KMS Technologies – KJT Enterprises Inc.

Presentation

Strack, K. – M.

2002

Reservoir Characterization with Borehole Geophysics

R. Sheriff's Reservoir Characterization Course, University of Houston

Reservoir Characterization OBC Large Scale with Onshore 3-D Seismic Surveys Borehole Geophysics
(www.kmstechnologies.com)
Integrated Reservoir Characterization, logs, Crosswell Permanent sensors Area Wide Near Surface Modeling, Borehole supported

K. M. Strack KMS Technologies 2002
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline
• The critical link • Rock Physics / Petrophysics
⌦ Pore space properties ⌦ Density of rocks ⌦ Natural radioactivity of rocks ⌦ Elastic properties ⌦ Anelastic properties ⌦ Electrical properties ⌦ Thermal & magnetic properties ⌦ Correlations between properties

• Borehole Electromagnetics
⌦ The methods ⌦ Cross well EM ⌦ Single well EM ⌦ Seismoelectric measurements
⌦ Gravity principles & examples ⌦ BHGM & Gradiometers ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ ⌦ Natural Gamma ray tools Density tools Borehole imaging Resistivity logs Sonic logs

• Borehole gravity • Logging

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ 3D VSP ⌦ VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

(ed. Baker Atlas.. Introduction to Wireline Log Analysis. 1992. 1999. Helbig. Physical Properties of Rocks . Pergamon Press Handbook of geophysical exploration .G.References – rock physics Schön. J. S. SYS99 Reference list at the end © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.M. 2000. WA92 Schoen. lecture notes.. Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics. 1996. & Strack. Yu.H. Treitel) 18.seismic exploration JS96 Western Atlas. K. J. 2001 .Fundamentals.H. K..

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 .Borehole geophysics as critical link • Establish ‘pain’ / Challenge • The issues • How do we solve it? © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 70% . 2000.DeepLook The Challenge Breakthrough needed Services .delivery vehicle Now Vision 2010 70%+ recovery Bypassed production Mis-positioned wells Low well productivity Expensive testing Reserves uncertainty Aquifer drive ?? Subsurface Sensors Various Integration Geoscience tools Reservoir Modeling Surface sensors Optimal well targeting Right facilities Minimum water production <35% After DeepLook consortium vision © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

therefore new & existing technologies must be integrated to meet the need. 2000.DeepLook Challenges: Interwell sweet spots • No one method will meet the need. 2001 . • To determine fluid distributions in the interwell space within 5 to 10 % error in accuracy. > 200 m ± 5% > 200 m ± 10% > 10 m ± 10% Hydrocarbon © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

DeepLook Scope of the Challenge 1 mm Water Oil grain Unswept oil Oil is trapped by surface tension & structure. 2000. 2001 . 1995 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Top seal Oil Non pay Formation water Sea water Perforations Deep Look.

pers.The scale issue (after Peeters. 1998) KMT000019f © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. comm. 2000. 2001 .

2000.Seismic waves © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

SEISMIC SIGNAL FREQUENCIES natural earthquake exploration geophysics well logging ultra Sonic phonons 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 108 free oscillation borehole geophysics © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 . 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.The Data Gap After Ziolkowski.

2000.seismic scale Extend borehole detail into formation Find bypassed reserves Predict ahead of the drill – risk reduction Optimized field development Monitor production – operating cost Increase recovery rate © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .Benefits: Borehole Geophysics • • • • • • • • Better link between data – less uncertainty Resolve feature at sub.

Borehole seismics – the critical link © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 ATLAS WESTERN +- .

2000.Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2001 .Geophysics as pathfinder Physical properties Well logs Cores Interpretation Borehole Borehole Borehole geophysics Field instruments Field acquisition Field data Processing concepts Interpretation Theory Analog modeling Data processing Interpretation Surface Surface Subsurface image © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Study of physical properties of rock related to pore & fluid distribution . 1950. 2000... . 2001 ." G.What is “Petrophysics”? "Petrophysics"as pertaining to physics of particular rock types. E. pioneer in application & quantification of rock physics in petroleum engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Archie...

2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties Summary & conclusions © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

Pore space properties Pore volume porosity Φ Fluid flow in pore channels permeability k Interface grain surface-fluid specific surface S SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Quartz sand scan (after van Ditzhuijzen. 2001 .

Rock type distribution All rocks Only HC producing reservoirs © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 SYS99 .

definition volume of pores porosity = total volume of sample © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Porosity . 2001 Φ= V pores Vsample SYS99 . 2000.

the term “saturation” volume fluid i saturation i = pore volume a volumetric model rock matrix dry clay clay capillary movable bound water water hydrocarbon effective total porosity © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 SYS99 .Fluids in the pore space .

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Density of rock constituents gas oil.water rock forming minerals ores 0 1 2 3 g/cm3 Rock density decreases with increasing porosity Porous rock density increases with increasing water saturation SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

Borehole Gravity Meter (BHGM) depth of investigation Invaded zone Transition zone Uninvaded zone 50 cm 100 cm Density log (max.5 cm) BHGM (several meters) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 SYS99 . 1.

2000.Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000.Types of measurement Origin of natural radioactivity is Produces a gamma spectrum n K U Th U. Th.Natural gamma activity of rocks . 2001 . K content of rock E spectral. channels measure : integral SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Th/K-Pe crossplot © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 WA92 . 2000.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

assumes relative motion between solids & fluids is negligible Biot (1956) – extension to Gassmann incl. dynamic effects such as pore connectivity.Wave propagation in rocks • Gassmann (1951) – theory of elasticity in • • porous rocks. Geertsma & Smit (1961) equations in terms of compressibility & frequency © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. fluid viscosity and hydraulic skeleton permeability. 2001 . 2000.

2000. 2001 .Borehole seismic example KMS99003p © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Elastic wave attenuation Definitions & parameters µsec wave front amplitude source amplitude A Travel time difference Amplitude difference Velocity Attenuation distance x SYS99 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 .Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Rock conductivity is controlled only by water conductivity. 2000. 2001 SYS99 .Electrical resistivity of “clean” porous rocks .ARCHIE’s equations The logical walk: Clean porous rock: no clay or another conductor than pore water. amount & distribution or geometry of “conductor water” © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Rock conductivity (or resistivity) is proportional to water conductivity (or resistivity).

Resistivities & dielectric constants © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 JS96 .

2001 .Highlights electrical methods • Sensitive to fluid • Used to define OIP • Largest number of different methods ⌦Induction ⌦Galvanic ⌦Dielectric ⌦Imaging ⌦Diplog ⌦Casing inspection • Largest number of different tools © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Rocks Physics fundamentals • • • • • • • • Pore space properties Density of rocks Natural radioactivity of rocks Elastic properties Anelastic properties Electrical properties Thermal properties Correlations between properties © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 . 2000.Resistivity – velocity: Rudman formula © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Basic interpretation principles
• Natural gamma rays used for lithology • • •

definition; high gamma rays – high shale content Gamma- gamma density; bulk density Neutron density – hydrogen concentration Resistivity; fluids (oil –water)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Integration example

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Outline

• Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

• Seismic methods

⌦ VSP ⌦ Crosswell ⌦ Single well ⌦ Micro seismic monitoring ⌦ Seismic while drilling ⌦ Fracture monitoring ⌦ Passive seismic ⌦ VSP 3D ⌦ VSP for engineering applications

2000.Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. Upgoing multiple © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . Direct arrival Movable 3-component wall lock geophone 3.Borehole seismic ray paths Survey Well Wireline Recording ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN Source Shallow 3-component reference geophone 4 2 1 3 2. Downgoing multiple 1. Upgoing reflection 3 4.

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 Courtesy Western Atlas Logging Services . 2000.Raw VSP data (Checkshot survey) Surface source geophone 500 ft.

Basic VSP Processing Flow Common Depth Stack Describe field geometry First arrival time picking Gain correction Wavefield separation Downgoing Compute Decon operators Velocity analysis Static shift Upgoing Deconvolve Align to 2-way time BA1997 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 Corridor stack .

Crosswell seismic surveys Surface geophone Weathering layer 2 1-Crosswell 2-VSP 3-Reverse VSP 4-Surface 5-Single well 4 5 1 3 Borehole source Borehole geophone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 . 2000.

2001 ATLAS WESTERN .Cross-well Acquisition layout & tomographic coverage © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

P-velocity & S-velocity tomogram P S Courtesy Baker Atlas VP (X 104 ft / S) VS (X 104 ft / S) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2000. 2001 (after Majer et al.Crosswell example KMST000018v © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1997) ..

2001 .Single Well acquisition ATLAS WESTERN ATLAS WESTERN TD KMST000018cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

2000. 1997 . 2001 After Majer et al.Single well: time lapse KMST000018ee © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

1997 . 2000.Fracture drilled afterwards © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 After Majer et al.

500 ft © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.029 ft L 1 9.Single Well Imaging in Gulf of Mexico 3. 2000.200 ft (first shot) L1 4.400 ft (last shot) Total Well Depth: 4.84 ft 3.229 ft 9. 2001 Salt .220 ft 4.500 ft ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Expected salt at: 6.08 ft 171 ft L 13 52.84 ft 118.84 ft ? Array moves down ? L 13 ? ? ? ? Salt Encountered top of Salt at 3.

2001 After Majer & Strack. 2000 .Large scale SWS example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

multi well Fluid flow Seismic receiver Mini-frac survey Packer © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.single well • Hydraulic fracturing monitoring .Fracturing monitoring • Mini-frac monitoring . 2000. 2001 .

2000..3 C hydro frac data example © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 (After Walter et al. 2000) .

2001 . 2000.Looking ahead of the bit • • • • • • • Real-time checkshot & VSP surveys Real-time pore pressure prediction Salt-proximity surveys Improved borehole trajectory surveys Real-time Continuous Seismic Velocity Log Identification of bit position relative to the geologic model Prediction of formation tops ahead of the bit Courtesy Baker Atlas © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

Seismic-While-Drilling principles Courtesy Baker Atlas 0992TOMEX4 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

2001 .Looking ahead of the bit BAH2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Outline • Seismic methods ⌦VSP ⌦Crosswell ⌦Single well ⌦Micro seismic monitoring ⌦Seismic while drilling ⌦Fracture monitoring ⌦Passive seismic ⌦3D VSP ⌦VSP for engineering applications © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Clamping/cementing effects Vertical component. 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 30° wave incident After Hardage. horizontal waves Vertical component. 2000. 2001 .

2001 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .Seismic sensors After Hottman & Curtis.

TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .Model study: intelligent well seismic • Use real reservoir •Alternating WAG injection •Model single well seismic •Simulate fluid front move After Mjaaland et al. 2000. 2001.

TLE 20-10 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001. 2001 .Model study: different models After Mjaaland et al.

2001 After Mjaaland et al. 2001.Model study: geometry © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. TLE 20-10 . 2000.

2000.3D VSP Data Acquisition • Purpose-built. navigation. 2001 . integrated data acquisition system • Multi-level 3-component downhole receivers Reflectivity volume 3-D • Advanced energy source controller speeds up operations & improves data quality integrates all borehole seismic. & source sync data VSP & 3-D surface seismic data reduces costs & maximizes synergy Rectangular grid acquisition • Advanced navigation system sea bottom • Simultaneously acquiring 3-D Circular or spiral acquisition © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

1996) .Why 3-D VSP? Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Ekofisk. North Sea (from Dangerfield. 1996) Surface Seismic 3-D 3-D VSP Brent. der © Copyright KJT North Sea (from van 2001Pal et al. 2000.. UK Enterprises Inc.

2001 Compute Decon Operators Deconvolve VSP-CDP Transform Migration 3-D VSP Image . 2000.Data Processing • Standard procedures • Pre-survey modeling • Special processing ⌦Statistical tool orientation ⌦Statics’ application ⌦Wavefield separation ⌦Velocity inversion ⌦Imaging Kirchhoff migration VSP-CDP transformation 3-D VSP Processing Flow Common depth Stack First Break Picking Describe Field Geometry 3 Component rotation Gain Correction Downwaves Wavefield Separation Upwaves • 3D Visualization • Data volume considerations © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Oseberg 3-D VSP Migration 3-D surface seismic inline section (processed by Elf) 3-D VSP migrated section pasted in surface seismic inline section © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

3-D VSP Migration Surface Seismic G-23 Salt Salt VSP Splice G-23 Borehole G-23 Geophone Location 3-D VSP Salt Salt © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 3-D Surface Seismic Section Combined 3-D Surface Seismic & 3-D VSP Section .

2000) . 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight..Near-surface VSP: VSP 2 After spherical divergences and band pass (after Jarvis & Knight. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000..

. 2000) . 2001 (after Jarvis & Knight.Near-surface VSP: SH CDP section (after Jarvis & Knight.. 2000. 2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 • Borehole Electromagnetics . 2000.Outline • Critical Link ⌦Cross well EM • Rock Physics ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2000.Outline • Borehole Electromagnetics ⌦Cross well EM ⌦Single well EM ⌦Seismoelectric measurements © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

1 1 10 100 1000 Resistivity (ohm-m) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.Upscaling…upscaling…upscaling 0. 2000.1 Image logs Whole cores Well logs 1 10 100 Surface geophysics → Borehole geophysics Apparent Resistivity Log 0 20 Depth (m) Commercial Induction Log 60 High Temp Zone 100 MAIL tool 140 0. 2001 .01 ← Pore studies Core plugs 0.

2000.amplitude Devine test: data & inversion phase © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1995 . 2001 After Wilt et al.

2001 After Wilt & Alumbaugh. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1998 . 2000.1 2350 2400 SCIL tool Horizontal Field Horizontal Field 2450 2500 Extended Log Extended Log Borehole Induction Log Borehole Induction Log Courtesy of EMI Inc.Single well EM Resistivity (Ohm-m) 10 0.

2000) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 2001 .Seismoelectrics: signal origin Stonely wave generated Fracture generated (after Mikhailov et al. 2000.

. 2000. 2000) . 2001 (after Mikhailov et al.Seismoelectrics: Pressure Electric field © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

Spring Capacitor’s Plate Capacitor’ Beam Capacitor’ After Strack Capacitor’s Plate et al.Borehole Gravimeter (BHGM) ⌦L&R “zero-length” spring balance ⌦Capacitor force related to gravitational acceleration ⌦Standard deviations 3 µGal. 1999 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Single well BHGM ( 3 years) Repeat BHGM across Rabbi field gas/oil contact in Gabon. 2000.082 g/cc Oil ρ : 0. 2001 After Majer & Strack. Porosity: 24% Gas ρ : 0. 2000 .780 g/cc © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

High N counts. 2000.High resistivity. 2001 After Edcon 1994 . High density=Tight Zone © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

KTB: final interpretation © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.. 1992 . 2001 After Wolfgram et al.

2001 .Outline • Critical Link • Rock Physics • Seismic Methods • Borehole EM • Borehole Gravity • Logging • Summary © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000.

see above Formation testing…. Reservoir engineering Production logging …. 2001 . 2000...Borehole information components • • • • • • • • Mud logging ………… see geology lecture Core analysis………… see geology lecture Measuring/Logging while drilling – MWD/LWD Wireline logging Borehole seismics…. Reservoir engineering © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Reservoir engineering Well completion ……..

LWD/MWD geosteering examples After Marshall et al. 2001 . 2000 © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.. 2000.

Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000. 2001 .

Natural Gamma log principle • measured in API units (U of H test pit) • Gamma rays are emitted by K. 1994) © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. Th (after van Ditzhuijzen. U. 2001 . 2000.

Energy spectrum
U Uranium series spectrum with typical energy 1.76 MeV (214Bi)

Th

Thorium series

spectrum with typical energy 2.61 MeV (208Th)

40K

Potassium isotope

monoenergetic 1.46 MeV
© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001 (Hearst & Nelson, 1985)

Gamma – gamma density principle

•• gamma rays are absorbed gamma rays are absorbed by formation by formation •• bulk density measurement bulk density measurement

(Labo, 1987)

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

Density logs (γ-γ ; neutron)

• γ-γ density gives bulk density; low could mean gas if

• neutron is high (high hydrocarbons)… so called gas effect

MWD tool

© Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2000, 2001

(after van Ditzhuijzen, 1994)

2000.Outline • Logging ⌦Natural Gamma ray tools ⌦Density tools ⌦Borehole imaging ⌦Resistivity logs ⌦Sonic logs ⌦NMR © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 2001 .

2000. 2001 Courtesy Baker Atlas .VISION™ Screen © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000.Combined photo & image image photograph © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000.Summary: Progress • • • • • Quantitative use of borehole seismics Passive monitoring is growing Borehole EM being considered Borehole gravity is there but very limited Logging extends depth and scaling © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

2001 . 2000.Summary: Future • • • • Anisotropy will be key in scaling Pore pressure prediction we need hard data Deep Reading Single Well will appear Fracture mapping will grow © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc.

. P. © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1994. 329-344. J. R...L. Edcon. Britannia Field.E.. Maurer. Wendt. 60-73. Gelinsky. InDepth 5.. J.. and Peron. J. 12 Frenkel. 2001. S. 2001 . SEG Res. v. Cheng. Strack. SPWLA transactions. D. J. K. l.... M. and Tabarovsky. Q. L. O. Beard. Transactions SPWLA Ann. Chenin.. Beard.. Cheung. 87-88.. Mtg. Analysis of some unsolved induction interpretation problems using computer modeling. E. 78-87. A.-M. Halliburton.. and Strack. Blackbourne. BHGM. 1995. Enhanced Seismic Imaging Using 3D VSP.. A. 1999. In-situ residual oil saturation to gas from time-lapse borehole gravity. M. Laronga. S. Improved estimation of high resolution formation resistivities for thin bed analysis.. A. 1998. and Mann..F. The Leading Edge 20.. Vessereau. J. Barberan. And Exh..A. Borehole seismic processing introduction.. 1998. Mezzatesta.L. and Strack. M. J. B. R. Electrical logging of a laminated Earth formation. Bicquardt.. InDepth 2.. 2001. D.L. and Spitz. (Assigned to Shell) Beard... Alaska. R. Entralgo. E..H. Petroleum Geoscience 6.. High-Definition Induction Log.. SPE 30609. H. Ounadjela.A. Formation Azimuthal anisotropy. M. Siegfried II. D. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. Haines..-M... 2000. 1986. Aiken. and Evans.. The Leading Edge 17.G. A 4-D microgravity method for waterflood surveillance: A model study for Prudhoe Bay reservoir. Workshop. B.. WO 98/00733. 12-19. A Major Technology Breakthrough . Prammer. Practical application of a new multichannel and fully digital spectrum induction system: SPE Ann.. Horst. 1996. Mapping salt flank with borehole gravity.-M.G. The challenge of permanent 4-C seafloor systems. Pittman. 1999. O. Kear. G..B... Deep density. 1999. Brady. Coates. 28-39.. R. Conf. Black. 2000.J. 2000. A.l.. K. Desport. A. Hare. Geophysics 64. Ferguson. D. and Thomson. Employee training lecture.-M. S. and Joyce. Hunziker..Cased-Hole Resistivity Tool..L. R.. Zhou. P. UK North sea: petrographic constraints on Lower Cretaceous provenance. Lamb. 1998. InDepth 5 (1). G.. Fanini. The Log Analyst 27 (5). facies and origin of slury-flow deposits. Anderson. and Bigelow. B. SPE annual convention. Hayman. Tech. H...H... M... paper CC.d. K. P. Borehole gravity for reservoir surveillance. Field test results of a new oil-based mud formation imager tool.. InDepth 4 (1). Edcon marketing flyer. Brady. R.. 1997. Xiao.R. T. 1997. C. 614620. Hansen. Baker Atlas. 1998. Borbas. J.Additional references • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alixant. C.. 1996.

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. minerals & ground water. K.E. Expanded Abstract volume. 1998. A. 1999... M. T. Optimizing horizontal laterals in a heavy-oil reservoir using LWD azimuthal measurements.F. The Leading Edge 17 (7). and Payton. InDepth 3(1). Poster C. F. presented at the SPWLA forty annual logging symposium. Strack. and Habashy. A. 1995. and Ikwuakor.. Determining Earth Formation Shear-wave Transverse Isotropy Using Borehole Stoneley-waves.Faster drilling.F. (invited) Strack. J.. better hole.G.R. Sheline. SEG Annual Meeting Expanded Abstracts.A... Farruggio. Tnad. 2000. SPE 56697. J. Gavity gains momentum. 4pp. Advances in electrical logging tools for reservoir characterization.J.A. Sensitivity analysis of crosswell Electromagnetics. Malusa. F.. Technology brief. Transformation of resistivity to pseudovelocity logs. Bornemann. Interrelations. Geophysics 60. B.. R. 2001 Peeters.C. Baker Atlas internal seminar.-M.. Sclumberger Technical Services.. 834841. Spies... M.. B. AAPG Bulletin 59. K. Waley. 1982. Pickett. Calgary. workshop: Advances in Exploration Geoelectromagnetism. Presentation for the Earth Science week. Finland.G.. Reservoir Connectivity Mapping.. 1995.-M..S. J. Strack. Society Exploration Geophysicists.V. Petrophysics: Basic wireline log & core analysis for hydrocarbon.M. 61-th EAGE Conference & Technical Exhibition. Society Expl. 6-11. Introduction to borehole anisotropy. 2000. New array resistvity measurements: Physics and ME case histories. Yu. paper at 7th Formation Evaluation symposium of Canadian Well Logging Society. National Convention. Helsinki. PO1694.. Borehole Gravity and its applications. .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Additional references #3 • © Copyright KJT Enterprises Inc. 1979. Integration and Interpretational Intercourse. 8th Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference. M.. 1997.-M. and Miranda. 4-15. C. Comparison of seismic sources for VSP's in a cased well: Paper presented at C. and Kriegshaeuser..M.R. 1998. Exploring the Earth with Geophysics.. anisotropy workshop.. K..M. Poletto. Turpening. 1998. coal. Blakely. . Mezzatesta.. 1999. K. and Low.R. Seismic while drilling by using dual drill-string pilot waves. and Talabani. 1999. 2001. and Biggs.c. Shell. 1992.F. Strack. 1975. Rasmus.E. K. G. T. Koelman. Middle East Well Evaluation Review 12. 1151-65. X. S.. M. G. S. Geophys. H. Frenkel. W. G. Piggin.. TU Delf course notes.. R.. 1999.. Crosswell seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization: An offshore case history. 1998. K. Calgary. Rudman. 2001.

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