KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Presentation

Strack, K. – M.

2002

Reservoir Characterization with Borehole Geophysics

R. Sheriff's Reservoir Characterization Course, University of Houston

Reservoir Characterization OBC Large Scale with Onshore 3-D Seismic Surveys Borehole Geophysics
(www.kmstechnologies.com)
Integrated Reservoir Characterization, logs, Crosswell Permanent sensors Area Wide Near Surface Modeling, Borehole supported

K. M. Strack KMS Technologies 2002
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline
• The critical link • Rock Physics / Petrophysics
⌦ Pore space properties ⌦ Density of rocks ⌦ Natural radioactivity of rocks ⌦ Elastic properties ⌦ Anelastic properties ⌦ Electrical properties ⌦ Thermal & magnetic properties ⌦ Correlations between properties

• Borehole Electromagnetics
⌦ The methods ⌦ Cross well EM ⌦ Single well EM ⌦ Seismoelectric measurements
⌦ Gravity principles & examples ⌦ BHGM & Gradiometers ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ Natural Gamma ray tools Density tools Borehole imaging Resistivity logs Sonic logs

• Borehole gravity • Logging

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ 3D VSP ⌦ VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

2001 . 2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis. Physical Properties of Rocks .G. 1999. Treitel) 18... SYS99 Reference list at the end © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.seismic exploration JS96 Western Atlas.Fundamentals. J. Yu.H. Baker Atlas. WA92 Schoen. lecture notes. J.M. K. 1996.References – rock physics Schön. & Strack. 2000. Helbig. 2001 . Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics. (ed. K. S. 1992.H.. Pergamon Press Handbook of geophysical exploration .

2001 . 2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Borehole geophysics as critical link • Establish ‘pain’ / Challenge • The issues • How do we solve it? © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000.DeepLook The Challenge Breakthrough needed Services . 2001 70% .delivery vehicle Now Vision 2010 70%+ recovery Bypassed production Mis-positioned wells Low well productivity Expensive testing Reserves uncertainty Aquifer drive ?? Subsurface Sensors Various Integration Geoscience tools Reservoir Modeling Surface sensors Optimal well targeting Right facilities Minimum water production <35% After DeepLook consortium vision © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

therefore new & existing technologies must be integrated to meet the need. 2000.DeepLook Challenges: Interwell sweet spots • No one method will meet the need. > 200 m ± 5% > 200 m ± 10% > 10 m ± 10% Hydrocarbon © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. • To determine fluid distributions in the interwell space within 5 to 10 % error in accuracy. 2001 .

Top seal Oil Non pay Formation water Sea water Perforations Deep Look.DeepLook Scope of the Challenge 1 mm Water Oil grain Unswept oil Oil is trapped by surface tension & structure. 2000. 2001 . 1995 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

pers. 2000.The scale issue (after Peeters. 1998) KMT000019f © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . comm.

2001 . 2000.Seismic waves © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

SEISMIC SIGNAL FREQUENCIES natural earthquake exploration geophysics well logging ultra Sonic phonons 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 free oscillation borehole geophysics © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 2001 . 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.The Data Gap After Ziolkowski.

Benefits: Borehole Geophysics • • • • • • • • Better link between data – less uncertainty Resolve feature at sub.seismic scale Extend borehole detail into formation Find bypassed reserves Predict ahead of the drill – risk reduction Optimized field development Monitor production – operating cost Increase recovery rate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Borehole seismics – the critical link © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN +- .

Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 2001 .Geophysics as pathfinder Physical properties Well logs Cores Interpretation Borehole Borehole Borehole geophysics Field instruments Field acquisition Field data Processing concepts Interpretation Theory Analog modeling Data processing Interpretation Surface Surface Subsurface image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

What is “Petrophysics”? "Petrophysics"as pertaining to physics of particular rock types. ." G... pioneer in application & quantification of rock physics in petroleum engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000. 1950... E. Archie. Study of physical properties of rock related to pore & fluid distribution .

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties Summary & conclusions © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Pore space properties Pore volume porosity Φ Fluid flow in pore channels permeability k Interface grain surface-fluid specific surface S SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2000. 2001 . 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Quartz sand scan (after van Ditzhuijzen.

2001 SYS99 . 2000.Rock type distribution All rocks Only HC producing reservoirs © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Porosity . 2000. 2001 Φ= V pores Vsample SYS99 .definition volume of pores porosity = total volume of sample © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

the term “saturation” volume fluid i saturation i = pore volume a volumetric model rock matrix dry clay clay capillary movable bound water water hydrocarbon effective total porosity © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 SYS99 .Fluids in the pore space .

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.water rock forming minerals ores 0 1 2 3 g/cm3 Rock density decreases with increasing porosity Porous rock density increases with increasing water saturation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .Density of rock constituents gas oil.

1.5 cm) BHGM (several meters) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Borehole Gravity Meter (BHGM) depth of investigation Invaded zone Transition zone Uninvaded zone 50 cm 100 cm Density log (max. 2001 SYS99 . 2000.

2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

K content of rock E spectral. channels measure : integral SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .Types of measurement Origin of natural radioactivity is Produces a gamma spectrum n K U Th U. Th.Natural gamma activity of rocks . 2000.

Th/K-Pe crossplot © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 WA92 . 2000.

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Geertsma & Smit (1961) equations in terms of compressibility & frequency © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. fluid viscosity and hydraulic skeleton permeability. assumes relative motion between solids & fluids is negligible Biot (1956) – extension to Gassmann incl.Wave propagation in rocks • Gassmann (1951) – theory of elasticity in • • porous rocks. 2001 . 2000. dynamic effects such as pore connectivity.

Borehole seismic example KMS99003p © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Elastic wave attenuation Definitions & parameters µsec wave front amplitude source amplitude A Travel time difference Amplitude difference Velocity Attenuation distance x SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rock conductivity (or resistivity) is proportional to water conductivity (or resistivity). 2000. Rock conductivity is controlled only by water conductivity.ARCHIE’s equations The logical walk: Clean porous rock: no clay or another conductor than pore water.Electrical resistivity of “clean” porous rocks . amount & distribution or geometry of “conductor water” © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 SYS99 .

2000.Resistivities & dielectric constants © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 JS96 .

2000.Highlights electrical methods • Sensitive to fluid • Used to define OIP • Largest number of different methods ⌦Induction ⌦Galvanic ⌦Dielectric ⌦Imaging ⌦Diplog ⌦Casing inspection • Largest number of different tools © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Resistivity – velocity: Rudman formula © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Basic interpretation principles
• Natural gamma rays used for lithology • • •

definition; high gamma rays – high shale content Gamma- gamma density; bulk density Neutron density – hydrogen concentration Resistivity; fluids (oil –water)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Integration example

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline

• Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ VSP 3D ⌦ VSP for engineering applications

Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Borehole seismic ray paths Survey Well Wireline Recording ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN Source Shallow 3-component reference geophone 4 2 1 3 2. Upgoing reflection 3 4. Upgoing multiple © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Downgoing multiple 1. Direct arrival Movable 3-component wall lock geophone 3. 2001 . 2000.

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Western Atlas Logging Services . 2000.Raw VSP data (Checkshot survey) Surface source geophone 500 ft.

2001 Corridor stack . 2000.Basic VSP Processing Flow Common Depth Stack Describe field geometry First arrival time picking Gain correction Wavefield separation Downgoing Compute Decon operators Velocity analysis Static shift Upgoing Deconvolve Align to 2-way time BA1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Crosswell seismic surveys Surface geophone Weathering layer 2 1-Crosswell 2-VSP 3-Reverse VSP 4-Surface 5-Single well 4 5 1 3 Borehole source Borehole geophone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN .Cross-well Acquisition layout & tomographic coverage © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

P-velocity & S-velocity tomogram P S Courtesy Baker Atlas VP (X 104 ft / S) VS (X 104 ft / S) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2000.Crosswell example KMST000018v © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1997) . 2001 (after Majer et al..

Single Well acquisition ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN TD KMST000018cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Single well: time lapse KMST000018ee © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer et al. 1997 . 2000.

1997 .Fracture drilled afterwards © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer et al. 2000.

400 ft (last shot) Total Well Depth: 4.Single Well Imaging in Gulf of Mexico 3.029 ft L 1 9.220 ft 4.08 ft 171 ft L 13 52.500 ft © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Salt .200 ft (first shot) L1 4. 2000.84 ft 118.500 ft ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Expected salt at: 6.84 ft ? Array moves down ? L 13 ? ? ? ? Salt Encountered top of Salt at 3.229 ft 9.84 ft 3.

Large scale SWS example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer & Strack. 2000 . 2000.

Fracturing monitoring • Mini-frac monitoring .multi well Fluid flow Seismic receiver Mini-frac survey Packer © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .single well • Hydraulic fracturing monitoring .

. 2001 (After Walter et al. 2000.3 C hydro frac data example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000) .

Looking ahead of the bit • • • • • • • Real-time checkshot & VSP surveys Real-time pore pressure prediction Salt-proximity surveys Improved borehole trajectory surveys Real-time Continuous Seismic Velocity Log Identification of bit position relative to the geologic model Prediction of formation tops ahead of the bit Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 .Seismic-While-Drilling principles Courtesy Baker Atlas 0992TOMEX4 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Looking ahead of the bit BAH2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Clamping/cementing effects Vertical component. 2001 . horizontal waves Vertical component. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 30° wave incident After Hardage.

2001 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.Seismic sensors After Hottman & Curtis.

2001 . 2000. TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Model study: intelligent well seismic • Use real reservoir •Alternating WAG injection •Model single well seismic •Simulate fluid front move After Mjaaland et al. 2001.

Model study: different models After Mjaaland et al. 2001 . 2001. TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 2001 After Mjaaland et al.Model study: geometry © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. TLE 20-10 . 2001.

3D VSP Data Acquisition • Purpose-built. 2001 . & source sync data VSP & 3-D surface seismic data reduces costs & maximizes synergy Rectangular grid acquisition • Advanced navigation system sea bottom • Simultaneously acquiring 3-D Circular or spiral acquisition © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. navigation. integrated data acquisition system • Multi-level 3-component downhole receivers Reflectivity volume 3-D • Advanced energy source controller speeds up operations & improves data quality integrates all borehole seismic.

UK Enterprises Inc.Why 3-D VSP? Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Ekofisk.. North Sea (from Dangerfield. 1996) Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Brent. 1996) . 2000. der © Copyright KJT North Sea (from van 2001Pal et al.

2000.Data Processing • Standard procedures • Pre-survey modeling • Special processing ⌦Statistical tool orientation ⌦Statics’ application ⌦Wavefield separation ⌦Velocity inversion ⌦Imaging Kirchhoff migration VSP-CDP transformation 3-D VSP Processing Flow Common depth Stack First Break Picking Describe Field Geometry 3 Component rotation Gain Correction Downwaves Wavefield Separation Upwaves • 3D Visualization • Data volume considerations © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Compute Decon Operators Deconvolve VSP-CDP Transform Migration 3-D VSP Image .

Oseberg 3-D VSP Migration 3-D surface seismic inline section (processed by Elf) 3-D VSP migrated section pasted in surface seismic inline section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000.3-D VSP Migration Surface Seismic G-23 Salt Salt VSP Splice G-23 Borehole G-23 Geophone Location 3-D VSP Salt Salt © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 3-D Surface Seismic Section Combined 3-D Surface Seismic & 3-D VSP Section .

Near-surface VSP: VSP 2 After spherical divergences and band pass (after Jarvis & Knight. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight.. 2000. 2000) . 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc..

2000) . 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight.Near-surface VSP: SH CDP section (after Jarvis & Knight... 2000.

2001 • Borehole Electromagnetics . 2000.Outline • Critical Link ⌦Cross well EM • Rock Physics ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics ⌦Cross well EM ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

1 1 10 100 1000 Resistivity (ohm-m) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.1 Image logs Whole cores Well logs 1 10 100 Surface geophysics → Borehole geophysics Apparent Resistivity Log 0 20 Depth (m) Commercial Induction Log 60 High Temp Zone 100 MAIL tool 140 0. 2001 .01 ← Pore studies Core plugs 0. 2000.Upscaling…upscaling…upscaling 0.

1995 . 2001 After Wilt et al.amplitude Devine test: data & inversion phase © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 1998 . 2001 After Wilt & Alumbaugh.Single well EM Resistivity (Ohm-m) 10 0. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.1 2350 2400 SCIL tool Horizontal Field Horizontal Field 2450 2500 Extended Log Extended Log Borehole Induction Log Borehole Induction Log Courtesy of EMI Inc.

2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 2000. 2001 .Seismoelectrics: signal origin Stonely wave generated Fracture generated (after Mikhailov et al.

2000. 2001 (after Mikhailov et al. 2000) .Seismoelectrics: Pressure Electric field © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc..

2001 . 2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .Borehole Gravimeter (BHGM) ⌦L&R “zero-length” spring balance ⌦Capacitor force related to gravitational acceleration ⌦Standard deviations 3 µGal. Spring Capacitor’s Plate Capacitor’ Beam Capacitor’ After Strack Capacitor’s Plate et al.

2000. Porosity: 24% Gas ρ : 0. 2000 .Single well BHGM ( 3 years) Repeat BHGM across Rabbi field gas/oil contact in Gabon.082 g/cc Oil ρ : 0. 2001 After Majer & Strack.780 g/cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 After Edcon 1994 . 2000. High N counts.High resistivity. High density=Tight Zone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

KTB: final interpretation © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.. 1992 . 2001 After Wolfgram et al.

Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Reservoir engineering Production logging …...Borehole information components • • • • • • • • Mud logging ………… see geology lecture Core analysis………… see geology lecture Measuring/Logging while drilling – MWD/LWD Wireline logging Borehole seismics…..see above Formation testing…. 2001 . 2000. Reservoir engineering Well completion ……. Reservoir engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc..LWD/MWD geosteering examples After Marshall et al. 2001 .

2000.Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Natural Gamma log principle • measured in API units (U of H test pit) • Gamma rays are emitted by K. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . Th (after van Ditzhuijzen. U. 2000.

Energy spectrum
U Uranium series spectrum with typical energy 1.76 MeV (214Bi)

Th

Thorium series

spectrum with typical energy 2.61 MeV (208Th)

40K

Potassium isotope

monoenergetic 1.46 MeV
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (Hearst & Nelson, 1985)

Gamma – gamma density principle

•• gamma rays are absorbed gamma rays are absorbed by formation by formation •• bulk density measurement bulk density measurement

(Labo, 1987)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Density logs (γ-γ ; neutron)

• γ-γ density gives bulk density; low could mean gas if

• neutron is high (high hydrocarbons)… so called gas effect

MWD tool

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)

Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2000.VISION™ Screen © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Baker Atlas .

2000. 2001 .Combined photo & image image photograph © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Summary: Progress • • • • • Quantitative use of borehole seismics Passive monitoring is growing Borehole EM being considered Borehole gravity is there but very limited Logging extends depth and scaling © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 .Summary: Future • • • • Anisotropy will be key in scaling Pore pressure prediction we need hard data Deep Reading Single Well will appear Fracture mapping will grow © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

J. C.A.. Fanini. Desport. G. T.. E. and Bigelow. D. Alaska..Additional references • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alixant. Gelinsky.. S. 1998.L.... 78-87. Black. S.. M. InDepth 5. SPE 30609. A Major Technology Breakthrough . Barberan. R. Haines. Xiao.. The Leading Edge 17.F. 1996.. Electrical logging of a laminated Earth formation. R. A... Brady. L. Britannia Field. 28-39. v. Blackbourne.Cased-Hole Resistivity Tool.. Cheung. M.. The challenge of permanent 4-C seafloor systems.. R. Beard.. Transactions SPWLA Ann. Geophysics 64. Laronga. Hayman. facies and origin of slury-flow deposits. Q. Hare. D. 12-19.. K. M. 614620. Zhou. 1998. Employee training lecture. and Mann. Prammer. K.H. Improved estimation of high resolution formation resistivities for thin bed analysis.-M.. High-Definition Induction Log. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. J. 87-88. 12 Frenkel. Beard. O. D. J. Conf. M. J. 2001 .H. 2000. C. Chenin. Ounadjela. Baker Atlas. Anderson.. J..l. Siegfried II.-M. 1999.. The Log Analyst 27 (5). Entralgo. M.. Brady. Workshop. SPE annual convention.G. BHGM. B. Deep density.. Hansen. InDepth 2. SEG Res. 1997. Mapping salt flank with borehole gravity. Lamb.. J.. S. The Leading Edge 20.-M. And Exh. J. Mtg. Bicquardt. and Thomson.-M. In-situ residual oil saturation to gas from time-lapse borehole gravity. 60-73. 1998.. A. UK North sea: petrographic constraints on Lower Cretaceous provenance.. A. and Spitz.. 2001.. Wendt.. Petroleum Geoscience 6.. E... D. 1997. R. Hunziker. SPWLA transactions. A. Edcon marketing flyer.. 1986. P. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. and Tabarovsky. Pittman.. Vessereau.... Enhanced Seismic Imaging Using 3D VSP. P. R.G. 2000. Cheng. P. B. 1998. Formation Azimuthal anisotropy.... Strack.B. J.. Coates. Ferguson. and Evans. B. Borehole gravity for reservoir surveillance. 1995. and Joyce. 2000. Halliburton. Tech.. Maurer. R..L. Borehole seismic processing introduction. Analysis of some unsolved induction interpretation problems using computer modeling. Mezzatesta. A. Aiken. (Assigned to Shell) Beard... 1999. InDepth 5 (1).. Edcon. G.d..L. K. 1994. H.R. 1999. InDepth 4 (1). and Peron. A 4-D microgravity method for waterflood surveillance: A model study for Prudhoe Bay reservoir. and Strack.L.A.. H. 2001. Practical application of a new multichannel and fully digital spectrum induction system: SPE Ann. WO 98/00733..E. and Strack. l. Field test results of a new oil-based mud formation imager tool. 329-344. O. 1996. Horst. paper CC. Kear. Borbas.

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. Society Expl. 1151-65. A. Poletto. and Habashy. 1999. Bornemann. G. R. workshop: Advances in Exploration Geoelectromagnetism. Technology brief. Reservoir Connectivity Mapping. and Biggs. Middle East Well Evaluation Review 12. W. Rudman. Rasmus.. M. Poster C. minerals & ground water. and Talabani. C. K.R. Sensitivity analysis of crosswell Electromagnetics. Sheline. Petrophysics: Basic wireline log & core analysis for hydrocarbon.-M.A.. B.. G.C. 1998. better hole. Waley. Piggin.E. Exploring the Earth with Geophysics. Advances in electrical logging tools for reservoir characterization. B. M. 834841. Shell. Helsinki... J.. 1982. InDepth 3(1). 1999. M. Mezzatesta..F. J. 1998. F. 1998. Expanded Abstract volume..E.R. Presentation for the Earth Science week.F. Malusa.M. Calgary. Borehole Gravity and its applications. Society Exploration Geophysicists... 8th Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference. K. The Leading Edge 17 (7).. K. F. 6-11. T. National Convention. AAPG Bulletin 59. Pickett. New array resistvity measurements: Physics and ME case histories. 1995. Calgary. Yu. and Low. S. K. Strack. SPE 56697. H. J..-M. 1975. and Ikwuakor.F.Faster drilling. 1997. anisotropy workshop. Blakely..M. 1979.c.. 1999. Finland.J... T. Interrelations. . coal. Baker Atlas internal seminar. K. 2001.. 4-15. and Payton.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Additional references #3 • © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Frenkel. M.. Seismic while drilling by using dual drill-string pilot waves. SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts. Optimizing horizontal laterals in a heavy-oil reservoir using LWD azimuthal measurements.. Gavity gains momentum.A. TU Delf course notes.V..R. (invited) Strack.-M.. presented at the SPWLA forty annual logging symposium. Strack. Turpening.S. G. Koelman. Farruggio. Geophys. R. 61-th EAGE Conference & Technical Exhibition. 1999. 2000.. Tnad.G. 1992. Strack. S. 2001 Peeters. K. 2000. Introduction to borehole anisotropy... X..M.. and Kriegshaeuser. 4pp. Spies. Crosswell seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization: An offshore case history. paper at 7th Formation Evaluation symposium of Canadian Well Logging Society. 2001. and Miranda. PO1694. Integration and Interpretational Intercourse. 1998. Determining Earth Formation Shear-wave Transverse Isotropy Using Borehole Stoneley-waves. Sclumberger Technical Services. A. Geophysics 60..G.. Comparison of seismic sources for VSP's in a cased well: Paper presented at C.. 1995. Transformation of resistivity to pseudovelocity logs.

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