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Project Report on

“Electronic Jam”

Submitted by

Jovin Miranda TE EXTC – 42

Ravi Naval TE EXTC – 50

Nijo Mathew TE EXTC – 40
Guided by

Ms. Madhavi.S.Pednekar
This Report has been prepared in partial fulfillment of


[Semester V Syllabus] for

as prescribed by



This is to certify that Mr.____________________________________
has successfully completed his/her Project Work on the Topic
“ELECTRONIC JAM” in the subject of Electronic Hardware
Workshop, in the partial fulfillment of Engineering in the department of
Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering of the University of
Mumbai during the year 2010-2011.

(Internal Examiner) (External

Electronic jams are one of the most common devices used
especially in quiz completions. However, to work with this system, it
requires low power consumption and hence we can use it as a handy

Having low cost and yet having a quick response time is really a
boon. It’s basically a device having high noise immunity with a wide
supply range, however still being ultra sensitive. Even in the voting
booth’s such kind of device could be useful.

We have taken Electronic Jam for its use in quiz show and to
make Quiz shows priority less.

We express my heartfelt gratitude to Prof. Jam and hence take this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to all those who have been associated with my project. We were bestowed the golden opportunity to conduct our Project on “Electronic Jam”. we acknowledge all our fellow students for their co-operation and collaboration. N. However it is the only way to record one’s feelings permanently.G. We would also like to thank our principal Mr. We are also greatly thankful to Mrs. generous guidance and co-operation throughout our project. We would like to place on record the constant encouragement. Madhavi Pednekar. Joag and the management of “Don Bosco Institute of Technology” Technology for providing their cooperation for completing the work in time Last but not the least. . Dumane for her extended support. support and guidance that we received from her in abundance. Pednekar for providing us with endless support and encouragement in all our endeavors at every movement during our project. Her valuable advice helped us tremendously in improving the quality of our dissertation. Pratibha Dumane. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Written words have unfortunate tendency to degenerate genuine gratitude into a formality.

• Basically this Electronic Jam is built with the view of making The Game Show Priority less. • Fastest Finger First Is The Basic Principle. • It uses Seven Segment Display instead of LED/bulb for visual interface. It also 8 Inputs can be handled at a Time. • It Adds Beauty To Active Quiz Shows Contains Many Buzzer Rounds. Introduction: • Electronic Jam Is Commonly Used In Quiz Contests. .

This gate is used to convert low signal to high signal. It converts 8 lines input to 3 lines output. Also. Now it is given to IC 7447 . Now IC 74373 has got 8 D –Flip Flops which are used to latch the input.Block diagram Explanation In this diagram as we see there are 8 switches which act as input to IC 74373. Now this 3 line output is connected to IC 7404 which is a NOT gate. IC 74147 is an 8:3 Encoder and is used for encoding.

This is used to drive the 7-Segment Display. Also the output of IC 74373 is given to IC 7430 which is an 8 input NAND gate.which is known as the driver IC. After this it is given to a 2 input NAND gate and given to the buzzer via help of a p-n-p transistor. the buzzer sound is heard. the output is high. Whenever any of the switches is pressed. We know that for a NAND gate if any input is low. Circuit diagram .

its BCD output is 0000. Both.Explanation This jam circuit can be used in quiz contests wherein any participant who presses his button (switch) before the other contestants. the display as well as the buzzer have to be reset manually using a common reset switch. after inversion by NAND gate N2. is applied to latch-enable pin 11 of IC1. all outputs of 74LS373 (IC1) transparent latch go ‘high’ since all the input data lines are returned to Vcc via resistors R1 through R8. All eight outputs of IC1 are connected to inputs of priority encoder 74LS147 (IC2) as well as 8-input NAND gate 74LS30 (IC3). the corresponding output line of IC1 is latched at logic 0 . The display will show the number of the contestant pressing his button before the others. Initially. gets the first chance to answer a question. on reset the display shows 0. when reset switch S9 is momentarily pressed and released. Simultaneously. Thus. With all input pins of IC2 being logic 1. The output of IC3 thus becomes logic 0 which. The circuit given here permits up to eight contestants with each one allotted a distinct number (1 to 8). a buzzer will also sound. which is applied to 7. When any one of the push-to-on switches—S1 through S8—is pressed.segment decoder/driver 74LS47 (IC6) after inversion by hex inverter gates inside 74LS04 (IC5).

2K Ω 1 1K Ω 1 560 Ω 7 Capacitors Specificati No. output pin 8 of IC3 becomes high.) will be displayed. ons 0. At the same time. Thus. Components and their cost Resistors Specificati No.01 µF 1 . the logic 0 output of gate N1 drives the buzzer via p-n-p transistor BC158 (T1). The buzzer as well the display can be reset (to show 0) by momentary pressing of reset switch S9 so that next round may start. Simultaneously. and thus pressing of any other switch S1 through S8 has no effect. which causes outputs of both gates N1 and N2 to go to logic 0 states. In the unlikely event of simultaneous pressing (within few nano-seconds difference) of more than one switch. Logic 0 output of gate N2 inhibits IC1. the contestant who presses his switch first. the higher priority number (switch no. ons 10 K Ω 9 2.level and the display indicates the number associated with the specific switch. jams the display to show only his number.

Buzzer 1 Push to ON 8 switches 7 Segment display 1 .1 µF 1 Transistors Specificati No.0. ons BC547 1 IC’s Specificati No. ons IC 74373 1 IC 74147 1 IC 7447 1 IC 7404 1 IC 7400 1 IC 7430 1 Miscellaneous Specifications No.

PCB Layout Bottom copper .

Proteus Introduction: Many CAD users dismiss schematic capture as a necessary evil in the process of creating PCB layout but we have always disputed this point of view. With .Top copper Simulation The software used in our project for simulation purposes is Proteus.

The strength of its architecture has allowed us to integrate first conventional graph based simulation and now . And if you use circuit simulation to develop your ideas. Use Of Proteus in making the PCB layout IN ISIS from circuit diagram layout is prepared. Routing can be done manually. We choose to make a double sided PCB in this case as no of IC’s are more and by making double sided.with PROTEUS VSM - interactive circuit simulation into the design environment. getting the design into the computer can often be the most time consuming element of the exercise. For the first time ever it is possible to draw a complete circuit for a micro-controller based system and then test it interactively. After the components are placed the next step is to do the routing. The PCB layout is then ready to take a printout. it would lead to less complications. so that the same design can be exported for production with ARES or other PCB layout software.The components can be placed on the screen either manually or automaticaly. Now supply is given and the circuit is simulated. It is done by clicking on the ARES button .PCB layout now offering automation of both component placement and track routing. It is then transferred to ARES. ISIS retains a host of features aimed at the PCB designer. Meanwhile. you are going to spend even more time working on the schematic.This will take you to the ARES screen wherein all the components used during simulation is displayed. ISIS has been created with this in mind. . It has evolved over twelve years research and development and has been proven by thousands of users worldwide. You can also view the 3D visualization of the circuit using the output option.Manual placing of the components is preferred for better results and to minimize the error. all from within the same piece of software.

Soldering of PCB components .


mechanical assembly. In electronics assembly. Other alloys are used for plumbing. . which is below 400 °C (752 °F). the eutectic alloy of 63% tin and 37% lead (or 60/40. the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. and other applications. Solders Soldering filler materials are available in many different alloys for differing applications. Soft soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal. which is almost identical in performance to the eutectic) has been the alloy of choice.Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint.[1] The filler metal used in the process is called solder.

A eutectic formulation has several advantages for soldering. brazing and soldering). attaches very well to copper. the absence of a plastic phase. a very mild 'no- clean' flux might be perfectly acceptable for production equipment.e. Basic soldering techniques Soldering operations can be performed with hand tools. or en masse on a production line. but which becomes strongly reducing at elevated temperatures. which form quickly at soldering temperatures. for example. Performance of the flux needs to be carefully evaluated. Any differential movement during the plastic phase may result in cracks. Hand soldering is typically performed with a . but poorly to the various oxides of copper. and quicker setup as the solder cools. A non-eutectic formulation must remain still as the temperature drops through the liquidus and solidus temperatures. but not give adequate performance for a poorly-controlled hand-soldering operation. Tin-lead solder. one joint at a time. Additionally. Secondarily. which minimizes heat stress on electronic components during soldering. Fluxes currently available include water-soluble fluxes (no VOC's required for removal) and 'no-clean' fluxes which are mild enough to not require removal at all. reducing the surface tension of the molten solder and causing it to better wet out the parts to be joined. Flux In high-temperature metal joining processes (welding. chief among these is the coincidence of the liquidus and solidus temperatures. preventing the formation of metal oxides. flux acts as a wetting agent in the soldering process. a eutectic formulation has the lowest possible melting point. Flux is a substance which is nearly inert at room temperature. the primary purpose of flux is to prevent oxidation of the base and filler materials. i. giving an unreliable joint. This allows for quicker wetting as the solder heats up.

All soldered joints require the same elements of cleaning of the metal parts to be joined. Induction soldering is a process which is similar to brazing. torches or electrically-heated soldering irons are more convenient. In silver soldering ("hard soldering"). or in excess of. Depending on the nature of flux material used. fitting up the joint. it may be technically incorrect depending on the exact melting point of the filler in use. Desoldering wicks contain plenty of flux that will lift the contamination . especially in the field of jewelry. It is good practice to remove solder from a joint prior to resoldering— desoldering braids or vacuum desoldering equipment (solder suckers) can be used. Although the term "silver soldering" is used much more often than "silver brazing". The source of heat in induction soldering is induction heating by high-frequency AC current. Sheetmetal work was traditionally done with "soldering coppers" directly heated by a flame. with sufficient stored heat in the mass of the soldering copper to complete a joint. Once the solder's capacity for the base metal has been achieved it will no longer properly bond with the base metal. Generally copper coils are used for the induction heating Desoldering and resoldering Used solder contains some of the dissolved base metals and is unsuitable for reuse in making new joints. since it involves filler materials with melting points in the vicinity of.soldering iron. or a torch. applying the filler. structurally sound joint. or occasionally a hot-air pencil. cleaning of the joints may be required after they have cooled. heating the parts. the goal is generally to give a beautiful. 450 °C. usually resulting in a brittle cold solder joint with a crystalline appearance. soldering gun. removing heat and holding the assembly still until the filler metal has completely solidified. Hard soldering" or "silver soldering" (performed with high-temperature solder containing up to 40% silver) is also often a form of brazing. applying flux.

Movement of metals being soldered before the solder has cooled will cause a highly unreliable cracked joint. resulting in a "cold solder" joint. Therefore heating the solder first may cause the flux to evaporate before it cleans the surfaces (pcb pad and component connection) being soldered. or may be oxidized. In 'electronic' hand soldering solder the flux isembedded in the solder. A dry joint is weak mechanically and a poor conductor electrically. rather than being smooth. Without flux the joint may not be clean.from the copper trace and any device leads that are present. In electronics' soldering terminology this is known as a 'dry' joint. This is usually the result of the soldering iron being used to heat the solder directly. It has a characteristically dull or grainy appearance immediately after the joint is made. rather than the parts themselves. bright and shiny. Tools . Soldering defects Various problems may arise in the soldering process which lead to joints which are non functional either immediately or after a period of use. This appearance is caused by crystallization of the liquid solder. the iron heats the parts to be connected. This will leave a bright. guaranteeing adequate heat in the joined parts for thorough wetting. which in turn melt the solder. An improperly selected or applied flux can cause joint failure. shiny. The most common defect when hand-soldering results from the parts being joined not exceeding the solder's liquidus temperature. clean junction to be resoldered. resulting in an unsound joint. or if not properly cleaned off the joint. Properly done. may corrode the metals in the joint over time and cause eventual joint failure.

However. Nearly anyone who is familiar with basic electronic theory can learn troubleshooting techniques and fix many types of electronic failures. which has a variety of tips available ranging from blunt to very fine to chisel heads for hot-cutting plastics. If the circuit is battery powered. check the level of the voltage at the output and make sure that the circuit is powered with the correct polarity. Basically.Hand-soldering tools include the electric soldering iron. To troubleshoot. make sure that the voltage level is acceptable. troubleshooting depends on the circuit complexity. and on the personal experience. ensure that the power cord is plugged in and that the fuses are not blown. giving faster heat-up and allowing larger parts to be soldered. . It is not something which can be studied from books. on symptoms. there are guidelines that can be followed to the troubleshooting process. step-by-step procedures to arrive at a solution. and the soldering gun. therefore. Hot-air guns and pencils allow rework of component packages which cannot easily be performed with electric irons and guns. Initially. which typically provides more power. Testing of circuit TROUBLE SHOOTING: Troubleshooting and fault analysis requires a good theoretical knowledge and analytical thinking. but has to be acquired through constant troubleshooting and experimenting. The most common troubleshooting techniques are listed below: Power check: Many times a simple issue such as a blown fuse or a flat battery is the cause of a circuit malfunction. you simply follow logical. If a power supply rectifier is present.

This is important because in the case of electric shock it is less likely that the current will pass through the heart. Sensory checks rely on the human senses to detect a possible fault. The PCB has to be inspected visually for any burnt components. If any doubts exist about the quality of a certain joint. where everything seems to work properly for a while.Visual inspection: This inspection is part of the so-called sensory checks. care should be taken not to burn the fingers. Identifying such components helps to detect the possible cause of the fault. Special freezing sprays are available. They can be used as ‘starting points' in the troubleshooting process and the reasons why they overheat have to be determined. Using a sense of touch Overheated components can be detected by simply touching them. In addition. It also has to be replaced. The circuit has to be turned off. it has to be re-soldered. Sometimes. and some time allowed for the large capacitors to discharge. The soldered joints have to be inspected thoroughly. which allow instant freezing of components. However. without trying to find out what actually caused the component to overheat. and then the circuit fails. the reason is a faulty (or out of range) component near the failed component. It is bad practice simply to replace such components. Using the sense of touch is a very useful troubleshooting technique in circuits. The visual inspection of the PCB is the simplest troubleshooting technique (which is very effective in many of the cases). due to overheating of a certain component. If possible. wear insulated shoes. If the circuit begins to operate properly . Always touch the components with the right hand only. this check has to be performed with extreme caution. components that overheat leave a brown mark on the board. In many cases.

this technique guarantees the success of the repair. Component replacement is a good troubleshooting technique for an experienced electronics technician. Moreover. This is usually the case. if the technician happens to be there at the time the accident occurred. it is usually possible to detect the failed component by visual inspection afterwards. Smell check: When certain components fail due to overheating it is possible in most cases to detect a smell of smoke. If not. This statement is especially true for an experienced electronic technician. For example.immediately after the heated component is sprayed. Before replacing the component. because if enough components are replaced. Certain symptoms are an obvious indication of a particular component failure. eventually the faulty one will be replaced too. some TV service technicians can unmistakably identify the failed component in a TV set (even before opening it). What one needs for troubleshooting A good set of tools . Component replacement: This troubleshooting method relies mostly on the operator's skills and experience. it is recommended that the amateur technician initially applies some logical thinking to the troubleshooting process. further investigation is needed to determine what caused the overheating in the first place. by just briefly examining the symptoms. this is an indication that this component is causing the circuit failure. However. as it saves a lot of time and money.

IC’s information IC74373 connection diagram .Appropriate test equipment Schematics. and other documentation. A knowledge of basic electronics theory and devices. a working unit for comparison. A knowledge of what the equipment is supposed to do. If possible. source-code.

• 3 State bys driving output. I/O ports. They are particularly attractive for implementing buffer registers. . Features • Choice of 8 latch or 8 D type flip flop in a single package. • Full parallel access for loading.These 8-bit registers feature totem ple 3-STATE outputs designed specifically for driving highly capacitive or relatively low impedence loads. The high impedence state and increased high logic level drive provide these registers with the capability of being connected directly to and driving the bussiness in a buss organised system without need fornter face or pull up components. bidirectional bus drivers and working registers.

• buffered control inputs. All gates have buffered outputs. All devices have high noise immunity and the ability to drive 10 LS-TTL loads. Features ■ Typical propagation delay: 8 ns ■ Wide power supply range: 2–6V ■ Low quiescent current: 20 µA maximum (74HC Series) ■ Low input current: 1 µA maximum ■ Fanout of 10 LS-TTL loads . IC 7400 The MM74HC00 NAND gates utilize advanced silicon-gate CMOS technology to achieve operating speeds similar to LS-TTL gates with the low power consumption of standard CMOS integrated circuits. The 74HC logic family is function-ally as well as pin-out compatible with the standard 74LS logic family. • PNP inputs reduce DC loading on data lines. All inputs are protected from damage due to static discharge by internal diode clamps to VCC and ground.

Alternate Military/Aerospace device (5430) is available. Contact a National Semiconductor Sales Office/Distrib-utor for specifications. .7430 8-input This device contains a single gate which performs the logic NAND Function.

zero-blanking control (RBI and RBO). • Open-collector outputs drive indicators directly. . • Lamp-test provision. All of the circuits incorporate automatic leading and/or trail-ing-edge. All of the circuits have full ripple-blanking input/out-put controls and a lamp test input.7447 BCD to 7-segment display driver The 47A feature active-low outputs designed fordriving common- anode LEDs or incandescent indicators di-rectly. Segment identification and resultant displays are shown on a following page. All types contain an overriding blanking input (BI) which can be used to con-trol the lamp intensity (by pulsing) or to inhibit the outputs. Lamp test (LT) of these devices may be performed at any time when the BI/RBO node is at a high logic level. Features • All circuit types feature lamp intensity modulation capability. Dis-play patterns for BCD input counts above nine are unique symbols to authenticate input conditions.

Many common devices like calculators. PIN Configuration Now you know the basic of these displays. • Leading/trailing zero suppression. electronic weighing scales. watches.ovens etc use them. They are internally connected. Hex NOT gates [ IC 7404 ] • 7404 hex NOT • 7405 hex NOT with open collector outputs • 7414 hex NOT with Schmitt trigger inputs SEVEN SEGMENT LED DISPLAY: Seven segment displays are very common for electronic product to display numerical output. to use them you should know the pin configuration of the commercially available displays. As you must have guessed these displays should have nine pin( one for each segment + decimal point +common) but the available modules have two pins for common. So they have total of 10 PINs. .

Result and discussion • Basically there are 8 switches. . ie. whichever is pressed buzzer rings and the 7 segment display indicates the corresponding no. The switch which is pressed.

 It has high noise immunity.  It is more accurate.  It is highly sensitive.  Also Visual Interface adds its advantage.  It can also be used in voting machines where.  It’s much easier to use.  It has low Power consumption. • Thus it actually jams the first input and thus it acts as fastest finger first. The officer has a switch to reset the voting machine after each voter votes. Advantages:  It is a handy device.  Its response time is very fast. . Applications:  It can be used in Quiz contests to make Game Shows Priority Less. Once a button is pressed all the other buttons are jammed.  It got a wide supply range. if a voter presses a button the LED lamp glows & the buzzer rings.

• Seven Segment display included for more user interface.  It’s cost is very low. Conclusion • Project aims the implementation of ‘Electronic Jam’ for making Quiz shows priority less. LCD screens can be implemented. . Disadvantages:  Input is limited to eight Future scope:  Instead of Seven Segment Display.  Priority list of all inputs can be imparted in output.

REFERENCES: Wikipedia .

com . http://www.scribd.