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Computer word is defined from Latin word “compute”, computer means to calculate.

Computer is an electronic device, which take data in input and gives result is output.

Computer is an electronic device, which capable of performing arithmetic and logical operations at high speed and it can
store unlimited data. Data means meaningful information.

Computer stands:-
Computer stands for





Used for




It is stands for “commonly oriented machine particularly used for trade education research.”

Father of computer:-
An English mathematician invented a difference engine around 1822. This performed algebraic expressions and
mathematical tables up to 20 decimal places.

Charles Babbage invented the first electronic machine named by analytical engine in 1832. The of analytical engine and
procedure of data processing technology is used in this Generation also. So that he is called by the name of father of computers.

Charles Babbage.

Fist computer ENIAC{Electronic Numerical Integrated And Calculator.} :-

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Invented in 1946 and it performed only additions. This is also calles as adding machine.

Fist programmer :-
Lady august ada love lace is charls Babbage assistant programmer.

History of computer:-
Abacus was the earliest known machine used for computation. It is in the form of wooden frame containing metallic wire
on which pebbles or beads could side. ABACUS was invented way back 2000-3000BC and it’s used up to 16th century.

In 1642 the French mathematician Blaise Pascal desired a calculating machine. With this machine addition and
subtraction could be performed. This machine was later modified by German mathematician Gorrfried Leibnitz in 1671and
introduced the facility of multiplication and division to Pascal’s machine. This was the first machine to multiply and divide

Advantages of computer:-
 Doing repetitive tasks.

 Saving time & human power.

 Getting Accurate Result.

 The requirement of machine to make the toughest calculation faster and with lesser application of brain was the
motivation force behind the invention of computer.

 We can print stored data.

 We can view the store information in any time.

 Work firstly compare to human being.

 Internet(sending mails through W.W.W{World Wide Web})

 We can do calculation & equation.

 We can do picture animation.

 We can do computerized accounting.

Disadvantages of computer:-
 Computer can’t think itself.

 Literate or illiterate operates computer.

 The user is not sitting properly in front of the computer, he will attack by the backbone ache.

 The eyestrain attacks to the regular user.

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 Computer can’t learn itself by the practice.


Computer is used in the

 Government organization.

 Private organization.

 Railways.

 Airlines.

 Weather reports.

 Satellite information.

 Police stations.

Characteristics of computer:-
They are six types of characteristics in each computer. They are

1. Speed.

2. Storage.

3. Diligence.

4. Accuracy.

5. Versatility.

6. Automation.

1. Speed:-
Computer can solve any problems in very high speed. The speed of computer measured in MHz (Mega Hertz) presently
moved on GHz (Gaga Hertz). It can pass the results in (Calculates) Nano second (1/1, 00, 00,000).it reads million instructions per
second (MIPS). It works faster than human being.

2. Storage:-
Computer can store unlimited data. Computer stores the data in binary code (0, 1). Americans develop this code. That is
ASCII. ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information and Interchange. ASCII codes are totally 256(0 ----255). 0 –
False, 1 – True. Data calculates in bytes. Either 0 or 1 is called as bit. Group of digits i.e., 0’s and 1’s are formed as binary form.

A to Z Alphabets Characters

0 to 9 Digits

!@#$%^&* Special Characters

One character takes in to --- 8 bits.

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4 bits --- 1 nibble

8 bite --- 1 byte

1024 bytes --- 1 KB {Kilo Byte}

1024 KB --- 1 MB {Mega Byte}

1024 MB --- 1 GB {Giga Byte}

1024 --- 1 TB {Tera Byte}

3. Diligence:-
Computer can’t take rest at all. It can solve the problems in same speed. It can’t suffer from human trails. It can do the all
given problems, it can’t leave any problem.

4. Accuracy:-
Accuracy means Exactness do 100% correctly. Computer can solve the problems 100% correctly. If the data given to the
computer is correct it can solve the problems correctly.

5. Versatility:-
Versatility means doing different types of work at the same time. Computer can solve different types of problems in versatile
way. It can do the work for any type of programs like equations, scientific calculation & mathematical calculation, accounting
calculations formulas etc.

6. Automation:-
Day to day work done by the computer is called as automation. Meanwhile computer can do the work continuously, until
without our intervention.

Types of computers:-
There are different types of computers, in various sizes and performing different functions. They can broadly be
classified into three types according to data.

They are 1. Analog computers.

2. Digital computers.

3. Hybrid computers.

1. Analog computers:-

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Analog Computers.

These computers operate by measuring quantities. They process the information that is physical and continuous in nature.
They are special purpose machines mainly used in the field of science.

2. Digital computers:-

Digital Computers.

These computers operate by counting. They express all quantities in numbers. They accept all data in numerical form and
perform calculations on them mathematically. Modern computers based on their applications are classified under digital

3. Hybrid computers:-

Hybrid Computers.

These computers are a combination of analog and digital computers. They combine the good features of both, e.g. an
analog device measures the patient’s heart beat (ECG). These measures are then converted into digital from and digital device
checks any abnormality.
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They digital computers can further be classified into three types according to size.

They are 1. Micro computers.

2. Mini computers.

3. Mainframe computers.

4. Super computers.

1. Micro computers:-

Micro Computers.

These are the smallest and least expensive. They are also known as lap top computers, personal computers (PCs) or business
computers. Single person operates a typical microcomputer, hence the name personal computer. Most microcomputers can either
operate in a stand-alone mode independently or as intelligent terminals in the network mode.

2. Mini computers:-

Mini Computers.

A popular computer system is the mini-computer, which is a small, general-purpose computer. It can vary in size from a small
desktop model to the size of a small filling cabinet. A typical mini system is more expensive that a PC and surpasses it in storage
capacity and speed. While most PCs are oriented towards single users, mini systems are usually designed to simultaneously handle
the needs of multiple users, i.e., more than one person uses a mini-computer at the same time.

3. Mainframe:-

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Mainframe Computers.

A mainframe is another form of a computer system that is generally more powerful than a typical mini system.
Mainframe themselves may vary widely in cost and capability. They are used in large organizations for large-scale jobs.

4. Super computers:-

Super Computers.

At the end of the size and capability scale are the supercomputers. These systems are the largest, fastest and most expensive
computer in the world. Such computers are used in scientific and technological research and for applications in defense and
weather forecasting systems. Some examples are the CDAC PARAM 10000, CRAY series of computer HEP 15900 series,
AMDEL 1400.

Generations of computer:-
The evaluation of particular period is called as Generation. Computer generations are classified in to 5 types. They are

1. First generation.

2. Second generation.

3. Third generation.

4. Fourth generation.

5. Fifth generation.

1. First Generation{1946 - 1955}:-

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In this generation computers run with the support of vaccume tubes. The data stored in magnetic drums. The computer cost is
very high and more expensive, the size of computer is very large, it can take more space, and air condition is must and should.
Speed performance in milli seconds 1/1000.

VAccume Tubes.

Magnetic Drums.

2. Second generation {1955 - 1965}:-

Inthis generation computers run with the support of transistors instead of vaccume tubes. Data stored in magnetic tapes.
Decrease the siz & cost. Air condition is must and should, speed performance in Micro Seconds 1/10,00,000.


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Magnetic Tapes.

3. Thired generation {1966 - 1975}:-

In this generation computers run with the support of IC’s{Integrated Circuits} I.B.M.-360 series is found in this generation. IBM
stands for International Business Machine. The speed of computer still in terma of mocro seconds. Data stored in hard disks.
Decrease the size & cost when compare to the 1st and 2nd generations. Introducing the operatin systems in this generation.

Integrated Circuits.

Hard Disk.

4. Fourth generation {1975 - 1984};-

In generation computer run with the support of VLSIC’s{Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits}, micro processor. The speeed of
the computer is in nnanoseconds. Data stores in hard disks. Decrease the size & cost when compare to the 1st, 2nd & 3rd
generations. In this generation, found printers ,floppies and zip drives. Technology developed in both software & hardware

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Hard disks.



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Zip drives.

5. Fifth generations {1984 – till today}:-

In this generation scientists want to develop Artificial Intelligence {A.I}. To make computers function and take decisions
almost like a human deing.


data operations or functional componts:-




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Keyboard. Mouse. Light Pen.

Data given to the system is called ‘in out’. The key board of a computer the best example of an input divice. Any thing
typed on the key board will be accepted and will be stored in computer memory for later procesling . input unit is used to estabisn
a communication link between computer and people.

c.p.u {central or control processing unit}:-

central (or) control processing unit or microprocessor. This is worked as mediator between input and output, it will
control the parts of the system. Tthis unit processses the data. Meanwhile, the given information (input) is taken and produces the
result (output). That’s why, this is called by the name of ‘heart of the computer’. Basic storage device is ‘hard disk’.

m.m.u { MAIN MEMORY UNIT }:-

The main memory unit is also known as the primary memory unit. The storage space used to store the input data. The
user programme and the intemediate results. The information stored in this unit will be available as long as the powersupply is
connectd to the computer. If the power is disconnected for any reasan then the all the information will be eraser from the memory
and an operation will have to retype. The data once again ofter the power supply is restered in orden to auceid this incanvnience
the secondary memory deuice. External memory deuice are used which does not need power all the time. The secandary memory
deuices are the wagnetic dwices such of floppy or tape.

This is used to control and coordinate the all parts of the computer. Just like it acts as company manager.

The give information is taken from the keyboard and it places into the memory. After that, it separates the information
based on data type. If the data is numeric type it sends that information to the relevant component i.e., ALU. It produces the result
and it sends that to the C.U. From that part, it sends that information into memory, after that it sends the information directly to
the monitor or printer.


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Arithmetic and logical unit is used to make the calculation and logical operations. It produces the numerical values. Then
it will pass the result to C.U.

To view the given information or display the result on the output devices. Basic output device is monitro.


The input, output and secondary units are called as pimery devices.

Outputs produced by the devices:-

To view the given information or display the result on the output devices. Basic output device is monitor. There are two
types of output produced by these divces.

There are 1. Soft Copy.

2. Hard copy.

1. Soft Copy:-
An output on the VDU or stored on magnetic media (Disks OR Tapes).

2. Hard Copy:-
An outp put produced on a printer or a plotter.

Main memory divides:-

Main memory dives is the one of the primary memory. Primary memory is one which is a fast memory. Again it contain
two types of memories.

There are 1.Random Access Memory (RAM).

2.Read Only Memory (ROM).

1.Random Access Memory (RAM):-

This is a temporary memory. This memory is used to store the data and intermediate resuits while executing the
programme. A separate slot will be provide in a computer which is known as RAM’S slot. It is also reffered as rad or write
memory because information can be used from a RAN CHID and can also be written into it.

2.Read Only Memory (ROM):-

This is a permenant memory. We can’t write any thing on ROM. Some information is written by the manufacturing which is
necessary for all computers. So, When ever it is needed it will automatically invoked by the computers. Again in this, we are
having three types.

I. Programable Read Only Memory(PROM).

II. Erasable Programable Read Only Memory (EPROM.)

III. Electrically Erasable Programable Read Only Memory (EEPROM.)

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I.programable read only memory (PROM):-

Which is costly and not used for normal purposes. In this, user programes corverted into micro programmes and storing
them into PROM CHIP. Once the chip has been programmed, the recorded information can’t be changed. It is only for reading
the stored information. Even if power switched off no effect to the stored information.

II.Erasble programable read only memory (eprom):-

This is the PROM on which the information erased by placing the EPROM under a special Ultra-Violet Light for a given
period of time. So, That the PROM will come to the onotial state and again we can reprogram it.

III.Electrically Erasable Programable Read Only Memory:-

In this EEPROM instead of Ultra-Violet Rays, the electrical singnals are used to erasa the memory.

Computer environment chart:-


Soft Ware. Hard Ware.

System Application C.P.U, Mouse,

Soft Ware Soft Ware Key board and
Ms-Dos, Ms-
Windows, Packages Languages
Linux and
Unix Ms-Office c,
Pagemaker, c++ and
Oracle, VB Java
And Tally
Soft Ware:-
A set of programs is called as ‘Soft Ware’, that we can see nad use enough.

Hard Ware:-

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The physical components of the system are called a ‘Hard Ware’, that we can see, work and touch also. Examples of the
Hard Ware is C.P.U, Keyboard, Mouse and Monitor.

System Soft Ware:-

It is co-ordinate and controls the parts of the system, Without this we can’t do any thing. The operating system is called
as ‘System Soft Ware’. Examples of tha System Soft Ware is Ms-Dos, Ms-Windows, Linux and Unix.

Application Soft Ware:-

User has to install it for working purpose. Programmers create this Soft Ware. This is also called ‘Grouping program’.
Meanwhile all programs are grouped by one name . either languages or packages create application software. It is again divided
into two types.

This is also software. But the commands are already crated for our working purpose. Ever command has at leat one
program. These commands are fixed programs. We can’t modify the options in the ‘Packages’. Examplea of the Packages is Ms-
Office, Pagemaker, Oracle, VB and Tally.

The languages define the programs. By this language, we can create software according to our wish. If the software is
not working as our wish, we can modify those instructions again and again. Examplex of the Languages is c, c++ and Java. There
are three types of languages.

There are 1. Machine language.

2. Low level (or) Assembly language.

3. High level language.

List of some devices:-


Key board Hard disk Monitor
Mouse Floppy Printer
Joystick CD
Light pen Pen drive
Scanner Zip drive
Key Board:-

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The keyboard is the most commonly use input device. It resembles the standard typewriter machine (QWERTY keyboard)
withsome additional keys.

Esc Depends on the applications, usually used to cancel a command.
F1-F12 (function keys) Used to perform special functions that depend on the software being used.
Tab Used to tab on the fore characters.
Caps lock Used for keying in capitalized alphabets.
Shift Caps lock off: if pressed simultaneously with a character key, it appears
capitalized alphabet.
Caps lock on: it reverses the above effect.
Also used to input the upper symbols for keys with two symbols or characters on them.
Ctrl, Alt Pressed with other key, used to perform commands depend on the software being used.
Start Used to insert the all applications.
Space Bare Used to the space on the one character.
Enter Used to execute an instruction or data being keyed
Back Space Used to erase the character to the left of the cursor position.
Home Used to place the cursor from curent position to starting of the line.
End Used to place the cursor at end of the current line.
Page up Used to place the cursor one page up.
Page down Used to place the cursor one page down.
Insert Used to insert characters at the current cursor position.
Delete Used to delete characters at the current postion.
Cursor Keys Used tomove the cursor in the direction indicated.
Num lock Used to activate the numeric keys on the numeric keyboard.

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A mouse is an input device that is used to point and select an option on the VDU(Visual Display Unit). A mouse may
have one, two or three duttons. The program that uses the mouse determines the function of each button. Moving the mouse on a
flat surface produces a corresponding movement of a pointer on the screen.

Left dutton is used to seleting items.

Right button is used to editing purpose and displays of selecting items.

Joy stick:-

Joy Stick.

This is normally used for playing games.

Light pen:-

Light Pen.

A light pen is a pointing device that can be used to select an option by simply pointing at it, or drawing figures directly on
the screen.

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A light pen has a photo- detector at its tip. This detector can detect changes in brightness of the screen. When the pen is
pointed at a particular spot on the screen, it records change in drightness instantly and informs the computer about this. The
computer can find out the exact spot with this information. Thus, the computer can identify where you are pointing on the screen.

Light pen are usefuk for menu-based applications. Instead of moving the mouse around or using a keyboard, the user can
select an option by pointig at it.

A light pan is also useful for drawing graphics in CAD. An engineeer, architect or a fashion designer can draw directly on
the screen with the pen.



Another input device that is being increasing used is the scanner. Often, there is situation when some information (picture
or text) is available on paper and is needed in the computer disk for further enditing. The simplest way would be to take a
photograph of the image directly from the source, and convert it into a form that can be saved on the disc and then printed.

Optical mark reader:-

Optical Mark Reader.

It is a device using optical technology, to detect the presence, or absence of mark in a standard position on a form. The presence of
the mark is detected due to lesser light being reflected from the mark. This device is generally used for reading answers to
questions in a test or a survey.

Optical image scanner:-

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Optical Image Scanner.

This device uses optical technology to capture the image provided to it. It works somewhat like a Xerox machine.

Bar code reader:-

Bar Code Reader.

This device uses optical technology to screen bar code and translates them into meaningful data. A bar code is set of
strips of lines signifying certain quantitative and qualitative feature of a product. A bar code can be found on the back cover page
of most books.

Magnetic Ink Character Reader:-

Mangnetic Ink Character Reader.

It uses special ink to print characters, which can be read decoded by special magnetic devices.this system is widely used
by banks for processing cheques.

Hard disk:-

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Hard Disk.

A hard disk is a storage that contains one or more rigid disks called platters coated with magnetic material sealed in an
enclosure. It is most often called a fixed disk as it is placed with in the cadinet of the computer system. The storage capacity of the
hard disk is more than a floppy disk. The data is stored in the form of magnetic impulses. It rotates per second 3600 times. The
rounded circle is called track. These traks are divided into sectors. Sector is indicated as ‘V’ shape.

Floppy disk:-

Floppy Disk.

A floppy disk is a circular plastic disk coated with magnetic oxide and enclosed with in a square plastic cover. The data
or instruction is stored in the form of magnetic impulses. The floppy disks are available in different sizes, but the most commonly
used floppy disk are 51/4 and 31/2.


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An optical disk uses optical technology (LASER) to store and retrieve data. The amount of data that can be stored on a
single disk is enormous. However, it faces only one drawback and that is, once we recorded, it can’t be modified or removed, but
can be read as many times as you wish i.e. WORM (Write Once Read Many Times).

Pen drive:-

Pen Drive.

This is also used for store limited data. This is external device.

Zip drive:-

Zip Drive.

This is also used for store limited data.

Moniter :-

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A visual display unit often called a VDU is a device very similar to the television, used for displaying output. It is not only an
output device, but is also referred to as an interactive device. It interactively displays what you key in through the keyboard. The
output by VDU is a soft copy. The two different kinds of VDUs available are:

1. Monochrome or Black and White.

2. Colour.

There are two different modes od display:

Text:- Where only text can be displayed.

Where text as well as graphical objects can be displayed. Characters are buit up using a combination of picture dots
called pixels. The image that appears on the screen is shown by building up of a drawing made of these dots of pixels.



A printer is an output device that prints results on paper. The output produced by a printer is called a hard copy.

Printers can be classified of three types.

There are 1. Character Printer.

2. line printer.

3. page printer.

Printers are also classified as two types.

There are 4. Impact Printer.

5. Non- Impact Printer.

6. plotter.

1. Character printer:-
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In this type of printers printes one character at a time. Character printers Examples are Dot matrix printer.

2.line printer:-
In this type of printers prints one line of text at a time. Line printer examples are inkjet or deskjet printers. printer:-

Inthis type of printers prints a complete page at a time. Page printer examples are laser printer.

4.impact printer:-
The impact printers used eletronic mechanism to canse hammer or pins to striks a gainst a ribben and paper arrange ment.
Dot matatrik, chain and drum printers are examples of impact printers.

5.non-impact printers:-
The non-impact printers does not have any mechanism to strikc. It user the chemical termal and electronic lacer beam or
ink-jerk techology for printer. Non-impact printers normally faster than the impact printers. Non-impact printers examples are
lasser printer.



These are output devices and are used to produce high resolution graphics and draing by the computers.

Important terms:-
Secondary memory:-
Secondary storage memory is a permenant memory but slower than primary memory. Examples of the secondary
memory is Floppy disk, Magnetic tape, Magnetic disk and Magnetic drum.

Cache memory:-
A small high speed memory which is used to increase the speed of processing by making current programmes and data
available to the C.P.U.

Operating system:-
OS is a software, which is an interolase between user of the computer and computer. The examples of the Operating
System is Dos, Windows.

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Which transulates the high level language (or) low level language (Assembly language into machine level language.)

There are two types of transulators. There are 1. Compiler.


1. compiler:-.
Which converts the whole code at a time into machine language.

Which converts the code line by line into the user to some language.


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