You are on page 1of 25

The astonishing biodiversity of

our planet is the result of a
perpetual and never-ended
evolution where the biological
species had to adapt to an often
hostile environment. The
complex relationship between
them and their habitat, the
pressure of the natural selection
and the spontaneous mutations,
between chance and necessity,
shaped living it in a multitude of
forms, which exceed our
imaginary. If all the mechanisms
of this evolutionary process are
not completely elucidated, it will
be sure that the dynamics of the
life has transformed, eliminated
and modified the species since
the beginning of time.

Membracidae: Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity.
Photos and text: Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation
Contact: Thierry Tinacci- Lightmediation Agency- +33 (0) 6 61 80 57 21

193-06: Bocydium globulare, fullface.

/ South America / Neotropical forest imminens. 193-04/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-04: Smerdalea male. Strong dimorphism with the male / South America / Neotropical forest 193-03/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-03: Cladonota benitezi. An imitation which curiously points out a desiccated branchlet. fullface.193-01/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-01: Cladonota latifrons. 193-02/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-02: Cladonota benitezi. / South America / Neotropical forest . / South America / Neotropical forest female.

.193-14: Heteronotus maculatus. The hooked spines. horns and other points with which some species are provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal consequently.

/ South America / Neotropical forest 193-07/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-07: Bocydium 193-08/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-08: Cladonota sp. female.193-05/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-05: Smerdalea 193-06/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-06: Bocydium imminens. fullface. / South America / Neotropical forest male. in profile. / South America / Neotropical forest globulare. / South America / Neotropical forest . globulare.

.193-16: Umbelligerus peruviensis. The hooked spines. horns and other points with which some species are provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal consequently.

horns and other points with which some species are provided nigrogiganteus. fullface. horns and other points with which some species are provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal 193-11/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-11: Heteronotus 193-12/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-12: Heteronotus nigrogiganteus. The hooked spines. The hooked spines. / South America / Neotropical forest provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later .193-09/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-09: Heteronotus 193-10/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-10: Heteronotus nigrogiganteus. horns and other points with which some species are delineatus. from the top. The hooked spines. in profile.

193-19: Heteronotus delineatus. .

/ South America / Neotropical forest maculatus. horns and other points with which some species are provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal . The hooked spines. The hooked spines. horns and other points with which some species are provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later the animal 193-15/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-15: Heteronotus 193-16/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-16: Umbelligerus albopunctatus. fullface. horns and other points with which some species are provided in number peruviensis.193-13/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-13: Heteronotus 193-14/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-14: Heteronotus delineatus. The hooked spines.

male. .193-03: Cladonota benitezi.

/ South America / Neotropical forest provided in number wound the throat or are planted in the tissue which could then be infected and kill later 193-19/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-19: Heteronotus 193-20/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-20: Atypa bucktoni. horns and other points with which some species are delineatus. The hooked spines. / South America / Neotropical forest South America / Neotropical forest .193-17/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-17: Head of 193-18/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-18: Heteronotus Umbelligerus peruviensis. / delineatus.

has precuts at the base of its outgrowth which break or is detached when it is snapped up. / South America / Neotropical forest 193-23/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-23: Lycoderes 193-24/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-24: Oeda inflata. fullface. fullface. / South America / Neotropical forest allowing the insect to escape. maculatus. / South America / Neotropical forest South America / Neotropical forest . / gladiator.193-21/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-21: Anchistrotus 193-22/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-22: Anchistrotus maculatus.

193-36: Enchophyllum cruentatum. .

/ South America / Neotropical forest .193-25/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-25: Cyphonia clavata. / South America / Neotropical forest female from 3/4. female. / South America / Neotropical forest female. / South America / Neotropical forest 193-27/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-27: Head of Stegaspis 193-28/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-28: Stegaspis fronditia. fronditia. While mating. 193-26/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-26: Stegaspis fronditia.

the honeydew. This very sticking looks like the buds of the host plant amazingly. Mutualistic associations are very complex and multifactorial.193-29/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-29: Stegaspis fronditia. female. 193-30/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-30: Stegaspis fronditia. female on a flower. 193-31/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-31: Stegaspis fronditia 193-32/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-32: Stictopelta squarus. The excrements are rejected in form of small sweetened droplets. Mutualism are found between the two species only if the benefit is important for each one: for example. / South America / Neotropical forest female with an ant Dolichoderus bispinosus. / South America / Neotropical forest liquid is difficult to eliminate mechanically regarding the sedentary and the quasi-immobility of those .

193-57: Certainly a larvae of Anchistrotus. .

/ South America / Neotropical forest flaveola. / South America / Neotropical forest cruentatum.193-33/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-33: Head of Stictopelta 193-34/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-34: Membracis squarus. / South America / Neotropical forest 193-35/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-35: Membracis flaveola 193-36/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-36: Enchophyllum in profil. / South America / Neotropical forest .

193-37/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-37: Enchophyllum 193-38/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-38: Lycoderes cruentatum fullface. with a larvae. / South America / Neotropical forest bifenestrata. female of its laying. Gregarious they are scattered on the stem with their outgrowths pointed towards outside make think of spines of certain shrubs. / South America / Neotropical forest . / South America / Neotropical forest fernandezi. female of its laying. / South America / Neotropical forest 193-39/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-39: Lycoderes 193-40/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-40: Tritropidia fernandezi.

Mutualism are found between the two species only if the benefit is important for are found between the two species only if the benefit is important for each one: for example. protection 193-43/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-43: Female of tritropidia 193-44/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-44: Tritropidia bifenestrata with egges. babied by an ant Dolichoderus bispinosus. they tap the stem to alert the mothers who come to defend them by . Together. the vibrations so created are communicated within the group and multifactorial. Mutualism are found between the two species only if the benefit is important for each of the larvae and the nymphs. Mutualistic associations are very complex and multifactorial. When a young feels threatened. Mutualism complex and multifactorial.193-41/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-41: Larvae of 193-42/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-42: Larvae an mature Tritropidia bifenestrata. Mutualistic associations are very Tritropidia bifenestrata on its laying. larvae and ants Dolichoderus bispinosus. Mutualistic associations are very complex bifenestrata.

193-01: Cladonota latifrons. An imitation which curiously points out a desiccated branchlet. .

/ South America / Neotropical forest female on its laying with ant Dolichoderus bispinosus.193-45/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-45: Oriola picta. female on its laying. female 193-46/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-46: Oriola picta. Mutualistic associations are very complex and multifactorial. Mutualism are found between the two species only if the benefit is important for each one: for . / South America / Neotropical forest on its laying with young an ant Dolichoderus bispinosus. Mutualism are found between the two species only if the benefit is important for each one: for 193-47/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-47: Gerridius fowleri. Mutualistic associations are very complex and multifactorial. 193-48/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-48: Gerridius fowleri. female on its laying.

193-50/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-50: Enchenopa Its outgrowth pointed towards outside make think of spines of certain shrubs. Its outgrowth pointed towards outside make think of spines of certain forest shrubs. / South America / Neotropical forest Neotropical forest . / South America / Neotropical albidorsa. / South America / gracillis. / South America / Neotropical forest 193-51/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-51: Enchenopa 193-52/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-52: Enchenopa albidorsa. with a louse (in red).193-49/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-49: Lycoderes fabricii. Its outgrowth pointed towards outside make think of spines of certain shrubs. Its outgrowth pointed towards outside make think of spines of certain shrubs.

193-56/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-56: Tynelia pubescens.193-53/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-53: Nassunia binotata. South America / Neotropical forest This one looks like an bird excrement. / South America / Neotropical forest / South America / Neotropical forest . / 193-54/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-54: Bolbonota insignis. male. A perfect imitation ! / South America / Neotropical forest 193-55/©Patrick Landmann/Lightmediation/Wonder of terrestrial biodiversity / 193-55: Stegaspis fronditia.

many. The detached when they are snapped up. or those which. while drying. The host plant takes profit from offspring should be protected. hostile environment. at the production is carried out when the ants bigger in size. solitary "baroques" surprise by the extravagance complex digestive system. equipped with natural defensive means wonders of nature still keep very extension of their prothorax make real Homoptera live on annual or perennial (darts. mandibles) so they probably mysterious. but don't let indifferent living molded these protuberances in the quasi-immobility of those species. females regarding the morphology. the of their outgrowths which break or are Chef d'oeuvre of biological diversity. the pressure of the natural becomes hard. To counter species since the beginning of time. The weak operating Predatories. killed could think that this tiny world. When colored or cryptic. The curious and impressive are studied which are gregarious and representatives. The is important for each one: for example. Tricks of nature plants and sucks the sap from which they developed imitations in compensation that common of them which live in partnerships or mimicry. Among the variety of the species is without end. females (they cover the eggs with their species. if peaceful segment (prothorax): spherical sizes. It which prolongations remind fine at all. the vibrations Wonder of impressive sizes make the flight difficult multifactorial. with which some species are provided in are not completely elucidated. dented. Membracidae are often life is omnipresent. like various Arthropods. some species 1 cm length). develop gregarious habits. Only those are one of the most significant and eccentric. Mutualistic stem of the host plant for example. The As these which looks like the buds of the in the heights of the trees. arabesques. Thus different according to the structure and the great production of honeydew. mini-monsters or expansions in front of their head or in have mutualistic relations with ants. rough and . how much are those. from which the positions are very diseases from fungus) in exchange of a by beating their wings vigorously. The extraordinary of Membracidae have precuts at the base A real mother hen unseen or very difficult to spot. After care (to inhibit parasitism. but Membracidae between the two species only if the benefit group of the larvae and the nymphs. Their aspects are varied as foraging activity facilitates the meetings human. plentiful of life. are the witnesses of the immense curious cuticular prolongations in front of isn't seldom to find an insect definitively desiccated branchlets. Birds or between chance and necessity. If all the the ones and others until the adulthood. The very protective increase association between the two sight so placid but foolhardy when their selection and the spontaneous mutations. excrements are rejected in form of small host plant amazingly. polygonal even reticulated or similar to with the sedentary females which then vibrations made by tapping the legs on the Membracidae: bark. it will be have a "maternal instinct". biological species had to adapt to an often single egg or plenty of them. and then later kill the animal. It is only one impression. an easy access and a Arachnida and Hyménoptera (wasps) can relationship between them and their a frothy substance which. inserts directly in the claim for and incite the evacuation of the used by the males which drum the plant never-ended evolution where the living tissue of their host plant. eliminated and modified the Discreet. will push away all the specialized hooked spines. dazzling for the ones. Their sweetened excrements are an because some species share a very roundnesses and more or less complex appreciable source of food for the arboreal advanced technique. and quiet. The complex the surface. First of all one diversity of the species. solitary and small insects of the Membracidae family allowing the insect to escape. horns. will form groups by indifferently the protection thus brought to the other predatories which which feed on living it in a multitude of forms. with the ants. of associations are very complex and a young feels threatened. remain badly known. nor These attractive insects. or others back for the others. to avoid using the power of their posterior legs or mating. females are tented by ants The tropical forest is rich. they tap the stem to alert the males can be very different from the protection (against the predatories) and mothers who come to defend them by biodiversity. If one can easily observe most alive sculptures of them. Some species coat them with cost for the ants. number wound the throat or are planted in sure that the dynamics of the life has The predatory are wary about the tissue which could then be infected transformed. the attacks of the animals. translucent or opaque. These empty hulls. contaminated and invaded by moulds. Together. Several types of structures form the Membracidae and opportunistic ants which intense acoustic signal. the honeydew. either a sweetened liquid in "stroking" the insect with their abdomen to attract females. Neither aggressive. which mothering the larvae and the nymphs of Membracidae by the ants because they Membracidae are terribly wary. are transmitted thanks to the much: hairy to smooth. these insects somewhat feed nutritive compounds thanks to a could be at the origin of their outgrowths. The exceed our imaginary. This they can push back predatory much more The astonishing biodiversity of our planet form of the outgrowths. short-haul until the place of harvest be pushed back by the mothers at first habitat. and pressures which in that way shaped very sticking liquid is difficult to eliminate outgrowths pointed towards outside make pushing these odd expansions? The long path of mechanically regarding the sedentary and think of spines of certain shrubs. curved or right spines. horns and other points mechanisms of this evolutionary process which would lead us to believe that they plant-eating animals. 2500 species which belong to the multitude of the forms incredible. that remain to and the great diversity of their outgrowths. the female. us unknown? What were the environmental constraints sweetened droplets. Membracidae astonish us and let us Homoptera order. shaped body). or glue it on with its antennas. terrestrial remain very sharp in their jump. This scattered on the stem with their Membracidae. perplex because their forms are strange discreet. Because of their small size (approximately From the litter untill the top of the trees. Mutualism are found so created are communicated within the for some species. inaudible sounds to exoskeleton. the head or starting from the first thoracic fixed on the host plant. Other sound vibrations are is the result of a perpetual and time of the laying.

with its antennas. 44 Tritropidia bifenestrata. An imitation which the insect to escape. Wilson. female. female on its laying 24 Oeda inflata. fullface. 37 Enchophyllum cruentatum. care (to inhibit parasitism. female of its laying. Cambridge. The 30 Stegaspis fronditia. very sticking liquid is difficult to eliminate the protection thus brought to the 11 Heteronotus nigrogiganteus. For more informations : 12 Heteronotus delineatus. 1990. production is carried out when the ants 53 Nassunia binotata. horns and other points Dolichoderus bispinosus. babied by an ant Dolichoderus bispinosus. It will push away all the specialized isn't seldom to find an insect definitively plant-eating animals. Mutualistic associations are very complex 26 Stegaspis fronditia. is important for each one: for example. the quasi-immobility of those species. fullface. female from 3/4. claim for and incite the evacuation of the 9 Heteronotus nigrogiganteus. female on a great production of honeydew. see 9. The Belknap Press of Harvard 13Heteronotus delineatus. male. Gregarious they are scattered on the base of its outgrowth which break or is the stem with their outgrowths pointed 45 Oriola picta. 32 Stictopelta squarus. seer curiously points out a desiccated branchlet 41. female on its laying. P. The host plant takes profit from 56 Tynelia pubescens. they tap History. B. American Museum of Natural larvae and the nymphs. and Kosztarab. in profile. the vibrations so created Rex Cocroft. see 9. of the host plant amazingly. killed Hôlldobler. see 41. University Press. 33 Head of Stictopelta squarus. de face. 2 Cladonota benitezi. an easy access and a number wound the throat or are planted in 31 Stegaspis fronditia female. Together. 28 Stegaspis fronditia. 4 Smerdalea mminens. 6 Bocydium globulare. larvae and ants Dolichoderus (Gullan. male. This one looks like hooked spines. flower. are communicated within the group of the song. see 9. with a larvae. from the mechanically regarding the sedentary and Membracidae by the ants because they 57 Certainly a larvae of Anchistrotus. to avoid 7 Bocydium globulare. female. female. Adaptations in scale insects. certain shrubs. posterior legs or by beating their wings vigorously. fullface. & E. see 41. Annual Review of Entomology 42: 23-50). The weak operating an bird excrement. 43 Female of tritropidia bifenestrata with egges. the tissue which could then be infected excrements are rejected in form of small increase association between the two and kill later the animal consequently. 35 Head of Membracis flaveola. 20 Atypa bucktoni. female on its laying. between the two species only if the benefit red). female with an ant sweetened liquid in "stroking" the insect 54 Bolbonota insignis. 36 Enchophyllum cruentatum. The inside story of insect 17 Head of Umbelligerus peruviensis. M. . fullface. see 38. male. female. female of its Captions 21 Anchistrotus maculatus. the honeydew. fullface. 41 Larvae of Tritropidia bifenestrata. with a louse (in 5 Smerdalea imminens. see 38. bifenestrata on its laying. female on its laying. Strong 23 Lycoderes gladiator. the stem to alert the mothers who come to defend them by using the power of their 19 Heteronotus delineatus. with ant Dolichoderus bispinosus. 49 Lycoderes fabricii. allowing towards outside make think of spines of 1 Cladonota latifrons. 27 Head of Stegaspis fronditia. 38 Lycoderes fernandezi. diseases from fungus) in exchange of a 52 Enchenopa gracillis. looks like the buds Massachusetts. 29 Stegaspis fronditia. 42 Larvae an mature Tritropidia ants. This 8 Cladonota sp.O. A perfect imitation ! with which some species are provided in cost for the ants. 40 Tritropidia bifenestrata. bispinosus. When a young feels threatened. 47 Gerridius fowleri. -1997- 15 Heteronotus albopunctatus. dimorphism with the male (3). protection (against the predatories) and 51 Enchenopa albidorsa. While mating. sweetened droplets. and multifactorial. The short-haul until the place of harvest 55 Stegaspis fronditia.J. This species. 34 Membracis flaveola. fixed on the host plant. 3 Cladonota benitezi. detached when it is snapped up. 39 Idem Lycoderes fernandezi. 48 Gerridius fowleri. 25 Cyphonia clavata. October 1999 18 Heteronotus delineatus. The contaminated and invaded by moulds. 16 Umbelligerus peruviensis. Mutualism are found 50 Enchenopa albidorsa. top. has precuts at laying. see 41. 46 Oriola picta. 14 Heteronotus maculatus. 22 Anchistrotus maculatus. fullface.

Related Interests