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High-brightness

LED drivers
Projector and
rear-projection
TVs
Interior Architectural

Solid-state lighting AC or DC input


lighting lighting
Automotive applications

Exterior Retrofit
lighting
HB LED lamps

drivers
Display Street lights,
backlighting solar lights

LCD TV and
desktop
backlighting

Maxim’s high-brightness LED (HB LED) drivers are dedicated integrated circuits for white or
RGB LEDs. They are energy-saving, cost-effective choices that enable the next generation
of LCD backlighting, projection, automotive, and general lighting applications. Maxim’s
continually expanding HB LED portfolio includes 28 products covering the full range of linear
and switch-mode topologies (buck, boost, SEPIC, and other topologies).

TM

www.maxim-ic.com/LED
HB LED drivers for the widest range
of lighting applications
Flexible and robust with wide input-voltage
and output-power ranges
Architectural and street lighting
MAX16820/MAX16822/MAX16832
• Low-cost buck drivers
• Up to 65V input MR16 lights
MAX16826
• 4-string switching driver with I2C MAX16834
• Compatible with electronic transformers
MAX16824/MAX16825 and triac dimmers
• 3-string linear drivers with SPI� M400
• Enables flicker-free, dimmable
MR16s
• Up to 12W of LED power

Offline lighting
LuxDotTM

MAX16834
• > 0.90 input power-factor correction
(patent pending)
• Compatible with triac Solar-powered lighting
dimmers MAX16821
• Low component count • Synchronous rectification for driving
PAR20
high-power, common-anode LEDs
• > 94% efficiency, delivers up to 150W
MAX16834
EV kit e
s • Boost and buck-boost topologies
a i l a bl
av

SPI is a trademark of Motorola, Inc.


M400 and PAR20 product photos courtesy of LEDtronics, Inc.
LuxDot is a trademark of LedEngin, Inc. Photo courtesy of LedEngin, Inc.
Remaining photo: iStockphoto.com.

2
Robust HB LED drivers for all
automotive lighting applications
Superior efficiency, flexibility, and ease of use

Robust d
withstan rivers
d
EV ki e
ts and cold load dump
l a bl crank, +1
ava i temps, a 25°C
nd LED s
condition h ort
s

Highly efficient and robust Widest dimming range Highly integrated Flexible
Front lights, DRL Display backlighting Interior lights Tail lamps, CHMSL, sidelights
MAX16833 MAX16814 MAX16839 MAX16839
• 5V to 76V operation; buck, boost, • Four channels; integrated VOUT • Up to 100mA; open-LED • Up to 100mA; open-LED
or buck-boost; short-circuit optimization and fault protection; detection; multiple device detection; multiple device
protection between any I/O pins; 5000:1 dimming simultaneous turn-off in the simultaneous turn-off in the
overvoltage and thermal protection; event of a fault event of a fault
MAX16838
frequency dithering
• Two channels; built-in MOSFETs, MAX16836 MAX16823
MAX16821/MAX16834 VOUT optimization, and fault • Compact; up to 350mA; low EMI • Three channels; independent
• Up to 75W; > 94% efficient; protection; 5000:1 dimming MAX16804 dimming; open-LED detection
buck, boost, or buck-boost; • PWM/theater dimming; no
MAX16807/MAX16809 MAX16836/MAX16815/
overvoltage and thermal protection microcontroller required; low EMI
• Drive 8 to 16 channels; boost or MAX16828
MAX16832 SEPIC; 5000:1 dimming MAX16805/MAX16806 • Compact; 350mA/100mA/
• Up to 65V operation; compact; MAX16826 • Programmable for LED binning, 200mA output; low EMI
PWM/linear dimming; thermal eases manufacturing
shutdown
• I2C-programmable LED current
simplifies designs; LED fault
detection; VOUT optimization

3
Dimmable MR16 LED lamps compatible
with most electronic transformers
MAX16834-based, unique LED driver solution
allows flicker-free operation

TRAILING-
ELECTRONIC
MAX16834
110V TO CHOPPED 12VAC,
EDGE
220V LINE AC TRANSFORMER 24VAC DIMMABLE
DIMMER
DRIVER
SOLUTION

MR16 LAMP

Flicker-free dimmable MR16 lamp Small board space and low BOM cost Highly reliable solution
• Flicker-free operation with most • Internal switching MOSFET • No need for electrolytic
electronic transformers • Low external component count capacitors
• Dimmable with cut-angle • No need for electrolytic capacitors • -40°C to +125°C operating
(e.g., trailing-edge) dimmers temperature rating
• Available in thermally enhanced,
20-pin TQFN-EP and TSSOP-EP
packages

4
Longest lifetime for dimmable
120/230VAC LED lamps
MAX16834-based, proprietary LED driver solution
eliminates need for electrolytic capacitors and allows
isolated/nonisolated topologies

TRIAC
MAX16834
120V/230V
LINE DIMMER DIMMABLE
DRIVER
SOLUTION

LED LAMP

Flicker-free, dimmable lamps Small board space and low BOM cost Highly reliable solution
• Dimmable with cut-angle • Single converter solution • No need for electrolytic
(e.g., triac) dimmers • Low external component count capacitors
• No need for electrolytic capacitors • -40°C to +125°C operating
Flexible temperature rating
• Nonisolated (buck) and • Available in thermally enhanced,
isolated (flyback) topologies 20-pin TQFN-EP and TSSOP-EP
packages

5
First high-current, linear LED
driver eliminates the need for µC
and switch-mode converter
Ideal for automotive lighting applications;
reduces cost and EMI

ILED
5.5V TO 40V
Eliminates need for switch-mode IN OUT
converter 0.1µF
5V REG
• Programmable LED current EN V5
foldback limits power dissipation MAX16806 0.1µF LEDs Factory-programmable LED
from excessive VIN and/or LED current setting simplifies
temperature CS+ use of multiple LED bins
RSENSE
LED brightness adjustment without Integrated wetting current and
CS- debounce for momentary switch
µC PWM signal
• On-board 200Hz ramp allows DIM SW
analog or PWM control dimming

Small, thermally
enhanced package
TQF
EV kit 20- N
le
availab
m
5

m x 5m

350mA LED driver family


Load- DIM VIN
±3.5% LED- Programmable Programmable Momentary-
EN Dump 5V DIM with Programmable
Part Current LED-Current Thermal Switch
Pin Protected Output Input DC LED-Current
Accuracy Reference Foldback Interface
(45V) Signal Foldback
MAX16800 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
MAX16803 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
MAX16804 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
MAX16805 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
MAX16806 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
MAX16835 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
MAX16836 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

6
Small HB LED drivers simplify
lighting design

350mA drivers 100mA (MAX16815) and


200mA (MAX16828) drivers
Load-dump 5V regulator
protection to 45V powers µC
IN, EN, DIM

6.5V TO 40V
IN OUT
VIN LO
0.1µF EN
5V REG
V5 LEDs DIM MAX16815 CS-
0.1µF
MAX16828
MAX16803
Wide PWM MAX16836 CS+
VREF GND

dimming
RSENSE
range
DIM CS-
GND
TQF
16- N 6-TDFN

RSENSE adjusts
m 3m
EV kit
5

m x 5m LED current
m

m
m x 3m
availa s
ble

Features Applications
• Up to 1A LED current with external transistor • Automotive interior lighting
• ±3.5% LED current accuracy • Dome lights, map lights
• Radio/stereo backlighting
• Wave-shaped edge control minimizes EMI • Dashboard displays
during PWM dimming • Navigation system backlighting
• Low 200mV current-sense reference • Automotive exterior lighting
minimizes power dissipation • Rear combination lights (RCLS)
• Works down to +5V for automotive • Tail light/side marker assemblies
cold cranking • Display backlighting
• Short-circuit protection • Signage and indicators
• Thermal shutdown • Ambient and architectural lighting
• Operates from -40°C to +125°C

7
Highest integration LED driver ideal for
automotive applications
High-voltage, 3-channel linear driver
with open-LED detection

5.5V TO 40V Linear drive and


IN OUT1 wave-shaped dimming
45V load-dump minimize EMI
protection
OUT2

OUT3

3.4V
REG LEDs EV kit
MAX16823 availa
ble
DIM1
CS1+
LEDs
DIM2 R1

CS2+ LEDs
DIM3
R2
Open-LED detection
LEDGOOD CS3+ Independent LED-string
active during dimming
R3 current adjustment

SO TQF
-TS P-E 16- N
16

m
6.4

mm
m

x 5m m x 5m
m

Flexible Robust Applications


• Adjustable constant LED current • Undervoltage lockout • Automotive lighting
(Up to 70mA, 2A with external BJT) • Short-circuit protection (RCL, CHMSL, RGB
• ±5% LED current accuracy ambient)
• Thermal shutdown
• Low dropout voltage (0.7V, max) • Warning lights
• Operates from
• 3.4V regulator with 4mA capability -40°C to +125°C • LCD panel backlighting

8
Linear driver uniquely fulfills automotive
fault-detection requirements
Fault output and simultaneous
shutdown of multiple strings if one fails

VBAT VIN
5V TO 40V

CIN ILED
0.01μF 100mA LEDs

IN

DIM SINK

MAX16839
FLTS CS
CFLTS GND RCS
0.1μF 2Ω

Advanced fault-detection features Ideal for automotive voltage and temperature


• Open-LED detection output requirements
• In multistring applications, if one • 5V to 40V operating input voltage range
string fails, all are shut down • -40°C to +125°C temperature range

Constant-current LED control Available in 6-pin TDFN and 8-pin SO packages


• 15mA to 100mA LED current
• ±5% current accuracy

9
3-channel HB LED drivers have
independent dimming
Drive 150mA LED current with choice of
PWM dimming or SPI interface
VIN
C1

LEDs

LEDs
VIN OUT1

LEDs

MAX16824 OUT2

MAX16825
OUT3
PWM1

PWM2 CS1

PWM3 R1

VREG VREG CS2

C2 R2

GND CS3

R3

Features Applications
• Up to 36V output voltage range • Small LCD displays
• Three output channels with independently • LED message displays
adjustable LED current (150mA each) • Industrial, architectural,
• ±5% LED current accuracy and decorative lighting
• Three dedicated dimming-control pins • Mood lighting
(MAX16824) or 4-wire interface (MAX16825) • Signage
• Auxiliary 5V, 4mA voltage regulator • RGB LED lighting
• Short-circuit protection for each output
• Accurate, 200mV current-sense reference reduces
power losses
• Thermal shutdown
• Drivers can be cascaded (MAX16825)

10
Highly integrated, high-output-current
multistring drivers provide a reliable,
cost-effective solution
Protect LEDs and driver in case of fault, and allow
dimming the light over a 5000:1 range
VIN
4.5V TO 40V
UP TO 40V

Adaptive voltage optimization


maximizes efficiency and
minimizes PDISS
Available in
TQFN and TSSOP
packages

IN NDRV CS OVP

OUT1
OUT2
VCC
OUT3
OUT4
Up to 5000:1 PWM Fail-proof: open-LED and
dimming range MAX16814 SETI shorted-LED protection
DRV

FLT
DIM
COMP • LCD TVs
GND • Automotive displays
• Monitors

Robust, fault-tolerant solution Ideal for a wide range of backlighting applications


• 40V input capability • Four (MAX16814) or two (MAX16838) strings
• Automatically disable LED strings if LEDs • Up to 150mA/string
fail as open or short
Highly integrated, cost-effective solution
• Fault-detection output
• Internal MOSFETs (except switching MOSFET
Allow dimming light over a wide range for MAX16814)
• 5000:1 PWM dimming range at 200Hz • Output voltage optimization for maximum
dimming frequency efficiency
• LED fault protection

11
Highest integration LED drivers for
white or RGB LED LCD backlighting
High-efficiency PWM controllers with
8 or 16 constant-current channels

Parallel outputs for higher


Boost or buck-boost VIN current
(SEPIC) preregulator
• 3% channel-to-channel
• Optimized voltage
current matching
for LED array

EV k
avail it
OUT

Stand-alone or µC operation
VCC
CS able
• Up to 5000:1 dimming range
MAX16807
• Up to 30kHz dimming OUT0
frequency OUT1

Individual closed-loop
PWM OE current control
• 40VOUT pin rating
SET
LED current set by OUT7
single resistor
RSET
• Up to 55mA per string

Small, thermally
enhanced packages
TSSOP Q
28- 38-T FN
6.

mm m mm m
x 9.7 x 7m
4

Package
Part Channels
(mm x mm)
MAX16807 8 28-TSSOP-EP (6.4 x 9.7)
MAX16809 16 38-TQFN (5 x 7)

12
Programmable HB LED driver optimizes
efficiency and eliminates LED binning
Ideal for white or RGB LED LCD backlighting

4 independent
LED current sinks
VIN

Boost or SEPIC for


maximum flexibility

Integrated ADC for


IN DL CS FB
open-LED and shorted-LED
DIM1
detection
PWM input for DIM2
DR4
each channel DIM3
DIM4
I2C-programmable
DR1 LED current
MAX16826 DL1
CS1

I2C interface
SDA
for optimizing DL4
SCL EV k
avail it
GND CS4
boost voltage
able

Flexibility Precise color and dimming control


• Wide 4.75V to 24V input range • Drive all white/mono, RGB, or
• Large number of LEDs per string RGB + amber configurations
• Programmable LED current eliminates LED • Individual PWM inputs
bins for brightness variation • > 1000:1 PWM dimming range
Efficiency • Individual LED current adjustment
• Adjusts LED string voltage to maximize through I2C interface
efficiency Applications
• Very low, < 20µA standby current • Automotive displays
Robustness • Industrial displays
• Withstands 40V load dump • Desktop displays
• External MOSFETs for better thermal • LCD TVs
management

13
Low-pin-count HB LED drivers
cover wide input-voltage range
PWM dimming and high-accuracy current regulation

Multiple LEDs
up to 100W
INPUT

MAX16802 LEDs
ENABLE UVLO/EN IN

Wide PWM PWM DIM/FB VCC


dimming range
COMP NDRV 1% LED
current accuracy
CS GND

50% smaller than


the competition
MAX ®
8 -µ

RETURN

mm
3

x 5m
m

Simple and flexible for a wide range of applications


02
MAX168
EV K IT
ABLE
AVAILindustrial Part Intended Usage Supply Voltage Package
• Offline SIMPL
E10-µMAX
AN
XIBLE D
MAX15000 Offline applications 85VAC to 265VAC rectified
FLE
lighting MAX16801 Offline applications A WIDE
85VAC to 265VAC rectified FOR
8-µMAX
RANGE
L E D CURRE8-µMAXOF
• Street lighting MAX16802 DC applications Up to 40VDC
NTS

µMAX is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.

14
Flexible HB LED driver
supports multiple applications
Configurable for boost, buck-boost, SEPIC,
and high-side buck topologies
Boost LED driver
VIN Patent-p
4.75V TO 28V
for LED-b ending solution
a
compati sed MR16 lamp
ble with s
transform electr
LED+ ers and onic
dimmers triac
IN NDRV

LEDs
3000:1 PWM dimming, ON MAX16834
analog dimming OFF PWMDIM CS
Pate
for dim nt-pending so
LED-
ANALOG
REFI DIMOUT ma luti
input la ble 110VAC to on
DIM
mps, w 220V
PGND SENSE+ electroly ith no need AC
tic capa fo
citors r

TQF
20- N Integrated PWM
Integrated high-side dimming MOSFET
current sense driver
m
5

m x 5m
m

Features Applications
• Wide input operating voltage range • LED-based MR16 lamps
(4.75V to 28V) • Architectural and decorative lighting
• 100kHz to 1MHz programmable high- • Automotive rear and front lighting
frequency operation
• DC-DC boost/buck-boost converters
• External clock synchronization input
• Projection system RGB LED light sources
• Programmable UVLO
• Single-string LED LCD backlighting
• Internal 7V low-dropout regulator
• Spot and ambient lighting
• Fault output (active-low FLT) for overvoltage,
overcurrent, and thermal warning faults
• Programmable true differential overvoltage
protection
• Operates from -40°C to +125°C

15
Boost/buck-boost controller enables
more reliable, fault-tolerant
LED drivers with lower EMI noise
Ideal for all automotive HB LED applications
SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTED Buck-boost
up to 6 LEDs

SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTED

5V TO 65V
INPUT

DIM INPUT MAX16833


FAULT OUTPUT

Boost 6
LEDs or more

Reliable, fault-tolerant solution Very flexible


• High-side current sense and high-side pMOS • Boost, buck-boost, buck, and SEPIC
drivers allow protection against any short configurations
between input, output, and ground • Wide PWM-dimming range
• Wide input-voltage capability up to 65V • Allows single-wire connection to the LEDs
• Overvoltage and thermal protection • ±2% accurate voltage reference output
• Fault output (MAX16833B)
• -40°C to +125°C temperature range 16-pin TSSOP package
Improved EMI
• Internal frequency dithering improves EMI and
reduces EMI filtering needs

16
High-voltage Up to 2MHz switching;

High-voltage, high-efficiency HB LED


RSENSE
current sense works with miniature
inductor

drivers save space and cost


VIN
4.5V TO 28V

6-TDFN
10mA
5V REG
VIN VCC
mm

3
x 3m

m
5000:1 dimming range High-voltage Up to 2MHz switching;
current sense works with miniature
CS- MAX16819 DRV inductor
VIN
PWM RSENSE MAX16820
4.5V TO 28V
DIM GND
6-TDFN
10mA
5V REG
VIN VCC
mm

3
x 3m

m
5000:1 dimming range
CS- MAX16819 DRV

PWM MAX16820
DIM GND

Hyste
re
s
EV kit e no co tic control
m pen ,
a bl simpl
e to im sation,
avail pleme
nt

VIN
RSENSE L

6V to 65V Hyste
CIN re
operating range no co tic control
simpl m pen a
LED-current ,
e to im sfoldback,
thermal
tion,
pleme
CS TEMP_I analog dimmingnt
ON

IN MAX16822 DIM OFF

MAX16832
GND LX
350mA (MAX16822)/
700mA (MAX16832) PGND LX PWM dimming
driver
up to 20kHz

Features Applications
• Up to ±5% LED current accuracy • Architectural and industrial lighting
• Supply up to 35W • MR16 bulbs
• Thermal shutdown • Automotive exterior and interior lighting
• Operates from -40°C to +125°C • Indicators and emergency lights

17
High-power LED driver has rapid
LED current pulsing
Over 92% efficiency

Average current-mode
Wide 4.5V to 5.5V driver with up to
and 7V to 28V 30A LED current
input-voltage range
VIN VIN
without external
biasing circuitry
IN CSN CSP
DH 20A/µs LED-current
transients with
LX LED
Maxim's patent-
DL
pending topology
MAX16821

RT/ -TQFN
28
GND SYNC

kit m
EV able

5
m x 5m

m
il
ava

LED current has fast rise and fall times


due to Maxim’s patent-pending topology

M 1.00µs M 1.00µs
0 TO 10A: tRISE < 500ns 10A TO 0: tFALL < 500ns

Features Applications
• Suitable for synchronous buck, boost, buck-boost, • Front projectors and rear-projection TV
SEPIC, and common-anode topologies • Pocket and portable projectors
• 125kHz to 1.5MHz switching frequency • Automotive exterior lighting
• Wide -40°C to +125°C temperature range • Decorative, architectural, and industrial
• Overvoltage protection, thermal shutdown lighting

18
High-voltage, high-side MOSFET driver
for buck and buck-boost HB LED drivers
Ideal for automotive applications

VIN

BST
VDD CBST

HDRV Q1
MAX15054

HI LX
L1 D3

C5
D2

CFB GATE NDRV

DRAIN
VCC

OUT1
MAX16838
IN OUT2

DIM FLT

Flexible, low-cost MOSFET driver Improves conversion efficiency


• Works with single-string (MAX16834, • 2A source/sink current capability
MAX16833) and multistring (MAX16814, • 6ns output rise and fall times with 1000pF
MAX16838) LED drivers with no integrated output capacitance
high-side MOSFET driver
• Low propagation delay (12ns)
• High-side MOSFET driver allows buck-boost and
buck configurations Available in a small, 6-pin SOT23 package
Ideal for automotive applications
• Up to 60V operating input voltage
• -40°C to +125°C operating temperature range

19
Linear HB LED drivers
Applications
VIN ILED PWM-Dimming
Part Automotive General Display Package
(V) (A, max) Ratio
Lighting Lighting Backlighting
MAX16800 ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 40 0.35 1:30 16-TQFN
MAX16803 ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 40 0.35 1:200 16-TQFN
MAX16804/05/06 ✓ ✓ 5.5 to 40 0.35 1:200 20-TQFN
MAX16815 ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 40 0.1 1:100 6-TDFN
MAX16823 ✓ ✓ 5.5 to 40 0.1/ch 1:200 16-TQFN/TSSOP
MAX16824 ✓ ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 28 0.15/ch 1:5000 16-TSSOP
MAX16825 ✓ ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 28 0.15/ch 1:5000 16-TSSOP
MAX16828 ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 40 0.2 1:100 6-TDFN
MAX16835 ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 40 0.35 1:80 16-TQFN
MAX16836 ✓ ✓ 6.5 to 40 0.35 1:80 16-TQFN
MAX16839 ✓ ✓ 5 to 40 0.1 1:200 6-TDFN/8-SO

Switch-mode HB LED drivers


Applications PWM-
VIN ILED Frequency
Part Automotive General Display Topology Dimming Package
Projection (V) (A, max) (Hz)
Lighting Lighting Backlighting Ratio

MAX16801 ✓ Boost, flyback, SEPIC 10.8, 24 10.0 262k 1:3000 8-µMAX


Boost, buck, flyback,
MAX16802 ✓ 10.8, 24 10.0 262k 1:3000 8-µMAX
SEPIC
MAX16807 ✓ Boost, SEPIC + 8 linear 8, 26.5 0.05/ch 20k to 1M 1:5000 28-TSSOP-EP
MAX16809 ✓ Boost, SEPIC + 16 linear 8, 26.5 0.05/ch 20k to 1M 1:5000 38-TQFN
20-TQFN/
MAX16814 ✓ ✓ ✓ Boost, SEPIC + 4 linear 4.75 to 40 0.15/ch 200k to 2M 1:5000
TSSOP
MAX16819 ✓ ✓ Buck 4.5, 28 3.0 20k to 2M 1:5000 6-TDFN
MAX16820 ✓ ✓ Buck 4.5, 28 3.0 20k to 2M 1:5000 6-TDFN
Boost, buck, buck-boost, 4.75 to 5.5, 125k to
MAX16821 ✓ ✓ ✓ 30.0 1:5000 28-TQFN
SEPIC 7 to 28 1.5M
MAX16822 ✓ ✓ Buck 6.5, 65 0.35 20k to 2M 1:1000 8-SO
4.75
MAX16826 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Boost, SEPIC + 4 linear 3.0 100k to 1M 1:2000 32-TQFN-EP
to 24
MAX16832 ✓ ✓ Buck 6.5, 65 0.7 20k to 2M 1:1000 8-SO-EP
Boost, buck, buck-boost,
MAX16833 ✓ ✓ 5 to 65 Up to 2 100k to 1M 1:3000 16-TSSOP
SEPIC
Boost, buck, buck-boost,
MAX16834 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 4.5, 28 Up to 2 100k to 1M 1:3000 20-TQFN-EP
SEPIC
20-TQFN/
MAX16838 ✓ ✓ ✓ Boost, SEPIC + 2 linear 4.75 to 40 0.15/ch 200k to 2M 1:5000
TSSOP

High-voltage MOSFET driver


Applications
VIN Propagation Source/Sink
Part Automotive General Display Topology
(V) Delay (ns) Current (A, max)
Lighting Lighting Backlighting
MAX15054 ✓ ✓ ✓ Buck, buck-boost Up to 60 12 2

For free samples and technical information,


go to: www.maxim-ic.com/samples

TM

Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. • 120 San Gabriel Drive


Sunnyvale, CA 94086 • 1-408-737-7600
Innovation Delivered is a trademark and Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. © 2010 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rev. 9