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# Chapter 4 #14

14. A container of water at 140oC has a specific volume of 0.617 m3/kg
Determine the pressure inside the container using
a. Tabular information or Excel file WaterGasPhase
b. The ideal gas law
c. The van der Waals equation.
Determine the percent error for parts b and c as compared to part a.

a. From Appendix G, we see that water at 0.30 MPa and 140oC has a specific volume of
616.97 cm3/g=0.61697 m3/kg. Thus to at least two significant figures, the pressure is
0.30 MPa=300 kPa. Excel file WaterGasPhase gives 299.97 kPa.

b. Using the ideal gas law,

PV = nRT
nRT RT RT
P= = =
V V m vM
m n
J
8.314 (140 + 273)K
= Mole • K = 3.09 × 105 Pa = 309kPa
3  
m  g 1kg 
0.617  18.0
kg  mole 1000g

This is 3% over the tabular value.

c. To apply the van der Waals equation, we can use the values of a and b calculated in
Example 4.10 :

 m3  2
a = 0.5537Pa 
 mole 
m3
b = 3.049 ×10−5
mole

It is also useful to calculate the molar volume:
€  1kg  3 3
g  0.617 m = 1.11 × 10 −2 m
v = Mv = 18.0 
 1000g
mole   kg mole

Working with the van der Waals equation,

372 ×10−3 mole This pressure is overestimated by [(1098-900)/900]x100%=22% In the van der Waals approach.049 × 10  1.    P + a  v − b = RT ( )    v2  RT a P= − 2 v−b v  m3 2 J 0.0560 Mpa.372 ×10−3 kg 1000 g mole mole Ideal gas approach: € Pv = RT J 8. Estimate the pressure under these conditions using first the ideal gas equation of state and second the van der Waals equation of state.11 × 10 −2 m  mole mole    kg  = 3. 2  J  2 2 2 27 8.02325 = 2. we must first calculate the parameters “a” and “b”. 374. respectively.031 g m3 v = 0. we find Tcr and Pcr.0560 ×10 6 Pa) mole 2 Pa  mole  and € .5537Pa   8.098 ×10 6 Pa = 1098 kPa v m 2.314 mole • K ( 140 + 273 K )  mole   = − 3 3 2 −2 m −5 m  3 1.007 = 1.18 K and 4.007  Pa 64Pcr 64 ( 4. Thus. R-134a (CF3CH2F) is maintained at a temperature of 40oC and a specific volume of 0.06 × 105 Pa = 306kPa or about 2% above the tabular value. 16.314 (40 + 273.02325 m3/kg. From € Appendix D.314  ( 374. The molar specific volume is found with the help of Appendix D: m 3 1 kg 102. Compare both results to the table value of 900 kPa.15)K RT mole K P= = 3 = 1.11 × 10 − 3.18 K )  m 3 2 27R Tcr  mole K  J2 a= = = 1.

We can convert the specific volume kmole  1000 moles  mole to the molar specific volume using data from Appendix D: 3 cm 3  18.59 ×10 .015 g  1 m  −3 m 3 v = 207.733 ×10−3 m  3. we find P=981.1% . The temperature is 195oC=468. Compare your result that found using Excel file WaterGasPhase. so the virial expansion is off by just 0. € 17.6.18 K ) 3 RTcr mole K J −5 m b= = = 9.7 kPa. Use the second order virial expansion to calculate the pressure of water whose temperature is 195oC and specific volume is 207.2 cm3/g.15 K )  −0.314 ( 40 + 273.372 ×10 mole  = 1. 8Pcr 8( 4. €  a  P + 2 (v − b) = RT  v   J   m 3 2  8.15K in Excel file WaterGasPhase. € .733 ×10 € g  1 mole 100 cm  mole Thus  J   3  €  8. m 3  1 kmole  −3 m 3 B = −0.8 kPa Using ρ=v-1=4.007  Pa RT a  mole K   mole  P= − = 3 3 − v −b v2 3 2 −3 m −5 m  −3 m 2.20   = −0.15K.0560 ×10 6 Pa) mole Pa mole So. J 8.314 ( 468.15)K 1.8263 kg/m3 and T=468.733 ×10−3 mole  mole  = 9.20 ×10−3 m  RT  B   mole K  mole  P= 1+  = 3 1+ 3 v  v m  3. Reading data from Figure 4.314 (374.59 ×10 mole mole 2.79 ×10 5 Pa = 9.143 ×10 6 Pa −1.868 ×10 5 Pa = 986.20 ×10 .2    = 3.5%. using the van der Waals equation of state.64 ×10 5 Pa = 964 kPa This represents a somewhat smaller overestimate of [(964-900)/900]x100%=7.372 ×10 − 9.59 ×10 −5 = 9.

Hence we cannot tell from the given information whether the ideal gas approximation is appropriate.20 m3.15 0.3 0.Can you tell from the given information if this gas is an ideal gas? b. Given the description of the process.5 P (atm) 1 0.A gas occupies a volume of 0. The pressure is increased linearly with respect to volume until a final pressure of 2.35 0. Chapter 5 Problem 1 2.4 V (cubic meters) The work can be calculated by determining the area under the curve: .0 atm.Calculate the work done on the gas during the compression. a.5 2 1. Without knowing the substance. we do not need to know the details of the system.Chapter 5 #1 1.0 atm is reached.35 m3 at a pressure of 1.5 0 0.25 0. we have no idea how close it is to condensing. however. with the final volume being 0.2 0.

W = A rectangle + A triangle ( 3 = 0. Chapter 5 #3 3.35m 3 − 0.0atm − 1.225m 3 • atm   = 23kJ  1atm  Note a positive sign was chosen for the work since positive work on the gas must be done in order to compress it.0 atm to 20 atm.10m × 0.10m × 0. 1 2 W = κV P2 − P12 ( ) 2 1 2 2 = 1.0 ×1.0atm) + 12 (0.10m ) 20 ×1.027J € . κ =1.32×10−11Pa −1 (0.01×10 Pa )  5 2 = 0. the pressure applied to it increasing from 1. Calculate the work done on the block during the compression.0atm )  101kPa  = 0.7 g/cm3.35m − 0.20m 3 )(1.01×105 Pa ( ) − (1.32x10-11 Pa-1) at 20oC is compressed isothermally.20m 3 )(2. A 10cm x 10cm x 10 cm cube of aluminum (ρ =2.

314 50K = 1.9367 ( ) − 1.02g/mole mole • K Using tabular information (Water General Table). takes the water from vapor to saturated vapor.Calculate the percent error in treating the vapor like an ideal gas.96 × 104 J ( ) 18.treating the vapor as an ideal gas b.6959 m3/kg. It is compressed isothermally until all of the water is saturated liquid.9 cm3/g=1. Under the given initial conditions. takes the water from saturated vapor to saturated liquid. The second step. when P=100 kPa and T=100oC. V1 – V2. W = −PΔV for work done on a gas during an isobaric process and PV=nRT for an ideal gas. until the temperature reaches 150oC.85kg  1.05 × 104 − 1. while when T=150oC.018 kg 160 ×10 3 Pa m mole ( ) € .9367 m3/kg. 0. heat enters the vapor. 4. V2 – V3.using tabular information c.96x 104 × 100% = 4% 2. causing it to expand.85 kg of water vapor is maintained under a constant pressure of 100 kPa.7cm3/g=1.314 moleK (150 + 273)K kg v1 = = = = = 1. so m Wby gas = +PΔV = nR ΔT = RΔT M 850g J = 8. v=1695. you may treat the water vapor as an ideal gas.22 3 m m MP 0. Hint: for the purposes of estimating.05 × 104 19. Estimate the amount of work that is performed on the water during this process.6959  = 2. Thus Wby gas = +PΔV = Pm Δv  m3 m 3  = 100x10 3Pa 0. the specific volume of water is approximately J V1 nRT P RT 8.50 l of water vapor is at 150oC and 160 kPa. We will break this process down into two steps. The first step. Calculate the work done by the vapor during the expansion a. Starting from 100oC.05 × 104 J  kg kg  The percent difference is 2. 1. v=1936.

50l 3 n = 272J  V1   v1   1000l   m3   1.50l  V V 1000l  v= ⇒m= = = 1.23g1.16 kPa.16 ×10 3 Pa(1.0905 cm3/g. clearly the ideal gas equation no longer applies. so we might estimate that there will be an error of a few percent in applying the ideal gas equation for isothermal compression.0905  = 1. The ideal gas law.22/2. Proceeding with that calculation.45 cm3/g = 0. so the final volume is €  cm 3  3 −6 3 V3 = mv l = 1. first let’s calculate the mass of water:  1m 3  1. V2 is  cm 3  3 −4 3 € V2 = mv g = 1. using Appendix E.409 kg/m3. Thus we can use the equation for isobaric work.23g 392. according to Appendix E.34cm = 1. W=-P(V3-V2). predicts that if T is held constant.45  = 483cm = 4.98 = 0.83 ×10 m  g  The specific volume of saturated liquid at 150oC is 1. € .22 kg Now since the specific volume of saturated vapor at 150oC is 392.  m3   V2   v2    0. so we would expect a decrease in the specific volume from 1. As we enter the mixed phase. However. To find V2. We need to continue compressing until we have saturated liquid. the pressure remains constant at 476. Note that the pressure at which saturation is reached is 476. PV=nRT.392m3/kg.98.23g m v m3 1. where it is reasonable to round off due to the approximations made in the first part of the calculation.22 kg/m3 to 1.392  1m 3   kg  W = −nRTn  = −P1V1n  = −(160 ×10 Pa)1.83 ×10−4 m 3 ) = 229J € The total work is thus 272J+229J=501J or approximately 500J. P and V are inversely proportional. This is about 4% off from the more reliable tabular value. according to Appendix E.45 cm3/g.34 ×10 m  g  The work done during the isobaric portion of the compression is then W = −P (V3 − V2 ) = −476. Here we have increased the pressure by a factor of 476/160 = 2. 392.34 ×10−6 m 3 − 4.16kPa.23 ×10−3 kg = 1.22   kg  This just gets us to the saturated vapor phase. The specific volume of the saturated vapor at 150oC is. since we are keeping the temperature constant at 150oC and we € are in saturation.