KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Presentation

Strack, K. – M.

2002

Reservoir Characterization with Borehole Geophysics

R. Sheriff's Reservoir Characterization Course, University of Houston

Reservoir Characterization OBC Large Scale with Onshore 3-D Seismic Surveys Borehole Geophysics
(www.kmstechnologies.com)
Integrated Reservoir Characterization, logs, Crosswell Permanent sensors Area Wide Near Surface Modeling, Borehole supported

K. M. Strack KMS Technologies 2002
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline
• The critical link • Rock Physics / Petrophysics
⌦ Pore space properties ⌦ Density of rocks ⌦ Natural radioactivity of rocks ⌦ Elastic properties ⌦ Anelastic properties ⌦ Electrical properties ⌦ Thermal & magnetic properties ⌦ Correlations between properties

• Borehole Electromagnetics
⌦ The methods ⌦ Cross well EM ⌦ Single well EM ⌦ Seismoelectric measurements
⌦ Gravity principles & examples ⌦ BHGM & Gradiometers ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ Natural Gamma ray tools Density tools Borehole imaging Resistivity logs Sonic logs

• Borehole gravity • Logging

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ 3D VSP ⌦ VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Pergamon Press Handbook of geophysical exploration . 1992. S. Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics. J.seismic exploration JS96 Western Atlas.H. Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis..References – rock physics Schön. SYS99 Reference list at the end © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. (ed. Treitel) 18. WA92 Schoen. J. 1996.G. Baker Atlas. lecture notes. & Strack. K.. Yu.Fundamentals.. 2000. Helbig.M. Physical Properties of Rocks . 2001 . 1999. K.H.

2001 . 2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Borehole geophysics as critical link • Establish ‘pain’ / Challenge • The issues • How do we solve it? © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

DeepLook The Challenge Breakthrough needed Services .delivery vehicle Now Vision 2010 70%+ recovery Bypassed production Mis-positioned wells Low well productivity Expensive testing Reserves uncertainty Aquifer drive ?? Subsurface Sensors Various Integration Geoscience tools Reservoir Modeling Surface sensors Optimal well targeting Right facilities Minimum water production <35% After DeepLook consortium vision © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 70% .

• To determine fluid distributions in the interwell space within 5 to 10 % error in accuracy. therefore new & existing technologies must be integrated to meet the need. 2000. 2001 .DeepLook Challenges: Interwell sweet spots • No one method will meet the need. > 200 m ± 5% > 200 m ± 10% > 10 m ± 10% Hydrocarbon © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Top seal Oil Non pay Formation water Sea water Perforations Deep Look. 2000. 1995 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.DeepLook Scope of the Challenge 1 mm Water Oil grain Unswept oil Oil is trapped by surface tension & structure. 2001 .

2001 . pers.The scale issue (after Peeters. 2000. 1998) KMT000019f © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. comm.

2000.Seismic waves © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000.SEISMIC SIGNAL FREQUENCIES natural earthquake exploration geophysics well logging ultra Sonic phonons 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 free oscillation borehole geophysics © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

The Data Gap After Ziolkowski. 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

seismic scale Extend borehole detail into formation Find bypassed reserves Predict ahead of the drill – risk reduction Optimized field development Monitor production – operating cost Increase recovery rate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.Benefits: Borehole Geophysics • • • • • • • • Better link between data – less uncertainty Resolve feature at sub.

Borehole seismics – the critical link © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN +- . 2000.

2001 . 2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Geophysics as pathfinder Physical properties Well logs Cores Interpretation Borehole Borehole Borehole geophysics Field instruments Field acquisition Field data Processing concepts Interpretation Theory Analog modeling Data processing Interpretation Surface Surface Subsurface image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. pioneer in application & quantification of rock physics in petroleum engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. Archie. Study of physical properties of rock related to pore & fluid distribution .. E..What is “Petrophysics”? "Petrophysics"as pertaining to physics of particular rock types. 1950. 2001 .. ." G.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties Summary & conclusions © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Pore space properties Pore volume porosity Φ Fluid flow in pore channels permeability k Interface grain surface-fluid specific surface S SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .Quartz sand scan (after van Ditzhuijzen. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rock type distribution All rocks Only HC producing reservoirs © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 SYS99 .

2001 Φ= V pores Vsample SYS99 .definition volume of pores porosity = total volume of sample © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Porosity . 2000.

2001 SYS99 . 2000.Fluids in the pore space .the term “saturation” volume fluid i saturation i = pore volume a volumetric model rock matrix dry clay clay capillary movable bound water water hydrocarbon effective total porosity © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .water rock forming minerals ores 0 1 2 3 g/cm3 Rock density decreases with increasing porosity Porous rock density increases with increasing water saturation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.Density of rock constituents gas oil.

Borehole Gravity Meter (BHGM) depth of investigation Invaded zone Transition zone Uninvaded zone 50 cm 100 cm Density log (max. 1. 2000.5 cm) BHGM (several meters) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 SYS99 .

2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

K content of rock E spectral.Types of measurement Origin of natural radioactivity is Produces a gamma spectrum n K U Th U. channels measure : integral SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Natural gamma activity of rocks . Th. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 2001 WA92 .Th/K-Pe crossplot © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

fluid viscosity and hydraulic skeleton permeability. dynamic effects such as pore connectivity. assumes relative motion between solids & fluids is negligible Biot (1956) – extension to Gassmann incl. 2000.Wave propagation in rocks • Gassmann (1951) – theory of elasticity in • • porous rocks. Geertsma & Smit (1961) equations in terms of compressibility & frequency © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.Borehole seismic example KMS99003p © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .Elastic wave attenuation Definitions & parameters µsec wave front amplitude source amplitude A Travel time difference Amplitude difference Velocity Attenuation distance x SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rock conductivity is controlled only by water conductivity.Electrical resistivity of “clean” porous rocks . amount & distribution or geometry of “conductor water” © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Rock conductivity (or resistivity) is proportional to water conductivity (or resistivity). 2001 SYS99 . 2000.ARCHIE’s equations The logical walk: Clean porous rock: no clay or another conductor than pore water.

2001 JS96 .Resistivities & dielectric constants © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Highlights electrical methods • Sensitive to fluid • Used to define OIP • Largest number of different methods ⌦Induction ⌦Galvanic ⌦Dielectric ⌦Imaging ⌦Diplog ⌦Casing inspection • Largest number of different tools © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Resistivity – velocity: Rudman formula © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Basic interpretation principles
• Natural gamma rays used for lithology • • •

definition; high gamma rays – high shale content Gamma- gamma density; bulk density Neutron density – hydrogen concentration Resistivity; fluids (oil –water)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Integration example

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline

• Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ VSP 3D ⌦ VSP for engineering applications

2000.Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. Upgoing reflection 3 4. Direct arrival Movable 3-component wall lock geophone 3. 2001 . Downgoing multiple 1. Upgoing multiple © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Borehole seismic ray paths Survey Well Wireline Recording ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN Source Shallow 3-component reference geophone 4 2 1 3 2.

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Western Atlas Logging Services . 2000.Raw VSP data (Checkshot survey) Surface source geophone 500 ft.

2000.Basic VSP Processing Flow Common Depth Stack Describe field geometry First arrival time picking Gain correction Wavefield separation Downgoing Compute Decon operators Velocity analysis Static shift Upgoing Deconvolve Align to 2-way time BA1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Corridor stack .

2001 . 2000.Crosswell seismic surveys Surface geophone Weathering layer 2 1-Crosswell 2-VSP 3-Reverse VSP 4-Surface 5-Single well 4 5 1 3 Borehole source Borehole geophone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Cross-well Acquisition layout & tomographic coverage © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN .

2001 . 2000.P-velocity & S-velocity tomogram P S Courtesy Baker Atlas VP (X 104 ft / S) VS (X 104 ft / S) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 (after Majer et al.Crosswell example KMST000018v © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1997) ..

2000. 2001 .Single Well acquisition ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN TD KMST000018cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Single well: time lapse KMST000018ee © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer et al. 2000. 1997 .

Fracture drilled afterwards © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer et al. 2000. 1997 .

229 ft 9.Single Well Imaging in Gulf of Mexico 3.84 ft ? Array moves down ? L 13 ? ? ? ? Salt Encountered top of Salt at 3.500 ft © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.400 ft (last shot) Total Well Depth: 4.08 ft 171 ft L 13 52.84 ft 3.029 ft L 1 9.84 ft 118.500 ft ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Expected salt at: 6.200 ft (first shot) L1 4. 2000.220 ft 4. 2001 Salt .

Large scale SWS example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2000 . 2001 After Majer & Strack.

Fracturing monitoring • Mini-frac monitoring . 2000. 2001 .multi well Fluid flow Seismic receiver Mini-frac survey Packer © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.single well • Hydraulic fracturing monitoring .

. 2000.3 C hydro frac data example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 (After Walter et al. 2000) .

2001 .Looking ahead of the bit • • • • • • • Real-time checkshot & VSP surveys Real-time pore pressure prediction Salt-proximity surveys Improved borehole trajectory surveys Real-time Continuous Seismic Velocity Log Identification of bit position relative to the geologic model Prediction of formation tops ahead of the bit Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000.Seismic-While-Drilling principles Courtesy Baker Atlas 0992TOMEX4 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000.Looking ahead of the bit BAH2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 .Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Clamping/cementing effects Vertical component. horizontal waves Vertical component. 2000. 2001 . 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 30° wave incident After Hardage.

2001 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Seismic sensors After Hottman & Curtis. 2000. 2001 .

2001.Model study: intelligent well seismic • Use real reservoir •Alternating WAG injection •Model single well seismic •Simulate fluid front move After Mjaaland et al. 2000. 2001 . TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2001. 2000.Model study: different models After Mjaaland et al. TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 After Mjaaland et al. 2000. TLE 20-10 .Model study: geometry © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001.

2001 . 2000. navigation. & source sync data VSP & 3-D surface seismic data reduces costs & maximizes synergy Rectangular grid acquisition • Advanced navigation system sea bottom • Simultaneously acquiring 3-D Circular or spiral acquisition © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. integrated data acquisition system • Multi-level 3-component downhole receivers Reflectivity volume 3-D • Advanced energy source controller speeds up operations & improves data quality integrates all borehole seismic.3D VSP Data Acquisition • Purpose-built.

Why 3-D VSP? Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Ekofisk. 2000. UK Enterprises Inc. 1996) . der © Copyright KJT North Sea (from van 2001Pal et al. 1996) Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Brent.. North Sea (from Dangerfield.

Data Processing • Standard procedures • Pre-survey modeling • Special processing ⌦Statistical tool orientation ⌦Statics’ application ⌦Wavefield separation ⌦Velocity inversion ⌦Imaging Kirchhoff migration VSP-CDP transformation 3-D VSP Processing Flow Common depth Stack First Break Picking Describe Field Geometry 3 Component rotation Gain Correction Downwaves Wavefield Separation Upwaves • 3D Visualization • Data volume considerations © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Compute Decon Operators Deconvolve VSP-CDP Transform Migration 3-D VSP Image . 2000.

2001 . 2000.Oseberg 3-D VSP Migration 3-D surface seismic inline section (processed by Elf) 3-D VSP migrated section pasted in surface seismic inline section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 3-D Surface Seismic Section Combined 3-D Surface Seismic & 3-D VSP Section . 2000.3-D VSP Migration Surface Seismic G-23 Salt Salt VSP Splice G-23 Borehole G-23 Geophone Location 3-D VSP Salt Salt © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc...Near-surface VSP: VSP 2 After spherical divergences and band pass (after Jarvis & Knight. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000. 2000) .

. 2000..Near-surface VSP: SH CDP section (after Jarvis & Knight. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000) . 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 • Borehole Electromagnetics .Outline • Critical Link ⌦Cross well EM • Rock Physics ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics ⌦Cross well EM ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.1 Image logs Whole cores Well logs 1 10 100 Surface geophysics → Borehole geophysics Apparent Resistivity Log 0 20 Depth (m) Commercial Induction Log 60 High Temp Zone 100 MAIL tool 140 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Resistivity (ohm-m) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Upscaling…upscaling…upscaling 0.01 ← Pore studies Core plugs 0.

2001 After Wilt et al.amplitude Devine test: data & inversion phase © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1995 . 2000.

2001 After Wilt & Alumbaugh. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Single well EM Resistivity (Ohm-m) 10 0.1 2350 2400 SCIL tool Horizontal Field Horizontal Field 2450 2500 Extended Log Extended Log Borehole Induction Log Borehole Induction Log Courtesy of EMI Inc. 1998 . 2000.

. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.Seismoelectrics: signal origin Stonely wave generated Fracture generated (after Mikhailov et al. 2001 .

2000..Seismoelectrics: Pressure Electric field © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 (after Mikhailov et al. 2000) .

2000. 2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. Spring Capacitor’s Plate Capacitor’ Beam Capacitor’ After Strack Capacitor’s Plate et al.Borehole Gravimeter (BHGM) ⌦L&R “zero-length” spring balance ⌦Capacitor force related to gravitational acceleration ⌦Standard deviations 3 µGal.

2000.Single well BHGM ( 3 years) Repeat BHGM across Rabbi field gas/oil contact in Gabon.780 g/cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer & Strack.082 g/cc Oil ρ : 0. Porosity: 24% Gas ρ : 0. 2000 .

2000. 2001 After Edcon 1994 . High N counts.High resistivity. High density=Tight Zone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

1992 .. 2001 After Wolfgram et al.KTB: final interpretation © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

. Reservoir engineering Well completion ……..Borehole information components • • • • • • • • Mud logging ………… see geology lecture Core analysis………… see geology lecture Measuring/Logging while drilling – MWD/LWD Wireline logging Borehole seismics…. Reservoir engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Reservoir engineering Production logging ….. 2001 . 2000.see above Formation testing….

2001 .LWD/MWD geosteering examples After Marshall et al.. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000.Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 . 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Natural Gamma log principle • measured in API units (U of H test pit) • Gamma rays are emitted by K. U. Th (after van Ditzhuijzen.

Energy spectrum
U Uranium series spectrum with typical energy 1.76 MeV (214Bi)

Th

Thorium series

spectrum with typical energy 2.61 MeV (208Th)

40K

Potassium isotope

monoenergetic 1.46 MeV
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (Hearst & Nelson, 1985)

Gamma – gamma density principle

•• gamma rays are absorbed gamma rays are absorbed by formation by formation •• bulk density measurement bulk density measurement

(Labo, 1987)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Density logs (γ-γ ; neutron)

• γ-γ density gives bulk density; low could mean gas if

• neutron is high (high hydrocarbons)… so called gas effect

MWD tool

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)

2001 . 2000.Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 Courtesy Baker Atlas .VISION™ Screen © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Combined photo & image image photograph © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Summary: Progress • • • • • Quantitative use of borehole seismics Passive monitoring is growing Borehole EM being considered Borehole gravity is there but very limited Logging extends depth and scaling © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Summary: Future • • • • Anisotropy will be key in scaling Pore pressure prediction we need hard data Deep Reading Single Well will appear Fracture mapping will grow © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

G. 2000... SPWLA transactions. Coates. And Exh. 1997. A. Lamb. P. P. Britannia Field. 28-39. 1997. Borbas. 78-87. B. J. A...B.G. The challenge of permanent 4-C seafloor systems. E. facies and origin of slury-flow deposits.Additional references • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alixant. J. J..L. C. S. Desport. Hansen.. Siegfried II. S. D. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Tech. Aiken. Fanini. Blackbourne.. B. Conf. 1998. A.... Beard.. Ounadjela. Formation Azimuthal anisotropy. M. Black.. H. R. K. Enhanced Seismic Imaging Using 3D VSP. Hare. D. SPE annual convention. The Log Analyst 27 (5). The Leading Edge 17. 1998. M..J. M. and Thomson. Hunziker. Alaska. Pittman. v.-M. Strack.Cased-Hole Resistivity Tool. Employee training lecture. 12 Frenkel... Workshop. Electrical logging of a laminated Earth formation. In-situ residual oil saturation to gas from time-lapse borehole gravity... 1986. 1995. and Strack. K. Practical application of a new multichannel and fully digital spectrum induction system: SPE Ann. Horst. Mapping salt flank with borehole gravity. 1999.. and Tabarovsky... High-Definition Induction Log. 60-73. Halliburton.E. R. D. L. and Spitz. Borehole seismic processing introduction.F.. Improved estimation of high resolution formation resistivities for thin bed analysis.. 329-344. 1999. 1996.A. M. J. 1996. J. M.-M. R. The Leading Edge 20. Maurer. and Evans. 2000. H.. 1999. Barberan. 614620.. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. Field test results of a new oil-based mud formation imager tool. Wendt.. D.-M. Chenin. Edcon..L. Transactions SPWLA Ann.H. J. A 4-D microgravity method for waterflood surveillance: A model study for Prudhoe Bay reservoir. Mtg...A. and Joyce.. R..L. Brady. 2000. Gelinsky. Bicquardt. G. WO 98/00733.. T.l. Borehole gravity for reservoir surveillance. Petroleum Geoscience 6. S. Cheng. B.. Entralgo.H. R. UK North sea: petrographic constraints on Lower Cretaceous provenance... 2001.-M. InDepth 2. Q. Kear. Vessereau. 1998.d. and Bigelow. A. O. Baker Atlas.L. R. 2001 . P. Geophysics 64. BHGM.. SEG Res.. C. G. Prammer.. A. Anderson.. J. 12-19.R. O. (Assigned to Shell) Beard. Mezzatesta. A Major Technology Breakthrough .. paper CC. Analysis of some unsolved induction interpretation problems using computer modeling.. Deep density.. K. InDepth 5 (1). 2001. Ferguson. l. 1998. and Peron. Hayman.... SPE 30609... InDepth 5. Brady. Laronga. Zhou.. Haines... and Mann. and Strack. Beard. E. Xiao. Cheung. 1994.. 87-88. InDepth 4 (1). Edcon marketing flyer.

Lorenz.N.C. Wilt.. Soc. Increased oil-in-place in low resistivity reservoirs from multicomponent induction log data... M..-M. B... O. The leading Edge 20. Annual meeting. A.M.. Warpinski. Popta. K. J. E. 1987. 2000.. B..... Expl. The Leading Edge 20. J.. Single Well geophysics: Issues and applications. 2000. P. and Rizer. and Toksoez... T. Reservoir evaluation through optimally designed resistivity logging. W. High-definition lateral log – resistivity device: Presented at the SPWLA thirty-ninth annual logging symposium.-E. R. S.. 1996. 1997.V. 630-634..M.. Kriegshaeuser. Seismic monitoring from intelligent wells. E. O. Labo. A..E.. Geophysics 65... 1998. Mjaaland.. Majer..F.L... and Curtis. A practical introduction to borehole geophysics.Additional references #2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hottman...N. B. Fracture detection using crosswell and single well surveys. Itskovich. Mikhailov. Yu.E. The Leading Edge 15(8).Sc. Borehole Electromagnetics: Theory & Applications. Expl. K. S. Mollison. and Evans. E. G. Calgary... 1984.G. Koelman. Geophysics 62. J. Borehole sensors in the instrumented oil field. Invited paper in ‘Recent Advances and Road ahead session’ Marshall.. Holt.. 2001. G. 909-911. D. Mezzatesta. SPG/SEG. Peterson. J.P. paper V. L. The Leading Edge 17 (7).-M. Thesis T-2831. and Tabarovsky. D.. Queen. Fairborn. 1098-1111. and Knight. The Leading Edge 20. K. L.. Imaging of thin beds using advanced borehole seismology. M. Strack. Causse.. Myer.D. Fanini. J. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. L. A.W.. Mezzatesta. and Fuller. and Teufel. M. J. 2001 . Relevant-time update of an Earth model with LoggingWhile-Drilling data.V. 1048-1056 Kramer. D'Onfro.K. 3rd Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophsyics.. The next wave in reservoir monitoring: The instrumented oil field. M>P.R. W. and Strack. Jarvis. L. 1996. P.seismic correlation. Forgang. SPE 62528. 640-648. J. 2000.. 254pp. J. paper A. University of Houston. Near-surface VSP surveys using the seismic cone penetrometer. 2000. H. 2001. Queen.. 2000...L. and v. Kaelin. and Strack. and Wulff. J.. Soc. Majer. Ph.W. New Delhi (invited paper). B. N. Lumley. geophysics 65 (4). . Thesis.N. W. A. 330pp.A. 495-504. 2000. Morrisson. K-M.. Daley. presented at SPWLA forty-first annual logging symposium...F... 2000.S. Geophys. Colorado School of Mines. B. R. Paulsson. Winters. TDEM. 1998.. Geophys. Natural fracture characteristics and effects. 1180-1184.L. G. Using borehole electroseismic measurements to detect and characterize fractured (permeable) zones. 2001. Gupta.

H. Pickett.. S.E. Rasmus.. 1998. and Low. 1998. Spies. Exploring the Earth with Geophysics. Society Exploration Geophysicists. A.Faster drilling. Middle East Well Evaluation Review 12. Geophys. Society Expl. 2000.A.. F. 6-11. G.. B.. and Ikwuakor. Integration and Interpretational Intercourse. coal.G.A.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Additional references #3 • © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. K. T.C. W. M.... 1992. Introduction to borehole anisotropy. Presentation for the Earth Science week.M. workshop: Advances in Exploration Geoelectromagnetism. Finland. 1151-65. and Biggs.F. 834841. 4-15. Baker Atlas internal seminar. Poster C.G. New array resistvity measurements: Physics and ME case histories. Rudman. 2001. 1999. presented at the SPWLA forty annual logging symposium. Seismic while drilling by using dual drill-string pilot waves. Comparison of seismic sources for VSP's in a cased well: Paper presented at C.. Mezzatesta. G.. K. M.V. K.. Yu.. TU Delf course notes. Koelman. 2001 Peeters.M. Optimizing horizontal laterals in a heavy-oil reservoir using LWD azimuthal measurements.-M.S. R.M.F. M. Strack. Sheline.R. Malusa. Bornemann. J. Poletto. and Talabani. B. anisotropy workshop. Gavity gains momentum.J.E. Reservoir Connectivity Mapping. PO1694. 8th Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference.F... T. Strack. Transformation of resistivity to pseudovelocity logs.. Technology brief. 1999. Waley. S... Turpening. Blakely.R. .. Tnad. 1997. and Miranda..c.R. 1995. Farruggio. Helsinki. and Kriegshaeuser. 1998.. Advances in electrical logging tools for reservoir characterization. Interrelations.. and Habashy.. Crosswell seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization: An offshore case history. Piggin. J. Calgary. 1999.. 61-th EAGE Conference & Technical Exhibition. better hole. Sensitivity analysis of crosswell Electromagnetics. C. 1999. The Leading Edge 17 (7). Determining Earth Formation Shear-wave Transverse Isotropy Using Borehole Stoneley-waves. 4pp.-M. SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts. F. Sclumberger Technical Services.. Calgary. A. AAPG Bulletin 59. 2001. Geophysics 60.. Strack.. (invited) Strack. 1982. Shell. M. 2000. K.. SPE 56697. 1998. G. InDepth 3(1). R. 1975. Expanded Abstract volume. and Payton. National Convention. . K. J. paper at 7th Formation Evaluation symposium of Canadian Well Logging Society. K.-M. minerals & ground water. 1995.. Borehole Gravity and its applications. X. Frenkel. Petrophysics: Basic wireline log & core analysis for hydrocarbon.. 1979.

and Harding.. G. Yu. xxx-xxx. J. B.H.J. R.. and Geldmacher. Uhl. G. Yu.. K. SEG expanded abstracts. I.L. Geophysics 60.F. J. Soc. Young..J. Wilt.. & Humphreys. Ziolkowski. Wilt.. L. and Alumbaugh..F. Analog and numerical modeling for borehole resistivity-and acoustic-imaging tools: Presented at SPWLA thirty-ninth Annual Logging Symposium. C. Crosswell electromagnetic tomography: System design consideration and field results... The Leading Edge. Multiwell imaging of reservoir fluids. Ann. Fanini.... 1998. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Walter. 2001. Xiao. L. 42 (4). Koelman.C. Alumbaugh. et al 2000. Electromagnetic methods for development and production: State of the art.. GRI annual report. Petrophysics. D. 2001 .. Yu. Exploration Geophys. SPWLA transactions Oslo. J... 871-885. and van Popta... N.Additional references #4 • • • • • • • • • • Van Ditzhuijzen. B. J. 18 (12). paper kkk.-M..... Warpinski.M. J. 1995. 1371-1376. 1995. 26-29.. paper FFF. Becker.. Painchaud.. R.J. A.N..A. 1999. Interpreting multiarray induction logs in high Rt/Rs contrast environments with an inhomogeneous background –based software focusing method. P. Mtg. M. Subsurface Seismic Imaging for Reservoir Characterization.. 2001. P. Petrophysics – in touch with the reservoir. Walter.. S.1998. K. 2000..P. M. Kriegshaeuser. Enhanced evaluation of low-resistivity reservoirs using new multicomponent induction log data. D.M. O. Lee.S. Drozda. Holcomb.M. and Strack.E.. The Leading Edge 4.R. and Deszcz-Pan. A... Morrison.V. Engler. 1994. H. Lorenz. M. Development of stimulation diagnostic technology. Shell Selected Paper. Expanded Abstract Vol. D.

77057.com Please visit us http://www.. 6420 Richmond Ave.532.kmstechnologies.8144 info@kmstechnologies. USA Tel: 713. Texas.com// . Suite 610 Houston.KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful