KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Presentation

Strack, K. – M.

2002

Reservoir Characterization with Borehole Geophysics

R. Sheriff's Reservoir Characterization Course, University of Houston

Reservoir Characterization OBC Large Scale with Onshore 3-D Seismic Surveys Borehole Geophysics
(www.kmstechnologies.com)
Integrated Reservoir Characterization, logs, Crosswell Permanent sensors Area Wide Near Surface Modeling, Borehole supported

K. M. Strack KMS Technologies 2002
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline
• The critical link • Rock Physics / Petrophysics
⌦ Pore space properties ⌦ Density of rocks ⌦ Natural radioactivity of rocks ⌦ Elastic properties ⌦ Anelastic properties ⌦ Electrical properties ⌦ Thermal & magnetic properties ⌦ Correlations between properties

• Borehole Electromagnetics
⌦ The methods ⌦ Cross well EM ⌦ Single well EM ⌦ Seismoelectric measurements
⌦ Gravity principles & examples ⌦ BHGM & Gradiometers ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ Natural Gamma ray tools Density tools Borehole imaging Resistivity logs Sonic logs

• Borehole gravity • Logging

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ 3D VSP ⌦ VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

2001 . 2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

. J. Yu. 1996.H. & Strack. Pergamon Press Handbook of geophysical exploration .M. J. Treitel) 18. S.References – rock physics Schön. SYS99 Reference list at the end © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc..Fundamentals. Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis. Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics. Helbig. 2000.H. 2001 . (ed. Physical Properties of Rocks . 1999.seismic exploration JS96 Western Atlas. Baker Atlas. lecture notes. 1992.G. K. K. WA92 Schoen..

2000. 2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Borehole geophysics as critical link • Establish ‘pain’ / Challenge • The issues • How do we solve it? © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

delivery vehicle Now Vision 2010 70%+ recovery Bypassed production Mis-positioned wells Low well productivity Expensive testing Reserves uncertainty Aquifer drive ?? Subsurface Sensors Various Integration Geoscience tools Reservoir Modeling Surface sensors Optimal well targeting Right facilities Minimum water production <35% After DeepLook consortium vision © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.DeepLook The Challenge Breakthrough needed Services . 2001 70% .

> 200 m ± 5% > 200 m ± 10% > 10 m ± 10% Hydrocarbon © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.DeepLook Challenges: Interwell sweet spots • No one method will meet the need. therefore new & existing technologies must be integrated to meet the need. 2001 . 2000. • To determine fluid distributions in the interwell space within 5 to 10 % error in accuracy.

2000.DeepLook Scope of the Challenge 1 mm Water Oil grain Unswept oil Oil is trapped by surface tension & structure. 2001 . Top seal Oil Non pay Formation water Sea water Perforations Deep Look. 1995 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. comm. 2001 .The scale issue (after Peeters. pers. 1998) KMT000019f © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Seismic waves © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

SEISMIC SIGNAL FREQUENCIES natural earthquake exploration geophysics well logging ultra Sonic phonons 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 free oscillation borehole geophysics © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 . 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.The Data Gap After Ziolkowski.

seismic scale Extend borehole detail into formation Find bypassed reserves Predict ahead of the drill – risk reduction Optimized field development Monitor production – operating cost Increase recovery rate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .Benefits: Borehole Geophysics • • • • • • • • Better link between data – less uncertainty Resolve feature at sub.

Borehole seismics – the critical link © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN +- .

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000.Geophysics as pathfinder Physical properties Well logs Cores Interpretation Borehole Borehole Borehole geophysics Field instruments Field acquisition Field data Processing concepts Interpretation Theory Analog modeling Data processing Interpretation Surface Surface Subsurface image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

. 2000. E. Archie. Study of physical properties of rock related to pore & fluid distribution ." G. . 2001 .. 1950..What is “Petrophysics”? "Petrophysics"as pertaining to physics of particular rock types.. pioneer in application & quantification of rock physics in petroleum engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties Summary & conclusions © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 .Pore space properties Pore volume porosity Φ Fluid flow in pore channels permeability k Interface grain surface-fluid specific surface S SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Quartz sand scan (after van Ditzhuijzen. 2000. 2001 . 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 SYS99 . 2000.Rock type distribution All rocks Only HC producing reservoirs © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 Φ= V pores Vsample SYS99 .Porosity .definition volume of pores porosity = total volume of sample © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 SYS99 .the term “saturation” volume fluid i saturation i = pore volume a volumetric model rock matrix dry clay clay capillary movable bound water water hydrocarbon effective total porosity © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.Fluids in the pore space .

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Density of rock constituents gas oil.water rock forming minerals ores 0 1 2 3 g/cm3 Rock density decreases with increasing porosity Porous rock density increases with increasing water saturation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

5 cm) BHGM (several meters) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Borehole Gravity Meter (BHGM) depth of investigation Invaded zone Transition zone Uninvaded zone 50 cm 100 cm Density log (max. 1. 2001 SYS99 . 2000.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Th.Natural gamma activity of rocks . channels measure : integral SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 . K content of rock E spectral.Types of measurement Origin of natural radioactivity is Produces a gamma spectrum n K U Th U.

2001 WA92 .Th/K-Pe crossplot © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Geertsma & Smit (1961) equations in terms of compressibility & frequency © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. fluid viscosity and hydraulic skeleton permeability. dynamic effects such as pore connectivity. 2001 .Wave propagation in rocks • Gassmann (1951) – theory of elasticity in • • porous rocks. assumes relative motion between solids & fluids is negligible Biot (1956) – extension to Gassmann incl.

2001 .Borehole seismic example KMS99003p © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 . 2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Elastic wave attenuation Definitions & parameters µsec wave front amplitude source amplitude A Travel time difference Amplitude difference Velocity Attenuation distance x SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

amount & distribution or geometry of “conductor water” © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 SYS99 . Rock conductivity is controlled only by water conductivity.Electrical resistivity of “clean” porous rocks . Rock conductivity (or resistivity) is proportional to water conductivity (or resistivity).ARCHIE’s equations The logical walk: Clean porous rock: no clay or another conductor than pore water.

2001 JS96 . 2000.Resistivities & dielectric constants © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000.Highlights electrical methods • Sensitive to fluid • Used to define OIP • Largest number of different methods ⌦Induction ⌦Galvanic ⌦Dielectric ⌦Imaging ⌦Diplog ⌦Casing inspection • Largest number of different tools © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Resistivity – velocity: Rudman formula © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Basic interpretation principles
• Natural gamma rays used for lithology • • •

definition; high gamma rays – high shale content Gamma- gamma density; bulk density Neutron density – hydrogen concentration Resistivity; fluids (oil –water)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Integration example

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline

• Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ VSP 3D ⌦ VSP for engineering applications

2001 .Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. Direct arrival Movable 3-component wall lock geophone 3. Upgoing multiple © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Downgoing multiple 1. 2001 . Upgoing reflection 3 4.Borehole seismic ray paths Survey Well Wireline Recording ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN Source Shallow 3-component reference geophone 4 2 1 3 2.

2000. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Western Atlas Logging Services .Raw VSP data (Checkshot survey) Surface source geophone 500 ft.

2000.Basic VSP Processing Flow Common Depth Stack Describe field geometry First arrival time picking Gain correction Wavefield separation Downgoing Compute Decon operators Velocity analysis Static shift Upgoing Deconvolve Align to 2-way time BA1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Corridor stack .

2001 . 2000.Crosswell seismic surveys Surface geophone Weathering layer 2 1-Crosswell 2-VSP 3-Reverse VSP 4-Surface 5-Single well 4 5 1 3 Borehole source Borehole geophone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN .Cross-well Acquisition layout & tomographic coverage © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .P-velocity & S-velocity tomogram P S Courtesy Baker Atlas VP (X 104 ft / S) VS (X 104 ft / S) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

1997) . 2000.Crosswell example KMST000018v © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 (after Majer et al..

Single Well acquisition ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN TD KMST000018cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Single well: time lapse KMST000018ee © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 1997 . 2001 After Majer et al.

2001 After Majer et al. 2000.Fracture drilled afterwards © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1997 .

84 ft ? Array moves down ? L 13 ? ? ? ? Salt Encountered top of Salt at 3.Single Well Imaging in Gulf of Mexico 3.84 ft 118.200 ft (first shot) L1 4. 2001 Salt .84 ft 3.500 ft © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.029 ft L 1 9.220 ft 4.400 ft (last shot) Total Well Depth: 4.229 ft 9. 2000.08 ft 171 ft L 13 52.500 ft ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Expected salt at: 6.

2001 After Majer & Strack.Large scale SWS example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000 . 2000.

2000. 2001 .single well • Hydraulic fracturing monitoring .multi well Fluid flow Seismic receiver Mini-frac survey Packer © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Fracturing monitoring • Mini-frac monitoring .

2000. 2001 (After Walter et al.. 2000) .3 C hydro frac data example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000.Looking ahead of the bit • • • • • • • Real-time checkshot & VSP surveys Real-time pore pressure prediction Salt-proximity surveys Improved borehole trajectory surveys Real-time Continuous Seismic Velocity Log Identification of bit position relative to the geologic model Prediction of formation tops ahead of the bit Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Seismic-While-Drilling principles Courtesy Baker Atlas 0992TOMEX4 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 .Looking ahead of the bit BAH2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 2001 .Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 30° wave incident After Hardage. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. horizontal waves Vertical component.Clamping/cementing effects Vertical component. 2000.

2001 . 2000. 2001 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Seismic sensors After Hottman & Curtis.

TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .Model study: intelligent well seismic • Use real reservoir •Alternating WAG injection •Model single well seismic •Simulate fluid front move After Mjaaland et al. 2000. 2001.

Model study: different models After Mjaaland et al. TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001. 2000. 2001 .

Model study: geometry © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. TLE 20-10 . 2001. 2001 After Mjaaland et al. 2000.

navigation. 2000.3D VSP Data Acquisition • Purpose-built. 2001 . & source sync data VSP & 3-D surface seismic data reduces costs & maximizes synergy Rectangular grid acquisition • Advanced navigation system sea bottom • Simultaneously acquiring 3-D Circular or spiral acquisition © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. integrated data acquisition system • Multi-level 3-component downhole receivers Reflectivity volume 3-D • Advanced energy source controller speeds up operations & improves data quality integrates all borehole seismic.

North Sea (from Dangerfield. UK Enterprises Inc.. 1996) Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Brent. der © Copyright KJT North Sea (from van 2001Pal et al. 2000.Why 3-D VSP? Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Ekofisk. 1996) .

2000. 2001 Compute Decon Operators Deconvolve VSP-CDP Transform Migration 3-D VSP Image .Data Processing • Standard procedures • Pre-survey modeling • Special processing ⌦Statistical tool orientation ⌦Statics’ application ⌦Wavefield separation ⌦Velocity inversion ⌦Imaging Kirchhoff migration VSP-CDP transformation 3-D VSP Processing Flow Common depth Stack First Break Picking Describe Field Geometry 3 Component rotation Gain Correction Downwaves Wavefield Separation Upwaves • 3D Visualization • Data volume considerations © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000.Oseberg 3-D VSP Migration 3-D surface seismic inline section (processed by Elf) 3-D VSP migrated section pasted in surface seismic inline section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 3-D Surface Seismic Section Combined 3-D Surface Seismic & 3-D VSP Section .3-D VSP Migration Surface Seismic G-23 Salt Salt VSP Splice G-23 Borehole G-23 Geophone Location 3-D VSP Salt Salt © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 (after Jarvis & Knight.. 2000) .. 2000. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Near-surface VSP: VSP 2 After spherical divergences and band pass (after Jarvis & Knight.

2000. 2000) .. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc..Near-surface VSP: SH CDP section (after Jarvis & Knight. 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight.

Outline • Critical Link ⌦Cross well EM • Rock Physics ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 • Borehole Electromagnetics . 2000.

2001 .Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics ⌦Cross well EM ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

1 1 10 100 1000 Resistivity (ohm-m) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.1 Image logs Whole cores Well logs 1 10 100 Surface geophysics → Borehole geophysics Apparent Resistivity Log 0 20 Depth (m) Commercial Induction Log 60 High Temp Zone 100 MAIL tool 140 0.Upscaling…upscaling…upscaling 0. 2001 .01 ← Pore studies Core plugs 0.

1995 . 2001 After Wilt et al. 2000.amplitude Devine test: data & inversion phase © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1998 .Single well EM Resistivity (Ohm-m) 10 0. 2001 After Wilt & Alumbaugh.1 2350 2400 SCIL tool Horizontal Field Horizontal Field 2450 2500 Extended Log Extended Log Borehole Induction Log Borehole Induction Log Courtesy of EMI Inc. 2000.

2000.Seismoelectrics: signal origin Stonely wave generated Fracture generated (after Mikhailov et al.. 2001 . 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Seismoelectrics: Pressure Electric field © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 (after Mikhailov et al. 2000.. 2000) .

2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.Borehole Gravimeter (BHGM) ⌦L&R “zero-length” spring balance ⌦Capacitor force related to gravitational acceleration ⌦Standard deviations 3 µGal. Spring Capacitor’s Plate Capacitor’ Beam Capacitor’ After Strack Capacitor’s Plate et al.

Porosity: 24% Gas ρ : 0. 2000.Single well BHGM ( 3 years) Repeat BHGM across Rabbi field gas/oil contact in Gabon.780 g/cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer & Strack.082 g/cc Oil ρ : 0. 2000 .

2001 After Edcon 1994 . High density=Tight Zone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. High N counts.High resistivity. 2000.

KTB: final interpretation © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 1992 . 2001 After Wolfgram et al. 2000.

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

see above Formation testing…. Reservoir engineering Well completion …….. 2001 . 2000. Reservoir engineering Production logging …... Reservoir engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Borehole information components • • • • • • • • Mud logging ………… see geology lecture Core analysis………… see geology lecture Measuring/Logging while drilling – MWD/LWD Wireline logging Borehole seismics….

2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.LWD/MWD geosteering examples After Marshall et al.. 2001 .

Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. U.Natural Gamma log principle • measured in API units (U of H test pit) • Gamma rays are emitted by K. 2001 . Th (after van Ditzhuijzen.

Energy spectrum
U Uranium series spectrum with typical energy 1.76 MeV (214Bi)

Th

Thorium series

spectrum with typical energy 2.61 MeV (208Th)

40K

Potassium isotope

monoenergetic 1.46 MeV
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (Hearst & Nelson, 1985)

Gamma – gamma density principle

•• gamma rays are absorbed gamma rays are absorbed by formation by formation •• bulk density measurement bulk density measurement

(Labo, 1987)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Density logs (γ-γ ; neutron)

• γ-γ density gives bulk density; low could mean gas if

• neutron is high (high hydrocarbons)… so called gas effect

MWD tool

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)

2000.Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

VISION™ Screen © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Baker Atlas . 2000.

Combined photo & image image photograph © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 .Summary: Progress • • • • • Quantitative use of borehole seismics Passive monitoring is growing Borehole EM being considered Borehole gravity is there but very limited Logging extends depth and scaling © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2001 .Summary: Future • • • • Anisotropy will be key in scaling Pore pressure prediction we need hard data Deep Reading Single Well will appear Fracture mapping will grow © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

.. paper CC. Conf. Enhanced Seismic Imaging Using 3D VSP. Fanini.. E. Petroleum Geoscience 6. Deep density. Chenin. and Joyce. Geophysics 64.-M.B.. M.F. D. Improved estimation of high resolution formation resistivities for thin bed analysis. J. facies and origin of slury-flow deposits. K.L. Brady. Prammer.d. A. Kear.A. Baker Atlas.. J. InDepth 4 (1).-M. A. Maurer. E. O. 1998. InDepth 2. 87-88. Mezzatesta. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc..R.. D.L. WO 98/00733. Cheng. D.. and Evans. Transactions SPWLA Ann. K. Laronga.. Bicquardt. 1996. Edcon marketing flyer. Ounadjela.. 2000. UK North sea: petrographic constraints on Lower Cretaceous provenance. P.. 1999. Barberan.. 1998. and Bigelow..L. Borehole gravity for reservoir surveillance. P.-M. Mtg. Formation Azimuthal anisotropy. Q.. Pittman. G. A. 2001. and Spitz. The challenge of permanent 4-C seafloor systems. S. Ferguson. Lamb..-M. M.Additional references • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alixant. In-situ residual oil saturation to gas from time-lapse borehole gravity... Haines. Blackbourne. Wendt. Mapping salt flank with borehole gravity. R. J. Hayman. J. SPWLA transactions.. Tech.. and Tabarovsky. (Assigned to Shell) Beard. 2000. 78-87. SPE annual convention. Aiken.. Beard. 1994. 60-73.H.. R. Entralgo. Brady. C. Desport. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. Coates..A. Anderson. and Peron. M. Halliburton. Siegfried II.. M... 1998. K. Horst. Workshop. D.G. T. O. J. R. R. Zhou. J.. A. Xiao. 1999.J. BHGM. L. 1995. v. Electrical logging of a laminated Earth formation. R. High-Definition Induction Log. Black. 1997. l.E.. The Leading Edge 17.. Cheung. Hunziker. InDepth 5 (1). A Major Technology Breakthrough . 614620. The Log Analyst 27 (5). Edcon. and Strack. And Exh. and Thomson. Hare. Borbas.. Analysis of some unsolved induction interpretation problems using computer modeling. H. 1998.. G. 2000. Field test results of a new oil-based mud formation imager tool... 1999. S. 329-344. C. Strack. J..Cased-Hole Resistivity Tool. B. 1986. 2001 ... B.. Gelinsky. B. 1997. Vessereau.. A. 2001. Employee training lecture. and Strack.G. The Leading Edge 20.... Practical application of a new multichannel and fully digital spectrum induction system: SPE Ann..... Alaska. 12-19. Britannia Field.. SPE 30609. R. Borehole seismic processing introduction. M.... H. InDepth 5. 1996..l.. A 4-D microgravity method for waterflood surveillance: A model study for Prudhoe Bay reservoir. 12 Frenkel. and Mann. Hansen.L.H. SEG Res. P. S. Beard. 28-39.

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