KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Presentation

Strack, K. – M.

2002

Reservoir Characterization with Borehole Geophysics

R. Sheriff's Reservoir Characterization Course, University of Houston

Reservoir Characterization OBC Large Scale with Onshore 3-D Seismic Surveys Borehole Geophysics
(www.kmstechnologies.com)
Integrated Reservoir Characterization, logs, Crosswell Permanent sensors Area Wide Near Surface Modeling, Borehole supported

K. M. Strack KMS Technologies 2002
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline
• The critical link • Rock Physics / Petrophysics
⌦ Pore space properties ⌦ Density of rocks ⌦ Natural radioactivity of rocks ⌦ Elastic properties ⌦ Anelastic properties ⌦ Electrical properties ⌦ Thermal & magnetic properties ⌦ Correlations between properties

• Borehole Electromagnetics
⌦ The methods ⌦ Cross well EM ⌦ Single well EM ⌦ Seismoelectric measurements
⌦ Gravity principles & examples ⌦ BHGM & Gradiometers ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ Natural Gamma ray tools Density tools Borehole imaging Resistivity logs Sonic logs

• Borehole gravity • Logging

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ 3D VSP ⌦ VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics. (ed..H. J. Yu. lecture notes. 1999.References – rock physics Schön. 2000. S. Physical Properties of Rocks . Baker Atlas.Fundamentals. Helbig. Treitel) 18.H. 2001 . Pergamon Press Handbook of geophysical exploration . WA92 Schoen. K. 1992. 1996. & Strack. J..M.seismic exploration JS96 Western Atlas.G. Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis.. K. SYS99 Reference list at the end © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . 2000.Borehole geophysics as critical link • Establish ‘pain’ / Challenge • The issues • How do we solve it? © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 70% .DeepLook The Challenge Breakthrough needed Services . 2000.delivery vehicle Now Vision 2010 70%+ recovery Bypassed production Mis-positioned wells Low well productivity Expensive testing Reserves uncertainty Aquifer drive ?? Subsurface Sensors Various Integration Geoscience tools Reservoir Modeling Surface sensors Optimal well targeting Right facilities Minimum water production <35% After DeepLook consortium vision © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

> 200 m ± 5% > 200 m ± 10% > 10 m ± 10% Hydrocarbon © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . therefore new & existing technologies must be integrated to meet the need. 2000. • To determine fluid distributions in the interwell space within 5 to 10 % error in accuracy.DeepLook Challenges: Interwell sweet spots • No one method will meet the need.

Top seal Oil Non pay Formation water Sea water Perforations Deep Look. 2001 . 1995 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.DeepLook Scope of the Challenge 1 mm Water Oil grain Unswept oil Oil is trapped by surface tension & structure. 2000.

The scale issue (after Peeters. pers. comm. 2001 . 1998) KMT000019f © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 2001 .Seismic waves © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .SEISMIC SIGNAL FREQUENCIES natural earthquake exploration geophysics well logging ultra Sonic phonons 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 free oscillation borehole geophysics © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.The Data Gap After Ziolkowski. 2000.

2000.seismic scale Extend borehole detail into formation Find bypassed reserves Predict ahead of the drill – risk reduction Optimized field development Monitor production – operating cost Increase recovery rate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Benefits: Borehole Geophysics • • • • • • • • Better link between data – less uncertainty Resolve feature at sub. 2001 .

Borehole seismics – the critical link © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN +- .

2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . 2000.Geophysics as pathfinder Physical properties Well logs Cores Interpretation Borehole Borehole Borehole geophysics Field instruments Field acquisition Field data Processing concepts Interpretation Theory Analog modeling Data processing Interpretation Surface Surface Subsurface image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

.What is “Petrophysics”? "Petrophysics"as pertaining to physics of particular rock types. 2000. Archie. Study of physical properties of rock related to pore & fluid distribution ... pioneer in application & quantification of rock physics in petroleum engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 1950." G. . E. 2001 .

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties Summary & conclusions © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Pore space properties Pore volume porosity Φ Fluid flow in pore channels permeability k Interface grain surface-fluid specific surface S SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 2000. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Quartz sand scan (after van Ditzhuijzen.

2000. 2001 SYS99 .Rock type distribution All rocks Only HC producing reservoirs © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 Φ= V pores Vsample SYS99 .definition volume of pores porosity = total volume of sample © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Porosity . 2000.

the term “saturation” volume fluid i saturation i = pore volume a volumetric model rock matrix dry clay clay capillary movable bound water water hydrocarbon effective total porosity © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Fluids in the pore space . 2000. 2001 SYS99 .

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 .water rock forming minerals ores 0 1 2 3 g/cm3 Rock density decreases with increasing porosity Porous rock density increases with increasing water saturation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Density of rock constituents gas oil.

5 cm) BHGM (several meters) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 SYS99 .Borehole Gravity Meter (BHGM) depth of investigation Invaded zone Transition zone Uninvaded zone 50 cm 100 cm Density log (max. 1. 2000.

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Th.Types of measurement Origin of natural radioactivity is Produces a gamma spectrum n K U Th U. 2000. K content of rock E spectral.Natural gamma activity of rocks . 2001 . channels measure : integral SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 WA92 .Th/K-Pe crossplot © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

dynamic effects such as pore connectivity. assumes relative motion between solids & fluids is negligible Biot (1956) – extension to Gassmann incl.Wave propagation in rocks • Gassmann (1951) – theory of elasticity in • • porous rocks. fluid viscosity and hydraulic skeleton permeability. 2000. Geertsma & Smit (1961) equations in terms of compressibility & frequency © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000.Borehole seismic example KMS99003p © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Elastic wave attenuation Definitions & parameters µsec wave front amplitude source amplitude A Travel time difference Amplitude difference Velocity Attenuation distance x SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

amount & distribution or geometry of “conductor water” © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Electrical resistivity of “clean” porous rocks . Rock conductivity is controlled only by water conductivity.ARCHIE’s equations The logical walk: Clean porous rock: no clay or another conductor than pore water. Rock conductivity (or resistivity) is proportional to water conductivity (or resistivity). 2000. 2001 SYS99 .

2001 JS96 .Resistivities & dielectric constants © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Highlights electrical methods • Sensitive to fluid • Used to define OIP • Largest number of different methods ⌦Induction ⌦Galvanic ⌦Dielectric ⌦Imaging ⌦Diplog ⌦Casing inspection • Largest number of different tools © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 .Resistivity – velocity: Rudman formula © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Basic interpretation principles
• Natural gamma rays used for lithology • • •

definition; high gamma rays – high shale content Gamma- gamma density; bulk density Neutron density – hydrogen concentration Resistivity; fluids (oil –water)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Integration example

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline

• Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ VSP 3D ⌦ VSP for engineering applications

Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Borehole seismic ray paths Survey Well Wireline Recording ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN Source Shallow 3-component reference geophone 4 2 1 3 2. 2001 . Upgoing reflection 3 4. Downgoing multiple 1. Direct arrival Movable 3-component wall lock geophone 3. 2000. Upgoing multiple © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.Raw VSP data (Checkshot survey) Surface source geophone 500 ft. 2001 Courtesy Western Atlas Logging Services .

2001 Corridor stack . 2000.Basic VSP Processing Flow Common Depth Stack Describe field geometry First arrival time picking Gain correction Wavefield separation Downgoing Compute Decon operators Velocity analysis Static shift Upgoing Deconvolve Align to 2-way time BA1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Crosswell seismic surveys Surface geophone Weathering layer 2 1-Crosswell 2-VSP 3-Reverse VSP 4-Surface 5-Single well 4 5 1 3 Borehole source Borehole geophone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 ATLAS WESTERN . 2000.Cross-well Acquisition layout & tomographic coverage © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

P-velocity & S-velocity tomogram P S Courtesy Baker Atlas VP (X 104 ft / S) VS (X 104 ft / S) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

.Crosswell example KMST000018v © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1997) . 2001 (after Majer et al. 2000.

2001 .Single Well acquisition ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN TD KMST000018cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Single well: time lapse KMST000018ee © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 After Majer et al. 1997 .

Fracture drilled afterwards © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer et al. 2000. 1997 .

220 ft 4.500 ft © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Salt .08 ft 171 ft L 13 52.84 ft 3.84 ft 118.500 ft ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Expected salt at: 6.029 ft L 1 9.400 ft (last shot) Total Well Depth: 4.229 ft 9. 2000.200 ft (first shot) L1 4.84 ft ? Array moves down ? L 13 ? ? ? ? Salt Encountered top of Salt at 3.Single Well Imaging in Gulf of Mexico 3.

2000.Large scale SWS example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000 . 2001 After Majer & Strack.

multi well Fluid flow Seismic receiver Mini-frac survey Packer © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.single well • Hydraulic fracturing monitoring . 2000.Fracturing monitoring • Mini-frac monitoring . 2001 .

2000) .3 C hydro frac data example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 (After Walter et al..

2001 .Looking ahead of the bit • • • • • • • Real-time checkshot & VSP surveys Real-time pore pressure prediction Salt-proximity surveys Improved borehole trajectory surveys Real-time Continuous Seismic Velocity Log Identification of bit position relative to the geologic model Prediction of formation tops ahead of the bit Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 .Seismic-While-Drilling principles Courtesy Baker Atlas 0992TOMEX4 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000.Looking ahead of the bit BAH2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. horizontal waves Vertical component.Clamping/cementing effects Vertical component. 30° wave incident After Hardage. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Seismic sensors After Hottman & Curtis. 2000. 2001 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Model study: intelligent well seismic • Use real reservoir •Alternating WAG injection •Model single well seismic •Simulate fluid front move After Mjaaland et al. TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001. 2000. 2001 .

TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001. 2000.Model study: different models After Mjaaland et al. 2001 .

Model study: geometry © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Mjaaland et al. TLE 20-10 . 2000. 2001.

integrated data acquisition system • Multi-level 3-component downhole receivers Reflectivity volume 3-D • Advanced energy source controller speeds up operations & improves data quality integrates all borehole seismic. 2000.3D VSP Data Acquisition • Purpose-built. & source sync data VSP & 3-D surface seismic data reduces costs & maximizes synergy Rectangular grid acquisition • Advanced navigation system sea bottom • Simultaneously acquiring 3-D Circular or spiral acquisition © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. navigation. 2001 .

1996) Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Brent. der © Copyright KJT North Sea (from van 2001Pal et al. 2000. UK Enterprises Inc. North Sea (from Dangerfield. 1996) .Why 3-D VSP? Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Ekofisk..

Data Processing • Standard procedures • Pre-survey modeling • Special processing ⌦Statistical tool orientation ⌦Statics’ application ⌦Wavefield separation ⌦Velocity inversion ⌦Imaging Kirchhoff migration VSP-CDP transformation 3-D VSP Processing Flow Common depth Stack First Break Picking Describe Field Geometry 3 Component rotation Gain Correction Downwaves Wavefield Separation Upwaves • 3D Visualization • Data volume considerations © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 Compute Decon Operators Deconvolve VSP-CDP Transform Migration 3-D VSP Image .

2000. 2001 .Oseberg 3-D VSP Migration 3-D surface seismic inline section (processed by Elf) 3-D VSP migrated section pasted in surface seismic inline section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.3-D VSP Migration Surface Seismic G-23 Salt Salt VSP Splice G-23 Borehole G-23 Geophone Location 3-D VSP Salt Salt © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 3-D Surface Seismic Section Combined 3-D Surface Seismic & 3-D VSP Section .

. 2000.Near-surface VSP: VSP 2 After spherical divergences and band pass (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000) .. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Near-surface VSP: SH CDP section (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000) .. 2000. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight.

Outline • Critical Link ⌦Cross well EM • Rock Physics ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 • Borehole Electromagnetics . 2000.

Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics ⌦Cross well EM ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

1 Image logs Whole cores Well logs 1 10 100 Surface geophysics → Borehole geophysics Apparent Resistivity Log 0 20 Depth (m) Commercial Induction Log 60 High Temp Zone 100 MAIL tool 140 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Resistivity (ohm-m) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.01 ← Pore studies Core plugs 0.Upscaling…upscaling…upscaling 0.

2000.amplitude Devine test: data & inversion phase © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1995 . 2001 After Wilt et al.

2001 After Wilt & Alumbaugh. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.1 2350 2400 SCIL tool Horizontal Field Horizontal Field 2450 2500 Extended Log Extended Log Borehole Induction Log Borehole Induction Log Courtesy of EMI Inc.Single well EM Resistivity (Ohm-m) 10 0. 1998 . 2000.

2001 . 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Seismoelectrics: signal origin Stonely wave generated Fracture generated (after Mikhailov et al.. 2000.

2000. 2001 (after Mikhailov et al.. 2000) .Seismoelectrics: Pressure Electric field © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000.Borehole Gravimeter (BHGM) ⌦L&R “zero-length” spring balance ⌦Capacitor force related to gravitational acceleration ⌦Standard deviations 3 µGal. 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . Spring Capacitor’s Plate Capacitor’ Beam Capacitor’ After Strack Capacitor’s Plate et al.

2000 . Porosity: 24% Gas ρ : 0.780 g/cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Single well BHGM ( 3 years) Repeat BHGM across Rabbi field gas/oil contact in Gabon. 2000.082 g/cc Oil ρ : 0. 2001 After Majer & Strack.

High density=Tight Zone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. High N counts. 2001 After Edcon 1994 .High resistivity.

2001 After Wolfgram et al. 1992 .KTB: final interpretation © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000..

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Reservoir engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Borehole information components • • • • • • • • Mud logging ………… see geology lecture Core analysis………… see geology lecture Measuring/Logging while drilling – MWD/LWD Wireline logging Borehole seismics…. 2001 .see above Formation testing…. Reservoir engineering Production logging ….. Reservoir engineering Well completion …….. 2000..

2000.. 2001 . 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.LWD/MWD geosteering examples After Marshall et al.

2001 . 2000.Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Th (after van Ditzhuijzen.Natural Gamma log principle • measured in API units (U of H test pit) • Gamma rays are emitted by K. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. U. 2001 .

Energy spectrum
U Uranium series spectrum with typical energy 1.76 MeV (214Bi)

Th

Thorium series

spectrum with typical energy 2.61 MeV (208Th)

40K

Potassium isotope

monoenergetic 1.46 MeV
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (Hearst & Nelson, 1985)

Gamma – gamma density principle

•• gamma rays are absorbed gamma rays are absorbed by formation by formation •• bulk density measurement bulk density measurement

(Labo, 1987)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Density logs (γ-γ ; neutron)

• γ-γ density gives bulk density; low could mean gas if

• neutron is high (high hydrocarbons)… so called gas effect

MWD tool

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)

2001 .Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

VISION™ Screen © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Baker Atlas . 2000.

2000. 2001 .Combined photo & image image photograph © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Summary: Progress • • • • • Quantitative use of borehole seismics Passive monitoring is growing Borehole EM being considered Borehole gravity is there but very limited Logging extends depth and scaling © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 2001 .Summary: Future • • • • Anisotropy will be key in scaling Pore pressure prediction we need hard data Deep Reading Single Well will appear Fracture mapping will grow © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

1996. Bicquardt... Hare. E. B. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. 1998.. Conf. Britannia Field. and Peron.. Edcon. D.. and Thomson. 1998. Hayman... InDepth 2.L..H.. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.G. (Assigned to Shell) Beard.-M. InDepth 5. Enhanced Seismic Imaging Using 3D VSP. Hunziker.. l. and Strack. facies and origin of slury-flow deposits.. Employee training lecture. S. R. G.. and Strack. 2001 .. Pittman. And Exh. 1998. paper CC. and Tabarovsky. SPE 30609.. Mtg. InDepth 4 (1).l. Beard.. Q. P. and Bigelow. 1994. A. Entralgo. Transactions SPWLA Ann. Formation Azimuthal anisotropy. R. v. 1999. T. A Major Technology Breakthrough . 1998. Black. C.H. Analysis of some unsolved induction interpretation problems using computer modeling. Desport. R. and Spitz. Haines. Cheng.. 1999.B. The Leading Edge 17... J. K. and Evans. Petroleum Geoscience 6.. Beard. Fanini. Borbas. Horst. Laronga. Xiao. B. Wendt. Brady. 1999.-M.G.-M.. R. L. M.-M. M. Ferguson.E... J. P. WO 98/00733.. A. Electrical logging of a laminated Earth formation. Borehole gravity for reservoir surveillance. Chenin. Alaska... Anderson.. 1997. The Log Analyst 27 (5).. The challenge of permanent 4-C seafloor systems. Halliburton.. R. 1997. 1996.. SPE annual convention. Vessereau. 1995.. J.. SPWLA transactions.R.. 2001. The Leading Edge 20. High-Definition Induction Log. O. UK North sea: petrographic constraints on Lower Cretaceous provenance. InDepth 5 (1).. A 4-D microgravity method for waterflood surveillance: A model study for Prudhoe Bay reservoir. Workshop.. and Mann. H. 2000. D. Barberan. Borehole seismic processing introduction.L. S. Strack. Mezzatesta. Improved estimation of high resolution formation resistivities for thin bed analysis. Siegfried II. K. Lamb. R.. Brady. 2000. O. E. 87-88.. Ounadjela.. Coates.. A.. D. Mapping salt flank with borehole gravity. 78-87. J. Prammer.. 12 Frenkel..L. Maurer..A. H. SEG Res. C.F. 2000. 12-19. BHGM. 2001. Edcon marketing flyer. and Joyce. Zhou. Kear. 28-39. Aiken. Field test results of a new oil-based mud formation imager tool. A.Additional references • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alixant. In-situ residual oil saturation to gas from time-lapse borehole gravity.. J.A. G. 1986. Blackbourne. J.. Hansen. Deep density. J. Gelinsky. Baker Atlas. Practical application of a new multichannel and fully digital spectrum induction system: SPE Ann..Cased-Hole Resistivity Tool. A. 614620. K. B. 329-344.. Geophysics 64. 60-73.d.L. M..J. P. Cheung. Tech. D.. S. M. M...

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-M. (invited) Strack. 2000. 1998. SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts. Borehole Gravity and its applications..F. B.G.M. and Kriegshaeuser. K. A. S.. H. Rasmus.. 2000. 1995. 1995. TU Delf course notes. Advances in electrical logging tools for reservoir characterization. SPE 56697. and Payton. 2001. F. 4-15. National Convention. K. M. Comparison of seismic sources for VSP's in a cased well: Paper presented at C. Society Exploration Geophysicists. Mezzatesta. paper at 7th Formation Evaluation symposium of Canadian Well Logging Society. 834841. G.. The Leading Edge 17 (7).J. B. 1992. Waley. Introduction to borehole anisotropy. M. 2001 Peeters. Geophys. 1998..S. Strack. Gavity gains momentum. Spies. 1997. New array resistvity measurements: Physics and ME case histories.V. Determining Earth Formation Shear-wave Transverse Isotropy Using Borehole Stoneley-waves. Blakely. and Miranda.. 8th Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference. K. S. J. .. Baker Atlas internal seminar.. 1999.R.. Shell.. X.. .. better hole. Farruggio.-M. Seismic while drilling by using dual drill-string pilot waves.. W. Sclumberger Technical Services. Yu. J. 1999. Strack. Bornemann. 1998. and Low.G. Strack.R. 1151-65. K. T. Finland. Society Expl. 61-th EAGE Conference & Technical Exhibition.-M.. Petrophysics: Basic wireline log & core analysis for hydrocarbon...A. Pickett. PO1694.. Poletto. K. G. Rudman. workshop: Advances in Exploration Geoelectromagnetism.. K. presented at the SPWLA forty annual logging symposium. 1982. Exploring the Earth with Geophysics. Frenkel. 6-11. Sheline.. T. Piggin. Sensitivity analysis of crosswell Electromagnetics. Poster C. 1999. anisotropy workshop. Geophysics 60.R. Calgary. G.M. Middle East Well Evaluation Review 12. Transformation of resistivity to pseudovelocity logs.. Koelman. InDepth 3(1). R. and Biggs. AAPG Bulletin 59. Expanded Abstract volume.M. minerals & ground water.F.Faster drilling. Technology brief.E. C... Crosswell seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization: An offshore case history.c. J.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Additional references #3 • © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. Reservoir Connectivity Mapping. A. Calgary. 1998. 1979. 4pp.C. Optimizing horizontal laterals in a heavy-oil reservoir using LWD azimuthal measurements. M. Integration and Interpretational Intercourse... Malusa.E. F.. Interrelations. Tnad. Presentation for the Earth Science week. and Talabani. and Ikwuakor. Helsinki..A. Turpening. 1975. 1999. coal... M.F. R. and Habashy. 2001.

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