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KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Presentation

Strack, K. – M.

2002

Reservoir Characterization with Borehole
Geophysics

R. Sheriff's Reservoir Characterization Course,
University of Houston

Reservoir Characterization
OBC
with Large Scale
Onshore 3-D

Borehole Geophysics Seismic Surveys

(www.kmstechnologies.com)
Area Wide
Integrated Reservoir Near Surface
Characterization, logs, Modeling,
Crosswell Borehole supported
Permanent sensors

K. M. Strack
KMS Technologies 2002
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline
• The critical link
• Rock Physics / Petrophysics • Borehole Electromagnetics
⌦ Pore space properties ⌦ The methods
⌦ Density of rocks ⌦ Cross well EM
⌦ Natural radioactivity of rocks ⌦ Single well EM
⌦ Elastic properties ⌦ Seismoelectric measurements
⌦ Anelastic properties
• Borehole gravity
⌦ Electrical properties
⌦ Gravity principles & examples
⌦ Thermal & magnetic properties ⌦ BHGM & Gradiometers
⌦ Correlations between properties
• Logging
• Seismic methods ⌦ Natural Gamma ray tools
⌦ VSP
⌦ Density tools
⌦ Crosswell
⌦ Borehole imaging
⌦ Single well
⌦ Resistivity logs
⌦ Micro seismic monitoring
⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Sonic logs
⌦ Fracture monitoring
⌦ Passive seismic
⌦ 3D VSP
⌦ VSP for engineering applications
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 . 1996. Physical Properties of Rocks .H.H. 1999. Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics.Fundamentals. Pergamon Press JS96 Western Atlas. J.G. WA92 Schoen... K. S.M. Helbig. Baker Atlas.. lecture notes. 2000. Yu. J. References – rock physics Schön. & Strack. Handbook of geophysical exploration . K. 1992.seismic exploration (ed. SYS99 Reference list at the end © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Treitel) 18. Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis.

2000. Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000. Borehole geophysics as critical link • Establish ‘pain’ / Challenge • The issues • How do we solve it? © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

DeepLook The Challenge Breakthrough needed Vision Now 2010 Services . 2001 . 2000.delivery vehicle Bypassed production 70%+ recovery Mis-positioned wells Subsurface Sensors Optimal well Low well productivity targeting Various Expensive testing Integration Geoscience tools Right facilities Reserves uncertainty Aquifer drive ?? Reservoir Modeling Minimum water production Surface sensors <35% 70% After DeepLook consortium vision © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

DeepLook Interwell sweet spots Challenges: • No one method will meet the need. > 200 m > 200 m ± 5% ± 10% > 10 m ± 10% Hydrocarbon © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 . therefore new & existing technologies must be integrated to meet the need. • To determine fluid distributions in the interwell space within 5 to 10 % error in accuracy.

1995 Non pay Perforations © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . Top seal Formation water Oil Sea water Deep Look.DeepLook Scope of the Challenge 1 mm Water Oil Unswept oil grain Oil is trapped by surface tension & structure. 2000.

pers. comm. The scale issue (after Peeters. 2000. 2001 . 1998) © Copyright KMT000019fKJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. Seismic waves © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

SEISMIC SIGNAL FREQUENCIES exploration ultra natural geophysics well Sonic earthquake logging phonons 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 borehole free geophysics oscillation © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .The Data Gap After Ziolkowski. 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

seismic scale • Extend borehole detail into formation • Find bypassed reserves • Predict ahead of the drill – risk reduction • Optimized field development • Monitor production – operating cost • Increase recovery rate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Benefits: Borehole Geophysics • Better link between data – less uncertainty • Resolve feature at sub. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.Borehole seismics – the critical link WESTERN ATLAS +- © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 2000. Geophysics as pathfinder Physical Well logs properties Cores Interpretation Borehole Borehole Borehole Field instruments Field data geophysics Field acquisition Processing concepts Data processing Surface Surface Interpretation Theory Interpretation Analog modeling Subsurface image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Archie. 1950." G.. 2000.. . pioneer in application & quantification of rock physics in petroleum engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .. What is “Petrophysics”? "Petrophysics"as pertaining to physics of particular rock types. E. Study of physical properties of rock related to pore & fluid distribution ..

Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties • Summary & conclusions © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . Pore space properties Pore volume porosity Φ Fluid flow in pore channels permeability k Interface grain surface-fluid specific surface S SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . 2000. Quartz sand scan (after van Ditzhuijzen. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Rock type distribution Only HC All rocks producing reservoirs SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .definition volume of pores V pores porosity = Φ= total volume of sample Vsample SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. Porosity .

Fluids in the pore space . 2001 . 2000.the term “saturation” volume fluid i saturation i = pore volume a volumetric model dry rock matrix clay clay capillary movable hydro- bound water water carbon effective total porosity SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000.water rock forming minerals ores 0 1 2 3 g/cm3 Rock density decreases with increasing porosity Porous rock density increases with increasing water saturation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Density of rock constituents gas oil.

5 cm) BHGM (several meters) SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 . Borehole Gravity Meter (BHGM) depth of investigation Invaded Transition Uninvaded zone zone zone 50 cm 100 cm Density log (max. 1.

2001 . Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

K content E spectral. 2000. of rock channels measure : integral SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Natural gamma activity of rocks . Th. 2001 .Types of measurement Origin of Produces a gamma spectrum natural radioactivity K U Th is n U.

2001 WA92 . 2000. Th/K-Pe crossplot © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000. Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Wave propagation in rocks • Gassmann (1951) – theory of elasticity in porous rocks. fluid viscosity and hydraulic skeleton permeability. dynamic effects such as pore connectivity. assumes relative motion between solids & fluids is negligible • Biot (1956) – extension to Gassmann incl. 2001 . • Geertsma & Smit (1961) equations in terms of compressibility & frequency © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 KMS99003p . Borehole seismic example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 2000. Elastic wave attenuation Definitions & parameters µsec wave front amplitude source amplitude A Travel time difference Velocity distance x Amplitude difference Attenuation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 . Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

amount & distribution or geometry of “conductor water” SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Rock conductivity (or resistivity) is proportional to water conductivity (or resistivity). 2000.Electrical resistivity of “clean” porous rocks .ARCHIE’s equations The logical walk: Clean porous rock: no clay or another conductor than pore water. 2001 . Rock conductivity is controlled only by water conductivity.

2000. 2001 . Resistivities & dielectric constants JS96 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . Highlights electrical methods • Sensitive to fluid • Used to define OIP • Largest number of different methods ⌦Induction ⌦Galvanic ⌦Dielectric ⌦Imaging ⌦Diplog ⌦Casing inspection • Largest number of different tools © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • Pore space properties • Density of rocks • Natural radioactivity of rocks • Elastic properties • Anelastic properties • Electrical properties • Thermal properties • Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 2001 .Resistivity – velocity: Rudman formula © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Basic interpretation principles

• Natural gamma rays used for lithology
definition; high gamma rays – high shale
content
• Gamma- gamma density; bulk density
• Neutron density – hydrogen concentration
• Resistivity; fluids (oil –water)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Integration example

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline

• Seismic methods
• Critical Link ⌦VSP
⌦Crosswell
• Rock Physics ⌦Single well
• Seismic Methods ⌦Micro seismic monitoring
⌦Seismic while drilling
• Borehole EM ⌦Fracture monitoring
• Borehole Gravity ⌦Passive seismic
⌦3D VSP
• Logging ⌦VSP for engineering applications
• Summary

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

2000. Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Upgoing reflection Movable 3-component wall lock geophone 3 4. 2000. Direct arrival 4 3 3. Borehole seismic ray paths Survey Well Wireline Recording Source WESTERNATLAS WESTERN ATLAS Shallow 3-component 2 2. Upgoing multiple © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Downgoing multiple reference geophone 1 1. 2001 .

2001 . Raw VSP data (Checkshot survey) Surface source geophone 500 ft. 2000. Courtesy Western Atlas Logging Services © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . Basic VSP Processing Flow Common Depth Stack Describe field geometry Static shift First arrival time picking Gain correction Velocity analysis Wavefield separation Downgoing Upgoing Compute Decon operators Deconvolve Align to 2-way time BA1997 Corridor stack © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . 2000. Crosswell seismic surveys Surface geophone Weathering layer 1-Crosswell 2-VSP 2 3-Reverse VSP 4-Surface 5-Single well Borehole 4 geophone 5 3 1 Borehole source © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Cross-well Acquisition layout & tomographic coverage WESTERN ATLAS © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. P-velocity & S-velocity tomogram P S Courtesy Baker Atlas VP (X 104 ft / S) VS (X 104 ft / S) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

1997) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 KMST000018v .. Crosswell example (after Majer et al.

2001 KMST000018cc . Single Well acquisition WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS TD © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. Single well: time lapse After Majer et al. 2001 KMST000018ee . 1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . Fracture drilled afterwards After Majer et al. 2000. 1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

229 ft 9.220 ft 171 ft L 13 52.84 ft 3.400 ft (last shot) ? ? Total Well Depth: 4.500 ft Salt © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.84 ft 118.500 ft ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Expected salt at: 6.029 ft L 1 9.84 ft Salt ? Array moves down ? L 13 ? ? 4.Single Well Imaging in Gulf of Mexico 3. 2001 .200 ft (first shot) L1 4.08 ft Encountered top of Salt at 3.

2001 . 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. Large scale SWS example After Majer & Strack.

2000. Fracturing monitoring • Mini-frac monitoring .single well • Hydraulic fracturing monitoring . 2001 .multi well Fluid flow Seismic receiver Mini-frac survey Packer © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

3 C hydro frac data example (After Walter et al. 2001 . 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000..

Looking ahead of the bit • Real-time checkshot & VSP surveys • Real-time pore pressure prediction • Salt-proximity surveys • Improved borehole trajectory surveys • Real-time Continuous Seismic Velocity Log • Identification of bit position relative to the geologic model • Prediction of formation tops ahead of the bit Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Seismic-While-Drilling principles Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright 0992TOMEX4 KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Looking ahead of the bit BAH2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 . 2000. Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Clamping/cementing effects Vertical component. 2000. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. horizontal waves Vertical component. 30° wave incident After Hardage. 2001 .

2000. 2001 . Seismic sensors After Hottman & Curtis. 2001 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001. 2001 . Model study: intelligent well seismic • Use real reservoir •Alternating WAG injection •Model single well seismic •Simulate fluid front move After Mjaaland et al.

2001 . TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. Model study: different models After Mjaaland et al. 2001.

Model study: geometry © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. TLE 20-10 . 2001. 2001 After Mjaaland et al.

2000. & source sync data sea bottom • Simultaneously acquiring 3-D VSP & 3-D surface seismic data reduces costs & maximizes synergy Circular or spiral acquisition © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. navigation. integrated data acquisition system Reflectivity volume • Multi-level 3-component 3-D downhole receivers • Advanced energy source controller speeds up operations Rectangular grid acquisition & improves data quality • Advanced navigation system integrates all borehole seismic. 2001 . 3D VSP Data Acquisition • Purpose-built.

2000. der Pal et al. KJT © Copyright UK North Sea (from Enterprises van 2001 Inc. Why 3-D VSP? Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Ekofisk. North Sea (from Dangerfield. 1996) .. 1996) Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Brent.

2000. 2001 . Data Processing 3-D VSP Processing Flow • Standard procedures Common depth Stack • Pre-survey modeling First Break Picking • Special processing Describe Field Geometry ⌦Statistical tool orientation ⌦Statics’ application 3 Component rotation ⌦Wavefield separation Gain Correction ⌦Velocity inversion Wavefield Downwaves Upwaves ⌦Imaging Separation Kirchhoff migration Compute Decon Deconvolve VSP-CDP transformation Operators • 3D Visualization VSP-CDP Migration • Data volume considerations Transform 3-D VSP Image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Oseberg 3-D VSP Migration 3-D surface seismic inline section (processed by Elf) 3-D VSP migrated section pasted in surface seismic inline section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 . 3-D VSP Migration Surface Seismic VSP Splice G-23 G-23 Salt Borehole G-23 Salt Geophone Location 3-D VSP Salt Salt 3-D Surface Combined 3-D Surface Seismic Section Seismic & 3-D VSP Section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

. Near-surface VSP: VSP 2 After spherical divergences and band pass (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000.. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000) (after Jarvis & Knight.

2000) (after Jarvis & Knight. Near-surface VSP: SH CDP section (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 ...

2000. Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics • Critical Link ⌦Cross well EM • Rock Physics ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000. Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics ⌦Cross well EM ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

1 1 10 100 ← Pore studies Image logs Surface geophysics → Core plugs Whole cores Well logs Borehole geophysics Apparent Resistivity Log 0 Commercial Induction Log 20 Depth (m) 60 High Temp Zone 100 MAIL tool 140 0. 2000. Upscaling…upscaling…upscaling 0. 2001 .01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Resistivity (ohm-m) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. Devine test: data & inversion amplitude phase After Wilt et al. 1995 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

After Wilt & Alumbaugh. 2000. Single well EM Resistivity (Ohm-m) 0.1 10 2350 2400 SCIL tool 2450 Extended Extended Log Log Horizontal Horizontal Field Field 2500 Borehole Borehole Induction Induction Log Log Courtesy of EMI Inc. 2001 . 1998 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 . Seismoelectrics: signal origin Stonely wave generated Fracture generated (after Mikhailov et al.. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Seismoelectrics: Pressure Electric field (after Mikhailov et al. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .. 2000.

2000. 2001 . Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 .Borehole Gravimeter (BHGM) ⌦L&R “zero-length” spring balance ⌦Capacitor force related to gravitational acceleration ⌦Standard deviations 3 µGal. 1999 Capacitor ’s Plate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Spring Capacitor’ Capacitor’s Plate Beam After Strack Capacitor’ et al.

2000. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.082 g/cc Oil ρ : 0. 2001 .780 g/cc After Majer & Strack. Single well BHGM ( 3 years) Repeat BHGM across Rabbi field gas/oil contact in Gabon. Porosity: 24% Gas ρ : 0.

2000. High N counts. High density=Tight Zone After Edcon 1994 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. High resistivity. 2001 .

2001 . KTB: final interpretation After Wolfgram et al. 1992 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 2000.

2000. 2001 . Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

. Reservoir engineering • Production logging ….. Reservoir engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. Borehole information components • Mud logging ………… see geology lecture • Core analysis………… see geology lecture • Measuring/Logging while drilling – MWD/LWD • Wireline logging • Borehole seismics….see above • Formation testing…. 2000. 2001 . Reservoir engineering • Well completion …….

2000. 2001 .. LWD/MWD geosteering examples After Marshall et al. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . U. 2000. Natural Gamma log principle • measured in API units (U of H test pit) • Gamma rays are emitted by K. Th (after van Ditzhuijzen. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Energy spectrum
U Uranium series
spectrum with typical energy
1.76 MeV (214Bi)

Th Thorium series
spectrum with typical energy
2.61 MeV (208Th)

40K Potassium isotope
monoenergetic 1.46 MeV

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (Hearst & Nelson, 1985)

Gamma – gamma density principle
•• gamma
gamma rays
rays are
are absorbed
absorbed
by
by formation
formation
•• bulk
bulk density
density measurement
measurement

(Labo, 1987)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Density logs (γ-γ ; neutron)

• γ-γ density gives bulk density; low could mean gas if

• neutron is high (high hydrocarbons)… so called gas effect

MWD tool

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)

2000. 2001 . Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 Courtesy Baker Atlas . 2000. VISION™ Screen © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . Combined photo & image image photograph © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. Summary: Progress • Quantitative use of borehole seismics • Passive monitoring is growing • Borehole EM being considered • Borehole gravity is there but very limited • Logging extends depth and scaling © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 . 2000. Summary: Future • Anisotropy will be key in scaling • Pore pressure prediction we need hard data • Deep Reading Single Well will appear • Fracture mapping will grow © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

.... T.. 60-73.. In-situ residual oil saturation to gas from time-lapse borehole gravity.A. S.. 1986. facies and origin of slury-flow deposits.. 1998. 12 • Frenkel. The Leading Edge 17. Wendt.R. Maurer. Alaska. R.. High-Definition Induction Log. B..l. 1996. R. WO 98/00733. R. Hayman.d. • Blackbourne. and Tabarovsky. O. (Assigned to Shell) • Beard. • Cheung. R. InDepth 5. SPE annual convention. M. Enhanced Seismic Imaging Using 3D VSP. Ferguson. Zhou. A... InDepth 5 (1). and Thomson. UK North sea: petrographic constraints on Lower Cretaceous provenance.. SEG Res. R. C. B. 78-87. Prammer. Halliburton. 28-39.. B. J. • Brady. • Entralgo. Hansen. A. P. Horst. J. 1999. 1997. 2001. Gelinsky. K. 2001 .G. • Edcon.-M. D. Transactions SPWLA Ann. Improved estimation of high resolution formation resistivities for thin bed analysis. Electrical logging of a laminated Earth formation. and Peron. and Evans. • Chenin.. • Beard. K. A.. G.. • Hare. D.L.G. 87-88.. 1994. 1997. C. Deep density. 329-344. S. 2000.. and Strack. S.. Formation Azimuthal anisotropy..H. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. Kear. Practical application of a new multichannel and fully digital spectrum induction system: SPE Ann.L. J. Workshop..-M. Laronga. Mtg. J. v.. M. E.F.. Petroleum Geoscience 6. Edcon marketing flyer. Vessereau. • Anderson. • Coates.. BHGM. P.B. A. Brady. 1995. M.. 1998. 1999. O. Bicquardt. Borbas. Lamb. The Leading Edge 20. Borehole seismic processing introduction. 614- 620. Siegfried II.. Analysis of some unsolved induction interpretation problems using computer modeling. Haines..H. D. M. 2000. 2000. 2001. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc... L. Cheng. Mezzatesta. and Mann. J.. Desport. And Exh. Q. M. Strack. 1999. The challenge of permanent 4-C seafloor systems. Tech. and Joyce. G....-M. A. A 4-D microgravity method for waterflood surveillance: A model study for Prudhoe Bay reservoir.. K. D..J. E. 1998. InDepth 2. Britannia Field. and Spitz.. • Baker Atlas.. 12-19. J. Hunziker. • Black. Employee training lecture. and Strack. Borehole gravity for reservoir surveillance. l. Mapping salt flank with borehole gravity.A... SPWLA transactions. 1996... SPE 30609... InDepth 4 (1).. Ounadjela. Aiken. Additional references • Alixant. A Major Technology Breakthrough . • Beard.-M.. • Barberan.. Field test results of a new oil-based mud formation imager tool.E. H. Pittman.Cased-Hole Resistivity Tool.L. paper CC. Xiao.. 1998. H. • Fanini. Geophysics 64.. The Log Analyst 27 (5). and Bigelow. R. Conf. J.L.. P.

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