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EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK CONVENTION EUROPEENNE DE LA CONSTRUCTION METALLIQUE EUROPAISCHE KONVENTION FUR STAHLBAU

ECCS - Joint Committee on Composite Structures

I

1

Composite Structures

1981

No28

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Copyright owner: ECCS CECM EKS General Secretariat AV. Louise, 326,bte 52 B - 1050 BRUSSELS (Belgium)

ECCS assumes no liability with respect to the use for any application of the material and information contained in this publication.

Composite Structures

European Convention for Constructional Steelwork Convention Europbenne de la Construction Mktallique EuropaisctpKonventionfur Stahlbau

\ .

prepared by t h e Technical General Secretariat of t h e ECCS

**THE CONSTRUCTION PRESS
**

LONDON AND NEWYORK

reproduced.All rights reserved. electronic. photocopying. without the prior permission of the Copyright owner : ECCS' CECM EKS General Secretariat. bte 5 2 B 1 0 5 0 Brussels (Belgium) - ECCS assumes no liability with respect to the use for any application of the material and information contained in this publication. mechanical. stored in a retrieval system. Louise 326. A V . or otherwise. or transmitted in any form or by any means. recording. No part of this publication may be . .

coefficients . 3. moments and vertical shear forces at the ultimate limit state Analysis of cross-sections 5.7 Friction grip bolts Section 4 37 Section 5 .general 6. .2 Definitions.1 General. 3.4 Distri.2 Assessment of safety Definitions and symbols 2. 1. 7. 6.ultimate limit state.general.1 General. 3 9 Prestressed structures.Contents Introduction 5 Section 1 Section 2 General 1. Design of the shear connection . connectors.4 Complete shear connection.3 Stability.ultimate limit state. . 4. 6.2 Maximum loads per connector .2 Symbols 9 11 17 Section 3 Design . equilibrium. bution of bending moments and vertical shear forces at the serviceability limit state. 4 5 Distribution of bending . 5 5 Serviceability limit state . 7 3 Longitudinal shear.4 Design for fatigue 95 109 3 .5 Method of partial . Design of the shear connection .2 Maximum loads per connector. 45 Section 6 61 Section 7 Section 8 Design of the shear connection . 6 5 Detailing of shear connection.4 Properties of materials. 83 Design requirements .2 Limit states.5 Partial shear connection. 7.10 Design requirements for composite beams Analysis of structures 4 1 General.8 Static .1 Definitions. 3. 2. 7 6 Transverse reinforcement . 8.3 Representative values of actions.6 Tests on shear .2 Limit state requirements. 3 7 Design-for the serviceability limit states. 3. 3 6 Design for the ultimate limit .static loading. 4. 6.1 General.serviceability limit state 8 1 Longitudinal shear. states. 7. 4. 63 Properties of shear connectors. 3. 6.2 Effective span. . 5 4 Slender beams .4 Design strength of shear connectors.general 3. 5. 5.ultimate limit state 7 1 Critical cross-sections.1 Scope.3 Compact beams . . 3. 8.static loading.

1 Responsibility. 14.6 The need to provide mechanical shear connection.Sectign 9 8 Temperature. 11.5 Design method. 15. 12.2 Joint between steel beam and concrete slab. 18.3 Deflections of simply supported beams with incomplete connection.6 Ultimate limit state. shrinkage and creep 9.2 Shrinkage and creep. 15 3 Design methods shuttering.6 Shrinkage and creep Section 15 Composite floors with profiled steel sheet 15.2 Calculation of deflections. 113 117 119 Section 10 Control of cracking 10. 16.1 General. 16.2 Sequence of construction. 12.3 Stability of steelwork.4 Design and testing of composite slabs Composite columns 16.4 Support conditions during construction.5 Concrete deck as diaphragm.4 Limit state requirements. 16. 1 3 3 Beams for bridges Section 14 Composite beam with precast slab 14. 18. 16. 18. 18.5 Serviceability. 16.8 Shear connectors.1 General Section 1 1 Deflections 1 1. 9. 12.1 Temperature effects. 12. 14. 14.2 Materials. 18.4 Transverse reinforcement.6 Anchorage of prestressing cables.1 Scope. 15. 14.3 Composite column crosssections.7 Serviceability limit state 123 : 127 129 133 Section 16 149 Section 17 Section 18 Framed structures for buildings Workmanship and construction 18.4 Limitations on deflections Section 12 Prestressing in composite construction 12. 1 1.10 Composite floors with profiled steel sheets.7 Construction accuracy and quality control of materials.2 Beams for buildings. 143 Shear connection.1 General.1 Scope.7 Control of cracking Section 13 Vibration 13. 18.1 General.5 Temperature effects during construction. 12.3 Degree of prestressing. 13. 18.1 1 Construction of columns 175 177 4 .1 General.2 Materials. 18. 18.9 Recast concrete slabs forming the flanges of composite beams. 1 1. 16.4 Loadcarrying capacity analysis. 12. 18.2 Methods of prestressing.

Its essential task was to prepare a technical document for the design of composite (steel and concrete) structures and structural parts. This activity has resulted in an (unpublished) internal report. with due consideration to recent orientations and research findings.International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE). with the active participation of the following organisations: ’ 3 VV . 5 . This Model Code has been prepared in consistency with the Recommendations of the participating international bodies for steel structures and for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. The Committee has endeavoured to cover the basic aspects of the practical design of composite structures in agreement with the latest knowledge resulting from research and constructional practice. but by considering the composite material as a distinct one. Particular attention has been given to the application of the general principles of structural safety in consistency with the provisions adopted for steel and concrete structures separately. which has been very carefully prepared thanks to the active participation of most Committee members.Euro-International Committee for Concrete (CEB) . The activity of this Committee was first devoted to a preliminary examination and discussion of the current situation and practice in the various countries and to the survey of basic aspects of this technical field. by constantly keeping in mind the need to preserve an openness for further developments and progress in knowledge and practice. including leading authorities in this field with similar responsibilities in their own countries.International Federation for Prestressing (FIP) . apt to be used as a common basis or reference for national and international codes or specifications. to the extent compatible with the specific character and behaviour of the composite material. The “Joint Committee on Composite Structures’’ was formed in 1971 under the auspices of the Liaison Committee of International Associations for Civil Engineering.European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS) .Introduction ‘ . The second phase of the activity has been concentrated on the drafting of this “Model Code”.

Roik and Stark. With the above remarks. now deceased. as well as to allow its adoption as a basis for the practical design of composite structures for which this may be authorised. Any possible comments and remarks on its contents will be welcomed by the Committee. Joint Committee on Composite Structures 6 . as a step towards international unification and technical progress. Special mention is due to the members who have assumed responsibilities as Task Group Chairmen and/or as reporters for specific chapters: Messrs Breitschaft. homage must be expressed to the memory of two Committee members. I D Sfintesco Chairman. with the hope that it will meet the attention of code and specificationmaking authorities and thus fulfil its role within the framework of documents governing structural engineering practice.The code format chosen for this document is intended to facilitate its use for and its conversion into national or international official rules. who have significantly contributed to the success of this action: Yves Guyon and Paul Lorin. Dittmann. Thanks are due to the members of this Committee for the considerable work performed in the full sessions held twice every year as well as in the Task Groups formed for the drafting of various parts of this document. eg. for certain international contests. These acknowledgements would be incomplete without a mention of the outstanding contribution of Professor Johnson to the advancement and the co-ordination of the whole work. Dowling. O’Leary. h s t but not least. the Draft Model Code for Composite Structures prepared by the CEB-ECCS-FIP-IABSE Joint Committee is now released to the competent bodies and professionals. Johnson.

A G* O'Leary. W H Avram. H Martinez Calz6n Meseguer. Y Sfin tesco . R Dittman. E Yam. D (Chairman) Siebke. A Walfel. C* Badoux. H Winand. J W Trost. R J Chiorino.. A Dowling. P J Dubas. J C Batanero.LCP * = corresponding member. J Johnson. G B Huber. . United Kingdom Rumania Switzerland Spain Germany United Kingdom Italy Switzerland France Germany Belgium United Kingdom Switzerland United Kingdom Switzerland Belgium United Kingdom Finland Spain Spain United Kingdom Germany United Kingdom France France Germany Germany Netherlands Germany Belgium Germany United Kingdom 7 . M A Crisinel.. K Rowe. D C* Roik. JOINT COMMITTEE ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Arch. G Dobruszkes. H Stark. J Breitschaft. R E Saillard. R P Kakko. M Delesques. G Buckby. K Janss. P Godfrey. H Sontag.

guidance is given in Clause 3.1 I I ~ The aim of these recommendations is to provide comprehensiv design meth d for composite members in buildings and bridges. 8 .10.2 This semi-probabilistic approach. and resistances. For beams. in the form of Clause references.COMMENTARY I I I 1. action effects. depending on the type of structure and its intended use. is characterised by the use of partial safety factors applying to actions. It is recognised that for certain structures not all the recommendations are applicable. the Level 1 method of Volume I. 1. on the recommendations that should be followed.

1. The steel component may be either a rolled or a fabricated section. code-making authorities. To determine the numerical values. and prestressed composite structures in Section 12. taking account of the general principles given in Volume I and the more detailed recommendations of Section 3. It is referred to here simply as ‘Volume I.1 SCOPE These recommendations apply to structures and members (beams. slabs. Composite beams with precast concrete slabs are considered in Section 14. which applies to all structural materials and all types of construction. The recommendations refer generally to concrete cast in situ. but not for encased composite beams.I - RECOMMENDATIONS Section 1. General 1. Recommendations are given for composite floors with profiled steel sheets and for beams with haunches. master builders or consulting engineers should consider each particular case. 9 . Concrete may have normal-density or lightweight aggregate. or columns) consisting of a steel component and a reinforced or prestressed concrete component mechanically interconnected so as to act together to resist the load.’ Limit state design philosophy is used. ahd safety is assessed by a semi-probabilistic approach.2 ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY Structural safety is treated according to Volume I of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS)of the International System of Unified Standard Codes.

Degree of shear connection The term ‘partial’should not be considered to imply in any way that the connectors are unsatisfactory for the purpose for which they are designed. or where the size of the member is determined by serviceability criteria rather than strength. The definition of complete connection is equally applicable to slender or compact beams. whether propped or unpropped during construction.for example where the size of the steel member is governed by the load carried by the steel beam alone in unpropped construction. 10 .. Degree of interaction In practice some slip will always occur and the term fill interaction is used where it has been shown that the effects of slip between the concrete flange and the steel beam can safely be neglected in the design.COMMENTARY . The use of partial connection is of interest where the full bending strength of the section need not be fully utilised.

The ultimate limit state denotes the state at which any part of the structure is unable to sustain any further increase in load.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 2.1) throughout its length when the beam has a bending strength at critical cross-sections (see 7. imposed deformations and strengths and properties of materials to take account of possible unusual increases in load or deformation beyond those considered in deriving the characteristic values and possible variations in material strength between the characteristic strength and the strength of the material in the actual structure. Partial shear connection occurs when the number of shear connectors provided is less than the number required for complete connection. prestressing forces. Partial safety factors are the factors applied to the characteristic loads. Degree of interaction Full interaction implies that no slip occurs between the concrete slab and the steel beam.1) that would not be increased by the addition of further connectors. The design actions and strengths shall be determined in accordance with Section 3 and international or national Codes for nominal or characteristic values of permanent and variable actions and strengths of materials. The serviceability limit state denotes the state when remedial action is necessary to enable the structure to continue to fulfil its design function.2.1 DEFINITIONS A limit state is a condition beyond which a structure or part of a structure ceases to fulfil the function for which it was designed. and so causes a discontinuity of strain that has to be taken into account in the analyses. Definitions and symbols 2. 11 . Degree of shear connection in compact beams Complete shear connection is achieved in a beam that is compact (see 5. Partial interaction implies that slip occurs at the interface between the concrete flange and the steel beam.

the connection is “partial’: In this case. Section IV will be critical for vertical shear in the case of short beams with relatively high loads.Pu . 11 Ill-- II IV I I I !---Ill A ’ Figure C2.strength Pu. A t section V. S.x -sa Figure C2. Where the number of connectors provided on plane 1 1 is not sufficient to 1 enable the beam to achieve its full bending strength. the ultimate bending strength depends essentially on the shape of the load/slip diagram of the connectors.is of importance. Only the strength of the connectors . interaction will occur between vertical shear and bending moment. . Where the shear connection is ‘%omplete’:failure will depend on the bending strength a t sections I or II as shown in Figure C2.1 Typical loadlslip relationship for connectors.COMMENTARY It is important to distinguish between the following properties of the shear connection: . the span of the beam und the method of construction.deformation capacity Smm.2 .2.

14 Previous page is blank . Load pu Flexible connector Stiff connector Figure C2. the deformation capacity must be large enough to permit redistribution of the longitudinal shear in beams with complete connection to the extent that the mean load per connector at longitudinal shear failure is not less than its design strength. the defomtion capacity must not on& satisfy (2) below. due to the additional slip that occurs before failure in beams designed with partial connection. (2) For all stiff connectors. but must also be higher.3 Typical load/slip relationship for flexible and stiff connectors.COMMENTARY Deformation capaciw of connectors (1) For flexible connectors. The deformation capacities required for both are different and it is important to distinguish between the two requirements.

Symbols concerning properties and behaviour of concrete. 15 .RECOMMENDATIONS Deformation capacity of connectors (1) Shear connectors may be considered as flexible if their deformation capacity is such that at the ultimate limit state sufficient slip can occur between the concrete flange and the steel beam without reduction of shear strength to justify the assumption that the connection behaves in an ideal elastic plastic manner. (2) All other types of connector should be regarded as stiff unless shown by tests or analysis to satisfy the definition of flexible connectors given above.CEB).2. Headed stud connectors of the proportions specified in Section 6.2 may be considered as flexible. reinforcement and prestressing steels are consistent with the Model Code for Concrete Structures.2 SYMBOLS The symbols used in this draft are generally consistent with the recommendations given in Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 3890. August 1975. Symbols concerning properties and behaviour of structural steels are consistent with the 1978 Europeah Recommendations for Steel Construction. 3rd Draft (Bulletin 117 E . 2.

1 The recommendations refer to existing methods such as ‘elasticdesign ’and ‘plasticdesign They can be applied only by qualified engineers who know the assumptions adopted in these methods. and can assess which sources of error can safely be neglected. but the engineer must then prove the reliability of the safety assessment. This proof is not required when the present recommendations are followed. Local buckling or yielding has to be considered as an ultimate limit state on& i f it leads to collapse. I 3. or of bending and shear stresses. they may be based on: a ) a defined degree of redistribution of bending moments.2. or b) attainment of the design strength of shear connectors. For example.- - ~ ~ _____ __ COMMENTARY 3. Other approaches may also be used.1 Established inelastic methods of checking the ultimate load caving capacity of composite structures may be used. such as direct experimentation or different methods of calculation. with or without redistribution of longitudinal shear. 16 . due to yielding of some parts of the structure.

which are based on design values of actions and combinations of actions. Design .2 LIMIT STATES According to Section 2 of Volume I. inelastic. for use in the calculation by elastic theory of the resistance of members and cross-sections. 3. 3. The following Clauses are concerned with the limit state verifications.1.general 3. They should be checked by elastic.2.1 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES These limit states and typical events that cause them to be reached are defined in Clause 2.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 3.1 GENERAL This section gives general guidance on the application to composite structures of the recommendations of Section 10 of Volume I. even at a single point in the structure. or plastic analysis as appropriate. obtained by applying various rcoefficients (partial safety factors) to representative values. there are two categories of limit states: ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.1 Elastic analysis The use of elastic analysis implies that an ultimate limit state can be reached due to the attainment. Appropriate stress levels are given in these recommendations. and of strengths of materials and resistance of members. 3. ‘The method of partial coefficients’. 17 . of a defined level of stress.2.2 of Volume I.

Restressing forces should normally be considered at two ages. 3. The load factors for ultimate load given in Section 3 are not applicable. in structures where use of a low value may increase the severity of a limit state. perhaps in conjunction with fatigue failure.2. national regulations can be applied. but with only one value for each age. For practical reasons. may lead to a serviceability limit state. and b) earth or liquid pressure. by taking account of time-dependent losses. and is due to repetitions of actions under serviceability conditions. 3.1 Most permanent actions may be represented by a unique value because one or more of the following apply: a) their variability is small.2. where the minimum weight may be taken as zero. 3. provided that they are based on assumptions comparable with those of Appendix II of Volume I.3.2. For example: a) non-structural permanent surfacing in certain bridges.COMMENTARY 3.1 The loading regulations are being worked out (see for example Appendix III of Volume I).2 Local buckling or yielding.3. 18 . There are some actions for which two representative values (maximum and minimum) should be defined. it may be considered in design for the serviceability limit state.3 Fatigue as a phenomenon affects the strength of materials and hence that of cross-sections. Suggested values for J/ are given in Section I0 of Volume I and in the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. Meanwhile. and c ) it is obvious which of two representative actions governs for all parts of the structure.1. i f the consequence could be remedied by repair. b) their influence on the total action effect is small.

RECOMMENDATIONS 3.2.1.2 Order of verification When it is assumed in analysis that loading causes no change in the geometry of the structure, the procedure is known as first-order verification, and is acceptable only if the possible errors due to change of geometry can be considered to be negligible. Otherwise, second-order verification should be used, in which account is taken of non-linear effects of loading due to displacement of the structure. 3.2.1.3 Fatigue Fatigue may lead to an ultimate limit state, if the consequence should be collapse. Design for fatigue in structural steel should be in accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. Commentary on the design of shear connection for repeated loading is given in 8.4. 3.2.2 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES Serviceability limit states are defined, with examples, in Clause 2.3 of Volume I.

**3.3 REPRESENTATIVE VALUES OF ACTIONS
**

3.3.1 PERMANENT ACTIONS

~

Permanent actions can usually be represented by a single characteristic value G; for example: a) self weight of the structure (calculated from the nominal dimensions and the mean density of concrete and steel, assuming a mean percentage of reinforcemen t) ,

b) weight of non-structural permanent finishes;

c) actions resulting from a practically constant water level; and d) imposed deformations due to shrinkage of concrete or unintended movements of supports.

Prestress due to tendons or intended deformations imposed during construction, as defined in 3.9.2, can be represented by a single characteristic value P.

3 3.2 VARIABLE ACTIONS

3.3.2.1 Representative values

I

Q The representative values , of variable actions and the combination factors 3/o, J I 1 , and J / z are defined in Section 10 of Volume I. Their numerical values are fixed by the loading regulations on the basis of experience and available statistical information.

19

COMMENTARY

For indirect actions, the representative values are related to deformations which give rise to internal forces in the structure. In special cases, limit state.

Q k and $ &

may also have to be considered at the ultimate

Q, is the nominal maximum value associated with the serviceability limit state. I t is frequently the same as Qk.

The definition of the frequent value depends on the type of structure. It is suggested thatfor buildings it should be taken as that which is likely to be exceeded during only S% of the design life of the structure, or which may occur at least 100 000 times during that life. Unless a more precise estimate is made, the effects of creep (see Volume I I ) are studied under permanent and quasi-permanent actions, considered as constant loads of long duration. For some loadings, such as wind, the minimum may be negative.

20

.

RECOMMENDATIONS For the ultimate h i t state, the maximum representative values are normally:

**- the characteristic Value, Qk
**

-the combination value, $ Qk. , For the serviceability limit state the maximum representative values are normally:

- the service value, Qsr - the frequent value, $

- the quasi-permanent value, $2

Qk

Qk.

The minimum value of a variable action is in general zero. For some loadings, such as water pressure, the minimum may be positive, and should then be considered when the action is favourable. For simplification, it may be possible to define a single minimum representative value. 3.3.2.2 Temperature effects

.

For imposed strains and deformations due to temperature, the designer may use, as representative values, nominal values agreed with the client. 3.3.2.3 Natural forces For special structures, the designer may determine representative values of natural forces from available statistical information, provided that this information is considered to be sufficient by the competent public authority. 3.3.2.4 Erection loads Where necessary, nominal values for erection loads should be determined in consultation with the contractor and agreed with the client. 3.3.3 ACCIDENTAL ACTIONS These values are normally defined by the competent public authority. 3.4 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS The characteristic properties of concrete, reinforcing steel, and prestressing steel should be determined in accordance with the Model Code for Concrete Structures (V.olume 11); and those for structural steel in accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. Characteristic and design strengths of shear connectors are given in Section 6.

21

and Equation (3. 3.I ) obviously applies.. or b) an additional action effect such as additive bending moment at a point o f 22 .1 Behaviour is over-proportional when increase of an action results in a relatively greater increase in the action effects (Figure C3. Superposition of effects is then not possible.4.3.)).COMMENTARY 3. such as additive dead weight or shifting of bearings. Behaviour is under-proportional when increase of an action results in a relatively smaller increase in the action effects (eg.1 352 . If both types of behaviour occur within a single system it may be necessary to investigate both cases.5. because the coefficient of thermal expansion for lightweight concrete and limestone aggregate concrete can be as low as 7 x 10" per "C 3.I It may sometimes be necessary to use separate values for concrete and for steel.5 A general statement of this method is given in Section 10 of Volume I. The partial safety factor rf Should then be sub-divided (Equation (3. 4 @ Linear @ Overproportional @ Underproportional Figure C3.1). suspension bridges). A n additive safety element 6 may be: a) an additional action or geometrical imperfection. rope net constructions.

Fk. sd = Sd = [rf3. This may be over-proportional.1) to (3.i)l +6S.Fk.i)l (3.i. partial safety factors yf.4. J/i.6f.i = 'Yf. sd= s [g(Yf. 3.1) (3-2) (3 -3) which for linear behaviour can be used in the form [7fyiS(J/i. The use of the partial safety factors depends on the nature of the relationship between action effects and actions.i.6f.1 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION The coefficient of thermal expansion for both concrete and steel may normally be taken as 10 x 10-6per "C.5.3)) should be used instead of (or in addition to) the coefficients yf.RECOMMENDATIONS 3.i.6fyi. linear. 3.J/i.i and 6 s are explained in 3. and combination factors J/i using the appropriate equation.i.Fk.1 DETERMINATION OF DESIGN ACTION EFFECTS Account should be taken of the various combinations of actions when calculating the most unfavourable effect on each member and cross-section. for over-proportional or linear behaviour. additive safety elements (6f i and 6 s in Equations (3.i 'Yf3.i. as follows:.5. or by variation of dead weight exceeding the tolerance limits associated with the characteristic value). 'Yf1. or underproportional.5. and for under-proportional behaviour.2.iS(yfi.GENERAL 3.i)1+6S. Design action effects Sd should be calculated from characteristic actions Fk.2 ADDITIVE SAFETY ELEMENTS If action effects are strongly influenced by external imperfections (eg.i where and the additive safety elements 6 f. 23 . by unintended eccentricity relevant to buckling or overturning.5 METHOD OF PARTIAL COEFFICIENTS .

for example.7) is used only for special structures. method ( a ) should be used.2 Various load cases are possible for an individual action. whether at one or several levels.5) should be used in design for stability. the two values of y in turn. ing as a free action that part of the permanent action that exceeds the level corresponding to the minimum value of yr b) The bending moment distribution is calculated with y = 1. . such as suspension bridges. can normally be designed for a variable load less than the total calculated from the unit variable load and the area of floor. . Equation (3. When action effects are strongly influenced by the difference between two permanent actions of the same origin (eg. Both methods should be associated with appropriate detailing rules. This always applies to checks on static equilibrium (Clause 3. the floor loading in a multi-storey multi-bay structure. This reduction is not included in Equations (3. in balanced cantilever construction). Equation (3. This can be done by treat.6 The ultimate limit state of loss of static equilibrium is considered in Clause 3.8). 24 .6.6) is suitable only for use with linear elastic analysis.8. particularly in relation to points of contraflexure. 3.COMMENTARY contraflexure (relevant to minimum reinforcement)or additive shear force where the calculated shear is zero (relevant to minimum shear connection). and factored by .5) to (3. A member in a building that canies the variable loads from a large area of floor. 3. there are two possible methods for obtaining the most severe design condition: a) The two values of y are used in alternate spans. Equation (3.the more severe action effect is used. and may be used with elastic or simple plastic analysis. When maximum and minimum values of y are given for a permanent action. At each cross-section.7).

1 should be compared with the corresponding design resistance Rd of the member or section.1 DESIGN PRINCIPLE At different cross-sections of the structural element under consideration. Checks on the static equilibrium of the complete structure should be in accordance with 3. (3 -6) and for under-proportional behaviour. Sd = s ['YgG t 'Ypp t Tq(Qi k t i>i $oiQd I.8. 25 . (3.4) should be satisfied: Sd < Rd.'Yq.RECOMMENDATIONS 3. Design action effects should be calculated as follows: for over-proportional or linear behaviour.9.7) give the combinations of actions of different origin that should be considered. obtained in accordance with 3.5) to (3. Sd = 'Yf3 S [Ygi G t Ypi P + 'Yqi (Qi k t iF1J/oi Qik) I.5) which for linear behaviour can be used in the form Sd = 'Ygs(G) t 'Yps@') + 'YqS(Qik t i>i J/oiQik). - I P is as defined in 3. and Equation (3.6. (3.Tg.2. and 'Yf3 'Yq1 .6 DESIGN FOR THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES 3.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS (3 -4) The symbolic Equations (3. and Ql k is the basic variable action in the combination. Each variable action should be considered in turn as the basic action except those for which it is obvious that the resulting combination cannot be critical.4. 3.6. design action effects Sd obtained in accordance with 3.5. - 7 f 3 7p1 = Yp.7) where Yf3 'Ygi .6.

~~

~~~

COMMENTARY

3.6.2.1

**In design to Clause 3.6, method ( b )above is normally used for permanen t actions
**

of one origin, using the ‘unfavourable’or ‘faVourable’value 7, (Table 3.1) as of appropriate. Using the values for yfi given in VolumeI and yf as given in Table 3.I , yf3 is found to lie between I . 0 7 and 1.125, depending on the nature of the action. The value yg = 1.35 is a mean value. Clause 10.3.1 of Volume I indicates when variations from it may be justified. For vectorial action effects, all y factors applied to any favourable component should be reduced by 20%.

**For the condition of erection, special consideration should be given to the choice
**

of partial safety factors.

3.6.2.2 It is normally obvious in design how many individualactions should be considered, It will rarely be necessary to include more than two in addition to the permanent action. For floor loading in buildings it4s generally adequate to consider two cases on&: adjacent spans loaded and alternate spans loaded. These are deemed to give the most unfavourable conditions. For Equations (3.6)and (3.7)the simplification is analogous.

3.6.3 For accidental combinations, the relevance of the $-values needs careful consideration. Only that part of each variable action likely to be present at the same time as the accidental action or situation needs to be included, so that engineering judgement should be used.

26

.

RECOMMENDATIONS 3.6.2.1 Partial safety fictors Values for the partial safety factors yg, y,, and yq are given in Table 3.1. These include the factor yf3. Effect of the action Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable 1.35 1.o 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.o 1.o

Combination Fundamental (Clause 3.6.2) Accidental (Clause 3.6.3)

's Y

0 < rq< 0.9

1.5

As relevant As relevant

Table 3.1 Numerical values for 'yf.

3.6.2.2 Simplified method For the majority of structures for buildings and for some bridges a simpler method is possible, in which Equation (3.5) is replaced by:

s = s (1 -35 G + Tq d

and, when minimum dead load is more critical,

Sd = S (1.OG

n i= I

Qik)

(3 -8)

+ yq I= 1 Qik) 1=

n

(3 -9)

where yq = 1.5 for n = 1 and ys = 1.35 for n 2 2. Prestressing actions, when present, are treated as in Equations (3.5) to (3.7). 3.6.3 ACCIDENTAL COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS AND ACCIDENTAL SITUATIONS

An accidental combination consists of only one accidental action Qa, accompanied by the permanent actions and the appropriate variable actions. The design values of these should be taken as $ Qlk for the basic variable action and J/zi Qik for the others, thus:

Sd = SLY$

+ TaQa + 'Yq ($1 Qlk +

iFl 9 ~ i Q i k ) I

(3.10)

Unless other values are specified, the partial safety factors should be:

**rg 1.1 or 0.9, whichever is the less favourable, and =
**

'Ya

- Tq = 1.0. -

This clause is applicable also to accidental situations in which there is no accidental action.

27

COMMENTARY

3.6.4 The resistance R , can also be determined by direct experiment. In Equation (3.11)f d designates equally the design strength of steel or concrete, in tension or in compression. The value yc = 1.5 is based on the assumption that the concrete is mixed on the site or in the works, and that its production is controlled in accordance with Section 23 of Volume II. If the standard of control is lower, yc should be increased and if it is higher, 'yc may be reduced (note to Clause 6.4.2.3 of Volume II). When assessing deformations of the structure as a whole to treat buckling, it may be more accurate to use a stress-strain relation for concrete related to the mean strength, as proposed in a note to Clause 6.4.1 of Volume II.

For firther information on ?a, particularly where there is danger of instability, reference should be made to the European Recommendations for Steel Construction. In the absence of better information, y m for profiled steel sheeting should be taken as equal to ?a.

3.7.1 The funct,mal requirements can vary considerably depending upon the type of structure. Appropriate requirements for each stmcture should be defined by the engineer responsible for the design in agreement with the client (for example, limiting crack widths or strain limits that allow for the behaviour of the finishes and adjacent elements). Wherecracking is to be prevented, a check in accordance with Equation (3.4)may be appropriate, taking account of the partial safev factors given in 3.7.2 and 3.7.3.

3.7.2 The relevant combinations of actions are as follows: infrequent frequent quasi-permanent : 3.7.3 The value yc = 1.3 is used in calculations for cracking that take account of the tensile strength of concrete;for example, in partially prestressed memben.

-'

G ' + P k + Qlk ( O r Qser) +

r>

x

($ i i Qik)

1

(3.12) (3.13)

G +pk

+

i>

($zi Qik)

I

(3.14)

28

appropriate checks should be made that: a) calculated stresses or crack widths in concrete do not reach certain specified values.7.3.2.1 1) where fk is the characteristic strength of the material and Tm is the partial safety factor given in Table 3. as appropriate.5 1.3 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS The design properties of materials are based. Combination ~~ Concrete TC ~ Reinforcing steel and prestressing steel 7s Structural steel Ta Fundamental Accidental 1. rC taken as 1.7 DESIGN FOR THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES 3. 1978. Values for shear connectors are given in 6.RECOMMENDATIONS 3.15 1. Thus.7.2.7.2 COMBINATION OF ACTIONS The combinations of actions to be considered depend on the criterion being assessed and on whether itis related to the service.O. on mean values or on characteristic values. Table 3. or quasi-permanent values of the various actions. with Y~ = 1. given in the European Recommendations for Steel Construction.7.4 DESIGN RESISTANCE The resistance Rd is determined as a function of the design stress-strain curves obtained from the characteristic curves by dividing all stresses by rm.o 1. 3.3 1. The coefficient rf should be taken as 1.1.6. In certain checks for the cracking of concrete.3. In particular.1 DESIGN PRINCIPLE The functional requirements are aimed principally at the limitation of cracking and of strains in the elements of structures in service. frequent.1 and 6. is 29 . and b) strains or deflections derived from analysis of the structure are less than acceptable limiting values.o *Provisional value. 3.o* 1.2 Numerical values for Tm. the design strength of a material is defined by: fd = f k / 7 m (3. 3. Direct comparisons are made between calculated values and the relevant criteria and associated limitations.

There are discontinuities in strain in the section which should be considered as action effects in beanis where the steel strain nowhere exceeds the yield strain (ie. which have always to be considered as actions or action effects. If second-order effects are important.8 Prestress can normally be imored when checking equilibrium. I The use of method ( c )always creates statically determinate effects (due to the different strain in the tendons and in the concrete). Statically indeterminate actions occur only in continuous beams and frames. In beams when the steel strain exceeds the design yield strain. changes in forces at supports). 30 .for all beams at the serviceability limit state. The use of method ( b )creates statically indeterminate prestressing actions. The use of method ( d )creates statically indeterminate actions. the strain distribution due to this method of prestressing should be considered . strains of the ‘rigid’ body should be taken into account. The statically determinate part should be treated as for method (a) and the statically indeterminate part as action or action effect as for method (b).in the determinahbn of the resistance of the section. and for slender beams also at the ultimate limit state if elastic analysis is used).I Beams prestressed by method (a) are rarely subjected to statically indeterminate actions due to prestressing (eg.9.COMMENTARY 3.i f relevant . which should be treated as for method (b). except when forces are induced by staticall’ indeterminate effects. 3.

(and PS)¶ b) permanent non-stabilising loads Gn (and Pn).1.5 (Q1k t Z 3/oi Qik)] 2 0 i >I (3. The following condition should be satisfied: Sd = S [0.9 PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES 3.9Gs- 1.8 STATIC EQUILIBRIUM The checking of static equilibrium relates to the stability of the whole structure considered as a rigid body. and c) variable nonstabilising loads Qik. Each of these 'four methods of prestressing can be applied to a structure separately or in conjunction one with another. stayed bridges).1. The loads to be considered are the absolute values of: a) permanent stabilising loads G.15) 3.1. The check can also be applied to a structure with some elements removed.1 5 ) is replaced by: sd=s[0. a) Stressing the steel beam by means of preliminary supports and removing these supports after hardening of the concrete. 31 .RECOMMENDATIONS 3.1.1 SIMPLIFIED METHOD For the majority of structures for buildings and for some bridges a simpler method is possible.1 SCOPE Consideration is given to the following methods of prestressing composite structures. to test its stability in a simulated damaged condition.9.1 6) 3. b) Raising the inner supports of a continuous beam before casting of the concrete¶and subsequently lowering them to their final level.9Gs.1Gn. in which Equation (3. d) Prestressing the structure by unbonded internal or external cables (eg.8. c) Prestressing the concrete part of a composite section by-tendons that are bonded to the concrete by grouting after stressing.1Gn.SQIk.35 Z: Qik] 2 0 i >I (3. cable .

Other values can be chosen.COMMENTARY 3. Loss of prestress is considered in 3. i f these are justified by more sophisticated methods. 32 .. For simplicity.9. Further study is needed for a better understanding of the real relationships.2 Actions due to prestressing can be neglected if design is based on analysis by the simple plastic theory. so it is possible that the permanent load acts in an unfavourable way and the prestress in a favourable way. and vice versa. although different factors affect the variation of prestress: ..1 are primarily for trial and comparison calculations. the same values of y p are given for prestressing by tendons and by imposed deformations.for prestressing by tendons: deviations in the position of the tendons and in their draw-in a t the anchorage. I . and variations in the stiffness of the concrete part due to cracking. 3.3.9. . and variations in the stiffness of the coricrete part of the section due to cracking.3 No detailed values of partial safety factors for prestressing by method ( d )are given in this code.for prestressing by imposed deformations: deviations in the deformation or in the jacking force (depending on the method of control) and in the stiffness of the composite member. The values yp giben in Table 3. For inelastic analysis. The prestress P is independent of the permanent load G. actions due to prestressing may be multiplied by 7. the action effects may be multiplied by y p . For elastic analysis.

for use in Equations (33) and (3. other than those which are prevented from buckling by the shear connection to the concrete flange. All parts of steel structure. the requirements of column (2) Table 3.7) represents the characteristic value of the statically indeterminate actions due to the prestressing of tendons and to deformations imposed on the structure by jacking or by deliberate movement of supports. in addition to those given in column (1) of Table 3. 3.9.5) to (3.9.10 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS The entries in Table 3. Clause 5. should be checked for resistance to buckling at all stages during construction (including prestressing where appropriate) in accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction.3 refer to particular clauses in this Code of Practice which must be considered in the design of composite beams whether propped or unpropped during construction.3.5 and Section 8 are applicable.RECOMMENDATIONS 3. 3. depending on their origin or cause. Where composite beams of compact cross-section are subject to repeated loading. Where beams of slender cross-section are subject only to predominantly static loading.1 may be applied to their actions or action effects.6). If they are. if the strain in the steel does not exceed that corresponding to the characteristic yield stress.3 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS Partial safety factors yp for the actions or action effects due to prestressing by methods (a) to (c) are given in Table 3. the partial safety factors given in Table 3. Imposed deformations may or may not be relevant at the ultimate limit state.2 DEFINITION O F PRESTRESS The symbol P in Equations (3.1. The statically determinate part of prestressing should be considered as action as well.3 are applicable but the requirements of Section 8 need not be considered. 33 .

COMMENTARY ' I 34 .

2.general Design of shear connection at ULS Design of shear connection at SLS Temperature.3.2 4. 35 .2 Slender beams subject to repeated loading 5.6.1 4.3 - 9 10 11 12 13 18 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 18 Table 3.3. 18.4 3.4.4.5 6 see 6. *As defined in 5.6.2.5.1. 18.3 5.1 4.3 5. (1 1 5.4 5.5.5.1 3.2.RECOMMENDATIONS Compact* beams subject to static loading Slendemess limitations Distributions of bending moment and vertical shear force at ULS Distributions of bending moment and vertical shear force at SLS Stability Analysis of cross-section at ULS Analysis of cross-section at S S L Shear connection .3 Design requirements for composite beams.2. shrinkage and creep Crack control Deflections Prestressing Vibration Workmanship and construction Note: ULS denotes ultimate limit state.1 or 4. SLS denotes serviceability limit state.

I I I The EECS Recommendations for elastic or for plastic design should be applied as appropriate.COMMENTARY 4. where the length to the centre of the support should be used. The distance between the centres of bearing plates or rocker pins. 36 .3. 2.1 . Cantilevers.2 The effective span of a simply-supported or continuous beam may be taken as: 1. Longitudinal beams. The effective length of a cantilever should be taken as its length from the free end to the face of the support plus half its effective depth except where it forms the end of a continuous beam. I I 4.

lateral torsional buckling of the compression flange must be controlled in accordance with the European Recommendations for Steel Construction.3 STAB1LITY 4. the overall stability should be investigated at the ultimate limit state by second order theory.1 GENERAL The concrete slab may be considered to act simultaneously as the flange of a composite beam and as a slab spanning in a direction transverse to the axis of the steel beam.3.RECOMMENDATIONS . lateral buckling of the upper flange of the steel beam is effectively prevented by the shear connection to the concrete slab. Section 4 Analysis of structures 4. 4.2 EFFECTIVE SPAN In calculating the effective span of a member proper account should be taken of the restraint (torsional or flexural) afforded to the ends of such members. 4. LATERAL BUCKLING In a composite beam. In negative (hogging) moment regions however. 37 .3. taking proper account of the rotational and directional restraint afforded at the ends of the member.2 COMPOSITE SECTIONS Where a composite beam resists significant axial compression. 4.

COMMENTARY

4.4

Shear lag has little effect on the distribution of bending moments and vertical shear forces in continuous beams, so it is permissible to use either the actual flange in breadth or the effective flange breadth (Clause 5.1.I) stiffness calculations. Clearly, the relative stiffness of adjacent spans does not change very much whichever value is used for the breadth of the concrete flange. Alternatively the values given in CEBIFIP Recommendations may be used.

**2. fck is the characteristic cylinder strength of the concrete in compression.
**

3. As an alternative, the maximum design sagging moments in each span adjacent to each support so affected may be increased by 30 fctlfc. per cent, to allow for redistribution of moments caused by transverse cracking of the concrete at the support. In this case the more unfavourable of the two moment distributions at any section should be taken for the particular aspect of serviceability being considered.

451 .. In analysis for the ultimate limit state it should be assumed that the whole of the factored load (with yf > 1.P) is applied initially, as would occur (for example) i f the actual density of a material were greater than expected. Use of yf = 11 for . weight of steel (for example) does not imply that an extra 10% of the weight of the steel is added to the structure after it is in service.

38

RECOMMENDATIONS

4.4 DISTRIBUTION OF BENQINC MOMENTS AND VERTICAL SHEAR FORCES AT THE SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

For slender beams subject to repeated loading, the distributions of bending moments and vertical shear forces due to loading on the composite member may be calculated by elastic theory using the elementary theory of bending and the properties of the transformed composite cross-section obtained by considering a breadth of concrete flange acting compositely with the steel section equal to either: a) The actual breadth of the concrete flange, or b) an appropriate effective breadth assumed constant along the span. The concrete may be assumed to be uncracked and unreinforced, both longitudinally and transversely. 'Account should be taken of the influence of significant transverse cracking of the concrete over interior supports due to hogging bending moments in the longitudinal direction of the beam. The following procedure may be used.

1. The maximum hogging bending moments over the interior supports are first

'

calculated assuming that the slab is uncracked.

2. At internal supports where the maximum tensile stress fct at the top of the slab is less than 0.1 5 fck, the influence of cracking need not be taken into account in the calculation of the bending moment distribution.

3. At each support where fct exceeds 0.15 fck, the region with fct > 0.15 fck should be determined using the moment envelope calculated with the slab assumed uncracked.

4 . In this region the stiffening effect of the concrete should be neglected, and

the new stiffness distribution should be used to recalculate the bending moments for all kinds of loads. For prestressed composite beams, see Section 12. 4.5 DISTRIBUTION OF BENDING MOMENTS AND VERTICAL SHEAR FORCES AT THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

4.5.1

SLENDER BEAMS

4.5.1 :1 General

In calculating the distribution of bending moments and vertical shear forces, proper account has to be taken of: 1) isostatic and hyperstatic effects due to creep and shrinkage of concrete, prestressing, and jacking; and

39

COMMENTARY

4.5.1.2

I f the steel beam is stressed by tendons, jacking, or loading before the development of composite action, for example by the weight,of wet concrete in unpropped construction, then stress resultants and stresses have to be determined separately for the steel beam, and added to those for the composite member.

I

4.5.I .3

Hyperstatic (secondaty) effects of shrinkage, temperature, prestressing,jacking of supports, etc, may be taken into account as calculated using elastic analysis. They may be assumed to decrease with the growth of plastified zones, and to vanish when a plastic hinge mechanism forms. Thus they need not be considered when plastic design is used. I n general it is not required to carry out a non-linear analysis exactly. The designer has to decide in each differentcase what to assume in order to get a solution of the required accuracy. Reliable approximations may be used, as for example moment-curvature relationships that include the influences of local buckling, vertical shearing forces, etc. Where the steel member carries loads prior to the development of composite action, the resulting strains due to the factored loads should be assumed to be already present in calculating the response of the composite member (of which the steel member forms a part) to the loads applied to it.

4.5.2.2

Research has shown that the limitations on steel slenderness given in 5.2.1 may not always ensure sufficient rotation capacity in continuous beams subject to heavy

40

Determination of bending moment envelopes should be based on nearly the same model of analysis as that used in calculating stresses and strains at crosssections.2.1.2 COMPACT BEAMS 4. For example.4. assuming an uncracked slab of effective breadth determined in accordance with 4.1) and to what extent cross-sections are stressed.1 3 Inelastic analvsis Inelastic behaviour arises mainly from cracking of the concrete flange in hogging moment regions. for non-prestressed continuous composite beams.1.1. 4. vertical shear forces and axial loads due to the whole of any particular combination of design loads applied to the composite section may be found by elastic analysis using the elementary theory of bending and the stiffness of the full composite section. when strength calculations are based on a partially or fully plastified cross-section.5. 4. shrinkage and loss of prestress.9. a linear elastic analysis may be carried out in which the stiffening effect of the concrete over 15 per cent of the span on each side of each internal support is neglected.2). elastic or plastic design may be used. yielding in the steel beam.5. 4.2 Elastic analysis The envelopes of longitudinal moments. 4. The analysis of the structure has to be carried out for the factored loads and the factored actions due to prestress (as defined in 3. Methods of prestressing and jacking are considered in Section 12. The reinforcement may be taken into account. redistribution of bending moments should be taken into account.5. with respect to the most unfavourable load combinations.4 (a) or (b). Alternatively.1 and 4. without any safety factors associated with creep. Whether a linear elastic or inelastic analysis has t o be carried out depends mainly on how the strengths of cross-sections are determined (Clause 5.2 apply. 4. and local buckling of compressed parts of the steel beam.2.5. no moment redistribution due to concrete cracking in hogging moment regions need be considered.5.2 Simple plastic analysis The distribution of bending moments at the ultimate limit state may be chosen arbitrarily in continuous beams. This applies also to prestressed continuous composite beams with class I and I1 concrete members according to the CEB/FIP Recommendations.5.1 General For beams with compact cross-sections.2. For elastic analysis. provided : l 41 .5.RECOMMENDATIONS 2) the actual construction sequence and the particular loading history.

March 1976).and Hope-Gill. Volume 61. R P. Part 2. 42 .COMMENTARY concentrated loads or where the end span differs significantly in length from the adjacent span (Johnson. M C Ypplicabili@ of simple plastic theory to continuous composite beams’: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

the end span is not less than 70% and not more than 115% of the adjacent span not more than half of the design ultimate load for any space is concentrated within any length of Q/S. the steel section is compact as defined in 5.RECOMMENDATIONS the internal force resultants are in equilibrium with the most unfavourable combination of factored loads.2. or if slender can still develop adequate rotation without loss of strength due to local buckling.1.where P is the effective span. 3) no two adjacent internal spans differ in length by more than 45% of the shorter one. 9 43 .

Is to use effective breadths of flange equal to L/6 on each side of thesteel web. nor.2 44 I . These considerations may depend upon the directions in which the ribs run relative to the steel beam. for edge beams greater than the projection of the cantilever slab ( L is equal to the length of the positive moment region and may be taken as two-thirds of the span of continuous beams). however. There are.I . A b L b b I” Case 1 Deck ribs parallel to the beam I” Case 2 Deck ribs perpendicular to the beam Figure C 5.COMMENTARY 5.2 Methods of designing composite members composed of steel beanis and solid concrete slabs are well established.1 The use of effective breadths of concrete flanges derived by elastic theory is conservative at load levels approaching collapse. reference should be made to the CEBIFIP Recommendations.for positive moment regions only.1 kle = depth of ribs w = mean width of concrete ribs Figure C5. A simpler alternative. Otherwise.1. but notgreater than half thedistance to the next adjacent web. 5. additional considerations which arise when profiled steel sheets are employed.

by the use of an effective flange breadth less than the actual breadth.Wien the nominal depth of steel deck is 40 mm or greater the mean width w of the supported haunch or rib shall be not less than 50 mm for the first stud in the transverse row plus 4 stud diameters for each additional stud.2 Deck ribs oriented parallel to the supporting beams ..1.2. Analysis of cross-sections 5.The concrete slab shall be connected to the steel beam with welded stud shear connectors with a diameter not greater than 19 mm.4.5 and 6. 5.Concrete below the top of the steel deck may be included in determining section properties. --Cover over the ribs shall be not less than 50 mm.2 CONCRETE SLAB CONSTRUCTED USING PROFILED STEEL SHEETING Tbe recommendations may be applied to composite construction of concrete slab on profiled steel sheeting connected to steel beams provided the following condi tions are met : 5. . .1.1. 45 . .The mean width of concrete rib or haunch w shall be not less than 50 mm.The shear connection should be designed in accordance with 6. . but shall not be taken in calculations as more than the minimum clear width near the top of the steel deck.1.1 EFFECTIVE BREADTH The effects of shear lag should be considered in calculations of flexural stress and strength.1 GENERAL 5.3.2.Steel deck ribs over supporting beams may be split longitudinally and separated to form a concrete haunch. 5.1 General limitation .2.4.The nominal depth of ribs shall be not greater than 80 mm. . for example.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 5.

COMMENTARY i 5.2. 46 . For the use of plastic design the bmcing requirements for compressed flanges are more restrictive than for elastic design.I ey = # =yield strain of steel.

even when the steel section is unpropped during pouring of the concrete slab. 5. provided the plastic neutral axis does not lie within the web of the steel section.Concrete below the top of the steel deck shall be neglected in determining section properties.25 ey times the flange thickness.2 DEFINITIONS 5. provided that the shear connection is designed for the corresponding shear. Where the cross-section is slender and therefore does not satisfy the requirements of 5. or when the slenderness of all steel plates or sections that contribute to the strength of the members is less than the relevant limiting values for plastic design as follows: a) the portion of the web subjected to longitudinal compression. I 5.1 5 f i times the web thickness.2.RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 COMPACT CROSS-SECTIONS Cross-sections may be considered as compact when the web and compression flange possess sufficient stiffness to enable full plasticity and adequate rotation to be developed without loss of strength due to local buckling.2. d) the unbraced length of the compression flanges in hogging moment regions shall be not less than required for use of plastic design for steel structures as given in the section on plastic design in the ECCS Recommendations. composite action may be assumed to exist for the whole of the loading at the ultimate limit state. 5. 8 6 times the plate thickness.1 account should be taken of the effects of loads applied to the steel section prior to the development of composite action. the depth of the web between the plastic neutral axis and the extreme compressive edge of the web. shall not exceed 1.2 SLENDER CROSS-SECTIONS Slender cross-sections are those in which the steel section is not compact. (2) sp c) the width of the compression flange of rectangular hollow sections or boxes and the width of reinforcing plates between longitudinal bolt lines or weld seams shall not exceed 0 .3 COMPOSITE ACTION I I I Where the cross-section is compact as defined in 5.3 Deck ribs oriented transverse to the supporting beams .1.2. This applies equally at the serviceability and ultimate limit states.1.1. ie. Sections which satisfy the requirements of 1) or 2) following may be considered as compact: (1) in simply-supported composite beams and positive (sagging) moment regions of continuous composite beams. 47 .2. as defined in 5.2.1.2. b) the overhang of the compression flan e of an I or [ section beyond the web surface shall not exceed 0.

R Pand Willimington. The bendinglshear interaction diagram proposed for negative moment regions is shown below with the test results plotted (Johnson. no reduction need therefore be made for the effects of vertical shear in calculating the ultimate moment of resistance of the composite section in negative (hogging)bending. 0. For lightweight concrete.75 x are proposed. which for normal-density concrete uses a uniform compressive stress in the concrete of 0. 5. “Verticalshear in continuous composite beams’: Proceedings of the Institution of 48 .85 fcklym but over a depth of 0. provided the vertical shear does not exceed the design ultimate shear strength of the web. where x is the neutral axis depth determined from equilibrium considerations based on the strain distribution through the section. When the amount of slab reinforcement satisfies the condition given.COMMENTARY 3) This method differs from the rectangular stress block method given in the CEBIFIP Recommendations.3 Tests on compact composite beams have shown that the longitudinal slab reinforcement can increase the shear strength of the negative (hogging)moment region above the ultimate shear strength of the web even when simultaneously subjected to negative (hogging)bending moments exceeding the ultimate moment of the resistance of the composite section calculated by simple plastic theory.8 x.R T. Further research is needed to determine whether this assumption is applicable also in positive (sagging)moment regions.75 f&l’)in and 0. and to beams where the steel section is not symmetrical.3.

VERTICAL SHEAR The design ultimate shear strength of a compact composite section in the absence of bending moment should be calculated on the assumption that the effective area of the web of the steel section is stressed uniformly to its design yield strength in shear.and negative (hogging) bending.1 5 times the . The area of concrete on the compression side of the plastic neutral axis is stressed uniformly to its design compressive strength. and the cross-sectional area of the longitudinal reinforcement within the effective breadth of the slab exceeds 0. The strength of the concrete on the tension side of the plastic neutral axis is neglected. no reduction for the effects of vertical shear need be made in calculating the ultimate moment of resistance of a composite section: a) if the vertical shear at the ultimate limit state is less than 30%of the design ultimate shear strength of the web.3.as defined in 2. fyk/rmd3).where fck is the characteristic 28day cylinder strength. Mu . .8 fck/’Ym. which may be taken as 0.RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 ULTIMATE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE WITH COMPLETE SHEAR CONNECTION Where the shear connection is ‘completey.ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE 5.may be determined by simple plastic theory assuming full interaction between the concrete slab and steel beam and in accordance with the following: Subject to the requirements of 4) below.1 . allowance should be made for the influence of vertical shear on the ultimate moment of resistance by the method given in 5. Where necessary. 5. or b) in negative (hogging) moment regions when the design ultimate shear strength of the web is not exceeded.3 COMPACT BEAMS’.the ultimate moments of resistance in both positive (sagging) bending.3. 49 . The effective area of the web may be taken as the product of the overall depth of the steel section and the thickness of the web.3.3 INFLUENCE OF VERTICAL SHEAR ON ULTIMATE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE In members where the steel cross-section is symmetrical about both axes. The contribution of the concrete slab and any concrete haunch should be neglected. total cross-sectional area of the steel member and the design yield stress for this reinforcement is not less than that for the steel member. M.3. the whole of the area of the steel member and of the longitudinal reinforcement within the effective breadth of the concrete flange is stressed to the design yield strength in tension or compression. (ie. If these provisions are not met allowance should be made for the influence of vertical shear on the ultimate moment of resistance.

they are fully effective. 53. and for plain steel I-sections M MO t I I 1.'189-205.1 Special attention should be paid to the isostatic (primary)effects of shrinkage. In linear elastic calculations.1.3(b) is not satisfied.4.3 Bending shear interaction for negative moment regions. 50 . In fully plastified cross-sections they may be assumed to be zero. etc.3.33 1.o V vo Figure CS.3(b) is satisfied . I ! 1 \ - I I I 1 I 1 I 0.has been calculated in .COMMENTARY Civil Engineers. accordance with 5 3 2 If 5. 5.o 1 1 1 AA A y A ~ If 5. Vo. September 1972). prestressing. London.. The ultimate shear strength of the web in the absence of bending moment. jacking of supports.. temperature.3.

in accordance with 7. placed within the effective breadth.5 are satisfied.1 General In calculating section properties. that the calculated ultimate moment of resistance is greater than or equal to M. Fully anchored reinforcement and prestressing steel fully bonded to the concrete member. The modulus of elasticity should be in accordance with 3.4 SLENDER BEAMS . 5. the effective breadth of the concrete flange may be determined in accordance with 4.1.RECOMMENDATIONS Normal and shear stresses may be assumed to be distributed over the section in any conventional manner that is statically admissible and does not violate the von Mises yield criterion. partial shear connection can be used provided that the conditions given in 7.4 ULTIMATE MOMENT OF RESISTANCE OF COMPACT BEAMS WITH PARTIAL SHEAR CONNECTION Where the design loadings are such that the required design ultimate bending moment for a sagging (positive) moment region.1 ULTIMATE MOUENT OF RESISTANCE 5. M. and the tensile strength of concrete should be neglected. 51 . The degree of shear connection provided can be so chosen..ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE 5. 5.4(b)..4.5.4. is less than the ultimate moment of resistance Mu calculated in accordance with 5 3.4.l.3. may be taken into account when calculating section properties.

3 The reference to the ECCS Recommendations for limiting compressive strains and stress-strain relationships for shuctural steel applies also to structures prestressed by tendons or jacking.I COMMENTARY 5. 52 . in which loads act before the development of composite action.4.1.

The stress-strain relationship for reinforcement and prestressing steel may be taken from the CEB/FIP Recommendations. The ultimate moment of resistance of a slender cross-section may be determined by assuming full interaction between the steel and concrete and a linear strain variation across the section with the stresses in the concrete in compression derived from either of the stressstrain curves given in Figure 5.01.75 ea where ea is the strain at the least compressed edge of the composite member.RECOMMENDATIONS 5. The stresses in the reinforcement should not exceed the design yield strength in tension or compression given in the CEB/FIP Recommendations.1. provided the influence on the bending moment distribution (4.3 Inelastic analysis The cross-section strength may be calculated by means of a non-linear elasticplastic analysis. the tensile strain in the concrete should nowhere exceed 0.1. should not be less than -0. and plane sections to remain plane.2 Elastic analysis The ultimate moment of resistance of a slender cross-section. except that where the composite section is wholly under compression. ec. 53 . ec <-0. Whether and to what extent the cross-section considered can be assumed to be plastified. 5. may be determined by elastic theory assuming full interaction between the concrete slab and the steel beam.4.5. The compressive strain in the outermost fibre. fed.1.3) has been accounted for.0035.2.1.0035. The strains (or stresses) in the structural steelwork should nowhere exceed the limits given in the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. reference should be made to the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction for limiting compressive strains (having due regard to buckling under the actual stress state) and stress-strain relationships. as defined in 5. To ensure adequate shear transfer. depends mainly on the local stability of compressed parts of the steel member.2. For structural steel. The maximum compressive stress in the concrete due to flexure should not exceed the design cylinder strength.4. compressive strains being taken as negative.0. having due regard to the possibility of buckling of unrestrained members in compression.

spans equal or nearly equal.Figure CS. However. under certain conditions (forexample.4 I Stress diagram Recommendations on the use ofplastic designfor beams where some cross-sections are slender are given for simply-supported beams only. and a high ratio of moving loads to fmed loads) the ultimate moment of resistance of a composite section in positive (sagging)moment regions of continuous beams may be calculated using simple plastic analysis of the cross-section.2 Where the plastic neutml axis lies in the web of the steel section. The resulting cross-section is shown below: d .COhWENTARY 5. 54 .4. a possible ultimate strength method of design which is being considered is to assume that the depth of web in compression and an equal area in tension on the other side of the plastic neutral axis are ineffective.

5.4 provided the plastic neutral axis does not lie within the web of the steel beam. VERTICAL SHEAR Vertical shear should be assumed to be resisted by the steel section alone in accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction: 5. 55 .85 - i I -0. 7 Second degree parabola fc = 850 f.001 35 -0. 5.3.2 ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF SLENDER BEAMS BASED ON SIMPLE PLASTIC THEORY In simply-supported beams.1 or 5.1 Design stress-strain curve for concrete in compression.4' COMBINATION OF VERTICAL SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENT In regions subject to combinations of vertical shear and bending moment. -1 I A f Jc fd 0.0035 * EC Figure 5.002 -0.RECOMMENDATIONS . reference should be made to the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction.dE (2506.3. the ultimate moment of resistance Mu of a slender beam may be determined by simple plastic theory in accordance with 5.4.3.4.4.

COMMENTARY 5. if its effect is to reduce the coexistent stresses in the flange. When considering the coexistent stresses in a deck slab. = be/bfor portions between webs.5. p 35). The requirements of this clause need not be considered for compact beams subject to predominantly static loading (see Table 3. The stress f x . Can this be improved? The question of whether local wheel load effects should be considered to coexist with theglobal effects of vehicle loading depends on whether the magnitude of the specified wheel load is a true representation of the wheel loads that would occur in the actual vehicle loading.85bfor cantilever projections. or bClO.3 The procedure of superimposing stresses calculated on an elastic basis due to global and local wheel load effects is conservative.5. be is the effective breadth of flange determined in accordance with the CEBIFIP Recommendations and Supplement and the remaining terms are as defined in Figure C5. 56 . at any point in the flange may be calculated from: f x =fnlax [ k4 + 15J. account may be taken of the effects of shear lag to reduce the longitudinal bending stress in regions of the flange remote from the web/ flange junction. which also forms the flange of a composite beam.. 5. presumably because the magnitude of the specified wheel loads has been artificially increased to allow this.1 ) (1 - k4M1 where J. In some countries wheel loads and vehicle loads are not considered to coexist. it should be taken as zero.5. If the calculated value of fx is negative.

5. using the elastic properties given in 3.5.5.5.4 as appropriate.2 EFFECTNE BREADTH OF CONCRETE FLANGE In the absence of a rigorous analysis.1 CALCULATION OF STRESSES Stresses due to bending moments. in conjunction. I 5. the effects should be considered separately and where they arise together. 57 . allowance for in-plane shear flexibility in the flange (shear lag effects) should be made in stress calculations based on the elementary theory of bending by replacing the actual flange breadth by an effective breadth of flange determined in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations and Supplements. Vertical shear should be assumed to be resisted by the steel section alone and the tensile strength of concrete should be neglected except as provided in Section 12 for prestressed composite beams. .RECOMMENDATIONS 5. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE 5.5.3 COEXISTENT STRESSES Where a deck slab is required to resist the effects of local wheel loading acting directly on it and the effects of loading the composite beam of which it forms a part. assuming full interaction between the steel beam and concrete in compression. prestressing and vertical shear forces may be calculated by elastic theory.

COMMENTARY Centreline between adjacent webs. or free edge of slab 1 I I I /f 1 Figure C5.5 Distribution of longitudinal stress in the concrete flange of a composite beam. .

In the absence of more precise methods of analysis. For beams subject to repeated loading. c) the calculated compressive stress in the concrete due to flexure should not exceed 0. yield line theory.9 times the characteristic yield strength divided by rm.6 fck where fck is the characteristic cylinder strength of the concrete.RECOMMENDATIONS 5. STRESS LIMITATIONS AT SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE 1. b) the stress in the reinforcement. the static stresses at the serviceability limit state should comply with the following limitations: a) the maximum tensile stress in the structural steel should not exceed 0. whether in tension or compression should not exceed the characteristic yield strength divided by rm .nor should the maximum equivalent stress in the steel exceed the chracteristic yield strength divided by rm. 2. eg.5. where the fatigue life is based on stress (or load) range.S 3.residual stresses due to welding or rolling being neglected. Stress limitations for prestressed composite beams are given in Section 12. the limitation in (lc) above may be applied to elastic methods of analysis when considering the effects discussed in 5 .4. 59 .

Connec: tors to develop longitudinal force in slab at Mu (7.3 - Ultimate strength analysis.COMMENTARY 6. Complete connection I b .21 and 7. different design methods for shear connection are recommended.5. Partial connection I . and the ductility of the shear connectors.5.1 Dependent on the slenderness of the beam.2.2. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE Flexible connectors Stiff connectors Complete connection h .5. Partial connection I Ultimate strength analysis. A schematic presentation of these methods is given in the following diagrams. For beams subject to repeated loading.5.3) and 7.2.2. type of loading.1 1 or plastic partialinteraction method (7. Connectors to develop force in slab a t MU (7.4) General method (7. 60 .5. check shear connection for static loading and for fatigue in accordance with Section 8.4) Simple method based on full interaction (7.3 - STATE No check necessary for beams subjected to static loading only. I .

61 .2. 6. Where a compact beam is subject to repeated loading the recommendations of Section 8 on design for both static loading and for fatigue should also be considered. (b) In slender beams. The shear connection should be designed to satisfy the limit state requirements given in 6. In beams subject to repeated loading.6.1 GENERAL Shear connectors and transverse reinforcement should be provided throughout the length of the beam to transmit the longitudinal shear force between the concrete slab and the steel beam.general 6.2. ignoring the effect of bond between the two.7. Design of the shear connection . shear connectors should be designed initially to satisfy the requirements for static loading at the serviceability limit state given in Section 8. LIMIT STATE REQUIREMENTS 6. the shear connection should be designed to satisfy the requirements at the ultimate limit stage given in Section 7.1 SHEAR CONNECTION (a) In compact beams (see 5.2 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Transverse reinforcement provided to prevent longitudinal shear failure of the slab in the vicinity of the shear connectors should be designed for the ultimate limit state in accordance with 7.2. I Recommendations for high strength friction grip bolts used as shear connectors are given in 6. Where appropriate. 6.1) subject to predominantly static loading. the recommendations of Section 8 on design for fatigue should also be considered.2.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 6.2. the shear connection should also be checked at the ultimate limit state in accordance with Section 7.

6.S % e and repeated loading I 1 .for example. The design strength can therefore be obtained by inserting appropriate values of y m for concrete and steel in the expression. as in Section 8. creep.1. .This gives structures which perform satisfactorily in service. and method o f construction t o be considered.4 Elastic analysis at serviceability limit state. However.3 I Further commentary on the significance of the two properties of shear connectors relevant for design.3. as discussed below connection onlv. since local crushing of con- 62 . Effects of temperature. shrinkage.2 I other A check o n the shear connection may be necessary. to 7. when unpropped construction is used or when the strength of a cross-section is checked using the plastic theory. In slender beams in bridges the connectors are usually spaced in proportion to the elastic distribution of shear ( V%y/I). I Simplyiwpported beam with neutral axis that satisfies 5.4 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE t o 8.I I The characteristic strength of connectors can be given in terms of both the concrete cylinder strength f c k and the yield strength f y of the steel o f which the connector is made or of the weld.. strength and deformation capacity.4. and usually it gives sufficient shear strength at ultimate loads. But in some circumstances a check on the shear connection at the ultimate limit state should be made. 6. 4 . is given in 2.COMMENTARY ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE Predominantly static loading [ SLENDERBEAMS 1 .

RECOMMENDATIONS 6.. The design strength is the characteristic strength divided by the partial safety factor 7.3. The characteristic strength is the specified strength below which not more than 5% of test results may be expected to fall.1 STRENGTH OF CONNECTORS The strength of a connector is the maximum load in the load direction considered (in most cases parallel to the interface between concrete flange and steel beam) that can be carried by the connector before failure.3 PROPERTIES OF SHEAR CONNECTORS 6. 63 . When a guranteed minimum value of strength is specified this may be considered as the characteristic strength.

... . .4 for normal use. for concrete is taken less than the value 1. t .1. . . . 64 .5 given in 3. 1 .6.3. ’ Crete around one connector would not cause failure of the beam the value of Y. The deformation capacity required in both cases is different as has been stated in commentary 2. . . and (b) in beams with incomplete connection where the connection is designed by ultimate strength methods assuming that the shear connectors behave in an 1 ideal plastic manner (flexible connectors).COMMENTARY. . .. In the requirementsfor flexible connectors an upper limit for the characteristic cylinder strength of concrete is given because with increasing concrete strength the deformation capacity decreases. . .2 DEFORM TION CAPACITY OF CONNECTORS The deformation capacity of a connector (maximum slip at characteristic strength) is important: (a) in beams where connectors are spaced not exactly in accordance with the shear force distribution. . . 6.

The specified characteristic 28-day cylinder strength of the concrete is not greater than 30 N/mm2. or the haunch satisfies the requirements of 6. and should be taken as 1.6. . l .6).I using characteristic strengths determined from special push-out tests in accordance with 6. 6.6.3 for crushing of concrete and as 1 .For the serviceability limit state the value of 7.4. Alternatively.O.1 and 6.4.the design strength should be determined in accordance with 6.4.4.4.2 STATIC STRENGTH (a) Where the concrete slab is unhaunched.3. (b) Where the concrete density or haunch dimensions do not satisfy the requirements of 6.6.O for yielding of steel. 6.2(a).The shear connectors are headed studs with a diameter not exceeding 22 mm and an overall length not less than 4 times the diameter.2 DEFORMATION CAPACITY OF CONNECTORS Connectors may be considered as flexible provided: .7. subject to the following conditions: 6.For the ultimate limit state the value of 7. 65 .4 t o 6.1 GENERAL The strength of shear connectors may be determined either by calculation (Clauses 6.types of connectors should be considered as stiff unless it has been proved by tests that the deformation capacity is satisfactory for the assumption of ideal plastic behaviour.3.2 and 6.4 to 6.3. depends on the failure mode.1 using characteristic strengths determined experimentally from standard push-out tests in accordance with 6.RECOMMENDATIONS .4. .5. the design static strength may be determined in accordance with 6.4. All othe.7) or experimentally by push-out tests (Clause 6.4 DESIGN STRENGTH OF SHEAR CONNECTORS 6.63.3. the design static strength of shear connectors embedded in normal density or lightweight aggregate concrete (density greater than 1400 kg/m3) may be calculated from the equations given in Clauses 6. may be taken as 1.

NJmrn' 40 f. then equal to the pure shear strength of the connector material (or of the weld) and should therefore be Pw = A s (0. for design purposes the value is equalised to the design value of a normal bolt in shear in accordance with the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. 0 -* 10 - f .7 fu).4 The relation between connector strength and concrete strength is shown in the subjoined graph (Figure C6. . So& is replaced with . However. It has been shown that the great scatter in test results is to some extent caused by the influence of the dimensions of the weld and its strength.F. The strength is .2).1). So it is possible that with certain welding procedures higher values are obtained than specified in the recommendations. The partial safety factory. . may then be taken as unity.4..4. If the welding procedure is well specified and the dimensions and properties of the weld are guaranteed by the manufacturer the characteristic strength may alternatively be based upon experimental data of standard push-out tests (see Clause 6. fr. A t higher concrete strength the ultimate strength of the connector is constant and not dependent on concrete quality. Nlmm' Figure C6.1 Qualitative presentation of Equation (6..1). COMMENTARY 6.

Between h/d = 4.RECOMMENDATIONS 6. taken as 1. and rms is the partial factor of safety on steel strength. 6.4. STUD CONNECTORS 6.1 and 6. d = diameter of the stud. the characteristic ranges of shear load AV should be determined for different numbers of cycles N from constant-amplitude alternatingload push-out tests. provided: - 67 . = short-term modulus of elasticity of concrete.O as both the ulti- mate and serviceability limit states.4.4.4.2 and h/d = 3 .15.4. f d = characteristic cylinder strength of concrete at age considered.4.5.O linear interpolation is permitted.2.4.4. in accordance with the appropriate recommendations of 6.1 Headed studs . taken as 1. E.3 at the ultimate limit state and 1.0 where ymcis the partial factor of safety on concrete strength.8 fu. where h = overall length of the stud.2 are placed round the studs the design shear strength according to formulae 6. fy = design yield strength of the connector material (= fo.2(a) are given in 6.6.4.) but not greater than 0.O at the serviceability limit state.static shear load The design shear strength Pd of headed stud connectors may be calculated from the following equations: h a= 3. For other connectors and other types of slab.2 may be multiplied by a factor 1.3 FATIGUE STRENGTHS Design fatigue strengths for headed stud connectors set in concrete slabs that are in accordance with 6. If spirals with dimensions as specified in 6.

COMMENTARY I 6. Values of the . &in = 4d or 5d (Clause 6.2 68 . The expression for C is based on the assumption that for QQ 2 2h no inter.5.Q = 0 and Qsp = 2h as shown in Figure C6.71.3 I Formula 6.3 is based on tests reported by McKackin and others (Fritz Engineering Laboratoly Report 200. characteristic tensile strength of concrete as a function of the characteristic compressive strength are given in the CEBIFIP Recommendations. Lehigh University 1971). action occurs. Furthermore a linear interpolation between.2) Figure C6.4.2.438.4.2 is assumed..

0 for normal density concrete. The reduction value should then be based on suitable tests. taken as 1.4. rmc rms When both the longitudinal and transverse connector spacing is less than 2h a further reduction is necessary. These should be checked for the ultimate limit state. provided uplift pf the slab is prevented.2) may also be used for studs without heads.1) and (6. T d = the design tensile strength in the absence of shear load. 1 1P = 2+4f G1.1 Pd.25 for lightweight aggregate concrete. T = actual tensile load.3. = reduction factor when the connector spacing is less than 2h: c. h. fct C = 3.4.4. The design tensile strength Td should be calculated from the following equation: where = material safety factor for concrete.0.2 Studs without head .4.43 Headed studs . 6. The effect of axial tension may be neglected if the reduction in P is less than 10%.RECOMMENDATIONS Suitable tests should be made to ensure that the concrete can be adequately compacted into the space between spiral and stud.static tensile load Where the shear connectors are subject to direct tension then additional ties suitably anchored should be provided to resist these forces or alternatively headed studs may be used. Pd = the design shear strength in the absence of a tensile load. 69 . d. = 2.4. The ties which resist uplift should be designed at the ' of ultimate limit state for a tension force I at least 0. 6.1. If the connector is loaded by combined tension and shear. the worst combination of coexistent forces at the ultimate limit state should satisfy the following equation: where P actual shear load. fy = as defined in 6. = characteristic tensile strength of concrete.static shear load Equations (6. taken as 1. = material safety factor for steel.O.

. . . . . . I . . j:. . _.. . appropriate local reinforcement should be provided... . 4 .COMMENTARY Where headed studs are used primarily to resist direct tension. ' 70 . . . .

5.4.2). the design shear strength shall be multiplied by the following reduction factor: 0.1 Fatigue strength of stud shear connectors.RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1. 6.4 Headed studs .alternating load Table 6. Deck ribs oriented transverse to the supporting beams The design shear strength of a stud connector shall be the value given in Clause 6. 90 70 60 50 Table 6. Number of cycles.4.O e W hde e where w = mean width of concrete ribs (see Clause 5.1.1 except that when w/e is less than 1 .1 multiplied by the following reduction factor: 71 .1 gives design ranges of mean shear strew AT for different numbers of cycles N. N Shear range AT in N/mm2 104 160 105 1 15 s x 105 2x106 107 108 . Ni = allowable number of cycles for which the given stress range would be allowed.6-(-)<l. or conversely gives values of N for different shear ranges AT where: AT is the difference between the maximum and minimum mean shear stress (4P/nd2) during any given load cycle.4. The fatigue life of a connector subject to random loading may be determined from Miner’s linear cumulative damage rule: where ni = number of cycles applied at a given stress range.2).5 Headed studs used with profiled steel sheeting Deck ribs oriented Darallel to the sumortinr! beams The design shear strength of a stud connector shall be the value stipulated in Clause 6. hd = overall length of the stud but not greater than e + 75 mm.4. N is the maximum allowable number of occurrences of that cycle. e = depth of ribs (see Clause S.4.4.4.4.

the [ and the horseshoe may be considered as so. when the plate components are thick enough.4.4 12 .COMMENTARY 6.5 BLOCK-TYPECONNECTORS A bar is beyond doubt a block-type connector but also the T.3 Forces on the welds: Shear force: Smax = Pu Moment: M = Pu E 2 Figure C6. Bar connector Tconnector [-connector Af I Hor sashoe 1:5 I Figure C6.

P. The characteristic strength may be taken as: . fbl = the characteristic value of the contact pressure in rront of the connector Af = the area of the front surface of the connector enlarged at a slope of 1:5 to the back side of the adjacent connector (Figure C6. The design shear strength of the connector is therefore: . 6. = number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection.I RECOMMENDATIONS where n. acting at the centre of gravity of the front surface. The welds between the connector and the steel beam should be designed for a shear force and a moment due to the force P.1 P. P.=fblAs where A. Only the parts of Af falling within the concrete section may be taken into account. = transverse force caused by deck composite action (see Section 15). PQ= longitudinal force caused by beam composite action. To prevent uplift on the connectors additional ties suitably anchored should be provided. although more than 3 studs may be installed...3).5 BLOCK-TYPE CONNECTORS Connectors may be designed as block-type connectors when the front is so stiff that it can reasonably be assumed that the concrete pressure in front of the connector at failure is uniformly distributed. When the shear connectors are provided to produce composite action both for the beam and for the deck the resultant ultimate force acting on the stud shall be calculated using the following equation: P = & F where P = resulting force on the connector. 73 .4. not to exceed 3 in computations. These ties should be designed for a tension force T of at least 0.= the area of the front surface.

._. -- II Block type connector . sin a / -T=P. .. - I .. Detail PU D = P.6 The shear force working on the inclined anchor bar can be resolved into a tensile force T and a shear force D. -_.7 L . cos.. _.. -.4. . . The design strength of a round solid bar loaded in tension and shear follows from tests on bolts and can be calculated from: d m 2= A f y with T = Pu cos a D = Pu sin a 1 Porn which Equation (6. __ .. - . 1 __ .COMMENTARY 6.6 The characteristic strength of block type connectors and anchors may not simpb beadded up because of the essential difference of deformation capacity between the two types.4.. .a Figure C6.9) can easily be derived. 74 ...5 6. . .. . . with anchor bar / Block type connector with hoop Figure C6.

f y = the design yield strength of the connector material. these should be designed for the shear force Pu.4. should be designed for the full value of the characteristic strength.10) If fillet welds are used.5 pu anchors .block type connector with hoop: pu comb = pu block +os7 pu hoop The welds however.6 ANCHORS AND HOOPS Pu = < The characteristic strength of an anchor may be taken as: Jmm AfY where A = the area of the cross-section of the bar. If a does not exceed 45" the value of Pu may arbitrarily be calculated from: PU Af =d (6.RECOMMENDATIONS 6.block type connector with anchor bars: pu comb = pu block t-0. a = the angle between the anchor bar and the flange of the beam.7 BLOCK TYPE CONNECTORS COMBINED WITH ANCHORS OR HOOPS If block type connectors are used in combination with anchors or hoops the characteristic strength of the combination follows from: . 75 . 6.4.

The underside of the stud should extend not less than 30 mm above the reinforcement in the concrete cover. Figure C6.5.7 6. When studs are used this leads to the following design rules. . Reinforcement .COMMENTARY t "U block ' U anchor I t 'U Slip comb < 'U block + 'U anchor Figure C6.8 76 .1 (a) These recommendations should also be adopted when using (for example) hollow planks or other prefabricated floor components. The distance between the edge of the hollow plank and the stud should be sufficient to allow the placing of good quality concrete in between.

sufficient transverse and longitudinal reinforcement should be positioned adjacent to the free edge of the concrete slab t o transfer the longitudinal shear connector loads back into the slab.6 should be fully anchored in the concrete between the edge of the slab and the adjacent row of connectors. the sides of the haunch should lie outside a line drawn at 45" from the outside edge of the connector (Figure C6.6 should be provided in the haunch at least 40 mm clear below the surface of the connector that resists uplift. (e) At the end of a cantilever. If concrete cover is not required as protection against corrosion the top of the connector may be flush with the upper surface of the concrete slab. . Transverse reinforcing bars sufficient to satisfy the requirements of 7.RECOMMENDATIONS 6.5 DETAILING OF SHEAR CONNECTION 6. 77 ' . The concrete cover over the connector should be not less than 20 mm. transverse reinforcement provided in accordance with 7. (d) The detailing of shear connectors should be such that concrete can be adequately compacted around the base of the connector. (b) Where a concrete haunch is used between the steel girder and the soffit of the slab. the inside of a hoop or the underside of the head of a stud) should extend not less than 30 mm clear above the bottom reinfdrcement.9).1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS (a) The surface of a connector that resists separation forces (ie. (c) Where the shear connection is adjacent to a longitudinal edge of a concrete slab.5. as for example in a cantilever and suspended span structure.

78 . 65.9 Dimensions of haunches.COMMENTARY Figure C6.2 (g) Spirals need not be welded to the steel flange. .

should be not less than 20 mm.5 times the plate thickness. the diameter of the stud should not exceed 2.in direction of shear force: Qmin= 5d.5 times the plate thickness.2.2 HEADED STUD CONNECTORS (a) The overall length of the studs should be not less than 3 times the diameter. whichever is the lesser.diameter of head = 1. It has to be proved by proof-welding that the applied welding technique is suitable to guarantee reliable welds. .height of load = 0. (c) Where the flange is subject to tensile stresses. (g) Where it is assumed in design that the stability of either the steel or the concrete member is ensured by the connection between the two. the diameter of studs should not exceed 1.5 x diameter of shaft. 6. (e) The spacing of the connectors Qmin may not be less than: .transverse to direction of shear force: Qmin = 4d. (b) The thickness of the steel plate to which a connector is welded should be sufficient to allow proper welding and proper transfer of load from the connector to the plate without local failure or excessive deformation. the dimensions should be as shown in Figure 6. 79 . Alternatively. ( f ) Welding of stud connectors should be carried out in accordance with Clause 18. . Where the flange plate is not subjected to tensile stresses. (g) Where spirals round the studs are used. and appropriate resistance to uplift should be provided.4 x diameter of shaft. connectors may be placed in groups.5. (h) The distance between the edge of a connnector and the edge of the flange of the beam to which it is welded. the spacing of the shear connectors should be sufficiently close for this assumption to be valid. (i) The material of the connector used should be of a good weldable quality.8. (d) The dimension of the head should not be less than: . If the transverse spacing is less than 4d the bearing capacity is to be proved. provided consideration is given in design to the non-uniform flow of longitudinal shear and of the greater possibility of slip and vertical separation between the slab and the steel member.RECOMMENDATIONS (0 The longitudinal spacing of the connectors should be no greater than 600 mm or four times the thickness of the slab. with the group spacing greater than that specified for individual connectors.

5 I I t Recommended direction of thrust b !. Figure C6.COMMENTARY 6. !.5.10 80 .

a combination of stud connectors and arc spot (puddle) welds.5.RECOMMENDATIONS 7E E 4 Figure 6.2 0 (h) To ensure proper filling and compacting of concrete between the spiral and the stud the space between the spiral and the edge of precast concrete slabs or other solid objects must be not less than 50 mm.5 BLOCK-TYPE CONNECTORS (a) The connectors should not be wedge shaped. Such anchorage may be provided by stud connectors.5. after installation.3 STUD CONNECTORS WITHOUT HEADS Suitable ties should be provided to resist separation forces (see 6. 81 . shall extend not less than 35 mm above the top of the steel deck.5).5. (d) To resist uplift.5. (b) Stud shear connectors. 6. 6. (b) Suitable ties should be provided to resist separation forces (see 6. the steel decking shall be anchored to all compositely designed steel beams at a spacing not exceeding 400 mm. 6.10).4 HEADED STUDS USED WITH PROFILED STEEL SHEETING General (a) The concrete slab shall be connected to the steel beam with welded stud shear connectors with a diameter not greater than 19 mm.4.l(f). Studs may be welded either through the deck or directly to the steel beam.4.2).4. Deck ribs oriented transverse to the supporting beams (c) The maximum longitudinal spacing of connectors should be in accordance with 6. or other devices specified by the designer. Care should be taken for a suitable placing in relation to the direction of thrust (see Figure C6.

12 82 .6 Anchorage length 1 ------Figure C6.5.11 -I F I Direction of thrust ----- Figure C6.COMMENTARY 6.

At midspan where the direction of thrust changes the connectors must be placed in both directions. c) The anchors and hoops should point in the direction of thrust. (b) The anchorage length and the concrete cover should be in accordance with the relevant clauses in the CEB Recommendations. When fillet welding is used the bend adjacent to the weld should be made in red hot condition.6 ANCHORS AND HOOPS (a) Anchors and hoops may be either butt welded or bent and fillet welded.RECOMMENDATIONS 6.5.5 4 gd> 4 R I 0 concrete cover 2 3 4. Special care should be taken that the material of the bar is of a good weldable quality. A hoop may be assumed tot be sufficiently anchored when the following conditions are met: R > 7. Figure 6 3 . 83 .

.Bedded in mortar or solid base 300 ~ Note: Reinforcement to be 10 mm diameter mild steel Figure C6.COMMENTARY 6. I L. LOAD LOAD 254 X146 X 43 UB or IPE 270 5 : c 0 e e e - 0 15 mm cover c n d 0 m . but testing earlier than 28 days after manufacturing the specimens.13 d ) This requirement can simply be met by taking the specified concrete grade. b) .6.1 a.

RECOMMENDATIONS 6.6. f ) The rate of application of load must be uniform and such that failure is reached in not less than 15 minutes.2(a) may be determined by standard push-out tests made in accordance with the following requirements : a) The dimensions of the test specimens must be as given in Figure C6. b) The steel section and the reinforcement must be as given in Figure C6.4.1 STANDARD PUSH-OUT TEST The static strength of shear connectors that comply with 6. e) The yield stress of the connector material must be determined. 85 . I c c) Bond at the interface of the flanges of the steel beam and the concrete must be prevented by greasing the flange or by other suitable means.13.13. d) The strength of the concrete at the time of testing must be 70%f 10% of the specified cylinder strength of the concrete in the beams for which the test is designed. The push-out specimens should be air-cured. Curing of the cylinders or cubes should be in accordance with CEB Recommendations.6 TESTS ON SHEAR CONNECTORS 6.

COMMENTARY. 86 .

RECOMMENDATIONS.1 are not met. --the thickness of the slab shall not exceed the minimum thickness of the slab in the beam.4.3. When the deviation of any individual test result from the mean value obtained from all tests does not exceed lO%. the lowest test result must be taken as the ultimate load P. the slab of the push-out specimen should have the same haunch and reinforcement as the beam.3 EVALUATION OF TEST RESULTS Not less than three tests on nominally identical specimens must be carried out.2 PUSH-OUT TEST FOR CHECKING UNUSUAL SITUATIONS If the conditions of 6. 87 . .1(c). (d). the characteristic static strength of a shear connector may be determined by push-out tests. The following conditions should be met: . or solid base Figure 6.6.the length of the slab shall not exceed the minimum longitudinal spacing of connectors on the beam.6. .4 b) The slab and reinforcement should be suitably dimensioned in comparison with the beams for which the test is designed. c) Provisions of 6. in accordance with the following requirements: a) The push-out tests should be carried out on test specimens generally as shown in Figure 6.6. .3. 6. 6. (e) and (f)apply. .the width of the slab shall not exceed the effective width of the slab of the the beam. IF in IF Steel section Concrete slab A d ~ y p s u mmortar .where a haunch in the beam does not comply with 6.

(a) Connection by friction may be relied upon only under service conditions. the calculated frictional resistance must be sufficient to resist the shear at the ultimate limit state.11) should conservatively be adopted.COMMENTARY ’ The reduction factor 0.2.. At the ultimate limit state. i .8 in Formula (6. No check is then needed under service conditions. for simplification it may be assumed that the bolts alone are carrying the shearing forces with a strength according to that of headed studs. In that case Formula (6. . thehorizontal shear force in regions near supports may be assumed to be unifonnlj distributed over a length of Q = 3d. Where this cannot be assured. 88 . 672 .11) is in theory only required when strength of steel governs the failure. 6. This simplification is based on the assumption that any clearance between the bolt and the surrounding concrete is small enough to ensure that sufficient redistribution of shear can take place due to slip without causing premature shearfailure of the bolts.7.1 In the case of uniformly distributed loads. Sometimes the failure mode is so complicated that it is difficult to decide whether the steel or the concrete governs the failure condition.

l(e). High strength friction grip bolts may be used to provide the shear connection between the steel member and the concrete slab forming the flange of the composite beam.7 FRICTION GRIP BOLTS 6.1 1) ue actud.7.RECOMMENDATIONS If such deviation from the mean exceeds 10% at least three more tests of the same kind shall be made and the lowest result of these six tests must be taken as the ultimate load P. ue actual = actual yield stress of the connector in the test specimen determined according to 6. u2 t = minimum specified yield strength of the connector material. the ultimate load may be determined as the load corresponding to a probability of 5% of results being less . Where the connector is composed of two separate elements.1 Serviceability limit state (a) The longitudinal shear resistance per unit length developed by friction alone between the concrete flange and steel beam should not be less than longitu89 . is less than half of the longitudinal movement of the slab relative to the beam..6.2. 6. measured when the connectors are loaded to 80 per cent of their ultimate load. one to resist longitudinal shear and the other to resist forces tending to separate the slab from the steel beam.7.8 where ue Pu (6.7. 6. when at least 10 tests are carried out.2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: STATIC LOADING 6. than P . Alternatively. Unless otherwise stated the Clauses on high strength preloaded bolts in the ECCS Recommendations apply. the ties which resist the forces of separation may be assumed to be sufficiently stiff and strong if this separation in push-out tests.1 GENERAL . The value of the design strength can be calculated from the value so found of the ultimate load by: Pd = 0.

* 8 Figure C6. it may also be necessary to take account of the reduction in effective clamping force in the bolt. 2 90 . where there is a tendency for uplift between the slab and the steel I beam or where loads are suspended from the steelwork).~ COMMENTARY where d is the depth of the'steel beam.14 Where the connection is subject to external tensile forces in addition to shear (for example.

Unless a more exact calculation according to CEB/FIP Recommendations is made loss of tensile force due to creep and shrinkage should be taken as not less than 30% of the preloading force. (b) In determining the net tensile force in bolts account should be taken of the loss of tension due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete.2.2 Ultimate limit state (a) Between any pair of adjacent critical cross-sections as defined in 7.7.1.7. The effects of slip between the concrete slab and the steel beam should be taken into account.FATIGUE For connections subject only to shear in the plane of the friction interface no account need be taken of the effects of repeated loading.50 when t m e 2 10 mm.1 the sum of the longitudinal forces built up by friction and/or shear must be not less than the change in the longitudinal force in the concrete flange over that length. This applies also to connections subject to external tensile forces in addition to shear.2. or d taken as the diameter of the ‘stress area’ (dm) when the bolt is threaded at the shear plane. but with: d taken as the diameter of the shank of the bolt when there is no thread at the shear plane. No check need then be made at the serviceability limit state. where the shear resistance is assumed to be developed by friction alone. Loss of prestress in this case should be calculated in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations. The loss of tensile force can be reduced by re-tightening after an interval of time. (b) Where the shear resistance is assumed to be developed by the strength of the bolts alone in shear and bearing. unit length at the serviceability limit state calculated in accordance with 8.2.RECOMMENDATIONS dinal shear force per. 6.7.l(b) is considered. The mamimum load per connector should not exceed U x net tensile force in the bolt Ym where ym = the materials safety factor for the shear resistance per bolt. provided 6.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . which may be taken as: 0.1. Where the slab is cast in situ. the maximum load per bolt at the ultimate limit state should not exceed the value given in 6. 0. 6. the maximum load per bolt should not exceed the value obtained from Equation (6. which may be taken as 1. the friction coefficient may be increased by 10%.7. Alternatively.1).55 when t m e 2 15 ~TUTI. and p = the coefficient of friction at first slip.2. 91 .

COMMENTARY 92 .

Consideration shall be given to local splitting particularly where the slab is deeply recessed around a bolt. Adequate reinforcement. Tight mill scale is not detrimental. should be provided to ensure that the load is transferred from the bolt to the interface without local splitting or crushing of the concrete. loose rust. burrs and other defects which would prevent a uniform il seating between the two elements or would interfere with the development of friction between them. oil. loose ml scale. The interface should be free of paint or other applied finishes. The washer under the head of each bolt should be of sufficient stiffness to ensure that the bearing stress on the concrete is uniform. unless tests show it to be unnecessary.& RECOMMENDATIONS 6. The design of the connection must ensure that there is a uniform bearing surface between the steel beam and the concrete flange. dirt. . in spiral or other form.4 DETAILING OF FRICTION GRIP BOLTS The method of tightening should comply with the requirements of the ECCS Recommendations.7.

I Due to the problem of uniquely defining points of contrajlexure in continuous beams.COMMENTARY 7I . Maximum loads for connectors in continuous beams and cantilevers are reduced below Pd to compensate for the reduction in the stiffnessand strength of shear connectors due to flexural cracking where the concrete slab is in tension. these are not considered to be critical cross-sections.) for the entire length of a continuous beam.1 Effective breadth of composite slab ending within region of sagging moments. m Elevation Figure C7. 72 . Within this length.the effectivebreadth of this flange may be assumed to vary linearly from zero at its end to the full effective breadth over a length of at least the total effective breadth. Wherethe concrete fzange of a composite beam ends at a cross-section other than a support (critical section of type (e)). connectors may be spaced uniformly. rather than to use different values in regions of positive and negative bending moment. It is therefore convenient to use a design strength for shear connectors (given in 7 2 that is applicable . 94 .

2’ MAXIMUM LOADS PER CONNECTOR At the ultimate limit state. and f ) in tapering members. from columns. shear connectors provided to resist static loading may be spaced uniformly between adjacent critical cross-sections. ‘Design of the shear connection . e) points where there is a sudden change in the cross-section of the member. all cross-sections of maximum sagging (positive) moment. free ends of cantilevers.1 CRITICAL CROSSSECTIONS In beams of compact cross-section and in beams designed for flexure in accordance with 5.ultimate limit state 7. Pd.2. Critical cross-sections of composite beams are: a) b) c) d) allsupports. all the connectors between an adjacent pair of critical ctoss-sections may be assumed to resist the same proportion of their design static strengths.The maximum load per connector should not exceed: 95 . for example. points so chosen that the ratio of the greater to the lesser second moment of area at any pair of adjacent points does not exceed two. 7.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 7.4. points of application of heavy concentrated loads.

2 7. A check should then be made that the shear connection is sufficient to develop the forces in the slab required at all cross-sections.5. the deformation capacity required of a connector.4 When the bending strength of the steel beam alone is much less than that of the composite member (for example. 96 . The limiting span of 20 m is given for this reason.1 When partial shear connection is used. shear-flexural failuve on a surface such as ABC iri Figure C7. increases with increase in the span of the beam. when the steel flange which is connected to the concrete is much smaller than the other steel flange). not just at critical sections. I t is thought that the use of partial shear connection is not common enough to justify the inclusion of design methods for members carrying concentrated loads or of non-uniform section. There is at present no experimental evidence to validate the use of partial shear connection in long-span beams. Centre line I _ A 1 B ! I I I C 1 Steel beam Figure C7.COMMENTARY 7. before it begins to lose strength.2becomes possible.

the methods of 7. ’ The length of beam between any pair of adjacent critical cross-sections is a shear span. Also. (as given in 7.5 PARTIAL SHEAR CONNECTION 7. 0. calculated in accordahce with 5.5.3) over the length of that span. 97 .4.3. the product of the maximum load per connector (as given in 7. that have steel members of uniform crosssection.1 SCOPE I The design methods of 7.1 and 7.as appropriate.5 are applicable only to simply-supported and continuous beams that are subjected to predominantly static loading and not to heavy concentrated loads.2 are applicable only t o beams of span not exceeding 20 m. Pd where Pd is the design strength determined in accordance with 6. such as loads from columns.3 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR The ultimate longitudinal force Fu at each critical cross-section is the total longior tudinal force in the concrete slab when the section resists a bending moment M . I 7.RECOMMENDATIONS in simply supported beams and Class I or I1 prestressed continuous beams and cantilevers. 0.2.5.80 Pd in other cantilevers..5. 7.93 Pd in other continuous beams.4 COMPLETE SHEAR CONNECTION For complete shear connection.2) and the number of connectors provided in each shear span must be not less than the change in longitudinal force F. 7.2.1.

53. August 1975).5.4 N f .2 Further research is needed before the methods of 7. - / Partial-interaction analysis I 1 0 1.3.2. and May.5.2. premature failure of the shear connectors may occur before M.COMMENTARY 7.5.2for values of N/Nf corresponding to points A . R P.2.3 7.2 Figure C7. but there is no evidence of satisfactory long-term behaviour of beams with so low a degree of shear connection (Johnson. design of composite beams ’ Structural Engineer.2. and Con Figure C7.2.1 and 7.I The limit N Q: 0.o N/Nf Figure C7.1 is a conservative approximation to the results of partial-interaction analyses for the ultimate strength of beams with partial shear connection. M/M. The moment of resistance Mr calculated by this method relies on ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors.5 Nf in this and the following methods is arbitrary. Where the degree of shear connection or the deformation capacity of the connector is low. or the span of the beam is long.305-11.0-.2. Results of short-term labomtory tests suggest that the limit could be reduced to about 0.5.5.5.2 can be used for types of shear connector other than headed studs in accordance with 6.3.4 shows the stress distributions given by the method of 7. B. 7. ‘Fartial-interaction . is reached.3 shows that the method of 7. 98 . Figure C7. 1. I M.5.2. L .

2. . may be calculated by simple plastic theory in accordance with 1) to 4) of 5.5.2 SIMPLYSUPPORTED BEAMS Three methods are available for beams where the design bending moment at a critical crosssection in the midspan region. is less than the ultimate moment of . The method of 7.5.2.2. The compressive force in the reinforced concrete slab is equal to the lesser of the sums of the design strengths of the shear connectors in the two shear spans adjacent to the critical section considered.5.1. M.. the number of shear connectors N must be such that: NQNf(M.5.1 Simple method In each shear span (as defined in 7..3.2.2 Partial-interaction analysis The ultimate moment of resistance Mu.-Mp)/(MU-Mp) and N Q 0 .3 is applicable to beams with either flexible or stiff connectors.3) adjacent to the cross-section considered. 7. 7. not exceeding MU.1 and 6.2. calculated in accordance with 7.2. M. resistance M given by the method of 5. is the plastic moment of resistance of the steel section alone.5.4.3.3.2 are applicable only to beams with shear connectors that are flexible in accordance with 2.2.5. The methods of 7. and Nf is the number of connectors required for complete shear connection. 5 N f where M.1 and 7.5.RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1 and the following assumptions : 1 . and Mu are as defined in 7.

2.J W B. I NJN" 1.MDL is the bending moment in the steel section alone (Stark. The curve ABC is copied from Figure 7. to show that this method requires the use of more connectors than the method of 7.5. I 9 74).o : . I t corresponds to the straight lines OD and DC in Figure C7.5.N/Nf 1.P 'Vd fyd COMMENTARY I Point A Point B Point C Figure C7. due both to the ten100 .3.3.3 It is usually possible to so choose the quantity of top longitudinal reinforcement in the slab above an internal support. The longitudinal shear in a hogging (negative)moment region may exceed the value calculated from the yield strength of the reinforcement. "Simply supported steel and concrete composite beams".Devt. that M u does not greatly exceed M.o (a) Unpropped construction (b) Propped construction Figure C7. Waltman.1 and 6.5..N/Nf I NJNU .5. and Steel Constructional Association.4 7.1.3 This is the only method of design with partial shear connection that is given for use when the shear connectors are not 'flexible'in accordance with 2.2.2.5 I 7. Netherlands Committee for Concrete Research.

RECOMMENDATIONS 2. Slip occurs at the steelconcrete interface. The minimum numbers of shear connectors N that must be provided in each shear span adjacent to the cross-section considered are as follows: When Mr < Me. 7.1) for the critical section considered. and Ne is the number of shear connectors required in the shear span considered (in accordance with 7.5.2. The shear connectors behave in an ideal plastic manner. 101 .4) when the compressive force in the slab at the critical cross-section is that corresponding to Me. for which the design ultimate bending moments are M'r at the internal support and M.Ne) and N 4 0 .3 General method This method requires the calculation of Mu.Me Mu NQ:Ne+ . Mr. where Me is the sum of the bending moment in the steel section and the bending moment given by full-interaction elastic analysis of the composite section. 5 Nf. 3. Ne Mr/Me and N 4 0. f d being the design cylinder strength. When Me < Mr 4 M U . at which the design yield stress in an extreme fibre of the steel beam or a . N Q.3 CONTINUOUS BEAMS This design method is applicable only to a shear span (as defined in 7.5.Me (Nf. so that the steel beam and the conCrete slab have different neutral axes.2 and 7.5.3) that extends from an internal support to a critical cross-section in a sagging (positive) moment region. ' 7. and Nf (as defined in 7.5.2. flexural compressive stress of 0 6 f d in the concrete slab is first reached. Mr.5 Nf. and also Me and Ne. in the midspan region.

the shear force per unit length may be determined by elastic analysis.recent research': Journal of Prestressed Concrete Institute. The transfer of longitudinal shear in a composite beam is more severe than in a concrete tee-beam.6 These rules are based on the results of research on shear transfer in reinforced concrete (Mattock. The method enables the interaction between transverse slab bending (negative or positive)and longitudinal shear to be taken into account. The spacing of shear connectors in such a region should not exceed that in the adjacent sagging moment region.1) and (7. N M. 7.COMMENTARY sile strength of concrete and to strain hardening of the reinforcement. 102 . For these reasons no provision is made for the use of partial shear connection in hogging moment regions. The simple method of providing sufficient transverse reinforcement to develop the design strength of the connectors is conservative in beams subject to repeated loading where the connector spacing is determined by fatigue rather than static strength. the CEB/FIP Recommendations on this subject may be appropriate.2) are independent of longitudinal stress and consequently independent of a favourable state of longitudinal compression due to prestressing if there is such a state at all. but in regions remote from the connectors.A H. MarchlAprill9 72).1) and (7.2) or by some other method requires consideration. 'Shear transfer in reinforced concrete . and Hawkins. It should be noted that Equations (7. Alternatively. but it avoids the problems of defining critical cross-sections in beams where bending moment envelopes have to be considered. The question of whether the state of longitudinal compression can be taken into account in Equations (7. which is likely to occur before jlexural failure of the beam.

is the length of the shear plane under consideration. The number of connectors N corresponding to the bending moment M. 7.l. The shear force per unit length acting on any plane through the concrete.3. is calculated in accordance with 7. If f k is less than 16 N/mm2. I 7.04 for lightweight aggregate concrete.1.1 Shear span adjacent to a simple end support When the method of 7. is a constant stress of 1 N/mm2.7 for lightk2 Ls s Ae fyr fk weight aggregate concrete. Typical shear planes are shown in Figure 7.1 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR The total longitudinal shear force per unit length of beam should be taken as the design maximum load per connector at the ultimate limit state (Clause 7. The number of connectors provided must be not less than N'f t N.5. end shear spans should be designed in accordance with 7. in accordance with 7.9 for normal density concrete and 0. vg. They may be uniformly spaced over the length of the shear span.19 for normal density concrete and 0.6. should satisfy the following: VQ > kl sLS t 0.2) where kl is a constant equal to 0.6 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT 7. is calculated in accordance with 73.2.1 5 for lightweight aggregate concrete.where k3 is a constant equal to 0.2. reexpressed where necessary in units consistent with those used for other quantities. as if the sagging moment region of the shear span considered were part of a simply-supported beam.5.4.2)multiplied by the number of connectors per unit length. the moment of resistance M'u (which may exceed M'r) given by 5. 103 . F" due to '.05 for normal density concrete and 0.7Ae fyf k2 Lsfck (7.1) (7.RECOMMENDATIONS The ultimate longitudinal force in the slab at the internal support.1) should be replaced by k3fckLs.5. is a constant equal to 0. Let N'f be the number of shear connectors required for this force.5.3 is used for internal shear spans. is the characteristic yield strength of the reinforcement. is the characteristic 28day cylinder strength of the concrete. the term kl sLs in Equation (7.3 . is the sum of the cross-sectional areas of transverse reinforcement per unit length of beam'crossing a shear plane that can be assumed to be effective in resisting shear failure on that plane.

COMMENTARY ’ 104 .

105 .RECOMMENDATIONS a I I I a I I r A t I I I 1 m I I Ell I I I' I I 1 I a 1 I I * I 1 t b' 1 a a Fl c-c Figure 7.1 Shear planes.

2 The values of the constant terms and coefficients used in 7.1 and 7. 106 .6.2are subject to revision when the partialfactors of safety on loads and material strengths have been established.6.COMMENTARY 7.6.

t 0.6. The spacing of bottom transverse bars.6.7Aefyr .6.1. fyr4 O.1 and 7. if their effect is to increase the ultimate shear strength . 107 .lF where the terms are as defined in 7.6. 7.2.2 INTERACTION. In assessing F no account shall be taken of transverse bending of the slab due to loads of a non-permanent nature.1) by the following: VQ P k I sL. such as imposed loads or partitions that may be subsequently removed. BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL SHEAR. if provided to satisfy the requirements of 7. should not exceed four times the projection of the connectors (including any hoop which forms an integral part of the connector) above the bars.6.RECOMMENDATIONS 7. as appropriate.75sLs t 1.3 MINIMUM TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT The cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement per unit length of beam that crosses a possible plane of shear failure and which can be considered as effective in resisting shear should be not less than the amount given by the following equation: A.4 SPACING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Transverse reinforcement may be uniformly distributed over any length where the shear connectors are uniformly spaced. taken as negative (minimum compression) or positive (maximum tension).6F where F is the nett force per unit length of beam acting normal to the shear plane under consideration due to transverse bending of the slab and/or transverse prestressing. 7. TRANSVERSE PRESTRESSING AND TRANSVERSE BENDING The effect of interaction between longitudinal shear and transverse bending or transverse prestressing of the slab may be taken into account by replacing Equation (7.6. whichever is the lesser. nor 600 mm.

2 The load is limited to 0.3 in Section 3. the design loading should be taken as the load spectrum specified in National Codes.4 I n composite 'beams where the shear connection has sufficient static strength to satisfy the requirements of 8.where AV = U l n a . (See Table 3.Vlnin and vmax and vmi.6 Pd to ensure that slip at the steel-coricrete interface is not high enough to invalidate calculations for stresses and deflections based on fullinteraction theory. I 8.COMMENTARY For compact beams subject to predominantly static loading the requirements of Section 8 need not be considered. 108 . The shear connection required a t any cross-section is governed by the range of longitudinal shear per unit length. AV.3 the influence of maximum stress on fatigue behaviour may be neglected. the design ranges of loads and stress for shear connectors may be assumed to be equal to the characteristic ranges AVas given in Section 6 (ie.0). are calculated from the maximum and minimum vertical shears at that section due to the loading cycle considered.) I I 8. For fatigue investigations.fatigue limit state. For the. T~ = 1.

8. using the properties of the cross-section determined in accordance with 4.1 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR Longitudinal shear per unit length of beam. Design of the shear connection .serviceability limit state 8. should be calculated on the basis of elastic theory.STATIC LOADING The maximum load per connector at the serviceability limit state should not exceed 0 6 Pd.4. 8. Section 6.4 DESIGN FOR FATIGUE 109 . and assuming the concrete to be uncracked.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . the size and spacing of connectors may be kept constant over any length where. whether simply supported or continuous.2 MAXIMUM LOADS PER CONNECTOR . 8. This size and spacing should be maintained for at least 10 per cent of the length of that span.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 8.STATIC LOADING The size and spacing of the connectors at each end of each span should be not less than that required for the maximum loading considered. Elsewhere.determined in accordance with . Over every such length the total longitudinal shear force must not exceed the product of the number of connectors and the design static strength per connector.the maximum shear force per unit length does not exceed the design shear flow by more than 10 per cent. where Pd is the design strength . under the maximum loading considered .

The summation of the ratios of the design number of cycles n to the corresponding allowable number of cycles N should not exceed unity.COMMENTARY The size and spacing of the connectors at each end of each span should be not less than that required for the calculated shear range. the allowable number of occurrences N for each cycle of service loading giving a shear range A V expressed as a percentage of the Characteristic static strength should be derived in accordance with Section 6 and using graphical interpolation where necessary. . This size and spacing-should be maintained for at least 10 per cent of each span. The summation of the ratios of the design number of cycles n for each service loading to the corresponding allowable number of cycles N should not exceed unity. Over every such length the spacing should be such that the longitudinal shear ranges per unit length multiplied by the connector spacing. the shear ranges per connector. 2. the allowable number of occurrences N for each cycle of service loading giving a nominal shear-stress range on the weld throat. the size and spacing of connectors may be kept constant over any length where the calculated shear range does not vary by more than 10 per cent from the design stress range. For other types of connector. ie. satisfv the following requirements for the design spectrum of loading: 1. Elsewhere.should be derived in accordance with Section 6 and using graphical interpolation where necessary. For stud connectors.

RECOMMENDATIONS 111 .

or is as defined in national codes.1. " 3 ~I . over a length Qs measured from each end of the beam.1 For the purpose of calculating the restraint force in the concrete slab due to temperature effects. In continuous beams. but in stress calculations. the effective breadth of flange should be used. the calculation o f moments and reactions should take account of the secondary (parasitic) effects that occur in statically indeterminate structures subject to internal strains. the strain should be assumed to act over the full breadth of flange. 9.2 The following assumptions may be made when calculating the loads of con- I nectors due to the longitudinal force VQ: a) for flexible connectors. each end of the beam to zero at a distance Qs from at each end of the beam. I 9. where Qs is as defined in a) above. that the rate of transfer of load varies linearly from a maximum o f 2 VdQ.1.. where Qs is taken as the effective breadth of the concrete flange. in addition to the primary (statically determinate) effects of temperature. 'I12 . and b ) for rigid connectors. ~~ COMMENTARY. that the load is transferred uniformly at a rate V@.

and assuming the concrete to be uncracked. 2. The modulus of elasticity of concrete.1. differential expansion will occur under a uniform change of temperature.2 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR Longitudinal shear forces may occur in a composite beam either due to the temperature of the concrete slab being different from that of the steel beam or due to a temperature gradient through the cross-section. should be that value appropriate to short-term loading. Longitudinal shear forces due to temperature effects should be considered during construction and at the serviceability limit state. In stress calculations for beams where the cross-section is slender.. temperature effects need only be considered at the ultimate limit state and during construction. 1.1 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 9.1 GENERAL It is normally not necessary to consider the effects of temperature on composite beams in buildings. using the properties of the crosssection as defined in 4. In stress calculations in beams where the cross-section is compact (see 5.2). 113 .4. 9. E. . ignoring the effect of bond.1. In the absence of more precise information.Temperature. in which case. shrinkage and creep 9. the effects of temperature need only be considered during construction and at the serviceability limit state. these concentrated shear forces may be calculated by an elastic analysis assuming full interaction. 3.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 9. The longitudinal shear force Vg due to primary effects of temperature should be assumed to be transmitted from the concrete to the steel beam by shear connectors at the ends of the beam. They may also occur where the concrete has a coefficient of linear thermal expansion significantly different from that of the structural steel section. Elsewhere the effects of temperature should be considered as follows.

2 and 9.I In continuous composite beams in addition to the redistribution of stresses that occurs in simply supported beams (primary effects). 9.2.2. * I 114 . which should be taken into account.2.3 The conditionsfor maximum shrinkage (very dry environments)also correspond to the conditionsfor mdximum creep.I 9. shrinkage and creep will also cause a redistribution of the bending moments and support reactions.

E. 9.2.2 3 LONGITUDINAL STRESSES AND STRAINS The longitudinal stresses and strains due to shrinkage modified by creep may be calculated using the assumptions given in 9. should be that value appropriate to short-term loading. reference should be made to specialist literature. 9.RECOMMENDATIONS 9.1.2 but using the free shrinkage strain and a modulus of elasticity for concrete appropriate to longterm loading determined in accordance with CEB/FIP Recommendations. 9.2 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR The longitudinal shear force due to shrinkage modified by creep may be assumed to be transmitted from the concrete slab to the steel beam in the manner described in 9. 115 .1. but using the free shrinkage strain and a modulus of elasticity for concrete appropriate to long-term loading determined in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations. The modulus of elasticity of concrete.1. assuming full interaction between the concrete slab and the steel beam. except that where the flange of the steel beam is completely encased in concrete.2 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP 9. The concrete slab should be assumed to be uncracked with the effective breadth of concrete flange determined in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations for concrete structures.2 and may be calculated using the assumptions given in 9..3.1 GENERAL I Shrinkage and creep should be determined in .1 3 LONGITUDINAL'STRESSESAND STRAINS Longitudinal stresses and strains in the concrete slab and steel beam due to any of the effects described in 9.ccordance with the CEB/FIP ' Principles and Recommendations.1.2 may be calculated from simple elastic theory.2.

10. - 116' . . but most are based on the results of research on reinforced concrete rectangular beams and slabs.COMMENTARY I .1 Methods for calculating crack width differfrom country to country. no detailed method of calculating crack width is given in this Section. . . s .' Until the application of such methods to composite beams has been thoroughly assessed.. v .

b i t i n g crack widths and the principles on which methods for calculating crack widths are based should be in accordance with the CEBIFIP Recommendations. I 117 .1 GENERAL (1) In concrete elements designed for Class N verification (reinforced concrete) adequate reinforcement should be provided to prevent cracking from adversely affecting the appearance or durability of the structure. Control of cracking 10. (2) For prestressed beams see Section 12.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 10.

1 of structures.5. in accordance with 4. by using an appropriate effective breadth of jlunge.4 the deflection should be calculated using non-linear elastic plastic theory.4 deflections may be calculated by elastic theory using the elastic properties given in 3. In the absence of a rigorous analysis. i ECCS Advisory Committee I I is preparing Recommendations on deformations 11. allowance for in-plane shear flexibility (shear lag effects)may be made in calculations based on elementary theory of bending. The stress-strain relationships for concrete and reinforcement should be those specified in the CEBJFIPRecommendations.5. and neglecting concrete in tension in hogging (negative) moment regions. the deflectionsdue to permanent loading may be calculated by using a modulus of elasticity of concrete appropriate to long-term loading.COMMENTARY I 11. Consideration should be given to the effects of shrinkage and creep.2 ( I ) Provided the stresses in the steel or concrete due to any combination of design loads at the serviceability limit state or during construction do not exceed the limits given in 5. Where appropriate the CEBIFIP Recommendationsfor Structural Concrete may be used. Alternatively.4.4 assuming fill interaction between the steel beam and the concrete slab. 118 . The stress-strain relationship for structural steel should be that specified in the ECCS Recommendations. Where appropriate. (2) Where it is necessary to determine the deflections of a composite beam due to loadings which cause the stresses in the steel or concrete to exceed the limits given in 5. determined in accordance with 3. For prestressed composite beams see Section 12.4. proper account should be taken of the deflections of the steel section due to loads applied to it prior to the development of composite action.

to such an extent that no specific recommendations can be given. the distribution of bending moments shall be determined in accordance with 4. as proposed in the Commentary to Clause 3.1 GENERAL Where it is necessary to check deflections.4. with rf taken as 1.I RECOMMENDATIONS Section I 1 Deflections 8 11.7.O. I I / 119 .2 CALCULATION OF DEFLECTIONS Criteria for limiting deflections depend on the functional criteria for the structure considered. 11.2.

2 (1) assuming f i l l interaction.3 When according to 7. August 1975)..4 Nf)then the deflectiongenerally may 'be calculated according to 11.8 1 .T M. and May.6f " 0 .3it is required that N 2 0.6 0.3 0. Volume 53. .1 Short-termdeflection of beams with partial shear connection (Johnson.4 0.2 or 7.5 Nf(or even N > 0.2 c - 0.1! 0. Structural Engineer.o ' ' Not permitted ' 6.5. Figure C11. so 6 . COMMENTARY 11. Beams with stud connectors 0. 120 ."Partial interaction design of composite beams".1 0 L 0. Supporting evidence from results of tests by Baldwin (USA) and Stark (Holland)is shown below. = 6f .305-31 1 . R P.5.

to be positioned and to function correctly. claddings. 11. eg. . deflections should not exceed the limits specified in national codes. c) the method of construction requires careful control of profde. In the absence of further information.3 DEFLECTIONS OF SIMPLY-SUPPORTED BEAMS WITH INCOMPLETE CONNECTION The deflection 6 of simply supported composite beams with flexible connectors ih designed in accordance w t 7.2 should be determined taking into account the effect of slip at the serviceability limit state. no limitations are normally imposed other than to require that the deflection of the superstructure or any part of it should not adversely affect the appearance or efficiency of the structure.5. glazing. In buildings in addition to the reasons given in (1) limitations on the deflections may be required to enable other elements of the structure. b) the surface water drainage would be impaired.4 LIMITATIONS ON DEFLECTIONS (1) In bridges. The calculation of deflections will normally only be necessary where: a) specified minimum clearances may be exceeded.RECOMMENDATIONS 11.

. 1 .COMMENTARY . These tensile stresses cannot in general be eliminated by the addition of compressive stresses due to prestressing. This effect is reduced by high inelastic deformations. 12. reductions in the lengths'of members at tensioning) should be taken into account as appropriate.1 I I The effect of prestressing isgenerally important in the elastic range. cracking of concrete. according to the CEBIFIP Recommendations. The same applies to the deferred losses of tension due to relaxation of the prestressing steel and due to creep and shrinkage of the concrete. 12.. The stress state due to the weight of wet concrete in the steelwork of a composite beam which is unpropped during construction. or plastic deformations up tofailure. The instantaneous losses of tension or prestressing (losses in jacks or at anchorages.2. I 12. Temperature differences and shrinkage cause concentrated anchorageforces and tensile stresses at the ends of composite beams. frictional forces in the ducts or between the concrete part and the steel beam. should not be regarded as a stage of prestressing. Therefore the end regions may belong to class IV members even when the Composite beam should meet the requirements of class I or 1 concrete members. . Compact composite beams are thereforegenerallynot prestressed.3 Regions near end supports may be in a different class from the rest of the beam. due to the location of anchorages for tendons.

Prestressing in composite construction Prestressing can reduce. with the exception of the end regions of beams.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 12. or in some circumstances prevent the cracking of concrete under service conditions. or external tendons even when grouted in ducts). 2) by means of prestressing tendons. 12.3 DEGREE OF PRESTRESSING The degree of prestressing in composite beams shall be classified in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations for concrete structures. the calculation of the prestressing forces must take account of the deformation of the whole structure. so increasing stiffness and improving the protection of steel and reinforcement from corrosion. Special consideration should be given to composite beams which are prestressed by an external system or by tendons not directly bonded to the concrete (tendons in ungrouted internal ducts. In these circumstances. for example by jacking of the supports. 12. 123 . tensioned before or after connecting the concrete flange to the steel beam.2 METHODS OF PRESTRESSING Prestressing may be achieved mainly: 1) by means of imposed deformations. 3) by means of a combination of both above-mentioned methods. and bonded to the structure.

2 where local effects of prestressing are unfavourable. which may be different for certain loading conditions. 12.7 .5 is also applicable at c the ultimate limit state. given by: EC I E'c = I + $ & where E. thereby causing earlier crack formation under increased loading which results in reduced stiffnesses. yp should be taken as 1. for example for dead load and jacking.5 Care must be taken of shear lag effects. as where prestressing tendons are anchored and concentrated forces have to be transmitted from the concrete part to the steel beam.6.1 For example. the effects of creep may be taken into account in calculations based on elastic theory.6 The m thod of all( wing for creep given in Commer tary 12. Delayed strains in the concrete lead to stress redistributions from the concrete flange to the steel beam. 12. by using a modulus of elasticity of concrete. 124 . is the short-term modulus of elasticity and & is the creep coefficient obtained from the CEBfFIPPrincipes and Recommendations and J/ takes account of the properties of the composite cross-sectionand the type of loading.COMMENTARY 12. For long-term loading. 12. E*c.

account should be taken of prestressing tendons. In calculating this depth.1 refers to the depth of the web in compression.6 3 COMPACT COMPOSITE BEAMS The definition of compact beams in 5.5.RECOMMENDATIONS 12.6.7 . In order to determine the distribution of bending moments and shearing forces a linear elastic anlysis assuming an uncracked slab should be carried out. including stresses due to imposed deformations and prestressing forces. 125 .6 fck.6 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE 12. The compressive stresses in the concrete part due to flexure.1 PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS The partial safety factors for prestressing forces and imposed deformations should be in accordance with Section 3. 12. CONTROL OF CRACKING Requirements with regard to the durability of composite structures. which are prestressed. Special consideration should be given to the partial coefficient rc as given in Section 3. should comply with the CEB/ FIP Recommendations. except that before creep and shrinkage have taken place. should be designed for the serviceability and ultimate limit states in accordance with the general requirements of this Code.6. The stresses in the steel beam are limited in accordance with 5. taking account of the various combinations with other actions.7 3. The stresses in prestressing tendons are limited as in the appropriate CEB/FIP Recommendations. 12. 12.4. the maximum tensile stress in the structural steel should not exceed 0.5 SERVICEABILITY Stress limitations in the tension zone of the concrete part should comply with the appropriate CEB/FIP Recommendations for concrete members.95 times the characteristic yield strength divided by rm. should not exceed 0. 12. 12. particularly the choice of appropriate limit states of crack width.2. at the appropriate yield stress. provided that the tendons are prestressed as appropriate and directly bonded to the concrete part.4 LIMIT STATE REQUIREMENTS Composite members.9.2 SLENDER COMPOSITE BEAMS The appropriate clauses of this Code on slender beams apply.

3 Vibration serviceability requirements for footways and cycle tracks are given in Appendix D of British Standard 5400. 13. More detailed information is available: “Symposiumon dynamic behaviour of bridges’. Supplementary Report 275. London. I I6 pp.Australia.148. p p 96. I 126 . I9 75. 1978. p p 140. R P. ‘X‘omposite structures of steel and concrete’: Volume 1. May 1977. Part 2.2 Methods of checking for vibration serviceability are available: Mason. and composite bridges”.concrete. Transport and Road . Proceedings of Conference on Steel Structures.Research Laboratoty. Crowthome. Oosby Lockwood Staples.England. ‘Zoads’: British Standards Institution.100. May 1977. “Testingand design for vibrations of office floors with composite construction”.13. Monash University. “Steel. Johnson. D.

127 . the effects of vibration due to traffic need not be considered. the frequency or amplitude of vibration may be sufficient to cause distress to users or local damage to the structure. 13.2 BEAMS FOR BUILDINGS Vibration should be considered in the design of composite floor structures of high span-to-depth ratio that may be subjected to dynamic or impact loading. Vibration 13.1 GENERAL Consideration should be given to the possibility that in structures subjected to fluctuatingloadsin service. In footbridges and cycle track bridges. consideration should be given to the vibration which can be induced by resonance with the movement of users. for example from machinery or fork-lift trucks.3 BEAMS FOR BRIDGES In highway bridges. 13.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 13.

0 0.3 1.0 0.2 In geneml the following tolerances are realistic for construction without a mortar bed: Shear connection Studs Friction grip bolting Tolerance Length of surface considered 1.3 128 .COMMENTARY I 14.

unless stated otherwise in this Section. If the slab is laid without a mortar bed. the vertical tolerances of the flatness of the bearing surface between the concrete slab and the steel flange must be small enough to avoid excessive local stress in the concrete slab.2 JOINT BETWEEN STEEL BEAM AND CONCRETE SLAB The application of a mortar bed generally requires a steel flange not less than 300 mm wide.4. continuous transverse reinforcement is not required. 14.5. if welding is used. especially in case of friction grip-bolting according to 14. Care has to be taken to protect the upper flange of the steel beam against corrosion. Composite beam with precast slab 14. care has to be taken to avoid damage to the concrete by excessive heat.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 14. 'If shear connectors are embedded in the concrete of the slab and connected with the steel beam after erection of the slab. .4 TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT Where a joint between the concrete slabs is parallel to the steel beam and above the steel beam. and the shear connectors the same rules have to be applied as for concreteaslabscast in situ. the size and shape of recess and quality and method of compacting of concrete in-fill should be checked by tests in accordance with 6.3. but the requirements of 7.1 GENERAL For the design of the concrete slab. its reinforcement.3 SHEAR CONNECTION If shear connectors welded to the steel beam fit into joints and/or recesses of the concrete slabs which are filled with concrete after erection. 14. the beams.2 have to be fulfilled for each of the two slabs independently. 14.

above steel beams Figure C14.5 Tension member required + + I I 1- i Ii + Region of increased pressure of stud against slab .1 130 .Region of decreased pressure of stud against slab Columns \r Joints between deck slabs.COMMENTARY 14.

. 14.6 SHRINKAGE AND CREEP Reduced values for shrinkage and creep of the concrete slab may be introduced by considering the age of the precast slabs at the time of erection.5 CONCRETE DECK AS DIAPHRAGM If the concrete deck of a composite structure is designed to resist lateral forces. Tension forces in the edges of the concrete deck may require additional transverse reinforcement in the slabs or tension members connecting the steel beams.RECOMMENDATIONS 14. Appropriate values should be used for a slab composed of a precast slab and a layer of in-situ concrete. account should be taken of the interaction between the resulting horizontal shear forces and those due to the effects of the composite action. as these may add up in the joints between the concrete slabs parallel to the steel beam. . 131 .

1 For designs involving the composite action between a profired steel sheetlconCrete slab with the supporting beams.1 Typical floor with profiled steel sheets: (1) floor finish. ( 6 ) .1.2 . see Section 6 for shear connector design and 5.2 for effective thickness of flange. (2) profded sheet.deformations Embossments Indentations Figure C 15. (5) topping.COMMENTARY I ' 15. (3) structural concrete. I Figure C15.1. (4) mesh reinforcement.

1 SCOPE 1 5. 133 .l COMPOSITE FLOORS The design of these floors is based on the composite action which occurs between profiled steel sheeting and concrete when spanning in the direction of the ribs. b) deformation of the profile (indentation or embossment). Composite floors with profiled steel sheet' 15. Designs may be carried out on slabs for which the composite behaviour has been established by test referred to in 15.2.4. This interlock may be ensured by one or more of the following means: a) the profde shape (with reentrant form). c) end anchorage.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 15. Pure bond between steel sheet and concrete is not considered effective for composite action which must be achieved by positive mechanical interlock.1 .

Figure C 15.e 2 50mm d 3 90mm Maximum diameter of aggregate D d-e G 3 D -- < 30mm D < w'/3 134 .2. 15.2 .2.4 The requirements for slab thickness and cover derive from consideration of aggregate size and the structural integrity of composite slabs using certain profiled steel sheets in a transverse direction.3 For design calculations based on the guaranteed minimum yield stress the bare metal thickness of the sheet shall be used. Where the yield stress is based on coupon tests carried out on the galvanised material then it shall be made clear in calculations that this is the effective yield stress of the material based on the total sheet thick- ness.1.2. Depending on service conditions a coating class ranging from 100 g/m2 to 2 75 g/m2 has been found satisfactory. 15. 15.2 For structures where the imposed load is largely repetitive or applied abruptly in such a manner as to produce dynamic effects profiled steel sheet is permitted provided the engineer gives careful consideration to its detailed design and use with especial regard to maintaining the structural integn'ty of the composite action. Treatment of vibration is covered in Section 13.3 Minimurn thickness of slab d .15.

2. 135 .2 MATERIALS 15. 15.2 CLASSES OF STRUCTURE This section applies to designs for building structures where the imposed loads are predominantly static.1. 15.4 MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS The overall thickness of the slab shall not be less than 90 mm and cover over the ribs not less than 50 mm.RECOMMENDATIONS 15.2 COATING Galvanising should be in accordance with the IS0 standard on galvanising: “Continuous hot-dip coated carbon steel sheet of structural quality.1972 and 32 .1966. (IS0 TC 17).2.2. Other applications are not excluded provided an appropriate design method is presented.70 mm.1 STEEL The basic material should be mild steel in accordance with Euronorms 25 .2. with a minimum grade of Fe 360. IS0 4998 1977”. 15. or to National Standards. 15.3 MINIMUM SHEET THICKNESS For floors where the profiled sheet constitutes the loadcarrying element as the reinforcement the bare nominal metal thickness of sheet should not be less than 0.

3. For deflections greater than 20 m m the ponding effect may be 136 .0 kN/m’.3 In cases where the deflection is not greater than 20 mm it may be assumed that the yonding effect is covered by the uniformly distributed construction load of 1.COMMENTARY 15.

1 LOADS The following loads shall be taken into consideration in calculations for the steel deck as shuttering: dead load of the deck.3.3 DESIGN METHODS . length. construction loads.2 CALCULATIONS FOR STEEL DECKING Design calculations should generally be in accordance with the European Recommendations for steel structures.2. Wherever possible unsupported edges to the steel deck should be avoided otherwise particular care should be taken during design and construction as unsupported edges may suffer gross deformations when subjected to concentrated loads.5% . For deflections greater than 20 mm the ‘ponding’ effect (increased concrete depths due to the deflection of the sheeting) should be considered. 15. 15.5 kN/m parallel to the supporting beam.20% 1 I I Spacing of shear transfer devices Due to the variations in types of embossment and indentation the manufacturer shall specify each form in an acceptable manner referring to depth. Decking may also be designed on an experiemental basis in appropriate cases. radii and slopes and shall further maintain this form during manufacture within the above tolerances.10% + 10% 4. dead load of the wet concrete.SHUTTERING 15. Overall depth of deck Sheet thickness Dimension of shear transfer devices t 4% . 137 . The construction loads represent the weight of tradesmen and concreting plant and take into account any impact or vibration which may occur during construction.3.5 TOLERANCE Dimensions of a profiled steel sheet which is to be used compositely shall not differ from the specified dimensions by more than the tolerance listed below.1% + 10% .O kN/m2 or b) a knife edge service load of 1. 15. placed in the most unfavourable position. The construction loads shall be taken as the worst case of either a) a uniformly distributed design service load of 1.RECOMMENDATIONS 15.3 3 DEFLECTION The requirements of IS0 proposal TC 98 SE 4 shall be observed.

inclined ribs or lugs. dimples. etc). Design based on longitudinal shear capacity is semi-empirical as referred to in Section 15.4 Ponding effect. For this reason composite designs for plain open profiled sheets are not recommended unless some form of positive interlock is employed. Composite slabs in this category rely on some form of discrete mechanical connection between sheet and concrete slab. depth and number of deformations. The use of other types of mechanical connection will generally require tests to establish the shear capacity of the connection. and to show an adequate deformation capacity.COMMENTARY allowed for by considering'an extra uniformly distributed load of 0. The bond developed between a hardened concrete slab and a completely flat steel sheet is random and may easily be destroyed by slight impact or by shrinkage of the concrete. (2) Deformations. r 0.4. Slabs with profiled sheets with anchor straps at discrete spacings throughout the slab span may be designed on the same basis as composite beams with shear connectors. Failure of the composite slab using this type of sheet is generally by longitudinal shear. and the span of the slab. For profiled sheets with deformations the composite action is dependent on the type feg. 138 . The interaction between profiled steel decking and concrete in surface bond is complex. Plain profiled sheets with some form of re-entrant angle develop a more reliable effective bond with the concrete due to the interlocking shape.4.7 x specific weight of concrete (kN/m3)x central deflection (m) klV/m2 in addition to the construction load. cusps. With a known value of anchor strap shear strength the design load m y be calculated. 15.1 ( 1 ) Effective bond ensured by profile shape.7 x 6 x weight of concrete Concrete to allow for ponding effect I Deflection neglecting ponding effect Figure C15. anchor straps or other mechanical connections.

The tests should provide data for the ultimate strength design equations and are referred to in 15.4. Composite action may be achieved in at least one of the following ways: 1) by effective bond ensured by the profile shape (with a re-entrant form). 139 . The behaviour of such slabs under test is characterised by slip failure.4. Design for longitudinal shear shall be based on test information for each type of profiled steel sheet.4 DESIGN AND TESTING OF COMPOSITE SLABS 15. a) Longitudinal shear in slabs with incomplete shear connection. Design for flexure may be based on conventional reinforced concrete theory for the ultimate state provided tests carried out initially for each type of profiled steel sheet have confirmed that failure is by flexure. Either failure mode is possible for a composite slab using a particular profiled steel sheet.4. anchor straps or other mechanical connections positioned throughout the span.4.2 and 15. which are as follows.3.1). The slab is able to develop full flexural strength. b) Flexure in slabs with complete shear connection. The tests are referred to in 15. The ultimate load at the limit state of collapse is identified by two main failure modes (see also 2.2 and 15.4.RECOMMENDATIONS 15. The mode is primarily dependent on the span and depth of the slab.3. 2) by deformations in the profiled sheet. 3) by anchorages at the ends of each span of the slab preventing slip between the concrete and the profiled sheet.1 COMPOSITE ACTION The composite action which can occur between a profiled steel sheet and a concrete slab depends on the degree of connection present at the interface between the concrete and steel.

Composite action between the steel decking and concrete slab can be ensured by the use of anchorages at the ends of the span which prevent slip between the concrete slab and the profiled sheet. information may be obtained on the effective bond or anchorage force which may then be inserted into appropriate design expressions to give an approximate general method of calculation. which may take the form illustrated in Figure C15.are required at end supports for simply supported slabs and at the ends of each span for continuous slabs. Design for flexure.S Anchorage at end support.5. The anchorages. the test must be full gcale and must simulate the actual site conditions and the results obtained may not be interpolated or extrapolated for other cases. Tests must be carried out to indicate that: I ) the anchorage is effective. Propping during the construction stage has no effect on the ultimate strength of the composite slab. If type 2 tests are made.fork-lift trucks).4. 140 . Type 3 tests are for composite slabs with an abnormal structural form (eg.COMMENTARY (3) Anchorages. and 2) the proposed design method for the slab is satisfactoty. skewslabs) or for special loadings (eg.2 I f type I tests are made over a sufficient range of parameters. I If it is proposed to omit anchorage at internal supports this must be justified by test. Anchorages of this type m y be provided to produce composite action with plain profiled sheets or to enhance the load-caving capacity of a composite floor slab. d Figure C15. 15.

4. 141 . 3.2 THE USE OF TEST RESULTS For each of the three forms of composite action considered in 15. 2.3). three types of test may be carried out. 1.1. Tests carried out to establish a design for a specific structural application using non-standard test procedure. Tests carried out on a particular structural application in accordance with standard test procedures (1 5.4). as follows.4. In general.RECOMMENDATIONS 15.4.4. every application of test results to a structure should take account of the current building and safety regulations. Tests carried out to establish a semiempirical basis for design (15.

4 A minimum of three full-scale tests shall be carried out on the proposed floor construction using actual loading. When eight or more tests are carried out the reduction line may be taken as 10% below the regression line. in the case of uniformly distributed loads.4. or. When the variation is greater than +7%% three further tests should be carried out and the six test results may be used to obtain the regression line.6. 1 Figure C15. . The width of the slab should have a value not less than each ofi i) three times the overall depth ii) 600 mm. a close simulation of the loadingas shown in Figure C15. reinforcement ratio.In the case of continuous spans.COMMENTARY 15. 156 maximum experimental shear (NI V€ s = spacing of shear transfer device (mm) b = slab width (mm) fc = concrete cylinder strength = I i m d k Lv = = = = P = (N/mm* 1 slope of 15% reduction line effective depth (mm) intercept on 15% reduction line distance from support to nearer point load in a symmetrical two point loading system (shear length). . profile thickness and dimensions.4. and iii) width of the profiled sheet. either multiple spans shall be tested or the support moments simulated on a single span. Region A includes specimens with small slab depths and region B with larger depths and small shear lengths. tests are required on specimens in regions A and B indicated in Figure C15. the crack inducer may be limited to the tensile zone of the concrete. A minimum number of three tests in each region is sufficient provided the variation from the mean of the three results is not greater than 2795%. In 142 .3 A typical graph of longitudinal shear failure is shown in Figure C .6 To establish the design relationship for longitudinal shear capacity.7. Thin steel-plate crack inducers extending to the full depth of the slab and coated with a debonding agent shall be placed across the full width of the test slab. Alter natively. The regression line is reduced by up to 15% to ensure that the experimental value willgenerally fall above the reduced line and to account for some minor variations in the test results. 15.

Generally three tests shall be performed at the minimum span and three tests at the maximum span of the range.4.4. The design load is the minimum value from three tests of: 143 . 15. 15. Crack inducers are used to ensure that cracks form in the tensile zone of the slab.RECOMMENDATIONS 15.2) 15.4 TESTING. 15. 15.8) based on the mode of failure and the behaviour prior to.3. 15. ~ The design load is determined from the test information using the coefficients derived from a reduction of the regression line (see Figure C15.failure. Typically.3 Design load . loading arrangement.3 TESTING.4.6).4.1) where 9 is a capacity reduction factor (= 0.3.flexural mode To establish that design can be based on flexural capacity. Provided the ultimate experimental failure load is greater than the calculated ultimate flexural design load then conventional reinforced concrete theory may be used.4. for different slab thicknesses.4. Some adjustment to Vu may be necessary to allow for the dead load resulting from propping.5P followed by loading to failure under static load P.15.. steel deck properties.4. the mode of failure and the load/deflection and load/slip performance is obtained.4.2 Design load .1 General This type of test is carried out for a particular structural application where the test arrangement simulates the actual site conditions.2) 15. The result obtained shall not be extrapolated for other cases and careful consideration shall be given to any interpolation of these results. concrete properties and shear lengths.longitudinal shear mode To derive a representative linear relationship for the ultimate longitudinal shear capacity the full practical range of values of slab depth and shear lengths should be covered in the tests. From these tests the ultimate applied load.4.2 Design load For a proposed design imposed load P the slab should be subjected to 10 000 cycles of load between approximately 0.4.1 General The variables to be investigated include the type of steel decking. tests should be carried out.3. the calculated ultimate shear capacity is: (15. FULL SCALE SLAB (TYPE 2. SEMI-EMPIRICAL BASIS OF DESIGN (TYPE 1.4. The test procedure is intended to represent loading over a period of time.3P and 1.

COMMENTARY the case of four-point loading these shall be positioned under the central point loads as shown in Figure Cl5. I 144 .7 I The surface of the steel decking shall be used in the ‘asrolled’ condition. Concrete and outline of crack inducers Figure C 15.7. no attempt being made to improve adherence of the concrete by degreashg the surface of the sheets.

4.one half of the load at a deflection of span/50. insulation. live loads. 15. In order to reduce this form of cracking. c) from static loading with incomplete shear connection. dead loads (topping. 15. d) from deflection .4. services. sudden excessive slip .1.5 LOADING The loads to be taken into consideration for the design of the steel deck have been given in 15.6 NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT The negative support moments should be taken by top reinforcement designed in accordance with normal reinforced concrete practice. The structural system is in general that of a beam continuous over several spans.3.Pu/3.P b) from static loading with complete shear connection. When the slab is designed as a series of simply supported beams there is a risk that cracks will develop over the supports under working loads.RECOMMENDATIONS a) from dynamic loading . The following loads shall be taken into consideration in the design of the composite slab: prop reactions. ie. the following minimum percentage of top reinforcement should be used: 145 . false ceilings. no excessive slip PU/2. ie. etc).

+2a+2(d-e) Effective breadth of the slab: Bending: simple beam: continuous beam: Shear: where x' = the distance from the support to the load. (2) durable topping.7 I I I' -1 Figure C15.4. Effective load width (measured in the concrete immediately above the ribs): bm=b.COMMENTARY 15. bt = bm + bt'= bm + 4 (I - 5) x' (I-%)Y 146 .8 Distribution of concentrated loads: (1) transverse reinforcement. Q = the span of the deck.

7 DISTRIBUTION OF CONCENTRATED LOADS When point or line loads are considered in the calculations.RECOMMENDATIONS 15.2% of the gross concrete section.4. This shoulc be placed on the deck and its section should be at least 0. an effective breadth of the slab may be assumed. 147 . the distribution of these loads should be ensured by the use of transverse reinforcement in this region. If point or line loads are the design criterion.

2.2. or filled with concrete over the whole column length if the simplified methods given in this commentary are to be used. and in no case greater than specified in the Model Code for Concrete Structures. 148 . 16. The major and minor axes of composite column sections should be taken as the major and minor axes of the structural steel section.I . however additional reinforcement can be used for fire protection requirements. Figure C 16. Note: U and d are as shown in Figure 16.2 The concrete should be a normal density or lightweight concrete with a characteristic cylinder strength of not less than 20 Nlmm’ and with a maximum aggregate size not exceeding u/3 for concrete encased steel sections. but they may be used also for load-bearing stmctures exposed to fire.2% unless test results show that methods contained herein can be applied to higher yield steels. The concrete of encased sections must have longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. additional cross-sections.1 The mild and high yield structural steel should conform with accepted European grades or corresponding national grades with a yield strain not exceeding 0. transmission towers.1 The structural steel members should be encased in. temporary structures.1 Encased composite columns.~- -__ ___ COMMENTARY 16. etc. d/6 for concrete filled steel tubes. No reinforcement is needed for concrete filled steel hollow sections. 16.1 Composite columns may be used not on& as columns for buildings and bridges. The structural steel components may be either rolled or fabricated sections.3. I I 16.

which may be either concrete encased steel sections or concrete filed steel tubes in which concrete and steel interact completely to resist the load.RECOMMENDATIONS Section 16. or rigidly connected to other members at one or both ends.European Convention for Constructional Steelwork .1 Composite column cross-sections.2. M I I Figure 16. 4 .1 SCOPE This section applies to composite columns of buildings and bridges.3 COMPOSITE COLUMN CROSS-SECTIONS 16.1 GENERAL The design of composite columns with cross-sections of the following type (Figure 16.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL The characteristic values of properties are given in Recommendations for Steel Construction . 16.2. 16.2 CONCRETE AND REINFORCEMENT STEEL The characteristic values of properties are given in the CEB/FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures. 149 .l)is based on fully composite action up to failure between the structural steel elements and the concrete elements including reinforcement. Sections 2 . The columns may be either statically determinate. 16. 1 0 and Appendix C.Sections 2 and 3.3. Composite columns 16.2 MATERIALS 16. 3 .

area of the structural Ac. As.The area of the concrete cover or core. Ar steel section and the area of reinforcement respectively.6) to ( I 6. so that further considerations will be needed before their use in design.COMMENTARY 16. 150 . ASCE. = the height of the structural steel section.3 b is the external dimension at the wall of a rectangular hollow section. or steel columns which are partially encased in concrete insufficient test results are available.3. frk reinforcement respectively.3. f r is the characteristic yield strength of the steel. In the case of unsymmetdcal structural steel sections encased in concrete. d is the outside diameter ofa circular hollow section. ratio must be geometrically similar to that ratio adopted in the test specimens. Liege. The values must be taken according to the recommendations of Clause 16. structural steel and Tmc. The limits for encased I-sections may be the same as for concrete filled sections: 0.4 In Equation (16. ‘Behaviourof built-up composite columns ”.3.1. ‘Xeduction of the bearing capacity of concrete filled hollow sections due to local buckling”.2. YmS.3)h. eg. structural steel and f c k .8and are based on parameter ranges studied at Imperial College. f s k .Paper 7206S. Where these limitations are not met it is possible to allow for the reduced effectivenessof the steel in column strength calculations (see J P Grimault and J Janss. : Material partial safety factors of concrete. St 7.) 0 In the formulae from (16. The values must be taken according to the recommendations of Clause 16. I9 7) 7.13) the symbols have the following meaning: : . : The characteristic strengths of concrete. Prelim Report.1969. Nearly all test specimens had a concrete cover of 2 40 mm. Stability of Steel Structures. fck should be taken as fck = 0. “Derivation of formulae for the design of rectangular composite columns’: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Supplementary Volume.July I 9 7) 8. with intermediate and end battens may also be used in encased columns (see R Q Bridge and J W Roderick. Es is Young’s modulus of elasticity of steel. 16. For the purpose of comparisons between short-term test results and calculated load-canying capacities. (See A K Basu and W Sommerville.1 < a C 0. double-channels or four angles.2 The symmetrical built-up sections with open webs of the types shown in Figure C16. Tmr reinforcement respectively. For larger cross-sections the coverlh.83fa. 16. The limitations on wall thickness are needed to control local buckling.2.

7) (16.8 . " (16.for concrete filled steel hollow sections (16.3hS.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL SECTIONS The steel sections used in encased columns can be standard rolled I or H sections or any symmetrical fabricated sections of solid web construction.RECOMMENDATIONS 16. (16.3.1) (16. FILLING AND REINFORCEMENT The concrete cover which may be taken into account. 16. 16.6) (16. The minimum height of section h. The minimum dimensions of rectangular hollow sections must be not less than 100 x 80 mm and square hollow sections not less than 100 x 100 mm.1 < a < 0.for concrete encased sections. and < a < 0. The steel hollow sections should have a wall thickness of not less than: w m -.4 CONCRETE COVERING.3.3. as defined below.2 0.for circular hollow sections The minimum outside diameter of circular hollow sections must be not less than 100 mm.8 .2) or d d m s .1 1) (16.3 STEEL HOLLOW SECTIONS Steel tubes used in concrete filled tubular construction may be hot-rolled or fabbricated rectangular or circular sections. must be not less than 100 mm.10) (16.1) of: 40 mm < U < 0. should have a depth U (Figure 16. given by the concrete contribution parameter a. for rectangular hollow sections (16. should lie between the following limits: 0.13) 151 .3) The cross-section property.4) (16.9) (16.8) (16.5) The concrete contribution parameter a is given by: a=Fq where and where and where and N.12) (1 6.

J Janss.3. x 16. This figure may be increhsed if test results show the methods described herein to be applicable to design.fascicule I et 2. ! 16.5 It is assumed that composite action between structural steel section and concrete including reinforcement takes place u p to failure. Talcul des poteaux en profils crew remplis de beton.1. Comments on the theoretical and experimental background to Clause 16. This provides uniform loading of the whole cross-section. Design tables and charts which have been obtained by an analytical method using these basic principles may be safely used for the design of composite columns: for example.I A non-linear stress-strain curve for concrete is given in Figure 5.6 The lengths used in slender column tests reported to date did not exceed fortyfive times the least laterd dimension of the column cross-section. Monographie No 5. In cases where Q/d> 30 or Q > 12 m it will be necessary to ensure that special instructions are given so that the concrete filling operation can be carried out adequately.0.I t must be ensured by adequate detailing of connections and joints.COMMENTARY A suggested minimum diameter for the four longitudinal bars is 8 mm. in Tomputation of the ultimate loads of steel columns encased with concrete ” (in French). 152 .4 are contained in the Manual on Stability of Steel Structures.3.I . The background is explained by R Anslijn. .3.4. Appendix A (ECCS. 1976). CRIF Report MT89. It is also possible to provide suitable steel mesh to prevent concrete spalling. I9 79. Converted into the slenderness ratio this Q/dratio gives about h = 2. German and English version) edited by CIDECT.4. Clause 5. 16. Methode de calcul et technologie de mise en oeuvre” (French. A limit of 3% is placed on ArlAc as this corresponds to the maximum percentage used in tests on composite columns to date. April 1974.

A non-linear stress-strain curve for concrete according to the CEB/FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures should be used. 16. Concrete in tension should be assumed to have zero strength.4.RECOMMENDATIONS where f d . .ideal plastic stress-strain curves for structural steel and reinforcing bars may be used. Longitudinal bars included in the calculation of column strength should have cross-sectional area given by the limit: (1 6.14) The concrete cover to the reinforcement should not be less than the minimum permitted in the CEB/FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures. 16. At least four longitudinal bars should be provided.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES Any inelastic column analysis which complies with the principles listed below may be applied: .3.5 should not exceed 2. .3. 153 . They should be designed in accordance with the recommendations of Sections 6 . LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY ANALYSIS 16. structural steel and reinforcement respectively. To prevent local spalling of the concrete in a concrete encased section. capable of supporting the reinforcing cage during concreting. frd = design strength of concrete. .0. then mechanical shear connectors are needed. f d .6 SLENDERNESS LIMITATION The column length should be such that the slenderness ratio Clause 16.Ideal elastic .Sections which are plane before bending remain plane after bending. nor less than 25 mm for longitudinal bars. . which comply with the ECCS European Recommendations for Steel Construction and the CEB/FIP Model Code for Structures respectively. Stirrups of an appropriate diameter should be provided throughout the length of the column at a spacing not exceeding 20 mm.There exists complete interaction between steel and concrete up to collapse.4. h as defined in 16. reinforcement should be provided in concrete encased sections.5 COMPOSITE ACTION If the shear stresses at the steel-concrete interface are excessive. 7 and 8 of this Code.

Volume 3644 Zurich. the steel section.3.COMMENTARY Generally it is more convenient to assume only representative geometrical imperfections. As a result the influence of long-term loading on the time-dependent concrete strains is smaller than in the core concrete casing.I In the Equations (16.35) . 16. which may be chosen according to the ECCS European Recommendations for Steel Construction. 154 . = second moment of the total area of the concrete part assumed to be uncracked.19) the symbols have the following meanings: N = normal force acting in the column. = elastic modulus of longitudinal reinforcement.5. E.3. I.3. Qk = effective column length which should be determined as given for bare steel columns in ECCS European Recommendationsfor Steel Construction..empirical methods which have been shown to lead to safe designs may be used. The application of the ECCS column curves for bare steel columns to the prediction of composite column strength is discussed in the Manual of Stability of Steel Structures and by K S Virdiand P J Do wling in ' unified design method for com2 posite columns 7 ISBSE Publications. and the reinforcement respectively. the tubes retard the concrete curing.4.4. I. E. In the case of concrete filled steel hollow sections.2 Alternatively. = as is defined in Clause C16. Nu = as is given in Equation ( I 6. 1976.8) of Clause 16.( I 6. 16. They should be consistent with those adopted for assessing the strength of axially loaded bare steel columns. Is. One &ch method is the equivalent pin-ended column approach in 1 which the restrained column is replaced by a pin-ended column of length equal to the effective length of the restrained column and having end eccentricities proportional to its stiffitess as determined by a linear elastic analysis of the restrained column as a frame with joint moments.

Proper account has to be taken of the decrease in stiffness due to the spread of plastified and cracked zones.1 7) = reduction factor dependent on the equivalent slenderness ratio the effective buckling curves for bare steel columns according to the ECCS European Recommendations for Steel Construction.2 MOMENTS AND FORCES IN COLUMNS The moments and forces acting in the two principal planes of the column at the ultimate limit state should be determined by an appropriate inelastic analysis in which due account has been taken of the end restraints afforded by members framing into the ends of columns.1 6) The design ultimate moment of resistance of the section Mu depends on the type and properties of the composite cross-section and the location of its principal axis. resulting stresses etc should be calculated using second order theory (p .A effects). Creep and shrinkage parameters for the concrete part have to be chosen in accordance with the CEB/FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures. materials and crosssectional properties.5 DESIGN METHOD 16. bending moments.5. Geometrical and structural imperfections of materials. including residual stresses in rolled or welded sections have to be assumed as appropriate.1 GENERAL The composite column should be designed so that: i) the maximum factored moment on each axis is not greater than the design ultimate moment of resistance of the section about the corresponding axis M < Mu (16. (1 6.RECOMMENDATIONS The applied forces. 16. 16.4. K x. ii) the factored load on the column is not greater than the ultimate loadcarrying capacity of the composite column about the appropriate axis N < Nk (1 6.15) where MU is defined as appropriate in the two hand methods given in the commentary . shape and ratios of bending moment distribution in column. The ultimate load-carrying capacity of the composite column is given by: Nk = KN.1 8) 155 . = equivalent slenderness ratio as given by: x=JNa N U (1 6.

9 2.4 1.383 0.323 0.900 0.! Y 1' - h/b> 1.885 0.663 0.654 0.000 0.0 b 1.783 0.5 0.1 Strut curve selection chart and values of coefficient K I for column curves.8 1.202 V .341 0.5 2.3 0.542 0.2 buckling about the y y axis h/b 1.925 0.5 Squash load Euler critical load I I I I 1.343 0. Shape of steel section Rolled tubes Welded tubes Nelded box sections X- Curve x K 1 for column curves a 1.606 0.965 0.0 1.293 0.000 1.923 0.265 0.228 a x=h.000 1.2 European buckling curves for bare steel columns.277 0.727 0.593 0.307 0.884 0.427 0.7 1.2 0.5 0.251 0.207 c 1.3 1.7 0.227' 0.537 0.6 0.2 1.306 0.719 0.buckling about a) flame cut flanges b I 0 0.480 0.I and H sections stress . y-y=by ['and H rolled sections - buck.395 0.bxkling about y y axis rdieved by heat treatment i{ r a b V Table C16.buckling about x x axis .250 0.486 0.000 0.000 1.951 0.220 0.796 0.277 0.ing about the x x axis I and H welded sections .000 0.COMMENTARY K1l 0.357 0.000 1.675 0.844 0.241 0.000 1.2 hlb 1.4 0.000 1.599 0.429 0.9 1.2 buckling about x x axis e) flame cut flanges b) rolled flanges y y axis ' - .o 1.845 0.537 0.1 0.438 0.978 0.381 0.480 0.8 0.785 0.1 1.5 1.0 x w I Figure C16.2 h/b< 1.838 0.6 1.739 0. 156 .954 0.

. a higher concrete strength due to the beneficial effects to the confinement and a lesser steel strength may be taken into account. Q/d 0 5 10 15 20 25 ~ r)l r)2 9.76 0. = 300fk (16.20) and (16.20) was satisfactory for design purposes.oo Table 16.19) E. = effective concrete elastic modulus E..60 3. In the case of short axially loaded composite columns consisting of concrete filled circular steel tubes. = E.RECOMMENDATIONS N.00- ' ' 0. fcd = [fck + 771 (1 6.24) fsyI/rmc. (16.26) fsd = r)2fsy/rms. Subsequent numerical studies showed that the value given by (16. then linear interpolation is permitted between the values of Equations (16.95 1.5 N permanent N (16.49 0. = 6 0 0 f d (16. provided d/t exceeds twenty.0.22) A reduction of concrete elastic modulus is not required for concrete filled steel hollow sections except in the case of very slender columns with large values of the concrete contribution parameter. = Euler critical load lr2 N = 2 (E. 157 .1 The values of factors q l and 772. NUS = As fsd.80 08 5 0.86 0.25) (16.Ic . and q2 are constants where values are listed in the table below for different values of Q/d.90 0. U U Nu. r). Then the squash load Nu is given by: where N = N C + NUS.23) (16. = Ac fcd.1 .2 1) If only part of the load acting on the column is permanent. In the absence of more exact information it is permissible to account for the effects of the timedependent strains of concrete on the carrying capacity of encased structural steel sections by reducing the elastic modulus of concrete to: E.94 1.20) A discussion of the value of Ec to be adopted for strength predictions is contained in the previously quoted reference. l k t EsIs t ErIr) (16.78 6.21): E.

2 158 . M = maximum factored moment acting about the appropriate axis. Mu = design ultimate moment of resistance calculated about the appropriate axis as given later in the Commentary.2)governs for columns subjected to uniaxial bending about the minor axis.5.4.5. Method A (Cl 6. = 0.4 should be met.COMMENTARY 16. K 2 and K 3 are determined as below.281 for curve b.2 The value of coefficient K l may be taken either from Figure Cl 6. K 2 (Q = o)= 0.384 for curve c.4 Two methods are given here. Equation (C16. i 16.18).that comp& with these Clauses.3 and 16. Columns subjected to major axis moments.75 except that if K 2 is calculated to be negative it should be taken as zero.5.9a2 + 0.1 taking due account of the steel section involved and the value of slenderness ratio given by Equation (16.2) where K 1 is derived as in Clause 16.I t may also be calculated by the formula where 6 = 0.5.158 for curve a. calculated in accordance with clause 16. Coefficient K 2 : Values of the coefficient K 2 about each axis may be calculated as follows between the limits: OGK2 GK2 ( ~ ~ 0 ) and K2 (Q = 0 ) Q 0.2.2 or Table C16.5. but unrestrained from failing about the minor axis are likely to fail in biaxial bending and the requirements of Clause 16. = 0.2.

by testing) may be used to design composite columns subjected to combined axial compression and bending. 159 .3 COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION AND UNIAXIAL BENDING Any inelastic beam-column design method which complies with the principles set out in Clause 16i4.2 and 16.5.2 AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS For axially loaded columns expression (1 6. Two methods which are acceptable are given in the Commentary.5. In calculating the loadcarrying capacity of the composite column the preloading of the steel section should be considered as appropriate. and which can be shown to produce safe results (for example.RECOMMENDATIONS I 1 In cases where a column carries loads before the composite action has taken place. 16.5. 16. In each case the interaction curves generated by validated beamcolumn analyses have been used as bases for design. A more accurate design approach is available and referred to in the Commentary. this column has to meet the requirements for bare steel columns.4 COMBINED AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BIAXIAL BENDING Design methods derived from inelastic analyses based on the same principles are referred to in the preceding Clause may be used to determine the strength of columns failing in a biaxial mode.16) should be satisfied by using the value of K1which depends on the equivalent slenderness X about the appropriate axis and is based on the buckling curves for bare steel columns given in the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. 16. conforms to the preceding Clauses 16.3.1. Approximations of biaxial interaction surfaces are used in the two methods presented in the Commentary.

K J = K J ( g= 0) + { [ ( O S 6 + 0.2 . = 0. used with the additional subscripts x and y to denote the plane of bending under consideration.-1 - 160 . = 135 for columns designed to curve c. eu is the design ultimate eccentncity of the composite section and may be taken: for concrete encased steel section whose plastic axis is outside the steel section major and minor axis bending (Figures C16.5).07Sfly .l5]X/(l +I3)/ where K 3 (g = 0) = 0. .30(2fl.iix]l[SO(2.major axis bending (Figure Cl 6.4) .a) .5 .25a)2 - Mu (Ash-..04 .ails and should never be taken as less than zero.0.a ) . -2As bP fsd for concrete encased steel sections whose plastic neutral axis is within the top flange . Q = 100 for columns designed to curve a..3 and Cl 6.as . In the case of concrete filled circular steel tubes.0. Calculation of Mu for composite sections The design ultimate moment of resistance of the concrete encased stmctural steel and concrete filled hollow sections about the appropriate axis may be given as e. K3X= 0 For minor axis bending.ijx] 1/30 (2. where NUSis determined from Equation ( I 6.1.1) (1.24). Coefficient K3: Values of the coefficient K 3 m y be calculated as follows for concrete encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular steel tubes: For major axis bending.COMMENTARY For concrete encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular tubes Kz = K ~ ( = 0) {I90 .4)(a' 0.005 $ but should be within the limits.1)(1.as = NUS (0.5) + O.8 .425 .03 ( 1 +fly). I 2 0.25 (2P .8.fl)]] 6 = the ratio of the smaller to the larger of the two end moments acting about each axis.P)J/ Q while for concrete filled circular tubes: K z = Kz+o) where { [ l l s .0. the sign convention being such that (3 is positive for single curvature bending. = 120 for columns designed to curve b.9) or ( 1 6.+ frdAr dr).

RECOMMENDATIONS 161 .

C16.9 The dimensions of concreteencased and concrete-filled steel sections and location of plastic neutral axis in bending.3 C16.7 I C16.9 VI d Figures C16.5 b I t b I 1 C16.8 t b C16. .6 C16.4 C16.3 .COMMENTARY r I162 * C16.

RECOMMENDATIONS 163 .

major axis bending (Figure Cl 6. = 2 ( d . = + 1 2AS IASh 4tfd3 - us d A d d . f d .-1 .4 For columns failing in biaxial bending conditions ( I 6.6) .8) . = sin 9 [d3 .1 I ) .J T p ) 1 AS ‘OStx(d-2t.as: pb + 4tf for concrete filled circular hollow section (Figure C16.) - ht.15) and ( I 6.as: e.as: e = .2As - [Ash + 2t. fsd for concrete-encased steel section whose plastic neutral axis is in flanges . Ar = area of structural steel section and reinforcement respectively. 29 ec +-n (es .d.7) .2t) (1 . ( 16. As.( d .3.2t)3/ 39 [d2 .sin’ 9 ) e. .t ) 2 ] p = the concrete to structural steel strength ratio as given by 0.). f d = design values of concrete.tx)+2t(d.+ -1 + Kx - 1 1 KlX Ky 164 . 16.5.( d .minor axis bending (Figure C16.2bftf(dS.t ) e.COMMENTARY for concrete-encased steel section whose plastic neutral axis is in web .2t) sin3 9 3(2e . +‘4t ) +f*d 2 pb + 4tf f for concrete filled rectangular hollow section (Figure Cl 6. (As + 2twdw) jfrd pb + 2t.48 f a d = rmcfsd fed. structural steel and reinforcement strengths respectively as defined in Equations ( 16.16) should be satisfied by taking the coefficient K as Kxr as given by Kxy .12) and ( 16.dL .13) of Clause 16.e. where e = [I- 2(t+tX) d tx = % (d .as: .4.9) .

RECOMMENDATIONS 165 .

the forces have to be calculated using second oder theory ( p .N N U Figure C16. The following diagrams are presented to facilitate the use of this method: 166 . Nk.can be determined from Clause 16.2).A effects). A t this load level no additional bending moment can be applied to the composite column. The accompanying bending moment.3 coefficientfor the column bending about the major and minor axes respectively as determined from Equation (Cl 6. These factoted moments should not exceed the ultimate cross-sectional strength at any position along the column length. Ky Method B 16. To design columns subjected to axial compression and uniaxial bending.5.9sMu. K x .5. The design procedure is illustrated graphically below: I -.10 The limiting axial load capacity.A and the interaction curve denotes the moment caving capacity: Mk < 0.5.COMMENTARY I I where K 1x = the K 1coefficientfor the column with no end moments constrained to bend about the major axis only as determined from clause 16. The distance between the straight line 0 .2. denoted by Point A on the interaction curve is due solely to geometrikal imperfections and residual stresses.2 as point B in the above figure.

A I .RECOMMENDATIONS I 167 ..

2 014 06 .8 10 . 1.12 Nu 1. 08 .4 0.6 1. 16 . M M" Figure C16. 0.8 E M" Figure C16. 'O 12 : 1:s 1.6 0.COMMENTARY 1 .8 a 4 0.o ae 06 .2 0 02 . l.4 06 . 0. d 18 .2 n 0.13 168 . Parameter 0.8 0.2 14 .0 0.

RECOMMENDATIONS 169 .

5.6 0.~ COMMENTARY " t N" 1.4 For composite columns subjected to biaxial bending a three dimensional surface instead of the above simple interaction curves should be used.2 U --- 0.2 1.4 0.y Linear interpolation between the two uniaxiul moment carrying capacities gives an interaction function for biaxial bending as shown graphically below.6 .2 0:s 0.M M" I Figure C16.6 018 1.r = 0.8 0.x = 0. Onesimpleapproach which may be used is to calculate both moment carrying capacities separately for each axis Mk.0 0.15 170 .9Sy Mu. Figure C16.4 1.14 16.9& Mu.x Mk.0 1.

i RECOMMENDATIONS 171 .

may be designed by assuming that the shear is resisted by the steel web alone for strong axis bending and the steel flanges alone for weak axis bending. V.1 Composite columns subjected to transverse shear forces. Shear and noma1 stresses should be combined and must not exceed the equivalent yield as given by the von Mises yield criterion. 172 . 166.COMMENTARY .

6.2 TENSILE CRACKMG OF CONCRETE No check for crack control need be made for: .6. < 0.2 SHEAR CONNECTORS AT BEAM-COLUMN INTERSECTIONS Special attention should be paid to the way in which forces are transferred from beams to columns to ensure that the basic principles outlined in Clause 16. 16.1 PROVISION OF SHEAR CONNECTORS ALONG COLUMN LENGTH No mechanical shear connectors need be provided to either type of composite column provided that at the factored ultimate load the shear at the interface between steel and concrete complies with the following limitations: T T < 0. In certain cases it may be necessary to provide some form of mechanical shear connector in such regions to ensure that the concrete and steel are equally strained to comply with the basic assumptions of the design approach outlined within Clause 16.4.concrete filled hollow steel sections. A clearly defined load path which does not involve significant interface slip between concrete and steel should be identified.RECOMMENDATIONS 16. .7 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE 16.7.1 are applicable.7.concrete encased steel sections in which the design axial load is greater than N.1 GENERAL As well as conforming with the ultimate limit state columns must also be designed to behave satisfactorily at the serviceability limit state. Reinforcement should be provided in accordance with the CEB/FIP Recommendations. 16. Two readily identifiable serviceability limit states are excessive cracking and excessive deflections.4 N/mm2 for concrete filled tubes.23 uu A.5.. 16. = 0. Where these limits are exceeded adequate shear connectors must be provided unless it can be demonstrated by tests that no such connectors are needed to achieve full interaction up to collapse.6 THE NEED TO PROVIDE MECHANICAL SHEAR CONNECTION 16. Where the design axial load in concrete encased steel sections is less than the value of N.6 N/mm2 for concrete encased sections. given above the column should be considered as a beam for the purpose of checking crack widths. 173 .

It is envisaged that appropriate Clausesfiom the CEBIFIP and ECCS Recommendations will be used. 6 I 174 . column and joint is so great that it is considered to be impracticable to give specific recommendations for composite frames for buildings.COMMENTARY The number of possible combinations of different types of beam.

RECOMMENDATIONS.. . Framed structures for buildings 175 . Section 17.

55 7 0. which is valid for normal temperatures (15-20°C). Age of concrete (days) Portland cement Normal Rapidhardening 3 0.20 I 176 .00 1.75 28 90 360 1.35 1.00 1.COMMENTARY I If experimental evidence is not available on the cement which it is proposed to use.15 1. it can be assumed for normal concretes that the values of the ratios between the compressive strength at an age of j days and the compressive strength a t an age of 28 days are in accordance with the following table.20 1.65 0.40 0.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Section 18. Workmanship and construction

18.1 RESPONSIBILITY

Where several parties are involved in the design and construction of a composite structure the responsibilities of the individuals or organisations appointed to undertake the design, co-ordination, satisfactory completion and safe execution of the works should be clearly defined at the start of the project.

18.2 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

I

The sequence of construction should be considered as an integral part of the design process, for example, when calculating the stresses or deflections in a composite section, and should be clearly indicated and described on the final design plans and instructions to site. Consideration should be given to the speed and sequence of concreting to prevent damage to partly matured concrete as a result of limited composite action occurring from deformation of the steel beams under subsequent concreting operations. Where the composite section carries load before the concrete has attained its 28day cylinder strength, Pc, the basic strengths of shear connectors and elastic properties and limiting compressive stresses in the concrete should be based upon the cylinder strength at the time considered, f,, except that no reduction in stiffness of the concrete need be made if: 0.75,f '

~

I

I

< f, < .' , f

Where the cylinder strength of the concrete at the time considered is not less than 15 N/mm2, the basic strengths of shear connectors may be determined from Section 6. In prestressed composite beams, it is recommended that partial prestressing as well as full prestressing of the concrete slab should not take place until the concrete has reached the required compressive strength. To ensure this precondition tests should be carried out, otherwise the procedure should be chosen in accordance with CEB/FIP Recommendations. Where a partially cast slab is assumed to act compositely the shear connection must be designed for this condition as well as for the final condition. The time-dependent effects of creep and shrinkage should be considered for all stages of erection.

177

COMMENTARY

178

RECOMMENDATIONS

18 3 STABILITY OF STEELWORK Usually stiffeners or cross-frames are required in order to ensure stability of the steelwork, particularly before the section acts compositely. The stiffness of shuttering or other similar formwork material is not sufficient to provide the necessary lateral support. The same attention to detail should be given to the calculations for safety against buckling if jacking down of supports is used as the method of prestressing either the steelwork or the composite structure. In this context, it may be advisable under certain circumstances to measure the induced reactions and to compare them with the calculated values, furthermore special consideration should be given to the stability of lifting frames, jacks, packing materials etc. Horizontal forces caused by bearing friction or resistance to longitudinal support movements should also be considered.

1 8.4 SUPPORT CONDITIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION

All support movements which occur during the various stages of construction should be calculated in advance and carefully controlled on the site. Upon completion of the structure it is essential that a detailed check be made of all support conditions, with particular emphasis given to any deviations from the planned erection procedure which may have taken place. Careful consideration should be given to the effects of future creep and shrinkage when predicting final support conditions. 18.5 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING CONSTRUCTION Due to heat of hydration produced during the concrete setting process, loading are induced into the structure, the magnitude and nature of which are not normally covered by Code recommendations. If temperature load cases of this nature are not adequately investigated in design calculations,the concreting sequence as well as the measures taken to protect the fresh concrete from the weather should be so chosen that the structure does not suffer damage as a result of overstressing. 18.6 ANCHORAGE OF PRESTRESSING CABLES Special care should be exercised in the choice of both tensioning and anchorage locations when concentrated prestressing forces are t o be increased or decreased. If the tensioning locations are actually in the concrete flange, undesirably large prestressing recesses in the form of notches or holes become necessary in order to facilitate positioning of stressing jacks and to provide sufficient leeway for cable extensions. This type of tensioning arrangement should only be chosen when the resultant disruptive influence on the stress distribution within the flange can be distributed over a relatively wide area. In other cases the cables should be drawn out of the flange into built-up sections or ribs on the underside of the flange. 18.7 CONSTRUCTION ACCURACY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS The CEB/FIP Recommendations for structural concrete and the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction apply t o composite construction. 179

180 .8 a) : b) i Figure C18. b) Bending test. c) Reversal bending test.1 a) Tension test. d) Hammer blow bending test.18.

181 . Sometimes it may be of a certain importance to take into account the influence of an eventual slip in joints. The studs may be left in the bent position. Any defective studs shall be replaced. anchors and hoops should be in accordance with the relevant Clauses of the ECCS Recommendations for Steel Construction. bending test. Only after these tests is it recommended to start welding on the steel structure. possible effects of residual mill stresses or welding stresses or other causes of increased or reduced deflections.RECOMMENDATIONS If deflections of the steel beam by pouring of the concrete are significant their values shall be given in the design calculation and on the drawings. The proper values of the current strength and welding period should be determined on the basis of trial weldings. At the beginning of each new shift and after long interruptions it is advisable to pay attention to the proper working of the welding equipment. The following recommendations are made for the welding of the stud connectors. Generally this may not be necessary for beams in buildings of conventional structures but will usually be necessary for bridges or similar structures. hammer blow bending test. reversal bending test. In addition up to about 5% of the studs should be bent by hammer blow over 15". Deviations from the desired form may be compensated by thicker dimensions of concrete or wearing coat only if the additional loading is considered in the statical analysis. supplemented by one or more of the following tests: tension test. The measured actual deflections shall be compared with the theoretical values.8 SHEAR CONNECTORS The welding of block-type connectors. The quality of the stud-welding there should be checked by visual inspection. Neither the noise made by the blow. nor visual inspection shall indicate any crack in the welding. 18. I With regard to friction grip bolting the necessary measures to be taken during the construction have already been described in Section 6.

COMMENTARY i 182 .

Material property tests should be carried out under representative conditions at all stages of preparation and casting. The overall thickness of a galvanised sheet shall not exceed 1. The thickness of paint on the joist shall not exceed 50 microns. Special attention needs to be paid to the achievement of satisfactory compaction particularly in the case of concrete-filled hollow steel tubes.RECOMMENDATIONS 18. The minimum bearing of the profiled steel sheet shall be 40 mm along the edge beams and 50 mm over intermediate beams.5 mm and any corrosion present shall be minimal.25 mm and galvanising shall not exceed 30 microns on each face of the sheet. When the sheet is ungalvanised the gross thickness shall not exceed 1. Where a substantial amount of reinforcing bars are used in either type of column. 183 . 5. 3. consideration should be given to the use of small size aggregate.10 COMPOSITE FLOORS WITH PROFILED STEEL SHEETS During construction steel sheets should be fixed in order to ensure connection between the slab and beam. 4. Vent holes should be provided at the base of concrete filled composite columns as a precaution against fire.1 1 CONSTRUCTION OF COLUMNS The concrete must be carefully chosen and its quality controlled. The sheets should be connected together with seam fasteners at a maximum of 500 mm centres. The use of steel fibre-reinforced concrete as a filling for such columns is acceptable as a means of providing adequate fire protection provided that sufficient evidence exists to substantiate its fire resistance. to keep them in position after laying and to transmit horizontal forces. The paint or the plastic coating underneath the sheet shall be removed Wet conditions shall be avoided. 2. 18. 18.9 PRECAST CONCRETE SLABS FORMING THE FLANGES OF COMPOSITE BEAMS The necessary measures to be taken during the construction have already been described in Section 14. Where shear stud connectors are to be welded through the sheet to the supporting beams the following conditions shall apply: 1. Corrosion protection shall be generally increased when steel decking is to be used in a highly humid atmosphere. Sheet edges should also preferably be fixed at the same centres. To avoid the corrosion of the steel decking all surface damage shall be made good.

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