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# Assembly Fits

Nathan W. Hartman, Ed.D.
Department of Computer Graphics Technology
Purdue University

Some material provided by Dr. Theodore Branoff, NC State University

Tolerance Dimensioning
• Why do we need tolerance dimensioning?
– Interchangeable parts manufacturing
– Parts are manufactured at widely separate localities
– Effective size control
– Modern industry relies on it for subcontracting and
replacement parts
• Accuracy is Expensive

Recall…Some Fundamental Rules • Dimensions shall be toleranced • Dimensions shall be complete with no more dimensions than necessary • Drawings shall define functional requirements without specifying manufacturing methods. Per ASME Y14. • Decimal dimensions shall be used.5M-1994 .

Specification of Tolerances Limit Dimension Bilateral-Equal Unilateral Bilateral-Unequal .

• The dimension below has a tolerance of .Tolerance • Tolerance is the total amount a specific dimension is permitted to vary (difference between the maximum and minimum limits). .0003.

• The heaviest part.Maximum Material Condition • When specifying tolerance dimensions. the maximum material condition (MMC) means the product or part contains the maximum amount of material specified by the tolerance. .

110 .890 = 0.000 - 24. • The allowance for the system below is: 25.Allowance • Allowance is the minimum clearance or maximum interference intended between the maximum material condition (MMC) of mating parts.

• Basic Size . 1-1/2 for 1.Maximum and minimum sizes indicated by the tolerance dimensions. • Limits . 1.More Terminology • Nominal Size .500). • Actual Size .500).General identification in decimal (ex. .General identification in fractions (ex.Measured size.

5000 – 1. • What is the allowance in this case? • 1.Clearance Fit • Space is always left between parts.4988 = .0012 .

5000 – 1.0013 .5013 = -.0013 or just . • What is the allowance in this case? • 1.Interference Fit • Always an interference of material.

Transition Fit • Fit might result in clearance or interference. .

Line Fit • Clearance or surface contact may result at assembly. .

Basic Hole System (Hole Basis) • The minimum size hole is taken as the basic size. . • Used when standard tools are used to produce holes (reamers & broaches).

• When several parts having different fits.Basic Shaft System (Shaft Basis) • The maximum shaft size is taken as the basic size. but one nominal size are required on a single shaft. .

71 0.95 –0 –0.3 –0.15 –0.25 –0.25 Hole and Shaft 0.19-1.40 0.1 –0 –0.1 –0.3 0.71-1.45 0. 0.2 thousandths of an inch.4 1.6 –0 –0.45 +0.1 0.Inches Class RC 1 Nominal Standard • Determine type of fit and Size Range Limits Inches find corresponding table Limits of • Determine basic size Clear. Hole Shaft H5 g4 • Find size range on table Over To • Determine tolerances for 0-0.55 0.24 0.7 .25 0.3 • Remember values are in 0.12 0.97 1.40-0.4 +0.24-0.25 +0.Specifying a Fit .2 +0.75 –0 –0.3 +0.35 0.12-0.15 0.2 –0 –0.5 +0.19 0.4 –0.2 –0 –0.4 –0.

40 0.71-1.2 0.6 –0 –0.0004 Over To 0.2 +0.Specifying a Fit .19 0.4 –0 –0.3 0.3 –0.1 +0.500 Inches Limits • Upper tolerance on hole is of Clear.25 -0.95 +0.0007 0.25 –0.3 –0.Inches Class RC 1 • RC1 .19-1.Close Sliding Fit Nominal Standard Size Range Limits • Basic size of 1.24-0.15 +0.15 0.35 -0.25 +0.45 • Lower tolerance on shaft is 0.1 –0 –0.1 • Lower tolerance on hole is 0-0.45 –0 –0.4 +0.55 -0.24 0.4 –0.75 –0 –0.97 1.71 0.2 –0. 0.12-0.12 0. Hole H5 Shaft g4 +0.25 0.3 • Upper tolerance on shaft is 0.5 –0 –0.40-0.2 –0.0004 0.7 .4 which is really +0.4 1.

55 0.25 –0.3 0.75 –0 –0.24 0.1 –0 –0.25 +0.71 0.35 0.19-1.4 –0.45 –0 –0. Hole Shaft H5 g4 Over To 0.24-0.40-0.Specifying a Fit .5 –0 –0.2 +0.12 0.2 –0.25 0.2 0.4 +0.6 –0 –0.25 0.3 –0.4 –0.40 0.3 +0.45 0.1 +0.1 0-0.4 1.15 +0.19 0.12-0.95 –0 –0.15 0.97 1.7 .2 –0.3 0.71-1.Inches Class RC 1 Nominal Standard Size Range Limits Inches Limits of Clear.

060 0.Metric • Determine type of fit and Loose Running find corresponding table Basic Size Hole Shaft • Determine basic size Fit H11 c11 • Find size range on table 1 Max 1.940 0.110 25 Max 25.130 19.000 24.890 0.060 0.370 Min 20.880 0.890 0.180 • Determine tolerances for Min 1.000 19.760 0.060 Hole and Shaft 20 Max 20.130 24.370 Min 25.760 0.110 .Specifying Fits .

760 0.110 25 Max 25.890 0.130 19.060 20 Max 20.Metric • Loose Running Fit Loose Running Basic • Basic size of 25 Size Hole Shaft Fit H11 c11 1 Max 1.000 19.060 0.760 0.180 Min 1.Specifying Fits .890 0.060 0.940 0.110 .370 Min 25.880 0.000 24.130 24.370 Min 20.

Functional Dimensioning • Functional features come into contact with other parts • Dimension and tolerance these features first .

• Eventually when the stack-up exceeds feature tolerances.Tolerance Stack-up • Tolerances taken in the same direction from one point are additive • Tolerances from different directions to the same point become additive. the parts do not fit together .

Tolerance Stack-up .

Tolerance Stack-up .

Tolerance Stack-up .

Design Tolerance Distribution Design Tolerance Distribution 5% 10% Manufacturing Tooling 15% Inspection 70% Wear Allowance .

How is this related to PLM? • Understanding how parts fit together is critical for the creation of complete product models. • Industry is moving towards model-based definition of critical product characteristics.41 standard is being used more frequently by industry. . • The ASME Y14. • The development of the STEP standard increasingly supports product manufacturing information  use of the 3D database throughout the enterprise. including dimensioning and geometric controls.

41 . McGraw-Hill: New York. (2007).N.geotol. A.5 • ASME Y14.References • Bertoline. Fundamentals of Graphic Communications (5e). & Wiebe. • Neumann. E. Geometric Tolerancing Fundamentals Workbook http://www.R.htm#gtfw • ASME Y14. (1996).com/details. G.

Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge the support from the Society for Manufacturing Engineers - Education Foundation. SME-EF Grant #5004 for “Curriculum Modules in Product Lifecycle Management.” .