refuge in the aggregate of illusion therefore the aggregate of illusion This illusion. present soul departs. directs the This mass of illusion is identified with God.all . and a greater manifestation of the other two but in pervaded by the three Gunas in equal individual bodies. . which equally contains the three Gunas. the disposer and the director of all the Vedas and all . the soul is during profound repose the I have been for when the person awakes he says. there is a depression of the Satwa Guna. the sovereign of the Shastras. since light and spirit are the same but darkness forms its energy not that darkness which arises from the absence of light. . or the ever-blessed Bramha. is called We are not to suppose &quot. material things have had no idea of happiness in sleep. and yet had no ideal intercourse with had he not previously tasted of happiness. is this individuated takes state is called in in all the Shastras Pradanya. on account of the Gunas. individuated state. I was that the person was conscious of personal expressions it appears. This mass of illusion takes refuge in the ever-living.

if this were the case. employed on outward object likewise? The fact is. all material objects being thus buried in illusion. In the time of profound repose. and are buried in illusion Adnyana but the . and a vacuum unconnected with every thing. is the same. knowledge possessed in deep sleep is constant the Vedanta identifies this knowledge with the living spirit. is proved from : is prepared. that in the time of heavy sleep. hence the Vedanta speaks of this energy as the material cause of all It is called profound repose. ia . intellect. of the un . all the pow ers are absorbed in illusion. For as there is a vacuum surrounding every individual tree in a forest. from whence does this knowledge arise which a persor* possesses in a state of profound repose does it not arise from the operations of the understanding ? To this we answer. resembling indivi dual trees and a forest. takes refuge. sleep all things are lost in the state of our ideas in this illusion. crude matter and of all other material things and . In the time of profound sleep. derstanding.( 91 ) asked. having no intercourse with material objects. the operations of the understanding are withheld. the pleasure enjoyed at that time can have no connection with these objects. The illusion in which individual souls take refuge. is things called creation. clear. and that in which the aggregate body of spirit. waking and sleeping hours may be drawing in of the head and feet The absorption of all things in the mass of . the five senses. that is the Great Spirit. and many such vacuums in the forest. that spirit is the fulness of constant joy and knowledge. the Vedanta identifies with the This then ia living spirit. illusion is called the great and the pruluya. that comfort may be enjoyed in sleep. and therefore. the five organs. Therefore this pleasure the care with which the bed. That during the time of profound repose pleasure is enjoyed. why should not the understanding be . or compared to the projection or of the turtle. this illusion is called the co-existent energy of spirit it is the producing cause of consciousness. inasmuch as in deep things. or destruction manifestation or procession of all from this illusion. as salt in water . the five breaths.

a cane. by him self and by energy. be as I . Bramha himself. then spirit as united to illusion is called the material . comes engaged miserable. deceived by a cord when he This covered illusion. and in forming it from his own bowels. an object sight of the . This illusion also forms the energy of spirit and hence. &c. I am subject [to the fruits of actions] this illusion operates in a person subject to these anxieties as it. are feared under the illusive appearance of a serpent. and of deception This illusion possesses the power of concealing a small cloud darkening the : person looking at the sin. primary cause of all things and when illusion is spoken of as chief. as fire to red-hot in this state it is called Eeshwa. &c. the spider is himself the primary and the material cause of his web in presiding over it. Exerting a similar power of illusion. glorious . This spirit. within bounds. I am : does in the case of a person (supposes it to be a snake. when spirit as united to illusion is spoken of as chief. ones. spirit. in a similar manner. when separate from these. am happy. the five primary elements. by covering the boundless and unassociated living Bramha from the sight of the person who desires to know him. there is so. or the and iron . it is called the . take This perfect refuge. The ever-blessed his God is. after having thus assumes an endless variety of deceptive forms. yet no more real than when a cord. I in various worlds by anxieties am sovereign. possessing the energy of spirit. agreeably to all the a perfect spirit in which individual souls. to individual spirit is united to gross matter. cause of all things thus. &c. both the original and the material . to material sprits.( 92 ) which these vacuums are absorbed. and things. it holds forth vacuum. the edge of a river. he is the former. and the aggregate body of souls. as it had though confined understanding. he is the : latter. appears to hide this immense luminary so this illusion. hides the though 1 covered. it is called the excellent Brahma. thus covered with illusion. as spirit. Shastras. similar to real by its power of deception. to the aggregate of spirit.

the inanimate (the universe) is the work of God. that the one God is himself both the primary and the material to exist in a state of equilibrium till. cause of all things. cUy. which united form the seminal body. spirit is . of which illusion is the five primary ele the material cause. the Vedanta maintains. prevails. gross matter must be an that the tama guna which prevails in its material cause. so God could not make the world without matter. we make two causes. and that therefore he must have been indebted to another for his power to ever-blessed make the world. archetypal. Our ideas of the universe divide themselves into two parts.( 93 ) cause of all things he is the potter and the clay. animate and inanimate the animate is the cause of all things. all living : creatures two kinds of exist : the the ever-living united to the heart. the five . If we sup another cause of things besides God. the ever-living In whatever the pure spirit exists. Supposing the three Grunas chief. subtile. for the excellen and faults of effect five must have previously existed so in in the in material cause. . Therefore all creatures possessed of life. life In the bodies of first. that not united to intellect. in consequence of the presence of the deity. when the Tama guua . pose If it be objected. is united to the power of deception in this sion. that as the potter cannot work without . and illu fire . in the second. on account of the absence is inanimate matter. We conjecture then from cies appearances. from spirit arises vacuum from vacuum air from air from fire water and from water the earth. These seventeen parts are. but which it is of intellect. are animate . subtile element contains seventeen parts. the guna prevails. illusion the The primary elemets are from God. As Tama-guna ments. as the chariot moves in consequence of the presence of the horses and the charioteer. From The the subtile elements arose subtile bodies and gross matter. in the illusive energy of spirit. from man downwards. These elements are termed and five-fold.

Spirit thus inclosed. or in this union. i The words are Vignana-maya. the five organs. I yellow. I is . however. eyes. air. that expelled downwards. the eye the same in earth. and from the same in earth. From the ear in fire. from the same in . decision. and from From the satwa guna in the in consequence primary elements. the hand. If in this manner. thought. smell. form. mind be subject to four changes learned. I partake [of enjoyment. I am thin. the reflection. consciousness of self-existence. skin. and The understanding forms decision indecision and . The five breaths are. the understanding and thought. that \\hich leads a person to corpulent. doubt belong to thought of things think. the hands. The . which receives four names of its different operations. which are. . I am sovereign. says. for both these powers are concerned in the changes which take place in the mind.( 94 ) five kinds of breath. senses. The five senses and the understanding form that clothing or receptaclei of spirit which is made up of know and ledge. . that which is in the nostrils. touch. or pride. and Kosha. . Through the five senses and the mind we become acquainted with sound. The five organs and thought form that receptacle of spirit which is wholly made up of in tellect. I rich. it is qualified to pratice what to the belongs present and the future state. Consciousness of self-existence. the tongue. &c. understanding.] and possessed of these thoughts. is called consciousness of self-existence. and the The organs of the five senses are the ears. arose the skin the satwa guna arose from the same . arose mind. tongue. and the nose. the feet. the and the anus from the Rajo-guna in vacuum arose words from that quality in air. from the same in fire. the feet from the same in water. . I am am am am still as being united to the both these faculties are employed in forming understanding. belongs to for reflection must be considered thought. five from the same in water. or pirde. that which pervades the whole body. fulness of knoivledge. five organs are the mouth. a receptacle. the nose. penis. that which ascends into the throat and is discharged at the . taste. the anus. the penis. that which seeks after the nature called reflection.

as the idea of a forest is formed when the understanding conceives of many trees at once. When we form an idea of all the subtile bodies. and corpulency]. or when many waters suggest the idea of a lake and separate ideas of these subtile bodies. being derived from the active principle. because of We compare the spirit which is united to the collected mass of subtile bodies to the thread upon which are strung the pearls of a to the knowledge. because it is derived from power the action belongs to it.( 95 ) mouth. or Rajoguna is identified with actions. and that which promotes digestion. and in the third. spirit appears as the sovereign in the second. call the first of these three receptacles. kinds of air in the body are derived from the rajo The five guna in each of the five primary elements. as the creators. sleep. the object embraced by the senses and organs impress their own images on the imagination. Does not this doctrine resemble that of some o f the Greeks. This receptacle. that every thing called material is merely ideal ? is . the mass cf is When united to individual absorbedj Gross matter is absorbed in this subtile or Linga body. gestion. because it possesses the power of giving knowledge the chief. formed gross j for matter Spirit out of these three receptacles. reference to its union with these three receptacles in the first. . thought. These three receptacles united form for the reception of spirit the subtile body. When we are awake. These five kinds of air when united to the five organs form that receptacle of spirit which is entirely composed of air. hunger. that there is no such thing as real substance. second is identified with last is action. and the Linga body absorbed in illusion. sighing. necessarily lead us to individual substances. he The ever-living who is united mind is called creator and as he is possesses the chief termed breath [Prana]. as the thing created. We . and these images are revived in sleep and this is the state of things with Spirit in . possessing power of action. the identified with things. In the subtile body : . Some maintain. necklace. that from these five kinds of air proceed five other kinds [here follow their names which are said to be connected with di . we call them the collected mass of subtile bodies.

and Virata. The active principle . because it is its origin and as it is the seat of action [participa called Jagarana. form. in the time of sleep. from the five subtile elements subtile bodies. * and from the earth. . which because this body enters into the three before-mentioned. found in air is . and smell. found both sound and touch in water. covered by its shell. each is distinguished by the name of that element which most prevalent. and taste . in The qualities are* sound. for then he is the manifested He [the collected mass of the Linga bodies]. We called these receptacles is sheath or scabbard] because as the silkworm so they cover spirit. and those produced from eggs. From these five subtile elemeBts. the four solid bodies. the mind when awake this is also taught in the Veda. touch. food. the seven lower worlds viz. he who is conscious of self- existence. form. or the active. . we call spirit the glorious. sound is is . The matter active principle dwelling in the collected sum of solid is called Vaishwanara. in fire. tree differs from that of a whole forest . or. sound. and form earth. This collected sum of gross matter held forth or displayed in all is called anna- mayakosha tion] it is named from [the receptacle raised by food only]. or a lake. Indi viduated spirit differs from collective spirit only as one tree differs from a forest or as the vacuum which surrounds each : . in other words. &c. In the solid mass of either. natural and partly artificial. There are four kinds of bodies such as are born in the womb. arose the masses of solid matter but drop. as individuated in name kosha it receives receptacles [a a sensible body is called Vishwa. enjoys the ideas which have been possessed by . touch.( 96 ) subtile bodies and to the luminous imagination. who is compared to the thread upon 1 which are suspended the flowers of a garden and who is the glorious [or he who is the individuated Linga body]. it is a In this manner. touch. taste. as he is creatures. from heat. proceeded in proportions of five. . sound. From these five elements partly have sprung the seven upper worlds.

and saves himself the house is on fire. and thus through the other nine. that intellect is hungry. that from bodies spirit since the animal soul . and displayed is mere illusion. and called the animal exercise their functions thirsty. is spirit. The ignorant say. . organs cease to the animal soul that says. . it is plain that intellect is spirit. soul . that this body. spirit enjoys the plea sures of touch. that the under suspended. Other atheists from the Veda. I am intellect life itself is suspended and that as it is by and reason that men are distinguished. since in the m absence of the moving cause. I am blind. is the same in all. &c. say. and he also quotes the Veda urging that when intellect . &c. and in the happiness of the son. . . I shall now mention the mistakes learned which have arisen from the different representations which men have given of the incarcerated spirit. when . standing is spirit. is it is being gone. I am corpulent. There is no differ ence between the incarcerated and the perfectly abstracted the body is mere illusion. he confines these expressions to himself.( 97 ) There are ten through whom regents of the senses and organs. gans : through the god of the winds. en joys happiness himself. that a son is spirit and that We are taught this Veda for a father values a son as himself when he dies. I am not corpulent. that which Having thus explained the doctrine of spirit. am deaf. abandons his son. in the he mourns as for himself. and never applies them to his son. or. that the organs are spirit. as they also from the Veda. is born. Other atheists endeavour to prove. and that a son is not spirit. spirit. . are the that this I and are possessed of motion and is further proved by the exclamations. which owes its existence and changes to food. medium Ve da. The Boudhas affirm. The animating gross to the principle pervading all bodies. and that when the father says. since the father. since they contend. from the of sound. spirit enjoys the pleasures of the senses and or deities. from the most most ideal. all its The Charwakas maintain. I am the Another pleads. spirit .

It is and therefore is not connected with entity. as well as with the two other sources of proof. Spirit is not material. and cannot be identified with the organs. Another Boiidha. still acknowledging the Ye da. is spirit. that vacuum is spirit * because the Veda teaches us. the all. though spirit they pretend to argue from the Veda.it is not therefore identified with a son. The writer of the Vedanta says. : therefore identified with body. therefore and therefore cannot be identified with breath. and final decision 7 is. I am of actions]. It is a living principle. quoting the Ye da. It is it cannot be identified with illusion or inanimate life. he gives a proof unconsciousness. I was wholly uncon . True. spirit All these sects make that which is not spirit . and therefore must not be- .. and when a person awakes after a deep sleep [in which all material things were forgotten] he says. since. and they one by one confute each other. It is not animal life. I am sovereign. is is quoting the Veda also that besides the understanding there another spirit. maintains. absorbed in illusion is illusion. from the union of and matter. scious of the existence of any thing. and it is the under 1 standing which fruit says.blessed for that the understanding . It is not intel is lect and therefore it cannot be identified with mind. this for animating principle is both animate and illusive-formed . the Veda contains all these opinions. spirit. The latter add to the sentiment. The Prabhakaras and subject [to the the Tarkikas say. and from inference. which is united to illusion and is identified with joys. that before creation vacuum alone existed that at the time of absorption nothing remains . It is not a creator [or governor] and therefore it is not to be identified with the Vidnyana maya kosha.( 98 ) the bodily powers are capable of nothing . pure inanimate matter. but ideal. I know both as consciousness and not myself. that The Bhatta affirm. Still these atheistical writers affirm. but its that spirit per\ ades all bodies. that the animating principle. when a person says. we err with the Veda. and therefore matter. yet they are supported by none of these. If we err. It is unorganized. in the time of deep sleep.

that is. and the collected mass of subtile bodies.&quot. Such an one thus meditates on perfect. is identically the same. and that what they term spirit is not spirit. . and from hence appears. All inanimate things. Bramha is illusive. to the Yogi. really the same. arise the five gross elements ties. identified with from a son to vacuum itself. also that which nourishes and the fourteen worlds. and. . is pure error. in the idea that it is something from Bramha. . . A cord. . that as it is con is wisdom. I am Bramha. free from the joyful. are indebted to the inanimating it principle for manifestation. From the five subtile elements. am entity. that they cannot be spirit and this is still further confirmed by the Yogi the subject matter of whose meditations is. The author next enters into an explanation of the tenet. Day and perfect in knowledge. that the opinions of these sects are at variance with the Veda. spirit : I am everlasting. In this real. or gross matter. From hence it appears. I Bramha. and their quali From the living principle united to illusion. simple life. and the universe. change. arise illusion and the animating principle united to illusion. also as united to the mass of illusion. it stantly perfect and free from illusion .( 99 ) vacuum. though it real cord the idea that manner. From the perfect Bramha. is the exact doctrine of Vedanta. that as spirit is the principle which inanimates a son &c. is indeed Bramha different resembles a snake. This then . arise the five subtile elements and the three gunas. identified with knowledge is always free unconnected with the habits of material things is eternal and uncreated and is the all-pervading it is called Atma. and destroys all illusion. all From the five primary all. which appears entity . the Yogi at length loses sight of tho body. is notwithstanding a it is a snake. and the one night thus meditating. the undivided. . elements arise bodies. that spirit in its separate state. purified from illusion is &quot. and is incarcerated in separate bodies. must be constantly or . lies the mistake.

Upakrama. . 2. according the one Bramha. organs. his ideas will student is to : . the certifying absolutely what is is Brahmagnyan. gaining from 5. The understanding. Meditation 3.gt. Therefore the Yogi. this exercise. ought to attend 1. Upasangthe| f&amp. : The second-thing which the student practise. or. 4. and remains without the exercise of thought in which state every thing attached to mortal [rather intellectual] existence becomes extinct. certain portions of the Vedanta . all which centre in the one Bramha. Bramha. Abhyasa. is Upapati. the In explained. Art ha-veda. . of the fruits to be obtained from the . or the knowledge of that which is to be the extolling or. meditation on The fourth effort of the Bramha. and remains as the pure glass when the shadow has left it and thus illustrates that verse is The next stage of the Yogi that in all assistance . in conceiving of assumes the forms of these objects. or committing hara. rules laid to duty is. to memory . 1.eijining 3. agreeable to the Vedanta and other writings. knowledge of the or Vedanta. the student must attend to the following things . Absorption of mind. it first rays of spirit. He is now identified with Bramha. and thus destroys ignorance after which they become manifest by the Thus when a light enters a dark room. Phala. By Veda the first is to be understood. that the mind is both capable and incapable of embracing Bramha. until he sees Bramha. hearing the doctrines of . 2. His third down uninterrupted reflection on the invisible and only in the to the ideas contained in the Vedanta. of the Veda. the Vedanta perfect satisfaction respecting Bramha gained from the Vedanta 6. disperses darkness. Fixing Hearing the mind. and 4. or of the Vedanta. and then discovers the objects contained in the room. to the following duties : . Apurvata. through the visible objects . or the close of the Vedanta . who is obtain a perfect idea of wisdom in the abstract at first.which he renounces from the understanding.

1. When this knowledge of Bramha is mani manifestation.distinct be imperfect. Niyama . are in posses the eight following things. and letting out the breath during. meditation . as is salt when thrown into water loses its own form. Yarna. Those who possess this knowledge of Bramha. e. i. preserving in the Dhyana.When the Yogi is delivered from these four enemies. the operations of the understanding being all concentrated in God. that is. by which knowledge he des : He who is liberation in a bodily state is troys fested the illusion illusion is destroyed. with affairs belong- . practise 1. 7. the forsaking of all the evil in the world and the refusal of gifts except for sacrifice sion of or e. so that the free man. viz. and what is called the worship of the mind 3. Pratyahara. 2. is liberated even in a bodily state. the true . whether prosperity or adversity renouncing food when hungry. ment pleasure in every thing. Asana. Dharana restraining the members of the body and mind . . Though he is connected with the affairs of life . drawing in. truth. But at length his mind will become exclusively fixed on the one Bramha. or holding. to which there are four enemies. Samadhi. : : . absorbed in meditation on Bramha. or mind 7. &quot. or keeping under the body reading the Veda. . and he will contemplate himself and Bramha as just as a person seeing in a horse of clay both the toy . the knowledge of Bramha. and his mind continues invariably fixed in meditation on Bramha. illusion and its works are which concealed destroyed. and by this Bramha. and the earth of which it is composed. Pranayama. . and perceptible only as water. inoffensiveness. cannot help retaining an idea of the thing represented by the toy. and a confused mind. or the posture of sitting during Yoga 4. or the power of 6. distinguished by thus described he possesses the knowledge which identifies him with the undivided Bramha. honesty. the repetition of incantations 5. purity relative to the use of water after defile . he resembles the unruffled flame of the lamp. viz. one Bramha a sleepy heart: attachment to any thing except the human passions.

without being deceived by them. and full of incapacity to a mind. so we learn from the still eats . . This . person may be a spectator of the artifices of a juggler. ordure and urine. A and drinks. receives aliment. bones. liberated in the body. recorded in the veda. every thing connected with a bodily state having been renounced. and with Bramha himself. let the aliment come in state. and the body itself having fallen. to confirmed habits and to the fruits of birth. and other . dissolved. sorrow. with thirst. filled . Thus ends the Vcdanta Sara. but without desire. he does not view these things as realities. palsied. to organs which are blind. and thus illusion. and free from every All his virtues. After this. with unchangeableness. The Yogi. being freed from illusion. and its effects. Bramha seen in his mind. as well as the universe itself. the Yogi is absorbed in the excellent Bramha .( 102 ) Ing to a body containing blood. with constant is joy. forms are worn as so many ornaments. Grita. whatever alone is or from whatever quarter it may. but without desire so likewise is he free evil desires and in the same manner he is indifferent to every state of the body. after being liberated in a bodily state. from envy. for its preservation. he becomes identified with being [to the Yogi] freedom. This Yogi. infatuation still. hunger. and the act of kindness which he per passion.

having does with difficulty incarnation and in that manhood a knowledge acquired a human of the scriptures. Who is there on this earth with soul incarnation selfish who. and among those learning. are acquired only the favor of the Gods*: humanity. S.CREST-JEWEL OE WISDOM! OF SHRI-SANKARACHARYA Translated by MOHINI M. desire for emancipation. having obtained a human madly strives for the attainment of * more dead than he and a male body. among Brahmins desire to follow the path of Vedic dharmma. Yedantic Govinda the supreme man is difficult of human beings manhood. 4. by and the favor of (spiritually) great men. One ttho. but is himself unknown. Among sentient creatures birth as a knowledge which discriminates between spirit and non-spirit. the practical realisation of the merging of oneself in Brahmaatma and final emancipation from the bonds of matter are unattainable except by the good of incarnations. . among a Brahmin. ? objects of Favour of the Gods is the previous karma an individual. T. CHATTERJI F. so difficult of attainment. among men to be attainment. karma of hundreds of crores These three. is through delusions not labour for emancipation. bliss. is I prostrate myself before the true teacher before revealed by the conclusions of all systems of him who philosophy. 3. 5. a suicide destroying himself in trying to attain illusive objects. But the spiritual 2.

atma. He may sacrifices). and betakes himself to a true teacher and accepts his teaching with an unshaken 9. having 8. will A perception fear it is of the fact that the object seen is a rope illusive remove the and sorrow which result from the idea that 13. 12.( 104 ) 6. of alms. after having reached a guru who has got Brahmagnyan and is of a kindly disposition. spirit. but not by any amount of karma. Therefore he who desires to know the nature of his own 15. Therefore the wise man strives for his salvation. as it is distinctly stated in the scriptures (Sruti) that karrna is The immortality never the cause of emancipation. the bonds of conditioned existence. of an object is only gained by percep or by instruction. soul. a serpent. The knowledge The attainment of the object principally depends . not for . . The substance can be attained by right discrimination. those wise men with resolute minds should endeavour to gain a knowledge of their own atma. giving 14. attained through the acquisition of any objective condition (such as that of a god) is liable to end. should proceed with his investigation .the 11. renounced his desire for the enjoyment of external objects. attainment of the real substance. or by a hundred retentions of the breath. yet he will not attain sion of a hundred Brahma-yugas except by the knowledge of union with the 7. the practice of right discrimination attained by the path of Yoga he rescues the soul the soul drowned in the sea of conditioned existence.by salvation even during the succes gods. by investigation. but not by bathing or tion. propitiate tha gods perform religious ceremonies or offer devotion to the (&quot. And by After giving up all karma for the purpose of removing 10. Actions are for the purification of the heart. upon the qualification of him who desires to attain all artifices and the contingencies arising from circumstances of time and space are merely accessories. study the scriptures.

after repeatedly pondering over their and shortcomings the undisturbed concentration of mind upon the object of perception is called Sama. which said to be the discrimination between the and the eternal. after having turned them back from objects of sense. n . first is The reckoned to be the discrimination of the . without attachment. desirous of obtaining emancipation. Thirdly. and sorrow without thought and without lamentation. Dama is said to be the confinement to their own proper sphere of organs of action and of sensual perceptions. without desire. is described as Sraddha. transitory world true. successful 19. 22. true Uparati. is a man qualified for He only is considered worthy tt enquire into spirit who 17. purpose there exist four kinds of preparatory with them the attempt will be the wise .( 105 ) 16. A is condition not related to or depending on the external of all pain world 25. such an investigation. 24. without said to be Titikshti. 26. One who has a strong intellect. Brahma 23. and fourthly. so say . Renunciation of desire consists in giving up the plea Also in giving up objects sures of sight. without them unsuccessful. etc. defects . the emancipation. The endurance of retaliation. For this training. who is is a learned man and who has powers of comprehension. and hereafter. Brahma conclusion transitory 21. a delusion such is the form of the final for is . is dejection Fixed meditation upon the teachings of Shastra and Guru with a belief in the same by means of which the object of thought is realised. hearing. having Sama and the is other qualifications and 18. the six possessions aspiration is is beginning with Sama . all sitory of enjoyment pleasures derivable from all tran from the physical body up to the creator. eternal and the transitory then follows renunciation of the desire to enjoy the fruits of action here 20.

36. objects. atma. the aspiration to be liberated by know with the ing one s true self from all created bonds. Mumukshatva is be possessed qualifications enumerated moderate degree. by Sama and strengthened and improved by will the other qualities and the kindness of the teacher. . free from desire. When absence of desire and aspiration for emancipation 31. 32. sinless.( 106 ) Constant fixing of the mind on the pure spirit is called Samadhana. Such a person must approach the guru through whom 34. Even should the bear fruit. nature of 35. attained rest in spirit. and one not actuated by personal considerations. 33. and 29. the object of one s inquiry is to be addressed to him when he is not otherwise engaged. In one in whom qualifications. 30. absence of desire and aspiration for and the other qualifications emancipation are prominent. Having obtained the favour of such a preceptor through obedience and respectful demeanour. there will be but indications of Sama and the other as of water in a mirage. beginning of personality and ending with the identification of one feeling self with the physical body by ignorance. still these qualifications will be in a low or absence of desire. 28. Sama will be productive of great results. fuel is like the One who has is flame which has obtained rest when the whose kindness consumed. fit to Some say devotion is meditation on the nature of one s He who possesses all these qualifications is one who is know the true nature of atma. Among devotion. well freedom from bondage is attainable versed in the scriptures. and who is anxious to befriend those that seek for help. the instruments of emancipation the supreme is Meditation upon the true form of the real self is said to be devotion. Brahmham. one who is wise. But not amusing the mind by delusive worldly 27. knowing the . are feeble.

38. lighten the sorrows arising from birth and re -birth. 40. 41. 39. Happy are they who come into thy sight. This desire is is of great souls to remove the suffering itself cools spontaneous. beholding with eyes moistened with 43. Protect from death him who is heated by the roaring wild fire of changing life so difficult to extinguish. How shall I my destiny. heated by the forest fire of birth and re-birth. rebirth. since no other refuge do I know. by which Yogis have I shall point it out to thee. there crossed. friend of those birth who bend have fallen into the ocean of and &quot. heated as I am by the forest fire and re-birth. is Lord. cross this ocean of birth and re-birth ? mercy the refuge-seeker who.&quot. live regenerating the world and after having themselves crossed like the coming the ocean of embodied existence. instantly bids him fear not.&quot. without personal motives. wise man. sprinkle me. . and practising the right means for its attainment. &quot. 44. sacred and cooling.0 the earth heated by the Lord. of the pleasure afforded by Brahmagnyan. Rescue me by thy never failing glance which rains the ambrosia of sincerity and mercy. What O what means exist. since the natural tendency of others just as the ambrosia-rayed (moon) of harsh rays of the sun. calls upon him thus. him who is oppressed and buffeted by the blasts of misfortune. Fear not. &quot. Salutation to thee. &quot. 42.( 107 Lord. full of oompassion. That wise one mercifully instructs in truth the pupil who conies to him desirous 0f emancipation. before thee. &quot. tranquil minded and possessed of Sama. I ) 37. Lord kindly protect me. even for a moment. 45. for (they become) fit recipients and are of birth accepted (as pupils). is exists a means for crossing the ocean of birth no danger for thee there and re-birth that . I know not. The great and peaceful ones of spring. gratify the ear with ambrosial words as they flow from the vessel of thy voice mingled with the essence of thy experience. The great soul. help those who try to do the same thing.

and re-birth is terminated. and proper man is seen to recover by the aid of medicine but not by acts performed by others. Bhakti. Dhyan and Yoga. The sick diet. What ? is maintained How bondage ? Whence is its origin ? is it removed ? What is non-spirit ? How ? is it is ? What the supreme spirit How can one discriminate between them The Master 52. . in mercy hear proposing a question. 49. are the causes which bring about emancipation. but no-one except one-self can remove (his own) 53. Whoever abides by these. of) burdens placed on the head. Others can remove the pain (caused by the weight 54. said : Thou art happy. Sons and others are capable of discharging a father s debts. 55. I am Lord. and re-birth by which. pointed out by the sayings of the Scrip Sradha. by thee family has been sanctified. O and when shall 51.( 108 ) There is an effectual means for the destruction of birth 4G. 50. but the pain (that arises) from hunger and the like cannot be removed except by oneself. attains emancipation from the bondage of incarnated exis It is directly tures that tence. By the fire of wisdom arising from this discrimination the growth of igno rance is burnt up to its very roots.&quot. thou hast obtained thy end. bondage. thou wilt attain to supreme bliss. great misery of birth 48. 47. in as much as thou wished to thy become Brahm by getting rid of the bondage of Avidyd. I have heard the answer from your own mouth. crossing the ocean of changing life. By is Yedanta a proper comprehension of the purport of the by that the produced the excellent knowledge . I ! have accomplished my end. By reason of ignorance a connection is are Paramatma and that which not Atma between you who is brought about and hence this wheel of embodied existence.

If the supreme truth the spirit must be sought out by intuition). the truth about oneself from him 63. nor by of Sankhya religious (speculative philosophy). or any medicine except of supreme knowledge ? are the Vedas to Of what use One day of Brahma.. * parison of this derivation with that of the word king from cunan t to know. beauty of the lute (oina) arid skin in sounding its strings are for the entertainment of the people and not for the establishment of an empire (in the hearts of subjects through the good government of the king).f 60.gt. is useless. A com raj to please. command of language. are for the delectation of the learned and remains unknown. 61.. passion bondage Avtdyd. Good pronunciation. t To understand the purport of this sloka it must be remembered that the etymological derivation of the Sanscrit word for king (Raja) is from the root The king was the man who pleased his subjects most. The nature of the one reality must be known by one s own clear spiritual perception and not through a pandit (learn ed man) the form of the moon must be known through one s own eye. one period of cosmic activity. &quot. . the study of the scriptures is fruitless even if the supreme truth is known the study of the scriptures is useless (the study of the letter . therefore with great efforts must be learned alone 62. In a labyrinth of words the mind is lost like a man in a thick forest. and action) even in a thousand million of Kalpas ?* of Kama and Karma Liberation cannot be achieved except by the direct perception of the identity of the individual with the universal 58.Who but oneself (atma) is capable of removing the (ignorance.( 109 ) 56. by mere The form and learning. how can it be known through (the medium of) others ? 57. self neither by Yofja (physical training). incan tations. &amp. nor 59. not for (obtaining) liberation. him who has been bitten by the snake of ignorance ? (Of what use are) scriptures. who knows the truth. nor by the practice ceremonies. will bring out a striking difference between the old and the Aryan Teutonic minds. exegetical skill and learning.

asked by those desirous of liberation. Listen attentively. efforts Therefore wise to free should endeavour by (using) all from the bondage of conditioned themselves men existence just as (all efforts are made) for the cure of diseases. to my answer.&quot. tion. 65. 71. Disease is . out. O wise man. 68. 70. 67. &quot. the simple word Hidden treasure does not come out at (utterance of) but there must be trustworthy infor &quot. and so forth. Without spiritual dissolving truth. and a thorough acts for the karma (religious and other attainment of any object of personal desire). without knowing where eternal liberation from mere ? external words having no result beyond their mere utterance 66. titikshd. Without the conquest of enemies. similarly the pure truth* itself transcending the operation of maya (may a here meaning the force of evolution) is not obtained without the instruction of the knowers of the supreme. digging. like a sage aphorism it is in agreement with the scriptures. and not by illogical inferences. by the mere words I am a it is impossible to become one. together with reflection medita tion. for by listening thou shalt tioned existence. the is world of objects. mation. king.&quot. without command of the treasure of a vast country. dama. complete after that detachment of the mind from transitory objects (the acquirement of) renunciation of all sama. it is brief and full of deep import. .( no ) never cured by (pronouncing) the name of liberation is not achieved by the medicine without taking it of the) word Brahin without direct percep (pronunciation 64. truly be freed from the bondage of condi The chief cause of liberation is said to be . and removal of stones. The excellent question now proposed by thee should be 69.

limbs. 75. flre. to heaven (swarya). five (creatures) meet with ? elephant. 74. and organs. . call this the gross body which blood.( ill ) Then the wise student (should devote himself) daily 72. flesh. 73. rest. are forcibly carried along by the messenger. to ignorance and the delusion I &quot. all and black bee what then of man bound by * (the senses) jointly It is said that music exercises a powerful fascinating effect on the deer. bone. The wise of feet. chyle is the com bination of marrow. The elephant in a state of stupefaction rubbing its mention this circumstance.) It is the cause and semen and arms. . sound and the the deer. taste and smell. having got rid of ignorance the wise Nirvana even while on this earth. experience of their possessor. By mixture with one another they become the gross elements and the causes of the gross body. made up &quot. Sanskrit writers frequently is The moth and bee are respectively attracted by sight. difficult to be broken.* viz. it is man enjoys the bliss of The discrimination between necessary for thee spirit and non-spirit which being related by now to understand. Their functions are the production of the five senses and these are intended for the 76.. breast. \Vc are told that ancient Indian hunters used to take advantage of this fact and attract deer by playing soft music on the flute and thus lure animals to their death. earth and hell (naraka). is me . water and earth (the higher principles of these elements are to be under stood here. Those deluded ones who are bound to worldly objects by the bonds of strong desire. Severally bound by the moth. The subtle elements are akasa. giving rise and my. listen carefully and realize it in thyself. to reflection and meditation on the truths therein contained then (finally) . air. 77. without intermission to the study of the scriptures. 78.&quot. &quot. constantly surprised and killed by hunters while caused by the pleasure the animal derives from forhead against the pine tree. fish qualities of the five (senses) their death. is fat. back. head. their own karma.

which means both &quot. will obtain by his own intuition the accomplishment of his object. free is is (literally : by the mere sight 80. In point of virulence sensuous objects arc more fatal . doing no good to others and constantly avoids his own duty. alone from the great bondage of desires. He who difficult to avoid.* but whoever treads the right The mind becomes turbid path of yensuous path under the instruction of a guru or a good man who looks after his spiritual welfare. He only who slays the shark of desire with the sword supreme dispassion. sincerity. only apparently free from passion. here a play on the the first day. also kindness.( 112 ) 79. seeking to cross the ocean of conditioned existence. sensuous objects left at a great distance as if they were poison. ged like a man who goes out on the first day of the month (according to the saying of the astrologers). so not another. are seized by the shark of desire. forgiveness. * is &quot. of obstacles the other side of him who treads the rug death awaits him at every step objects. attends only to the feeding of his own body. thou must constantly and fervently seek contentment as if it were must be ambrosia. tranquillity and self-control. and not seeking liberation from the bondage caused by ignorance. 83. reaches without of the ocean of conditioned existence. There and step&quot. even though versed in the six systems of philosophy. Whoever kills himself. 84. word prati-paila. 85. 82. know this to be the truth ! If the desire for liberation exists in thee. the first . being caught by the neck. forcibly dragged into the middle and drowned. capable of liberation . Those only sentimentally desirous of liberation and 81. than the poison of the black snake (Nay a Trapidianus) poison only kills one who imbibes it. but sensuous objects can kill (spiritually) even by their mere outward appearance of them).

Its stages of development are childhood^ and the the body. 90. grwtli. decrepitude. in the bosom of Parabrahm). Having conquered it the ascetics enter the supreme abode of Vishnu (I. wife. crosses a river on an alligator thinking it to be a log of wood. and so on. PnrHtlta literally means the dweller in the city. on which depend all the external manifestations of tfie pwrusharf is but like the house of the householder. ix) with the Logos 89. gross bod}-. lie desires pertaining to the \vho is free from such desires alone fit to gain liberation. is like one who 87. self.e. belong the innumerable * Typical of Avord all is sensuous objects. not to be understood hero us the absolute self. birth . t Tins but merely is the embodied the body. 88. The ogo embodied conscious of the body in 92. the vehicle of earthly enjoyments. rest. He who lives only to nourish his own body. produced out of the five gross elements themselves produced by the previous quintupling process. flesh. This gross blood. This gross body. six stages. state of that body gross objects are perceived. is through In the in this through the external organs such as the various forms of chaplcts of enjoys gross objects Therefore it is flowers. son. filth. and death. its waking state.ti. For one desirous etc. who reside nerves.( 113 ) 80..* 91. decline According to the Hindus the body passes through and death. Know that this The products To of the gi oss (body) ore birth. and is filled with DO. body lead to the great death . woman and so forth.-n. change. subject to diseases. sandal-wood. existence. attain union (iit. waking karma.s to dwell. is of liberation. body which we condemn is made up of fat. Conquer the great death desire for the (sake of) the body. marrow and bones. skin. that in It is derived from piirn which means the city or body. and tin/ta a derivative of the verb m.

are called the internal instruments. The niana*. av tdyd. and doubting fixed judgment from egotism. it experiences the consequences of hirnia (prior experience). . etc. rant. 99. five beginning with speech. &ndchitto. the difference Vitality (prdna. water)* and of its functions and modifications becomes 97. 90. -ni/ana.h InuhUl so ou. (ignorance) The five (faculties) (desire) and karma (action) constitute a body Listen called wkshma elements (subtle) body.* as do also honour. it (with the Karana Sarira is added) being igno (vehicle) of at men. caste and condition. becomes steam or ice or modifies its . with is their functions. uddna. has no beginning. a househoUler raita/iraxfhd. (so called) Mana* . touch. because through them acts are performed. samn. form according to the vessel in which it is contained. mendicancy. Speech. Imddhi. 95. it is the field of desires. a^dna. ahanki iti arises so-called on account of its property of concentrating the mind on one s own interest. adulation 94.ni(i as also linya (characteristic) sarira . digrace. t As gold is transformed by modifications of form into bracelets. the with the car. applicable to persons in each of these conditions. by reason property of (arris ing at a) about objects. 98. forest etc. objects.prdna. {/rthaftthya. ahankrltl and by reason of (its) of (its) postulating chitta. baddJil whence kdma (intellect) and the rest. Hindu legislators have prescribed rules . by like gold. smell and taste (are hearing. 1 This body produced from five subtle is called #uk*sh. and the vpadhi * There are four conditions family life as of Mfe : bmincirhnrya. so vitality receives different forms in accordance with the different functions it assumes. earrings. the second principle). feet. the five (vital airs) beginning (organs) beginning with prdwi the five (elements) beginning with dkdsn. sight. by change of function. are called organs Intellect. houseless celibacy religious life in the and bhalkxhya.regulations concerning and the like. . of gross called) senses by reason of their conveying perceptions of action kands. and water.

Because it (seventh principle) is free from all union. does not involve the disappearance of the egotism which mani fests through other similar concepts. exist larly The properties of blindness. 103.. This linya wtr-iiu performs all actions as the instrument of at ma just as the chisel and other tools (perform for this reason the at ma is free from the actions) of the carpenter all union.100. . path of the eye and the rest. state. be considered as belonging to the self. . The internal organ is in communication with the 105. sneezing and so to . In-breathing. are none of them the egotism itself. and by reason of the specialising (of the whole) the ego* (ahankara) is manifested. say the wise men the property of vitality is manifested in hunger and thirst.lam which maybe described as the seer/ That this object is different from the egotism itself is clear from the fact that there exist other the egotism such objects of a similar nature strung together or connected by as &quot. This body having attained the condition of the actor manifests itself.&quot. etc. state . out-breathing. here it is plain that the abovementioned concepts for the disappearance of the concept &quot. * The corporeal eye by self itself is incapable of seeing. In it shines the absolute self (seventh prin ciple) which has as ifc vehicle intellect (higher fifth principle) and which witness. dumbness and so on are properties of the ear and are not 104. The characteristic condition of this is body is the dreamy distinguished from the waking state by the manner in which its senses work in the dreamy state peculiar mind itself revives the conditions created by the desires of the this state . it unaffected by the action of any u-padkl. weakness and adaptability . is unaffected by any htrma as if an independent is 102. simi on account of the good or bad condition of the eye deafness. otherwise it would not its cease to see at the death of the body. I am the hearer. yawning. I am the seer&quot. In reality the eye sees by reason of connection with the object or through the egotism (ahankara) by the concept &quot. forth are the actions of piumi and the rest. waking 101.

. for it there no pain. or pleasure and goodness. is it nor essentially both . dissociated from all objects. The supreme maya which is (Jut of which (the all this universe is born. rest. 107. This Maya is noumenal nor phenomenal nor is it 111. 110. excess of The excess m/Vs human and excess of xafra produces of super-human conditions. Objects all.lt.lt. which is experienced in dreamless slumber. Paramesa Lord) called avyalda power of the supreme (unmanifested) and which is the begin- eakti ningless avidya (ignorance) having the three ijuna* (qualities). .ii This own which &amp. become dear not to the self in themselves but by reason the self is of their usefulness because the most beloved of 109. 108. When I become consci It will * ous say for instance of a book there are two distinct branches into which that consciousness resolves itself. is egotism or ahankara. I am conscious of the book and I am conscious of the fact that I am conscious of the book. it is . been treated be seen that hitherto only sensational consciousness of objects lias of. By the agrecableness of objects it becomes happy and by the contrary unhappy happiness and unhappiness are its properties and not of atnia which is the eternal bliss. tama* sub-human existence. is Therefore the atma is the eternal bliss. Which practical psychology or occultism gives. consciousness or self-consciousness t The qualities are *atra. is to b inferred through its effects by (our) intelligence. piin and passional tamo* inditfer3ee or dullness. The bliss of the atma. is during waking perceived by direct cognition. But in every act of sensational consciousness is involved the consciousness of the self that experiences sensation.( no the ) subject o-f enjoyment and exIt attains three perienco is to be known as nlnnd conditions by association with the qualities. essentially both : it is neither differentiated nor is it imdiHei-eii- tiated neither particled nor is it the unparticled nor is it it is of the most essentially both wonderful and indescribable form.i* . is f &amp. the egotism attains /Y//KX its three conditions. This latter branch of consciousness or reflection. { by instruction and by inference. forming the three classes into which objects are divided.*) satva and the 106. In association with these qualities. activity.

Lust and anger.i$ The power is &amp.lt.. possibilities. aversion terrible is personality.IJ&amp. perceives a post. folly and One possessed by those qualities of hntias. extremely keen-sighted in self examination and properly instructed in various ways. on account of ignorance one considers as real Even though that which arises out of error.*// which is the and from which the pre-existing tendencies to action were produced. arrogance. as attachment and other qualities productive of sorrow 118.lt. omj&amp. one cannot exercise discrimination. 112. Its effects are called wija*. jealousy rajas. Vikshepa). laziness. Absence thinking of stance. contradictory thinking. malice. if enveloped by taruas . intelligent. sleep. 118. Alas for him great is the enveloping power of ttnna* and irrepressible ! ! ! 117. but._/&amp./) of action are always produced by 114. is properties of inclination to 115. essence extension (r //. The power which is of ta-max called an-ifl (enveloping) bv : the force of which one thing appears as another it is this force the ultimate cause of the conditioned existence for the operation of the force of the ego and the exciting cause ( of extension 110. this greed.lt. and depends upon the properties of objects produced by error. making unsubstantial things for sub T&amp.&amp. therefore by and envy are the action. delusion.( 117 ) can be destroyed by the realization of the non-dual Brahman. of right belong to One associated with rajas is perpe tually carried away by its expansive power. others arc the Ignorance. nothing correctly but remains as if asleep or like . learned.IH. for this reason rajas quality produced is the cause of bondage.lt.gt. and the modifications of the mind known. dullness. skilful. perception.lt. it. tama* and sutvu arid these are known by their effects. as the illusion of the serpent in the rope is The qualities of it destroyed by the realization of the rope.




Pure Mitvd, even though mixed with these two, in the 119. same way as one kind of water mixes with another,* becomes the means of salvation [for] the reflection of the absolute


(supreme spirit), received by wi-tra, sunlike manifests the universe of objects.

mixed ante a are self-respect, self regulation, self-control, and the rest, reverence, regard, desire for liberation, god-like attributes and abstinence from evil.




The properties of pure atma within us, supreme

ment, which a taste of eternal

perception of a sense of content tranquillity, cheerfulness, concentration of mind upon the self by
witra. are purity,
bliss is obtained.

The unmanifested



by these

of the

the (cause of)

oraiM saruu

(causal body)


of its

slumber, in
are latent.

which the functions of

organs and ofiheBuddki

Dreamless slumber


that state in which




at rest,

it is


(btuhlhi) remains in a latent as a state in which there is no knowledge.


rest, all

mind (mcwicw), ego and the the objects of sense, enjoyment and differentiations, the rest, akdsa and other elements composing this endless

The body,

organs, vitality,

universe, including the

anjaldam (unmanifested),

are the not-




the functions of


from Ma/tatf to the

body know
the mirage

(prakrlti or the unreal objectivity) like of the desert by reason of their being the non-ego.
I shall tell

to be asat


the supreme

you the essential form (swarupa) of (PARAMATMA), knowing which, man freed

from bondage attains isolation (reality of being).




t Buddhi, the

manifestation of Prakriti.




127. relating



somewhat, upon




to the ego rests,

exists as itself,

being different from

the five sheaths and the witness of the three conditions.

during waking, dreaming, and dreamless slumber knows the mind and its functions which are goodness and its absence this is the ego.



any one,

who vitalizes by them this

by himself sees* everything, who is not seen by biuldltl and the others and who is not
is fehe

at ma.


which nothing which all things cannot make to shine.

that by which this universe is pervaded, pervades, which causes all things to shine, but


proximity alone the bod}-, the organs, and Btuldhl apply themselves to their proper objects as


reason of


applied [by some one else]. 132. By it having the form
to the

of eternal consciousness all

objects from aJtankam

body and pleasure and the rest are perceived as a jar [is perceived by us.] 133. This Parn*h., the essential atnta f is primeval per
petual, unconditioned, absolute happiness, eternally having the

same form and being knowledge itself speech (rack) and the vital airs move.

impelled by


This unmanifestcd spiritual consciousness begins to
like the



in the pure heart,

and shining

like the

midday sun

in the





n hakra see

Places of


October Theosophist) illuminating the
modifications (operations) J of the performed by the body,

whole universe.

The kiiower

of the

iiwnus and ahankriti,

of the actions

organs and vitality present in them, as the lire is present ill the [heated by tire], does not act nor modify (in the same sense as the above,) nor follow (their actions).



t Because

it is

manifested as

itself in

the manifested universe,

+ Viz. Vitality, the organs,






That eternal


not born, does not die, or grow or decay

or modify, is not itself dissolved by the dissolution of this body, as space (is not dissolved) by the dissolution of the jar.


The supreme





different from


modifications, having pure consciousness shines equally

I riti arid its

for its essential characteristic

manifests this infinity of

and unreality, manifests* aham (the root of self) itself in the conditions, waking and the rest, as the witness (or sub

ject) of IjuM.hi..






in thyself as

with mind under control, directly perceive "this Lam" through the tran-

qiiility of

btublJd cross the shoreless sea of changeful existence,

whose billows are birth and death, and accomplish thy end, resting firmly in the form of Brahma.
to the



the conviction t of the



as being related

from the ignorance (or


arising out of

this springs forth the cause of the birth, death,

and suffering of

the individual so conditioned.


it is

from this (error) alone

that (he) nourishes, anoints and preserves this body

The original word is rilasctfi, plays. I am compelled to socritiee in the translation, the suggestion in the original as to the absence of want and there
fore of a motive for action in the absolute ego. t The original word is uuitt which is a synonym for buddhi.


Bondage there

that condition or modification of buddhi in which it takes the form of the error mentioned in the text. Starting from this initial modification bud d hi

the world of objects which it reflects upon the at ma and bondage or illusive conditions. Atina is eternally pure and un conditioned, but through its erroneous identification with bvddhi, secreting the illusion of objects, it becomes bound that is to say the modifications of luntdhi become ascribable to it. The words andya and (if/niiiid are usually rendered ignorance but
secretes, larva-like,





connection the word ignorance has a meaning slightly different from the usual one. It does not mean negation of knowledge but is a positive concept as we said before. Perhaps error is a
it is

necessary to state that

in this

The negative particle a in these; words docs not imply the better rendering. negation of the term itfij^nlities but its antithesis. Thus akarma evil act,






anger. is to ^i^kfl as the absolute p .e. rendered visible) by the rays of the sun manifest themselves by hiding the sun. Hence he. rises and ed existence. This man of perverted intellect. But as there are grades of liberation this definition of bondage limit. and gets enveloped in objects of sense as a cocoon maker (larva) gets enveloped in own 140. Thus the dhiehana of wak See Sankara s ing consciousness becomes real and objective in dream-life. Therefore the acceptance of asat as the &quot. I&quot. t In other words bondage is the condition in which the notion of I has any content which is objective.the unreal iu the its for the real same way secretion.. shadow of the moon) enshrouds the sun s orb. the deluded individual imagines the is not self to be self. con temptible in conduct. From such absence of discrimination springs forth the notion* of rope in the snake. 144. so egotism * The original word is dhishana. in bondage. falls in this ocean of condition As clouds produced (i. It signifies that sub-conscious octivit which goes 011 during the vivid cognition of any particular state of conscious ness and becomes realized in the succeeding state. as Rahu (the indivisible. eternal. being deprived of the body which real knowledge of the atna through being devoured by the shark of great delusion. manifested by the non-dual power of knowledge. From this a mass of great suffering befalls the entertainer of such notion. full of poison. Commentary on the opening Stanza of G attrapada s karika 011 the Mandukya Upanishad. 143. of The enveloping power infinite this 142. On the s vadiance of one disappearance of the supremely stainless atma. in the largest sense of the word.f tamas completely enshrouds atma. having powers (Vibkava). Then the great power of rajas called viltshepa (extension) gives great pain to this in dividual by the ropes of bondage [such as] lust. friend listen ! The notion of ego in one deluded by tamas becomes strengthened in this (asat). is subject to conditioned existence on account of this expansive energy (viksliepd). 141. etc.

.t but only by the great sword of discriminative know ledge. the fruit the variety of sufferings feeds. the sprout is the conviction that the body is the ego. which in its own nature manifest without incapable of being severed by weapons by wind. or by fire or by tens of millions of acts. For a man having his mind fixed upon the conclusions Vedas (there is) the application to the duties prescribed from such application comes the self-purification of for him the jiva.( 122 ) arising itself through connection with the atma (or ego) manifests by hiding the real character of the atma (or ego). t Religious socrifices. sickness. of the . so when the ego is luded buddhi without intermission enveloped by tamas the man with de is. these . the body is the trunk. and jiva* is the bird that 148. rooted in ignorance. down to its roots. This bondage is of offence or defence. from manifold karma. In the purified baddhl is the knowledge of the supreme ego and from that is the extinction of conditioded life 150. the vital airs are the branches of which the tops are the organs. 147. the sun. As on the unpropitious day when thick clouds devour 145. death. goaded on with many 146.+ 149. beginning or end. produces the torrent of all birth. two powers is produced the bondage of the By deluded by these two he thinks the body to be individual the atma.] sufferings. attach ment is the leaf. karma truly is the sap. etc. Of the tree of conditioned life truly the seed is tamax. * Individual ego. old-age and other evils is of this (the jiva). sharp cold blasts torment the clouds. The bondage of non-ego. through the favour of Yoga. % Dhatuh IK used in this sense in several Upanishads also. the flowers the objects [of the organs]. sharp and shining. by the intense expansive power [vikshepa.

The body is so the true self which. ? differentiated. feet. is bone. from the category of objects. the supreme light itself shines forth. not though without limbs. t The original word bhava would perhaps be better explained as the stable basis ot modifications. . and the is annamaya eternal sheath : it can and pure. is seen the pure water and of immediately yielding Upon the removal of the moss capable of allaying heat great enjoyment to and man. as the reed is discriminated from the tiger-grass. food and perishes flesh. the knower of cenditionf and modi fication. the eternal happiness. consciousness and bliss. This (dtma) was before birth and death and is now how can it. he is in that. is the controller and not the controlled. 158. changeable. 155. When the five sheaths are removed the pure pratyafjatma (the Logos). and is a mass of skin. By recognition of the pratyagdtma (logos) as the individuality in man. . thirst. possessed of hands. Whoever. he himself becomes bliss. filth. which lives through without it. This food-produced body. and having is merged everything the true self. its own power and beginning with the itself. a mere vehicle of consciousness 159. all-pervading.e. covered by a collection of five moss does not show sheaths.( 123 ) 151. As the water in the tank itself. 157. 153. the true self. and not spirit as only by realising the self which is absolute being. having discriminated the pratyagatnia that without attachment or action. A wise man must acquire the discrimination of spirit 154. does not manifest 152. epidermis. not be regarded as the self which : be ephemeral. so the dtma enveloped by the produced by annamaya.. and the rest. * i. transfer of the human individuality to it. blood. by reason of its its being the vivifying principle and the indestructibility of various powers. finds rest by knowing that to be emancipated* by recognition of the pra- tyagatma and 156.

thus also 167. its actions and evident that none of these can be a characteristic mark of the atma. and filth know that the real self is the all-pervading. and so obtain peace. how can Full of misery. flesh. skin. &quot. 162. which is the supreme truth. I am the body&quot. or the body seen by the mind. becomes the pranamaya sheath through which the embodied ego performs all the actions of the material body. the attraction towards material existence will then cease to exist. pains must be taken to abandon that idea .&quot. to be without these as characteristic marks. The deluded man fat. of the as learned the notion of the opinion of a deluded I is in relation to the as to the jiva (monad). . well &quot. you of deluded judgment. so long there is no prospect of his salvation. 166. flesh. possessed of the eternal self. the pro duct of illusion. that the ego consists of the body. covered with flesh. 164. such is man . The true self being the witness of the body and its conditions. bone. organs and the rest. As one s idea of /is never based on the shadow or reflection of the body. knows the essential form of self. 161.( 124 ) 160. may it in dream or imagined be with the living body. . it is self its properties. changeless atma. Because the false conviction that the ego is merely the body is the seed producing pain in the form of birth and the rest. bones and considers the ego to be the mass of The man of discrimination filth. abandon the opinion that the ego consists in the mass of skin. man. sin. Of the great soul I am Brah discrimination and direct perception. even though he be acquainted with the Yedas and their meta physical meaning. full of filth. As long as the wise man does not abandon the notion 165. full of it be the knower ? The ego is different from this. such is the conviction with regard to body. Conditioned by the five organs of action. 168. fat. this vitality 168.

l All know when the manas is merged in the state of dreamless slumber nothing remains. Thus is the world of illusions produced. the manas form the cause (hetu) of the differ it is the result of entiation between I and mine ignorance. and when that is manifested. or the real self aud another. fills the former sheath and it manifests etc. when there is no substantial reality.&quot.When that (avidya) is destroyed. Mnat* itself is the avidyd. Vol. in and out. because it cannot by itself discriminate between good and evil. So it is in waking 174. VI for the psychology of dreams. the instrument for the production of the bondage of conditioned existence. 173. life . . without any difference. the world of illusions is destroyed. made of five elements. all is manifested. its great power by dis tinguishing objects by names. For then the buddhi having no hypothetical concepts with regard to the one objective reality to deal with.( 125 ) The prdnamaya. &quot. all is destroyed. being the modification of life-breath 1G9. by the See Mr. s Synopsis of Du Prel s &quot. There is avidyd besides the manas. it is always depen dent on another (the self). one en ters a world of enjoyment by the power of the manas. is also not the dtina.t. Keightley Theoso2)hii&amp. The organs of sensation together with the is manomaya sheath which . It will now be seen that the manas attains tranquillity. being the organ of doubt or the production of multiplicity of con cepts in relation to one and the same objective reality.gt. The buddhi determines these manas born concepts as real and through the ahankara specialises them by an association with the if true ego. with streams of melted butter by the five senses like five Hotris*. burns this body. that all this is the manifesta tion of the manas. and blazing with the fuel of manifold desires. 172. it 170.*)- In dream. fed with objects as 171. Hence the contents of Priests offering oblations to the fire. like air-currents. if The fire of the manomaya sheath. is here taken to be * t Manas the same as avidyd. and the comer and goer. reflects that reality and the ahan/cara is destroyed destruction of its limitations. and becomes merged in the absolute self. Philosophic der Mystik.

Cloud . pure men desirous of liberation. mine. When manas In the forest land of objects wanders the great tiger named manas. collects the wind is also bondage is produced by it. 181. without attachment.( 126 ) our consciousness are created by the existence. &quot. acquires notions of I and through attachment to the body. * The word translated wind includes the atmosphere. and &quot. and of liberation when pure devoid of passion and ignorance. 180. creates objects of desire body and the subtle and perpetually all results and race produces differences of body. condition. through the gross body of the enjoyer.. of the action of the qualities. the attained purity becomes fit for liberation. ness which and life. 178. it wanders ceaselessly in the enjoyment of the fruit of his actions. manas and have no real 175. by the wind* and is again dispersed by created by the manas. case. 177. 182. Having produced attachment objects. Therefore the manas is individual and also of its liberation. is not By atma ascribing the qualities of the atmd to that which This asis created (the series of incarnations). discrimination and dispassion predominate. that manas itself frees him from bondage. it to all is other thus binds the individual as an animal bound by a rope. and emancipation the body and 176. possessed of buddhi. together with its moiiture and currents. do not go there. . organs. theiehaving fore these two (attributes) of a man desirous of liberation and must at the outset be strengthened. The manas.&quot. 179. the cause of the bondage of this The manas when stained by passion is the cause of bondage. afterwards having produced aversion to these as if to poison. The manas having ^clouded is over the absolute conscious &amp.gt.

. ous desires. Th&buddhi with functions and combined with the organs of perception becomes the characteristic is action and which of births viynanamaya sheath whose is the cause of the revolution and deaths. organs and the rest as the ego. liberation at hand. produces actions. It is the guide of all actions. suffering etc. 1S3. It is not seen by that which is itself seen 186. It being purified. their consequences. Therefore learned men who have is seen the truth call the man-as avidya. pp.( 127 ) cription is produced by the manas. its 187. made to wander as For this reason pains should manas by one desirous is bo taken to purify the of liberation. Through the sole desire of liberation having rooted out attachment to objects and renounced personal interest in action. with reverential purity. This (ego) having no beginning in time is the jiva or monad. 184. he who is devoted to study (sravana) and the rest. 1101. its modificable nature. 188. Even the manomaya its (sheath) on account of having beginning (or objective) for it is the seer (or subject). its pain-giving characteristics.* and its possessed of the faculties of cog function is to specialise the body. shakes off mental passion. The modification accompanying nition of prakriti (to-gether with) the power chita pratibiniba (jiva or monad) is called vigis nanamaya the atma. 189. and and action. 185. by which the universe the clouds are by the wind. and governed by previ righteous and unrighteous and * f For explanation sefc action) of gnanasakti (faculty of cognition) and kriyasakti (faculty Five years of Theosophy. is not the supreme ego and end. and by reason of its be ing objective. in a man devoid of discrimination and tainted by rajas and tamos. which is the primary cause of birth.

. per and the other conditions. The atiua is. and &quot. Pardtma by reason of connection with an objective the attributes (of this upadhi) just basis. etc.mine&quot. unchangeable. ^Objective and subjective The seat of abstract thought. taining to waking. 192. It gathers Pre-eminently illumined by the light (of the Logos) on account of its close proximity to the Paratma (the Logos) the vlfjndnamaya sheath which produces the difference between 191. This clothed in the viyndnamaya sheath shines in the vital breaths (subtle currents of the sukskmasarira) and in This atraa acting on Kidhastha (mulapralcriti) the hearti and manifesting enjoyer. (appear different) from different 194.( 128 ) thro ugh various experience by wandering and [comes below and goes abovet It is grades of incarnation* to this viyndnamaya that belongs the pleasure and pain. by The pupil said. dreaming 190. the atma ciple) l . I&quot. conditions. 195. in this upadhi appears to be the actor and 193. human. Being limited by (buddhi) all (intellect) the atma though (from other objects) through appears pervading the illusive nature (the ego). its very nature. * Such as animal. of fifth prin appears as jiva (higher portion no beginning. just as the water-jar and the rest the earth. essentially Whether through ignorance invariably this or any other cause. having m agined. its end cannot be upadhi. &quot. and all actions pertaining its to different stages of upadhi (objective basis) when jiva passes from one existence to another through igno life and condition becomes rance. appears to partake of to partake of the form of the iron (in as the formless fire seems which it inheres).

without attributes. When this error is dispelled.) 199. and this also applies but upon the production of knowledge. As long as there is this error. . to its effects . not eternal. is thus seen to have an end. the independent and non-acting. blessed Master. O wise man : The illusive you have asked rightly.g. that the rope is the snake. Nyaya philosophy for explanation of this term e. ignorance is although without beginning. carefully. how there can be libe The blessed teacher said : 197. so long this snake remains 201.( 129 ) 196. Now. Cf. through its basis. it no longer exists. knowledge and bliss. exists just as the illu sion. seem to be terminable. 202. Even though without clearly beginning this being analogous 203. The connection of the atma with jiva. produced by error. 200. hence it is unreal by nature. though having no beginning. the state of a pot before manufacture is one of antecedent non- existence. ration ? Hence the connection of the atma wiikjiva does not and its conditioned life appears to be then tell me. eternal. lasts only during the period of error on the destruction of error no . Ignorance has no beginning. Hence this connection does not exist. Without error truly the afona. thing of entirely destroyed as is every to dream life is upon awakening. is action. is attributed to the sky (on account of our The seer of the self (pratyagattna).204. and formless cannnot be connected with objects. listen fancies arising from error are not con clusive. created buddhi. it is even so. (connection with jiva) created by false knowledge. just as blue colour limited vision. * Antecedent non-existence. 198. being without Through the error (caused by) buddhl it appears conditioned (connected with jiva) but this is not so.

de called the vignanamaya. as well as on account of its reason of objectivity and liability to error. ego). yet not free from ignorance. Therefore the Logos should be separated from and all that pertains to the false self. in swarga). through it the higher affections are realised (e. By tached character and materiality. it becomes partially manifested at the sight of pleasant 212. becomes manifest as Anandamaya without effort (that is. sadatma (the 207. 210. an of good acts. Nor is this Anandamaya it is Paratrna (the Logos) the to conditions. 208. even when saddtma (the ego) of the appears pure water on the pratyagatma shines removed from unreali ty asat.* saddtma 209. (the Logos) is Hence the Paratma not that which is its changeable. g. as the necessary result of a good life) in a virtuous man is enjoying the fruits of his own merit. a of Prakriti. whose existence depends upon virtu ous action. As the most muddy water so is the removal clearly mud. . This sheath. In the waking and dreaming states in dreamless slumber. It all is supreme spirit. because subject effect. (the first cause) and atma are one and the same is true know ledge and according to the Vedas. 206. objects. and the like. is is entirely different from the jiva in nature and The connection between atma and buddhi (mind) established through false knowledge. Anandamaya sheath is the reflection of the absolute Its attributes are pleasure bliss. This knowledge can only be acquired by the perfect after that discrimination discrimination of ego and non-ego is to be practised in relation to pratyagatma (the Logos) and .and the atma attributes. The principal manifestation of the Anandamaya sheath 211. This connection can only be terminated by true know 205. consequences modification and the sum of the *This refers to the upadhte. The knowledge that Brahm ledge it cannot be otherwise. it (Vignanamaya sheath) cannot be regarded as eternal.

Pratyagatma is identical . forms and changes. that any thing remains but universal negation. such as egotism. is known. the regard characteristic of being the witness can be rightly postulated of none. The fool. So an ignorant man . intellect. This realize as Pratyagatma in your own 221. it is absolute knowledge. By inference and according to the Yorlas the atma It is is what remains the witness. The pupil said : When the five sheaths are subtracted on account of their unreality. The fact that oneself is the witness is Therefore Prcity ag atma of this (the Logos) perceived by is itself the witness and not another. oneself. then. is This atma . such as itself as egotism. as ego said : and non-ego ? The Master wise man. dreaming and dreamless slumber all it the . dream and dreamless sleep) it is stainless. 214. bliss. sheaths man. things. through the subtle intellect. That by which everything 217. after the subtraction of the five . thou art skilful in discrimination. one inward manifestation of self-consciousness in all egos and is the witness of etc. self-illumined and different from the five the witness of the three states (waking. and ing unchanging.. self) and manifests chidatma (real and eternal heart. What.213. water of the jar. Master. knower to be the atma. remains to be known by the learned Brahman. in the is The manifestation states of waking.sheaths. thou hast spoken well. I do not see. With an object not perceived by any one. 220. that which is not known by anything 218. atma is that which is void of all changeful 216. realize that Whoever knows anything to is the witness thereof. 215. 219. it is eternal bliss and thus it must be realised by the learned Brah it is . etc. thinks having seen the image of the sun in the it is the sun.

eternal. devoid of within and without.( 132 ) seeing the reflection of the logos in any of the upadhis it to be the real self. 224. 223. knowledge and eternity. (which remains) when all is fully defective mental states have been rejected. that the individual. supreme. which obtained by the wise. passionless and deathless by knowing the all-illumina which is itself the eternal know ting atma. . through which the only Brahm. 228. pre-eminent. in the centre of wisdom. He fears nothing from anywhere. 229. 225. pure. different from reality as well as unreality. supreme. The realization of the oneness of Brahm is the cause of liberation from conditioned is bliss. uniform. the The wise man (who becomes Pratyagatma by know is ing it). the sinless. Without knowledge of the true self there is no other path open to those desirous of liberation for removing the bondage of conditioned life. besides itself this Brahm truth truth. 227. reason of ignorance this universe appears multi 230. takes 222. abandoning the and the reflection of jiva (ego) becomes body. and not the or the reflection so also the wise man looks to jar. the only one when the supreme realized nothing remains but this. it is Thus intellect ledge. which is the seer. 226. hence the unity of the self with Brahm must be thoroughly realized. supremely only one. the eternal bliss. free from grief and filled with bliss. As the wise man looks at the sun itself . self-existing. subtle. (vehicles). all pervading. becoming Brahm. The wise man. By form. Brahm which is truth. but in reality all this is Brahm. does not return to conditioned existence. the water. always By is the absence of is all existence . is existence . wards the self-illumined Pratyagatma which shines in the three upadhis but does not partake of their functions.

What can there be ? in that which is merely manifest through ignorance is 239. nor are they within me. is not free man this BraJim sruti is is universe such is of the Atharva Veda. that condition) 238. Whatever is person perceived through error by an ignorant nothing but Brahm the silver is truly but the * Effect = product. The Lord. not supported by manifestations. different clay. the knower &quot. the Vedas have no authority and want of veracity is attributed to Iskwara (the logos). If this universe is a reality. 236. it is Since. but Brahm. distinct By no one can the water-pot be seen as Therefore the water-pot clay. its essential the effect* of clay is yet not nature always remaining illusion. is and from the . These three things cannot be ac cepted by great souls. is saying of the Therefore all this the it universe Brahm 235. nothing perceived (in as unreal as dreams. selves also real .&quot. excellent is (anything different. imagined from delusion 233. which is reality. then the atma is finite. t An empty abstraction with no substance to correspond to it.) talking in his sleep. however. the clay alone is essentially real. what has no existence. it should be perceived in is dreamless slumber. The water-pot which from the clay. I am these phenomenal 237. are and there is nothing different from it. is . of all objects in their reality } has declared. If this predicated of as separate from universe is a reality. Therefore there no real existence of the its distinct universe as unreal distinct from the Paratma perception reality is as that of the serpent in the rope.! itself The form is of the water-pot has no independent existence but only a name generated by 232. . them Who from ever says that there illusion but is like a 234.( 133 is ) 231. All products of Brahm.

the peace without beginning and without end. absolute form. Brahm and atma which are respectively designated by thou. of the king * In reference to the well-known analogy of the erroneous perception of the is other-of-pearl as silver. t This great aphorism of the Upanishads formed of three words tat (that. of the atom and the mountain (Mem). 241. but they are nothing but mere names ascribed to Brahm. unmanifested.* In this way Brahm is ever and again invest ed with forms. (there remains) a self-illumined something which is eternal. 244. Therefore the supreme Brahm is out a second. in its (the true self or the Logos clothed Ahammahas is (a manifestation of) all-pervading Parabrahm light) which can be neither taken hold of nor abandoned. mind and inexpressible by speech immeasura without beginning. when the light of the Logos is manifested in upadhis as the jiva or ego) any more than that of the fire-fly and the and the slave. of the well and the ocean. f The identity of the two thus indicated and predicated. as the supreme truth which is absolute in which are united the knower. immeasurable. fixed. . 242. void of action and the essence of ceaseless bliss. with stainless one. the knowledge. 240. without the one reality. are fully proved to be identical the light of Vedic teaching such as by the terms that and when investigated tatwamasi. The wiso know that consciousness.( 134 ) mother-of-pearl. infinite and unchangeable. indestructible. When all the differences created by may a (illusion) have been rejected. 245. sun. incon own ceivable by the ble. jiva or ego) as (art the) Logos or Ishwara. without name. withont stain. it is pure wisdom. the known and 243. cannot be proved on account of mutually exclusive attributes (that is. Parabrahm) twam (thou. without end.

these two upadhis those of the Para (the Logos) and the jiva are completely rejected. 254. perfect identity of the is atma with identity of 253. is here the ideatity is in myself/ the rejection of the by contrary attributes of the terms. The distinction is which in themselves are unreal. that thoti art. identity 250. rejecting the contrary attributes in both terms. praJcriti)olthe logos (Ishwara) is the cause of Mahat (the first of Mulaprakriti) and the five sheaths aro the ofjiva (ego). Through logical inferences having rejected as unreal every conception of what is visible. Hence the sruti (Vedas) says that the quality is created (by illusion) in Brahm eliminated through knowledge. is identity loses its established just as that original this having ascertained these attributes. identity ^ 251. Brahm and of great aphorisms declared the the atma. That Devadatta &amp. The king has his kingdom. 249. Similarly in the saying. differentiation effect created by conditions (upadhin) Listen this Maya (Mula. false Renounce the conception and you have formed that is understand through thy purified intellect thou {atma) art that subtle. knowledge and indefinable as ether. self-existent. then atma and jiva disappear.( 135 ) 246. or like (things seen in) dream the of atma with Brahm is realized. both must be united in order to realize the identity of the logos and parabrahm. is established. . there is neither Para nor jiva. 247. When warrior. created by mind like the notion of the serpent (imagined) in the rope. Brahm which perfect . dicated The wise know the parabrahm. 248. the warrior his arms on the removal of these there is neither king nor . their of a figure of speech which meaning and takes an additional sense.lt. In hundreds 252. the literal nor identity. Therefore. the figurative signification is to be lost sight of. (Harmony must be of con sought in the But in order to realize neither analogy traries).

but which It is pure. disease and death. 261. is un it is realised in the touched by the six human infirmities* heait of Yogis. delusion. thirst. that Brahm it on which rests the world. Realize that thou art that Brahm which is su preme. the eternal substance. which never changes its nature is as unmoved as a waveless ocean. created by ignorance airs. (Brahm) through ignorance. 258. senses. thou art that that absolute peace.gt. eternally unconditioned and and undivided. . it is im perceptible by intellect or mind. so is Just as the pot made from clay is to be considered Sadat-ma (the ego) evolved out of Sat (Parabrahm). so also this world. decay and death. its that preservation and destruction. growth. beyond the range of all speech. devoid of name yond caste. in Samadhi. Brahm which is far be and clan. change. indestructible. and so are also this body. consciousness. may be absolute 259.. great. unreal. Hunger. beyond time. greed. qualities and defects. Brahm without a second.( 136 ) 255. wordly wisdom. Brahm which is the ces sation of all differentiation. loss of substance. is &amp. tion are all unreal. clay. and there is that therefore thou art nothing existing apart from it to be . Realize that thou art that Brahm which is devoid it is created is self-sus different of birth. Realize that thou art 260. time. without 257. family form. Realize that thou art that Brahm which . from (relative) truth. objects and intellec 256. etc. beyond mental representation. the cause of the evolution of the universe. Realize that thou art 262.e. known through the eye of pure wisdom. without stain. Brahm without a second. indivisible. and every thing is sat. great. Just as in dreams the place. vital egoism Therefore understand stain. absolute peace. * + i. regarded as sat.f it cannot be perceived by the senses. tained. and from untruth. space and objects of Realize that thou art consciousness.

which is perfect knowledge. is in the centre* of wisdom . whoever dwells in that centre has no different rebirth.( 137 ) 263. that shines. Even if the substance (or truth) is intellectually grasped. the supreme. bliss. the cause of Multiplicity. having no end. all-pervading. the truth. By known Brahm. Brahm. change. 265.) Realize that thou art 266. that reality which manifests as many through the illusions of name. hand. which is the one essence and beyond the logos. different destructible elements and the indestructible logos. the desire which has no beginning ( expressed in the am the actor and also the enjoyer&quot. and is the cause of conditioned existence. remaining ever constant in the atma as a king in battle depends on his army. realized the supremely pure truth. That desire may be got rid of with great effort by the knowledge of the *Literally the cavity between the eye-brows. from all very great. eternal. 264. the only one. the cause that elimi nates other causes. Brahm which alone which is. uniform. but is yet ever unchanged like gold (in the various forms of golden ornaments. Realize that thou art that Brahm which is without modification. Having verse in 269. logical inferences and by intuition of a sentence is realize thyself as j ust as the meaning under stood the certainty of this truth will be established without doubt just as (the certainty of) the water in the palm of the . Brahm. indestructible. indestrucible bliss.I firm. Realize that thou art that Brahm. . 267. the supreme. qualities. different from the law of cause and effect. truth. 270. and from both (relative) truth and untruth. is strong and words) &quot. and free from stain. merge this objective uni 268. Realize that thou art that Brahm which is the one only reality. form. consciousness. indestructible.

the realization of atma is *Cp. know the iron chain that binds the feet of one aspiring for liberation from the prison-house of conditioned existence he who is free from this attains liberation. is and having realized through pure conduct. etc. body. but becomes pure and emits a fine odour by the friction of wisdom. exhausted. divine aspiration removing becomes manifest when external bad smells so is desire 277. abandon the perception of non-spirit as spirit.( 138 ) Logos. 275. unspiritual desires. and the body.* its Knowing that atma as the witness of mind and operation. destroyed. As by mixture with water and by excellent odour. Aspiration towards the supreme atma is covered by the dust of fatal desires lurking within. true knowledge cannot be pro is This cruel trinity of desire called by those who .) The aspiration towards atma 278. just as the sandal- wood (emits odour. the scriptures duced. body. Owing to a person s desire for the things of the world. or Having given up following the way of the world. 276. it renounces all desires for external things when all . to must be rejected by the wise through devotion 272. 273. Light on the path. senses. that atma the self. all sandal. The to another. wood emits an washed away. such as that erroneous conception that attributes one thing atma is the agoism. desires are completely unobstructed. . atma. atma is 274. to In proportion as the mind becomes firm by devotion atma. 271. (literally The rid of that desire sages on earth call the getting desire being compared to a rope) thinning away. remove the erroneous conception that non-atma. friction. 279. emancipation. the the scriptures. for is stilled by the net of by constant devotion to atma they arc and divine aspiration becomes manifest.

. or the objects of sense. Having ascertained that the body cherishes past become firm and calm and with great efforts remove karma. By realizing I am not jiva but Parabrahm. the erroneous conception that not-spirit &quot. . even but as a dream tion remove the conception that not-spirit is spirit. wise man so long as the notion remains that there without interrup jiva and the world. remove the erroneous conception that not-spirit is spirit. which 285. mind . from logical reasoning and from experience. therefore which through the knowledge of the identity of self and arises from such sentences as thou art that. For the muni (ascetic) there is no activity concerning by devotion to the one. rajas by satwa and satwa by therefore. Without allowing any interval of forge tfulness through news of worldly affairs. is produced through fallacious reasoning. 281. . diligently remove the erroneous conception that not-spirit is spirit. 289.( 139 ) By constant rest in the atma the (individualize d) of the Yogis disappears and desires are exhausted there fore remove the erroneous conception that not-spirit is spirit. 280. So long as the notion I am this body is not com pletely and with great spirit is spirit. sleep. ! . remove the erroneous conception that not-spirit is spirit giving or taking. Brahm 287. the all-pervading nature of atma remove the erroneous conception that not-spirit is spirit 284. control yourself with great concentration.&quot. 283. meditate self in on the the self. The quality of tdmas is eliminated by the other two rajas and sativa. Having understood from the scripture. 282. which is produced by the force of desire. remove purified satwa the erroneous conception that not-spirit is spirit. is spirit. with Brahm. qualities. having recourse to sativa. In order to strengthen the conviction of self-identity 286. abandoned. effort remove the erroneous conception that not- is 288.

absolute is bliss. thou shalt attain the final object. 291. which this (the Logos) am (a manifestation universe is reflected as a city in the mirror. 298. (logos) &quot. &quot. 293. Having become the self. Having merged the ego in the is Logos even as the in free space . which without form and body that has been assumed by action. therefore the and the scripture itself calls (it) unborn and Pratyagatma is different from (relative) truth and untruth. as (one quits) an outcaste . as an actor (abandons) the dress (put on. &quot.( 140 ) 290. of) Realizing as the in I&quot. space occupied by the water-jar main for ever silent in that state 292. eternal . to ckidatma (real bliss for ever individuality or ego self) which is truth (astral and and having abandoned the lincjasariram one (with the Logos).) the atma just The objective universe is false from ( the stand point 296. of truth. Having attained that primeval which the nature is consciousness. like through sadatma a pot containing foul matter.I&quot. abandon this illusive the logos. (the logos) is the witness of the ego ism and the eternal its being is always perceived even in dreamless sleep . Having quitted this body which is composed of flesh and impurities and produced from the impurities of father and and attain become mother. How then can the concept of) all&quot. The all knowor of unchangeable logos alone can be the differentiations of those which are differentiated. as Having transferred the concept of inhering in the body. be established with regard to and the rest ? transitory objects (such as) Aham Padartha rest as . merged re ascetic. Brahm 295. Bmhm the end. and this (objective universe) is nob because only transitory.I know egoism 297. body) become 294.illumined Paramatmajthe rests (ego) the Logos) on which every thing macrocosm is to be abandoned as well as the microcosm.

306. So long as there is the least indication of the effects of poison in the body. there cannot be freedom from disease. past. these three heads and destroying this serpent with the great sword of spiritual knowledge. ahankdra is (egoism). But having known the atma which is perfect knowledge. which envelopes the with three heads.( 141 ) is of these two (differentiate and differentiation) unreal because repeatedly and clearly perceived in the desires of mind (waking state) in dream and in dreamless sleep. am He ( the Logos ) Atma on the complete The ocean its of powerful and self terrible supreme bliss is guarded by the very snake ahankdra. free from the shark of ahankara at is tains the essential form which self-illumined. the gunas. form on this physical body and state of life. vile So long there as is one connected with the (egoism). which all depend also having abandoned the properties of the I myct sarira such 300. 305. in family. . rest become the 301. all-pervading. Abandon the notion and as the feeling of essential form being the actor and the which is absolute bliss. in connection is with a mass of of which a product is Buddki. the cause of a There are other obstacles which are perceived to be man s embodied existence. Of these the first is the modification called 302. Therefore abandon the notion of flesh as also this notion itself &quot. not the least indication of is ahankdra mukti (final emancipation) which He who becomes a strange (thing to him). which attain peace. The character 299.I&quot. affected by neither of &quot. eternal bliss. clan. He who through bewildering ignorance ( is deprived of the firm conviction that I realizes the real self) the identity of Brahm with destruction (of ignorance). stainless as the moon. In like manner the ascetic (Yogi) will not gain mukti so long as there is egoism. The wise man is able to enjoy the ocean of bliss after cutting off. 304.I&quot. present nor future name. 303.

is to respite objects such respite is the cause of its revival. To this erroneous conception that attributes one thing to another (e. and whose only form is reality. 9 that ahankdra death. tremely weakened lime tree. if excited only for a moment by the mind come to life again and cause a hundred distractions. attainment of the supreme object. no other (cause) of this changeful existence of you (the reflection of) the chidatma (Logos) who is un changeable bliss itself.) edge. than this erroneous conception (that ahankdra is the real 310. due embodied existence you. There is less glory .( 142 ) 307. cut Therefore having. this es sential truth This I am realized through discrimination of the real self. just as water is in the case of the ex 313. no it be given to by reflection about . will. and remain silent in Brahm by reaching the 311. . Abandon is at once the which the cause of change. be happy in the enjoyment of spiritual bliss. the enemy of the true self (to and perceived of self. and which is the destroyer of rest in one s own real self. enjoy to heart s content the clearly manifest bliss of the empire end to the functions of the and being free from attachment by the rest. notion of / in the ahankdra which experiences the conse quences of Karma. be) like the thorn in the eater s throat. even though (apparently) cut down to the roots. 308. Having subjugated the enemy ahankara. of stain 309. old the (reflection of the) Logos who age. self. Therefore having put an ahankdra and the all-pervading logos and losing all sense of separate ness. g. By the complete cessation of egoism and the (conse of all its deceitful is quent) extinction manifestations. The great ahankdra. sorrow in consciousness and is bliss. just as during the rains clouds (are scattered about) by the storm. is is the real self) is birth. 312. with the great sword of real knowdown this ahankdra.

(thus) in every 317.f comes the extinction anxious thought. of the self good or evil Karma. As on the rising of the sun darkness and tfye effects of darkness that net of evils are not seen. so on the reali zation of absolute bliss. An ascetic must bum out these two. Means for the destruction of this triad always.) 319. vdsand as directed to ahankdra and the rest disappears. as 321. 315. 320. ohw is Therefore submission to the pursuit of ob (thus) different ? jects is the cause of bondage. The growth is of vdsand 318. an impression remaining unconsciously in the mind from past. * Vdmnd . thought and external action. under all circumstances (should be sought. nourished by these two.iii. vdsand increase. ch. The final extinction of vdsand is liberation that is also called jivan nmkti.( 143 ) 314. be the causer of the desire. through attachment to differ entiations. looking upon every thing as Brahni. See Bhagavad Gita. (vdsand and kdrya) to sever the bond of changing existence. in order way the changeful life of the ego continues. lated. Aspiration towards the real being fully manifested. there is neither bondage nor any trace of pain. How can the dcsirer who exists through the notion of the body being the ego. due to these two. 322. 31G. . t Absolute detachment from action. and by strengthening the perception of the of (one) reality this triad will disappear. By the extinction of action. It is observed that the (of of the seed former is growth of motive is the growth changing existence). darkness does in the light of the supremely brilliant sun. By the strength of vdsand* Mrya (action) is accumu and by the accumulation of kdrya. produces the chang of the ego. ing life Vdsand. By everywhere. in every way. from this (latter) the extinction of vasana. the destruction of the the destruction of the latter therefore the former is : to be annihilated.

62. one 330. as a woman (casts off) her 327. 328. 326. Brahm fullest success . 03.-f- From that comes separation from the real self. achieves the negligence. there is no death other than ing from He who is absorbed in (the real) self. from ahankdra bondage. controlling the external and internal should pass the time while the bondage of Karma 324. thinking ego loses its aim and becomes even then it falls away from the right direction like a playing-ball carelessly dropped on a flight of steps. In devotion to Brahm is there must be no negligence. Therefore for one possessed. immortality. Udyog P. * &quot.( 144 ) 323. realizing the only of bliss. births objects. said that negligence is death.I verily call heedlessncss death. Forgetfulness (of his true self) casts (into the ocean of and deaths) even a learned man attracted by sensehis mind being perverted. so you all perceptible objects. Brahma s son* has 325. from this determination arises desire. slightly If the diverted. . Transcending is full truth which (organs). and from desire human action. s trans. ii. 329. so illusion (maya) veils even the learned who turn back (forgetting the real self. As moss (covering a sheet of water) does not remain (when pushed back) (fixed) even for a moment. Bhagavad Gita. know in samadhi. remains. hence be heedful and self-controlled.&quot. and likewise I call freedom from hee dless: ness Telang t Cf.of discrimination. lover. and from bondage pain. but the destruction of the fallen one. From that springs delusion from delusion ahankdrct. Sanat Sujdta says in the Sanat Sujatiyam Mahfibhtirata. For the wise there no other danger than negligence in regard to the real form of self. The mind directed towards objects of sense determines their qualities (and thus becomes attracted by them). 331. There is never seen the reascent thus separated retrogrades.

Logos. from the clear perception of Paramatma (results) the destruc tion of the bondage of conditioned existence. even levoted to the pursuit of the falsehood perishes in the case of a thief and an honest man. 338. in spite what is for bidden. doning them. The ascetic 337. For him who is conscious of even the slightest differentiation -there is fear cause of all evils. perceived as the ego.&quot. Smriti (law books). to The liberated man devoted always attains the glory of (the real) self. the cause of bondage. the pursuit of truth. falls into a multitude of sorrows on sorrows (such a man) the doer of .d t .( 145 ) Therefore abandon thoughts (about sense-objects). any time the learned man perceives even an in the infinite Brahm. 336. objects results in increasing evil therefore realizing the true character discriminative and aban (pursuit of) external objects being checked. Devotion to Brahm gives bliss through realization of {the real) self and takes away the great pain experienced as the effect of avidya.* 333. rests in the I am the spiritual perception. vdsani more and more of such objects through knowledge. The * Katha Upanlsha. does so also when devoid of the body. &quot. this is seen abandoning the pursuit of unreality. then what is difference through negligence is to him a (cause at 331 He who regards what is of hundreds of injunctions to the contrary in Sruti (Vedas). 332. quillity of the . and Nyaya (logic). When atom of differentiation perceived as of) fear. tran mind (manas) is produced from the tranquil lity of manas arises the vision of Paramatma (the Logos). while he who is . is like a mallmluch (a demon). Pursuit of external . be constantly engaged in the pursuit of the real self. Restraint 01 the external is the way to liberation. so says the Yajur Veda. the He who while living realizes unity (with the supreme). 335.




What learned man, capable of discrimination between 339. the real and the unreal, understanding the supreme object according to the conclusions of the Sruti, and aspiring for
liberation, would, like a
child, rest in the

unreal^ the cause of




There is no mokska for him who is attached to body 340. and the rest in the liberated there is no notion of the body and the rest being the ego. The sleeping man is not awake, and the man awake is not asleep different attributes inhering

in each (condition).
is liberated, who, having (by spiritual intelligence) the Logos within and without, in moveable and imperceived moveable (things), realizing it as the basis of the ego and





upddhis, remains as the all-pervading inde

structible LogoSi


no other means

for the

removal of bondage

than the realization of the nature of the Logos.
jects of sense are not pursued, the state



of being of the


attained through unremitting devotion to it. How can the non-pursuit of objects of sense which 343.

can only with effort be accomplished by the wise, who know the truth, ceaselessly devoted to the Logos, aspiring for eternal bliss, and who have renounced all objects of dharma (cus

tomary observances) and &armo(religious rites and ceremonies), be possible to one who regards the body as the self, whose mind is engaged in the pursuit of external objects, and who

actions connected with



344. For the attainment (of the state of) the Logos by the Bhikshu,* engaged in the study of philosophy, samadhi is

Possessed of control over exter enjoined by the Sruti-text and so forth.f nal organs and mind



Even the wise
of egoism

are not able at

once to cause the de


which has become strong by

One in fourth stage or farama of life, a mendicant. t Kj om the Brihadaranyatn Upanishad (See &vpra, xl, 20




in those


are fixed in Nirvikalpa sam&dhi,





binding a


to the delusive

idea of

through the power of
Until the

Avarana sakti*


embodied existence) by

its qualities.

Avarana sakti ceases completely, the con From its inherent quest of the Vikshepa sakti is impossible. nature the former is destroyed in the self when subject and
object are distinguished, as (one distinguishes) milk and water. When there is a complete cessation of the (activity 348. the Vikshepa sakti in regard to the unreal, then without of)

doubt or impediment arises perfect discrimation, born of clear perception, dividing the real and unreal principles, cutting
asunder the bond of delusion produced by Mayd, for one eman cipated from that there is no more changeful existence.

The fire of the knowledge of the oneness (of Brahm) 349. without limitation, burns down completely the forest of avidyd where then is the seed of changeful existence of him who has


completely attained the state of oneness ? 350. By the thorough realization of the (one) substance




The destruction

of false



the cessation of the pain (arising from) the Vikshepa sakti.
351. By the perception of the true character of the rope these three are seen.t Therefore by the wise the essential sub



to be


for the

sake of liberation from bondage.

352. Buddhi in conjunction with consciousness, similar to the union of iron and fire manifests itself as the faculties of



of this



the three

(mentioned above); wherefore what dream, and in desire, is false.

perceived in error, in

Avarana saJcti is the power that makes one thing appear as another. Vide Sloka 115. t The power that envelopes the rope as the serpent, the mental perturba tion caused thereby, and the erroneous knowledge that the rope is the ser*
pent, are, all three of them, seen to disappear is the rope and not the serpent.



it is

perceived that tho





in the


and ending These are unreal, because every moment they appear where as the atma is at no time otherwise.

these objects beginning with ahankdra, body, are the modifications of Prakriti.

the eternal, non-dual, indestructible consciousness, ever the same form, the witness of buddhi and the rest, different from both ego and



the eternal,



non-ego, the word



true significance (aham), the real


indicated by the meaning of


wise man, having thus discriminated between ego the one reality by innate (spiri non-ego,, having ascertained realized his own atma as indestructi tual) perception, having ble knowledge, rests in the real self, being free from the two


(ego and nonego).

When by

realized, then is

is avikalpa samddhi the non-dual atma of the heart completely ignorance the knot





without (the Logos), being non-dual and and this, are produced conceptions as I, thou,

when samddhi is mani through the defects of buddhi. But connected with him (the jiva) becomes fest, all differentiation through the realization of the (one) real substance. destroyed
sama, dama, supreme upaand kshdnti (endurance), and devoted to samddhi, per ceives the state of the Logos, and through that (perception) completely burns down all vikalpa (error) produced by avidyd and dwells in bliss in Brahm free from vikalpa and action.







Those alone are freed from the bondage of conditioned being who, having transcended all externals, such as hearing f mind, self and egotism in the chiddtma (the Logos), are ab

sorbed in


not those

who simply

speak about the mystery.

to be divided, on the

Through the differences of upvdhi, the true self seemg removal of upddhi the one true self relet




the wise

man remain

Akalpa eamddhi

until the final

always devoted tcp\ dissolution 01 upddhi.

devoid of all vikalpa (differences such as between subject and object).( 149 ) The man. The 363. So there and (there is) extinction of all karma always and in every way. abandoning the meditation attains impurities satva. shut up with a humblebee. (See Thcosophist. known by worthy men. (superior) without. . becomes sat exclusive devotion to that one. vi). Similarly the yogi meditating on the Paramatma (Logos). (spiritual) faculties.* 861. (desires). a spontaneous manifestation of Svarupa (Logos). illustration ness of Of course the statement in the text is but an and not an argument and it is quite independent of the genuine the phenomenon. rajas. 367. The excessively subtile Paramatma be perceived through the gross vision. with very pure buddhi not (the Logos) can (It is) to be through the samddhi and supremely subtile 364. Know meditation to be a hundred times * It is usually believed in India that a cockroach. on that humble-bee. By this samddhi there is is destruction of the entire knot of vdsand (action). insect. 365. writer in this maga zine states that he has witnessed such a transformation. assimilation to be hundred thousand times (superior) to meditation. the Manas. and tamas through the Supreme Reality. attains the state of the meditating humble-bee. devoted to sat (the real). then samddhi. vol. . becomes it through devotion to that one. quality. properly purified by all dross so the . becomes of itself the producer of the realization of non-dual this kind. (As) the insect think through ing constantly of the humble-bee becomes itself the bee. 362. As abandoning gold. bliss. The phenomenon in question is unknown to modern entomologists. becomes after a time changed into the latter. When 366. matured by ceaseless discipline of becomes merged in Brahm. attains its essential Manas. abandoning attachment to all other action. It seems desirable that very careful and repeated observations should be A made to determine the matter. and Nirvikalpa Samadhi to Jbe infinitely to assimilation. within and (superior) to listening. fire.

merge that in Nirvikalpa purnatma (the Logos where no dis tinction exists between ego and non-ego) and obtain supreme Control . The yogi (for attains the state of those upadhis. 372. . observed that on the upadhis). 370. then non-acceptance (of absence of desire (reality).. etc. reality. absence of expectation. Uninterrupted devotion to the one the cause of the cessation of sense-enjoyment. (As : the non-dual reality) becomes mixed with other conceptions through the inconstancy of the activities of the Manas. viz. bliss enjoyment of the the activity of the by the ascetic..( 150 ) 368. body. Therefore the cessation of is to thinking self be attained with effort tellect) speech by (thy) self. those functions and there comes for the Muni that which is caused by abstinence from the plea perfect happiness sures of the senses and the realization of eternal bliss. external and internal. cessation of activity (of 374. count of the aspiration forsakes all attachment &amp. dama is the cause of the tranquillity of the thinking self. - life principle. and by perception of one darkness caused by beginningless avidya.gt. Thence proceeds the yogi s perpetual of Brahm. \ I 373. who is Renunciation. -whether internal or external. intellect. and in uninterrupted tranquility of mind. senses. anything and all). with whose functions he is engaged It is the time being). is fit only for him Therefore the dispassionate rnan on ac dispassionate. and that by buddhi (in and buddhi by the witness of buddhi (divine light). be engaged in meditation 869- on the logos. called Verily by Brahm is clearly realized Nirvikalpa Samddhi the essential reality not by any other means. destroy the The first gate of yoga is the control t of speech. inind. and uninterrupted devotion to the one (reality) is 371. for liberation . 375. Therefore with the organs of sense restrained. and on account of sama egotism is dissolved.

External attachment is to objects of sense. arid (the manifes self. regard to unreality Abandon the notion of self in body and the rest and gain knowledge of In reality thou art the seer. internal ta to egotism arid the rest. What is the tion. Having forsaken selfish attachinent to caste. de man Know renunciation and be the two wings of the embodied egospiritual knowledge By nothing other than these two can ascent to the top of the 377. the body motionless. he becomes the enjoy er panied by of the empire of self-dominion this is the permanent gate of Therefore thou who art dif the maiden (named) liberation. tation of) the supreme non-dual Brahm. then. 381. these are the causes of death. and having realized the unity of the atma and Brahm by absorp in the indestructible. gain knowledge of (thy) self for the sake of liberation. there is liberation. Having firmly applied the manas to the goal. which is void of happiness ? Abandoning all thought of not-spirit. 379. samddhi there is unwavering spiritual For him who has perceived the essential reality perception. regardless of its state or condition. in tion of eternal bliss. for him. and abiding all else use of 382. It is only the dispassionate voted to Brahin. Brahm. For one whose self is controlled. Cut off desire of objects of sense which are like poison 380. family and religious order. svith having confined the external organs to their own places.3?6. which id bliss and which is the cause of liberation* . being . discriminating to ! creeper of nectar called liberation be accomplished* For hinl who Is possessed of excessive dispassion there 378. clear spiritual perception. which stains the mind and is the cause of suffering. renounce all acts proceeding from attachment. I see no better gene^- If thatj again. always and abundantly drink in the essence of Brahmic bliss in thyself. ever ferent from this. man. void of attachment to everything. stainless. is accom rator of happiness than dispassion. and for the liberated atma there is realiza is samddhi . think of atma. who is able to renounce them.

and giving up and the rest. is one and not many. senses. which the ordinary Hindu house-holder looks upon as inauspi cious objects not fit to be kept in any prominent part of the house. its name. From Brahin down to the post. it as the self. similarly the pure Supreme. small and large earthen pots. * Have no more concern than people have about such worthless things as broken pots. As space. and yet remaining being egotism in them. which is different from asat (unreal). illusive. freed from a hundred upadhis (such as) the 388. (regard them) as broken earthen-pots through want of Thoroughly realising self as the idea of interest in them. rest. all tipadhis are merely Therefore realize the all-pervading atma as one and the same. is imagined through error as different (from not so on right perception. reality the atma. the indivisible being. the by slow degrees steadiness. similarly the universe is in 390 Whatever is the real). not dependent upon another.( 152 ) (This atma) is self illuminating. is but one. realize it clearly as the essential form of 385. to the absolute knowledge. . 384. containing rice and other grains. the witness of all (objects) and is ever manifest in the Vigmnamaya Koslia. Uttering self. but it is merely that (thing itself) On the cessation of error what was seen before as a snake appears as the rope. ego tism and the rest produced by ignorance as maha akasha the (great space). indestructible and all-pervading atma. Purn- atma. Making this. vitality. 383. mind. it purified anta/t karna (the mind} realize to the real leading which is the witness. the aim. freed from egotism and the 389. Having applied the self. 387Regard freed from all the upadhis body.* 386. realize it as the indestructible self by abiding in it.

As wave. from the atom there to say ? Jiva (ego). This is quite certain. abandoned all externals. lute happiness. and but consciousness. very t eternal. . which is pure are abso 393.( 153 ) 391. pure void of vikalpa. so all. this. the atma atma is Siva. the atma is in the south. speech. then those raised body which is like air. Atma and thus 398. Kill out by the force (of Will) desires raised through physical body full of filth. Are the various kinds of earthen-vessels different from the earth ? The embodied ego. of modifica as space. and remain in Brahm. speaks of I and 395. The 392. before is in The atma is within. abide in the eternal Chidananda bliss) (the Logos which is consciousness and reach Brahm. the secondless. tion. of boundary. is Indra. The real self is (in essence) the Supreme Brahm. of within and without. (the to the Universe. the atma. to be bliss. having no other. beginning with the body and ending with egotism. lies is Verily all this universe. egoism in the in the astral self. sivayam. for the purpose of removing the erroneous conception that attributes one thing to another. whirlpool and bubble are all essen tially but water. the atma is the whole of this uni besides atma there is nothing. verse atina is Brahma. the atma is without. Know the (real) whose glory is celebrated in the Vedas. What more real self). you. the north. on the other side of Prakriti. . deluded by the wine of Maya. all is the non-dual : Brahm in different forms Parabrahm. the foam. the atma is atma is behind. the Sruti says I (the Logos) am Those whose minds are thus illuminated. of motion. known through mind and the spirit verily nothing is except the spirit which . the atma is Vishnu. 396. having . the atma is also above and below. 394. the . The (so) what else is there to is know ? 397. By the cessation of action there remains no Sruti declares other than the absence of duality.

.* he is there is suffering associated with impuref through enemies. and jealousy. greed. secondless and devoid of visein which ignorance the cause of illusion is destroyed. In the supreme reality. non- upon the dual. returns at the Oceaii=thc supremely subtle cause into which everything i&amp.ralaya. the physical body. In the one substance. the three divisions of time is there the universe in sadatma (the real self). universal . which is (in essence) Parabrahm void is vikalpa. and devoid of visesha.! When he perceives the pure atma birth. and known. where is the difference reality. formless and devoid of visesha. which is On the realization of the supreme Truth. lust. such as knower.\\ and formless. (As on the truth being i. undifferentiable. 402. full as the ocean of Kalpa. which is bliss and is immoveable. death and disease. void of vikalpa * (distinction duality). as is darkness 400- in light. anger. In the one substance. 400.e. then this vikalpa wild talk remains. ail self. where is there difference ? 404. then only (he) becomes free from these so the Vedas declare. The || the six passions. When Paratma the functions of the thinking self are at rest in of (the Logos). t In a Levitical . devoid of the conditions (of be 403. delusion.sense. undifferentiable. perceived no longer and mere devoid of visesha tinction that this In the one substance. 401. where is the ? difference 405. 399.. On the removal of the true all phenomenal attributes imposed (found to be) the supreme. ? In the one supreme ? how can there be any in dication of difference By whom ceived in sushupti. i. pride distinctness of one object from another. in none of 407.( 154 ) So long as a man is attached to the corpse-form.gt. slid. which or is (in substance) Brahm. is a false conception. has any difference been per merely a state of happiness. and undifferenti ing^. formless and where is there difference ? Hence the dis is the universe.e. self is pervading and actionless Brahrn. knowledge able.

The wise man samadhi perceives in his heart the nndecaying. Brahm in (in essence. peaceful and Having brought the antahkarana (mind) self. stance with the substance itself has been perceived by the wise in the case of the rope and The distinction is kept serpent. eternally actionless. eternal. in his heart bliss. you should perceive efforts se it. is no snake in the rope nor a drop of water reality there it is This quality exists only through Maya. as space. 411. 414. and known as the eternal Logos. in absolute is no quality this the Vedas say clearly and . immortal substance. established by the declarations of the Vedas. . * In which they had been perceived erroneously. perceived in sushupti. The identity of that which is attributed to the sub 409. in whom the activity of the one. and the all-pervading 412. the supreme limitless as limit incomparable.( 155 ) perceived) there in the mirage*. beyond the knot of manas. stainless. in the true tible . is the all pervading in Brahm (in essence). the Logos. Therefore bring the thinking principle to rest in Paramatma which is . unequalled. whose state or being is beyond (our) conception and which is uniform. (that something which eternal knowledge. The wise man is in samadhi perceives pure free. and 413.) The wise man is something) which samadki perceives devoid of Prakriti and in his heart its (that modifications. This distinction has its root in the thinking principle without the thinking principle it does not exist. gunas is at an end. 408. 410. aLd render fruitful your manhood. without distinction of subject is and object. whose glory is indestruc with assiduous er the bondage tainted by tho smell of conditioned existence. to rest. alive by error. which is like a motionless ocean not indicated by mere negation. without name.

The peace that comes from the realization of the . freed from all bliss. The great wise man having burnt fire all is is this down to the roots in the of the real self. does not again look at the body. abandon this upadhi (the body) which is impure. strung on the thread of prarabdha* Karma and (unholy) as cow s blood whether the body remains knowledge and bliss. is indestructible The gain of the is yogi who has attained perfection of and is a Jivanmukta the employment perpetual bliss in the atma 422. Realize the atma in yourself. The Mahatma having (once) abandoned the body was a corpse the body which. whose being is (gradually) being absorbed into the Logos. of right abstention from the pleasures of sense and cere perception. which which the non-dual eternal. * Latent possibilities which have become dynamic. The knower 419. 418. is regarded as a reflected shadow of the man does not again fix his thoughts upon it. . The absence of what follows (in the order given above) 423. Brahm in essence. remains in the Logos. Having perceived the Logos which and the knower of truth nourish the body ? 421. upadhis. monial acts. the re collection of what is vomited is only calculated to disgust. consciousness. or disappears. through experi encing the effects of Karma. and Brahm. which is bliss. Perfect satisfaction renders fruitless the one that precedes it. 416. The result of dispassion is right perception bliss of self is the fruit of abstention from ceremonial acts. as if it Having approached the Logos which is eternal. 417. puro of truth. Then it is not to be thought of again.( 156 existing ) 415. from the unparalleled bliss that comes from self is proceeding liberation. the non-dual being. from the pleasures of sense. 420. and will and you visible no longer be subject to evolution. pure knowledge and bliss. who is within and without.

is the extreme limit of uparatii sorption in the Logos. 429. at times of an infinity of recovers consciousness and enjoys the fruit ascetic. it is looked upon as a knot tying together and hence Sea si. wisdom. * . firm in This actionless. as in the mirage. world perceived in dream.( 157 is ) 424. illusion is extinguished. He on this earth is happy and worthy of honour who. troyed. If this (difference) is not perceived between the ignorant and the wise. regarding the objects as a sleeping child (would do). t Between object and subject there is no the ego and non-ego. entirely des then how attachment in repect 427.e.. and which and atma. looking others perienced by upon the universe as the meritorious deeds. free from changes of con his atma being ab enjoys perpetual bliss. 430. when the relation except through illusion. ? If the kuot of the heart. tranquillity. dition. etc. that of ignorance is attachment to it. I Peace. can objects by themselves be the cause of of one who is without desires ? of even conscious inclination to The non-appearance is wards objects of enjoyment the extreme limit of dispassion limit of right dis . 24. i. 428. from asat (Prakriti). The fruit of wisdom declared to be freedom from How can a man of right dis anxiety at the sight of trouble. t ignorance. the nonevolution of egotism is the supreme the non-evolution of self-conscious being by ab crimination . crimination do afterwards* the blameworthy acts done when deluded ? It is perceived that the fruit of wisdom is liberation 425. sorbed in Brahm. Pragna or wisdom is said to be that state of ideation which recognises no such distinction as that of ego and nonBrahm is absorbed in the manifested unity of ego. where can we see any gain is for the wise 426. is freed from by always resting in peace of enjoyment ex external consciousness. in the form of Brahm.

. and who remains indifferent. is characterstio of a jivanmukta.* is the characteristic of a jivanmukta. 436. 432. Want characteristics of a jivanmukta. devoid of thinking. He who is free done by body. 434. He regarded as jivanmukta who. 439. * Literally my-ne. is the characterstic of a of good 437. (respect to) oneself to regard as equal in and to feel no perturbation in either 438. He who has realized the identity of Atma with Brahrn by the power of Vedic wisdom and is freed from the bondage of conditioned existence. is is possessed of the characterstic of a jivanmukta. and bad On meeting them all jivanmukta. He is is regarded as at rest. is awake and yet devoid of all characteristics of waking. is yet devoid of whose thinking principle of inquiry into the past. whose bliss is uninterrupted and by forgotten. He who is be firm in wisdom. agreeable and disagreeable. and internal perception in the ascetic by reason of his consciousness being centred in the enjoyment of Brahmic bliss. is characterstic of a The absence of external jivanmukta.( 158 ) 431. whose consciousness it free from even unconscious traces of 433. and indifference (as to the present). are the 435. case. is whom the objective universe is well-nigh regarded as is jivanmukta. Though existing in this body which is like a shadow to be yet devoid of egotism and the consciousness of posses sion. qualities. full as. senses. though having his consciousness absorbed (in the Logos). with objects. desire. to evolution jivanmukta in whom all tendency who though possessed of kola (ray of is it (from the standpoint of Brahm). absence of speculation about the future. from egotism and my-ness in what etc. perfectly at rest (in this wisdom) is said to He who is firm in wisdom. gard all By nature (from acquired natural disposition) to re as equal everywhere in this world of opposites. is possessed of the characterstic of a jivanmukta. 440. the Logos)..

never considered 442. . the consciousness of / in regard to the body and organs. as is the Karma of dream life on awaking. so long Prdravdha exists . and do not produce any change. is possessed of the characterstic teristic of Brahm and ajivanmukta. knows there is no difference between Pratyagatma (Logos) and Brahma.) v&sana 447 it not he evolves through the force of previous Vdsan&* becomes powerless by the so. 450 450 Whatever is clone. Dependence on (external) objects is seen in one en in deep meditation on account of the results of Karma gaged already in operation so say the Vedas. He in whom a. He jivanmukta. the acquired in a thousand millions of kalpas is extinguish ed. so (the vdsana) of the wise ceases on knowing Brahm. these results are preceded by Karma for one devoid of Karma they connot be anywhere. 444 The ascetic. Karma By the knowledge that I (the Logos) am Brahm. is possessed of the charac a jivanmukta. who. is liberated. and of arises. into whom (into whose consciousness) enter and become merged objects called into existence by Para (light of the Logos) as the rivers flow into the ocean by reason of his being nothing but sat (because Parabrahm). He who is the same. no more evolution not known (he said as before is if knowledge of there be these the Brahmic state If it is is out of it. whether manifestly good or bad in dreams how is it (efficacious) for the going to heaven or hell of the dreamer awakened ? t Impressions remaining unconsciously in the mind from past Karma. realizasion of identity with the Reality. by reason of wisdom. whether worshipped by the good of or harassed by the wicked.( 159 ) 441. 443. the perfect bliss. For him there is who has gained is the true : Brahma 446. 448. 499. as also between the universe. his As the tendency of the most lustful man ceases before mother. So long as there is perception of pain and pleasure. 445. is this in regard to other subjects.

Worship &c. 3. yet In his front desires do not leave him. ship &c.CHARAPATAPANJARI OF Srimat Sankaracharya iranslatedby I saluto the glorious Ganesk. in earning 8. Worship &c. what is the lake when its water dries up. 7. morning and evening. Worship &c. 4. the old man is lost in anxiety. take me to the opposite shore . . worship god. 9. the young man is attached to the young woman. are born again and die again and again lie (Dead) persons in the save me. a path in which merit and demerit are alike neglected. When death approaches.Worship god. to the Great Brahma. money his dependents when he becomes disabled in body Worship &c. Wor The body has become impaired. not cared for at home. yet hope does not leave him. puts on dress of a reddish colour he sees and is yet blind and dis . and what is the band of dependents when the world when the reality is known. 6. at night he puts his knees to his chest. The child is absorbed in play. So long he is as he is engaged affectionately follow him . J. Worship &c. &quot. winter and spring time passes on and life is spent! come round (in succession) but hope does not leave man. 5. Oh foolish man. is fire. and the mouth toothless. on the back sun-shine. guises himself variously for the sake of his belly. Man keeps clotted hair or shaves his head bald. It is (like) a sheet of rags joined together . and none devotes himself 2. Worship &c. he begs and lives beneath a tree. the study of grammar will not save you. the head heavy. the old man goes stick in hand. Where is passion when youth is gone. Parmanand. Worship &c. Day and night. There is neither you . where is is wealth exhausted. wombs of their mothers or this insurmountable world Oh Lord by Your Grace. N.

Worship &c. Who One s habitation should be the foot of a tree on the banks of the Ganges. this world is very curious whence have you* come Oh brother consider the reality in your mind. 12. the mind should be devoted to the company of the good. 15. ship. who is your son.. who is my mother. him does Yama investigate into (? his couduct) ? Worship &c. ship &c. 1 1. 14. 13Who am I. to whom does such abandonment of the world not give happiness. who is is my father. Leaving aside all unreal dreams consider this. whence have you come. &c. clothes a deerskins all objects of enjoyment should be abandoned . money should be given little. and ship &c. why then are you aggrieved. your wife.( 161 ) nor I nor a third person. Wor Whoever has studied the Gita a has drunk a particle of the waters of the Ganges. 10. Wor seeing the breasts and hips of women you fondly become attached to them. Worship &c. who are you. but consider constantly that they are merely On forms of flesh. and has worshipped god. bed the surface of the earth. The Gita should be sung. Wor . Worship . fat &c. the almighty should be constantly meditated upon. to the poor.





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