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in the fruit
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Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.p65 1 23/09/2008, 2:59 PM

The Department for International Development (DFID) is the British government department responsible
for Britain’s contribution towards international efforts to eliminate poverty. DFID works in partnership
with developing country governments towards poverty alleviation. DFID supports long-term
programmes to help tackle the underlying causes of poverty. DFID recognises that the development
of micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is key to creating the jobs and income needed to
reduce India’s poverty. DFID is supporting the development of the MSME sector in India through
MSME Financing & Development project (SMEFDP) being implemented by SIDBI. SMEFDP aims
to enhance MSMEs’ access to institutional finance and to market oriented Business Development
Services. The Technical Assistance part of the project is funded by DFID.

TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute), a dynamic and flexible organization with a global
vision and a local focus, was established in 1974. A unique developing-country institution, TERI is
deeply committed to every aspect of sustainable development. From providing environment-friendly
solutions to rural energy requirements to helping shape the development of the Indian oil and gas
sector; from tackling global climate change issues across continents to helping conserve forests;
from advancing solutions to the growing urban transport and air pollution to promoting energy
efficiency in the Indian industry, the emphasis has always been on finding innovative solutions to
make the world a better place to live in. To this end, TERI has established regional centres in
Bangalore (Karnataka), Panaji (Goa), Guwahati (Assam), Supi (Uttarakhand) and Mumbai
(Maharashtra). It has set up affiliate institutes: TERI–NA (The Energy and Resources Institute, North
America) in Washington, DC, USA and TERI–Europe, London, UK; and it also has a presence in
Japan, Malaysia, the UAE, and Africa.

This document is an initiative of Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) for the benefit of MSME units. While every effort
has been made to avoid any mistakes or omissions, SIDBI would not be in any way liable to any person by reason of any mistake/
omission in the publication. The graphs, tables and other analyses of data that are carried in various part of this publication have been
drawn from variety of resources, both primary and secondary. It has not been possible to acknowledge individually the various
contributions. However, TERI acknowledges with gratitude the contributions made by various researchers/organizations who have
provided these data.

Published by
T E R I Press, The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road,
New Delhi – 110 003. INDIA

2 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector

Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.p65 2 23/09/2008, 2:59 PM

TERI Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 3 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. and thereby provides the impetus for growth and development. The National Action Plan on Climate Change. and thereby improve the profitability of their operations as well as reduce their environmental impacts. It contains simple but invaluable tips for units to improve their energy performance. acknowledges the need for external support to promote energy efficiency for small-scale industries. these units often do not have either the technical capacity or the resources to modify/change their inefficient technologies. SIDBI (Small Industries Development Bank of India) recognized both the need and the potential for saving energy in this important MSME cluster. This booklet is an outcome of the project. The NAPCC states that ‘The information or knowledge gap is more pronounced in case of small industries and “hand-holding” to help industries install energy efficient technologies as well as to ensure their optimum performance through best operating practices will be required’. small and medium enterprises or MSMEs play a vital role in the Indian economy. to improve productivity and quality of products. demonstration and capacity building at local levels are key ingredients for developing long-term successful initiatives in the MSME sector. yet a majority of units use energy inefficiently in their operations. There is a good possibility of extending the initiative by not only providing technical back-up support to interested entrepreneurs in the Pune cluster to adopt some of these measures and also to extend the programme to other energy-intensive small-scale clusters in India. In addition. Preface Micro. particularly in rural areas and small towns. and to develop new products for keeping up with changing demands. but also from imports often manufactured in large scale industries using modern technology and equipment. R K Pachauri Director-General. The manufacture of a vast range of products takes place in these units. released by the Prime Minister of India on 30th June 2008. and thereby reduce their environmental impact at both local and global levels. TERI studied the energy consumption patterns of representative units in the cluster. In a project commissioned by SIDBI. MSMEs have to face competition not only from medium and large enterprises in India. The survival and growth of MSMEs therefore hinges on their ability to remain competitive: that is. and identified areas in which low-cost measures could be undertaken to save energy. TERI’s decade long experience of working in the Firozabad glass industry cluster and the Rajkot foundry cluster clearly shows that investments in technology development.p65 3 23/09/2008. Of the estimated 400 energy-intensive MSME clusters in the country. In today’s liberalized economy. Maharashtra. To compound the problem. This leads to wastage of energy as well as considerable emissions of greenhouse gases. provides jobs to millions of people. most comprise units that operate on obsolete or inefficient technologies. These in turn can bring down the overall emission levels of units. Energy is a key input in food processing. this sector mobilizes local capital and skills. 2:59 PM . An example is the fruit and vegetable processing cluster located in Pune.

4 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. 2:59 PM .p65 4 23/09/2008.

p65 5 23/09/2008. Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 5 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. 2:59 PM .

SIDBI is proud to be associated with the promotion & development of this vibrant sector. However. Small & Medium Scale Enterprises. Kanpur (Leather) & Pune (Fruit & Vegetable processing). SIDBI has therefore commissioned The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) to undertake a study of the cluster and prepare a simple Do's and Don'ts booklet for the purpose. therefore. It is expected that this booklet would be helpful not only to the Fruit & Vegetable Processing sector in Pune but also to many such units all over the country. SIDBI is implementing a multi agency / multi activity Project on Financing and Development of Micro. The Project is aimed at making lending to the sector. most of the MSME units do not have ready access to these measures and thus there is a need to raise the level of awareness on the simple. Credit facility from the World Bank (WB) and KfW . The booklet prepared by TERI offers simple & useful tips on saving energy. SIDBI has started the BDS interventions in 3 clusters namely Alleppey (Coir). BDS refers to the wide range of services used by entrepreneurs to help them operate efficiently and grow their businesses. has a direct impact on the growth of the overall economy. Risk Sharing Facility. cost-effective solutions that would reduce the energy consumption of this sector and improve its competitiveness. and Technical Assistance (TA) from Department for International Development (DFID). R M Malla Chairman and Managing Director SIDBI 6 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. A dedicated Project Management Division (PMD) has been setup by SIDBI to implement this project. 2:59 PM . PMD. The performance of the sector.p65 6 23/09/2008. The project has 3 major Components viz. It has been found that the profitability of the MSME units can be improved through simple energy saving initiatives / house-keeping measures. The Fruit &Vegetable processing cluster uses a substantial amount of energy in the manufacturing process. "Business Development Services" (BDS) in MSME Clusters is the cornerstone of the DFID TA. Foreword The MSME sector has played a very important role in the socio-economic development of the country during the past 50 years. It has significantly contributed to the overall growth in terms of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). an attractive and viable financing option as also facilitating increased turnover and employment in the sector. employment generation and exports.

it depends on the processes and the product types. P Optimize excess air in the boiler. CO (carbon monoxide). hot water generation. peeling. cold the flue gas outlet and monitor the data regularly. instant mixes. heat consumption by 1%. motors temperature. air compressor. quantity required for 100% fuel combustion. Significant saving can reduces the fuel consumption by 1% be made in the energy bill by implementing simple energy Every 6 °C rise in feed water temperature by conservation measures outlined in this booklet. black colour indicates incomplete combustion. Even a small oil leakage Bagasse 5–7 25–35 of one drop per second can result in wastage of 4000 Wood/biomass 4–5 20–25 litres per year of fuel oil. P Adopt biomass-based boiler. evaporation. Typically. sauces. Excess air is the fruit pulps. spices. indirect heating. and colourless or white smoke shows Steam generation and high excess air quantity as shown in Figure 1. The parameters to be checked are Tomato ketchup/puree/ Boiler. Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 7 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. and food processing of residual oxygen in the flue gas reduces fuel industry – is generally used for blanching. chutneys P Observe colour of the smoke coming out of the Candies and jellies Boiler. and accounts for up to A 22 °C reduction in the flue gas temperature 10%–15% of the production cost. cooling tower gas analyser. 2:59 PM . ready-to. sterilization. Type of products Critical areas P Provide gauges for steam pressure and temperature on boilers and temperature gauge in Frozen fruits and Boiler. Brown hazy smoke indicates proper combustion. heat recovery or condensate recovery High energy-consuming areas in various types corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel of food-processing industries are highlighted in the consumption in the boiler table below. lighting fuels are mentioned in Table 1. vegetables storage. blast freezing. and juice.p65 7 23/09/2008. motors boiler. refrigeration. Similarly. pasteurization. fruits and vegetables. Energy can be saved both in steam generation and distribution through Table 1 Recommended O2 and excess air levels some simple measures as mentioned below. P 5 % reduction in excess air quantity (above the distribution system recommended excess air percentage) increases the boiler efficiency by 1%. Diesel 2–3 10–15 P Arrest fuel oil leakage. eat. canned traps. juices quantity of air in addition to the theoretical Ready-to-cook. steam usage. Grinder and pulverizer. Recommended excess air and O2 levels for various mixes and pickle. wherever possible. steam O 2 (oxygen). steam heating. 1% reduction Steam – in the fruit and vegetable. Recommended O2 Excess air It is environment friendly and does not contribute to Fuel level in flue gas (%) (%) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. P Analyse flue gas regularly by using portable flue motors. soup motors. Introduction Excess air and flue gas temperature are two important parameters on which the boiler The cost of energy is a significant controllable factor in efficiency depends the food-processing sector. and so on.

A 3-mm diameter hole on a pipeline (deposit) on the water side of boiler tubes could carrying steam at 7 kg/cm2 would waste 33 000 increase fuel consumption by 5%–8%. A 0. A 1-mm thick scale identified. Figure 2 shows the steam P The boiler should be checked for any soot and fly wastages from various leakage sizes at different ash deposition on the fire side of boiler tubes. pressures. use steam at a for heating the boiler water (via economizer) or lowest acceptable pressure. of steam at lower pressure is higher. the soot deposits. A 3-mm thick soot deposition on the heat transfer surface can increase the fuel consumption by 2.25-mm thick air film offers the same resistance to heat transfer Figure 1 Colour of smoke from boiler chimney as a 330-mm thick copper wall.p65 8 23/09/2008. of a bare 2-inch pipe carrying saturated steam at 10 kg/cm2 is equivalent to a fuel loss of about 1100 litres of fuel oil per month. P The boiler tubes should be cleaned regularly to P Fix all steam leakages as soon as they are avoid deposition of scale. 2:59 PM . as it still carries about 15%–20% of the total steam energy. litres of fuel oil per year. P Insulate all flanges by using pre-moulded sections because heat loss from a pair of bare flanges is equivalent to the loss from 1 foot of non-insulated pipe of same diameter. P Use air vents to remove the trapped air from the jacketed vessel as air acts as insulator and reduces the heat transfer. If the flue gas temperature rises about 40 °C P Install temperature gauges in all steam heating above the design specification. P Recover and return condensate to the boiler. since the latent heat preheating the combustion air (via air-preheater).5%. condensate/ hot water tanks with proper insulation as indicated in Table 2. it is time to remove equipment and avoid overheating of material. The heat loss from 100 feet Table 2 Indicative thickness (in mm) for mineral wool insulation for various steam pipe sizes Temperature 1-inch 2-inch 4-inch (ºC) diameter diameter diameter Up to 100 25 40 65 100–150 40 50 75 150–200 50 65 100 200–250 65 75 125 Figure 2 Indicative steam losses from various leakage sizes and pressure 8 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. P Recover the sensible heat from the hot flue gas P For all indirect steam heating. P Insulate all steam/condensate pipes.

Air blowers are well suited for such applications as they generate large Compressed air is generally used in all food processing volume of air at lower pressure with lower industry for machine operations.p65 9 23/09/2008. which is away from the minimum acceptable level. discharge pressure (above the desired) from the Table 3 Tips for efficient use of steam traps Wrong installation Description Correct installation Steam traps should be fitted in the direction of flow. increase power consumption by 2% P The air intake to the compressor should be clean. replace Since the efficiency of the compressed air system. cool (certainly not from the air-conditioned area) P Compressor discharge pressure should be kept at and drawn from a place. All compressed air usage for cleaning the floor/equipment/personal cleaning must be Compressed air system avoided. If the trap is faulty. Increase of 1 kg/cm2 air heat sources. it must be used judicially in the plant management in the plant. is less than 10% P Make use of Table 3 for efficient steam trap (Figure 3). 2:59 PM . pneumatic controls. Following recommendations should be followed for an efficient Every 5 °C rise in suction air temperature will compressed air system. All steam traps have the mark showing the flow direction Never use an inlet pipe smaller than the trap size Never install steam trap at a higher level than the drainage point to avoid back pressure Condensate discharge from traps operating at different pressures should not be collected to a common collector Each steam-using unit should always have an individual steam trap Condensate main should have a cross sectional area more than the sum of all the traps connected to it Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 9 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. from generation to end-use. P Keep the steam trap bypass line closed always except during start up. the trap rather than opening the bypass valve. energy consumption and other similar applications.

and P Change the oil filter regularly. safety valve. This will help in removing always debate the addition of a new compressed air the moisture from the system. temperature by using after coolers/air dryers before P Compressed air generation is a costly affair. compressor would result in about 4%–5% increase in P Use a properly sized compressed air storage input power. and a moisture P Compressed air should be cooled up to the ambient drain valve. fittings. pressure regulators. electric rather than air actuators. Air leakages depend on the air pressure and the size. Leakages can be identified by their hissing 0. it is better to have two compressors time excess demand in the system. hydraulic rather than air pneumatic equipment. small leakages generally go compressed air system should not be more than unnoticed. cylinders. Table 4 Power wasted due to air leakages Orifice size Air leakage Power wasted (inch) (Nm3/hour) (kW) 1/32 2. sound. 2:59 PM . reciprocating compressor and makes the flow of P If compressed air is required at two different air smooth. Consider alternatives to P Provide separators to get rid of any moisture in compressed air such as blowers for low-pressure high- the system before the compressed air reaches the quantity applications. The receiver should be fitted compressor and low pressure drop across it. The size of the compressed air at higher pressure. It is always beneficial to over intervals to facilitate clean air intake of design the air receiver. Common sources of leakages are coupling. P All the compressed air piping should be laid out in P It is very difficult to eliminate air leakages from a such a way that it minimizes pressure drops during compressed air network.8 20. electronic rather than pneumatic controls. It also acts as a reservoir to meet short pressures.2 Figure 3 Typical sankey diagram for a compressed air system 10 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. and removes the oil traces (through drain rather than having one large compressor generating trap) from the compressed air. This will also increase compressed air receiver. Leakages through various orifice sizes (at 7 kg/cm 2) are mentioned in Table 4. it enters in the system.p65 10 23/09/2008. pipe joints.9 0. during the non-operational time.2 5. condenses catering to air requirement at different pressures moisture.3 1/16 11.3 bar. and drain traps. Therefore. with a pressure gauge.3 1/8 46. receiver should be at least 6–10 seconds capacity P Air intake filters should be cleaned at regular of the compressor. Although.0 1/4 184. hoses. large leakages are transmission.5 1. valves. based application. The pressure drops in a smaller identified by their sound. It dampens the pulsation from the leakage rates roughly by 10%.

—6 a. Power factor can Maximum efficiency of a transformer is at be improved by installing capacitors in the 32% –35% load of its full load capacity electrical system. Electrical distribution system Electrical system is an integral part of all food processing industry.85 to a desired level up to 1. It should always be less or equal to unity demand usage than the sanctioned and never be leading. The benefit due to this is shown in Box 1. high system efficiency and rebate from the electricity supplying company.m.p65 11 23/09/2008. line losses. better voltage. P The benefits of higher power factor are reduced demand (as shown in the Box 2).65/kWh during 9 a. Box 3 shows a typical electricity bill along with possible areas of energy savings.) Existing load of the unit (kW) = 100 Assumed working hours per shift =6 Existing power factor = 0. to improve Maintain the power factor at the main feeder power factor from 0.95 to avail the rebate the benefit of reduced distribution loss (for example. P Stagger the non-critical load according to the electricity tariff to reduce your bill.—6 a.98 Electrical cost for night shift operation (Rs) = 3600 Capacitor required (kVAR) = ~30 New demand of the unit (kVA) = 102 (@ Rs 3/kWh during 10 p.m. This section provides some of the opportunities to improve efficiency of the distribution network. greater than 0.m.m.) = 10 kW factor from the general shift (9 a.) Cost of capacitors @ Rs 250/kVAR (Rs) = 7 500 Savings per months (Rs) = 1500 Simple payback period = less than 3 months Annual savings (Rs) = 18 000 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 11 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.9 to avoid penalty and further P Provide capacitor at the load (motor) end to have improve it to above 0.m.m.—12 p.m. An efficient electrical distribution system and demand management can reduce the electricity bill significantly. and Savings per annum (Rs) = 32 400 @ Rs 3. which may lead to motor Box 1 Benefits of load staggering Box 2 Savings in demand due to high power Load to be shifted to night shift (10 p. Table 5 provides the values of capacitance required per unit kilowatt.m.–6 p.) Reduction in maximum demand (kVA) (Rs) = 9 Electrical cost for general shift operation (Rs) = 5100 Monthly savings in demand charges@ Rs 300/kVA(Rs) = 2700 (@ Rs 4.90 Monthly power consumption (kWh) = 1200 Existing maximum demand of the unit (kVA) = 111 (Assuming 20 days operation per month) Desired power factor = 0. Any Control the maximum demand by tripping the shortfall from the desired power factor can be non-critical loads through a demand controller. met by connecting the capacitors at the main This will avoid the penalty due to excess panel.85/kWh during 12 p. 2:59 PM .m.m. and cable loading).–5:30 p.

2:59 PM . Box 3 Typical electricity bill showing some possible areas of savings 12 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.p65 12 23/09/2008.

03 0. Annual energy savings (kWh) = 138 P Make the maximum use of daylight by providing (Based on 6 hours/day for 300 days) translucent roof sheets.46 0.06 0.06 0.p65 13 23/09/2008.06 0..45 0.0 0.03 0.59 0.14 0.89 0.05 0.53 0.92 0.19 0.96 0.40 0.18 0.30 0.93 0. (@average of Rs 5/kWh.18 0.86 0.25 0.00 0.57 0.08 0. glass window. Use automatic power factor relay for Develop the habit of switching off the lights effective power factor management.85 0.42 0.24 0.26 0.00 0.20 0.34 0. This calculation doesn’t include the savings due to reduction in demand.13 0.42 0.22 0.99 1.08 0.23 0.29 0.89 0. A case study for such replacement is shown in Box 4. 2:59 PM .28 0.06 0.00 0.51 0.03 0.94 0.11 0.26 0.00 0.33 0.11 0.03 0.32 0.88 0.03 0.28 0.20 0.04 0.11 0.22 0.91 0.94 0.87 0.97 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.28 0.43 0.91 0.37 0.12 0.48 0.96 0.19 0. normally.14 0.48 0.92 0.14 0.62 0.29 0.19 0.90 0.03 0. etc.29 0.10 0.15 0.11 0.21 0. inclusive of all charges) Cost of CFL (rupees) = 160 P Replace all the incandescent bulbs with CFL Simple payback period (years) = 0. Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 13 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.17 0.13 0.11 0.13 0.16 0. Box 4 Replacement of incandescent lamp (100 W) with CFL Lighting Lamp wattage = 100 Wattage of CFL (for equivalent lighting)(W) = 23 Energy savings in lighting can be realized by adopting Savings in lighting load per lamp (W) = 77 the following tips.09 0.12 0.00 0.07 0.85 0.08 0.98 0.22 0.25 0.16 0. designed to operate Clean the lamp and fixture regularly for better at maximum efficiency between loadings of 32% lighting efficiency and 35% of its full load capacity.04 0.00 0.25 0.09 0.18 0.03 0.17 0.07 0.11 0.14 0.05 0.19 0.16 0.06 0.00 0.95 0.97 0.23 0. Table 5 Multipliers to determine capacitor kVAR required for power factor correction Original Desired Power Factor Power Factor 0.36 0.14 0.06 0.26 0.26 0.34 0.00 0.15 0.95 0.08 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.98 0. If the load on Immediately replace the fused tube light to transformer increases beyond 80% of the avoid choke losses in tube light fitting designed capacity.87 0.54 0.15 0.00 0.06 0. as it Monetary savings (rupees) = 690 is freely available. it is better to go for a new or without any useful lighting bigger transformer to avoid the sharp rise in transformer losses.08 0.31 0.93 0.00 0.10 0.39 0.2 (compact fluorescent lamp).33 0.86 0.25 0.00 Required capacitor rating (kVAR)= Load (kW) × multiplication factor burning.37 0.99 0.00 0.03 0.34 0.88 0.31 0.21 0.23 0. whenever not required P Transformers are.16 0.03 0.90 0.40 0.09 0.

processing units are given below. Oversized motors can result in for street lighting or the area where colour unnecessary energy wastage due to decrease in rendering is not important. filling.88 9.88 into almost 50% power savings Motor efficiency (%) 84 86 Motor input power (kW) 9. Box 5 Replacement of conventional tube light with energy- efficient 28 W T5 lighting system Wattage of lamp and ballast (40+15) = 55 Wattage of T-5 Lamp and ballast (28+2) = 30 Reduction in wattage = 25 Total Reduction in kW = .23 energy-efficient motors having 3%–5% higher Working hours per year 6000 6000 efficiency Annual electricity savings (kWh) – 1380 Monetary savings (rupees) – 6900 It is better to replace the old motor which has (@ Rs 5/kWh) undergone rewinding 3 times. is shown in Box 6. 2:59 PM . inclusive of all charges) Cost of T5 lighting system (rupees) = 800 Figure 4 Variation in efficiency and power factor Simple payback period in years = 2. grinding.3 8.025 Annual electricity saving in kWh = 60 (Based on 8 hours/day for 300 days) Annual monetary savings (rupees) = 300 (@average of Rs 5/kWh.9 14 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.3 75. Rating (kW) 15 11 cutting. and packaging) and utility (such Shaft load (kW) 8. application.p65 14 23/09/2008. will result in 40%– efficiency and power factor (Figure 4). P Consider painting the inner walls with a lighter colour.75 0. peeling.3 Percentage loading on the motor 55. more efficient T5 lights (28 W). A case study for Some energy conservation opportunities for small food this is mentioned in Box 5. and pumps) equipment. Motor efficiency Cost of new motors (rupees) – 20 000 goes down by 3% – 5% after each rewinding Simple pay back period (years) – 2. A case study 50% electricity savings. This will require less number of lighting fixtures. P Replacement of mercury vapour lamps with P Always use properly sized motors as per the load 70 W low pressure sodium vapour (LPSV) lamp.65 All new replacements should be done with Reduction in input power (kW) – 0. compressors. Box 6 Replacement of an oversized motor with an appropriate one Motors Parameters Existing Proposed case case Motors are used throughout a typical food-processing unit for various processes (such as mixing. P Replace all 40 W conventional tube lights with as ventilation fans.5 A 20% reduction in motor speed will result Power factor 0.7 with load for a typical motor This calculation doesn’t include the savings due to reduction in demand. pulping.

All unnecessary movement in it should be curtailed to avoid heat ingress. VSD Always examine new low-temperature cooling matches the motor speed as per the load and requirements and the temperature required to be results in savings. to avoid unnecessary heat load. P All the doors of cold storage/refrigeration chamber should be tightly closed to avoid the infiltration of outside air. movement. it is better to operate it in star increase energy consumption by 40% mode by changing to star connection or by All the lights in the cold storage/refrigeration installing auto delta-star converter. automate the compressor controls to have P Plug the refrigerant leakages as soon as they are superior matching of cooling/ refrigeration demand identified. Additional cooling by every 1 °C will increase the compressor power Refrigeration system consumption by 3%–5% Refrigeration systems consume a significant amount of electricity in the frozen fruits and vegetable- processing units. Any damage reduce the energy consumption in a system having or removal should immediately be attended to. P Remove all the excess surface water from the fruit/vegetable/corn before refrigeration (blast Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 15 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. the performance of refrigeration system. This will minimize the losses in the rewound motor. freezing or cold fruits and vegetables. Condenser coils should regularly be cleaned.p65 15 23/09/2008. temperature. This will give chamber should be kept off. even from the human body. Use of VSD can further P Regularly check the pipe insulation. if there is no a handsome saving. of the refrigerant as recommended by the Fouling or deposits on condensing/evaporating manufacturer for efficient chilling/refrigeration coils can lead to high condenser gas pressure and operation. and compressor load. They should not be opened too frequently and the duration of opening should be as short as possible. These are required for generating P All different cooling applications should be chilled water for various cooling applications and also segregated. variable cooling demand. and low evaporation temperature and P Switch off the chiller compressor as soon as the pressure. fans. The energy loss due to improper door management can be as high as 10%–20%. A chiller compressor catering to low- to generate cold air for cold storage. It is better to consumption will increase. compressor power required temperature is achieved. The following suggestions will storage) must not be used for generating chilled help in reducing the energy bill and also in improving water for cooling purposes. P If a motor is continuously running below 45% A scale build-up of 1 mm on condenser tubes can of its design load. 2:59 PM . if the load is of variable nature refrigeration load such as that for pumps. In both the cases. and freezing of temperature application (that is. P It is important to keep the surfaces of condenser P Maintain the suction and discharge parameters and evaporator clean for better heat transfer. Heat P It is appropriate to use VSD (variable speed drive) due to lighting can add up to 5%–10% of the with the motor. and mixers. attained by the product. P The motor should be rewound by a qualified person.

The ice can be used for Load on motor (@80%) in kW = 12 generating chilled water during the day. cooling tower fan when loads are reduced or Aerodynamic FRP (fibre reinforced plastic) fan blades can reduce the fan energy consumption by 15%–20% in cooling towers Replace splash bars with PVC cellular-film fill for efficient cooling tower operation Keep water in the cooling tower basin free of algal growth 16 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW.85/kWh during 12 p. Motor size (kW) = 15 and form ice in the tank. and its performance can significantly affect the P Consider installation of energy-efficient FRP performance of a refrigeration system. insulation of the ice/chilled water (Assuming 6 hours/day and 300 days tank has to be in good condition. A case study operation per year) for such operation is mentioned in Box 7. and down the heat transfer between the cooling air @ Rs 3. A reduction in refrigerant evaporation temperature by 1 °C will increase the compressor power consumption by about 3%. Frost acts as an insulator and slows (@ Rs 4.) the blast freezer and cold storage by regular Electrical cost for general shift operation (Rs) = 91 800 defrosting. during night it would be cheaper to operate chiller plant during Chiller capacity (TR) = 15 the night. Switch off the P Avoid buying an oversized cooling tower. Electrical cost for night shift operation (Rs) = 64 800 P Avoid frost formation on the evaporation coils in (@ Rs 3/kWh during 10 p.p65 16 23/09/2008.m. Cooling towers P Clean the distribution nozzles in the cooling tower Cooling tower is a sub-system of a refrigeration system regularly to have uniform distribution of water. Therefore. freezing) as it will lead to extra energy consumption by the refrigeration compressor. This can be automated by installing a basin water temperature based controller for fan operation.–6 a. same airflow. energy savings and better compared to cast iron/aluminium blades with the cooling tower performance can be achieved.m.65/kWh during 9 a.–6 p.) and coils thereby leading to the lower suction Savings per year (Rs) = 27 000 temperature at the compressor.m. control the circulation of cooling water to an application that operation of the cooling tower fan based on is not operating.–12 p.m. when the electricity charges are less. 2:59 PM . during night/colder months. For ice Power consumption (kWh) = 21 600 bank operation. P Cooling towers are designed based on the worst P Avoid idle operation of cooling tower and condition in the region.m. By following blades since they consume 15%–20% less energy the measures given below. leaving water temperatures. Box 7 Savings due to switching to ice formation P For the chilled water requirement during the day.m.

technologies as mentioned below. P Solar energy is available in plenty and should be without fluctuation explored for possible use in food industry. substantial heat quantity generation from the DG set’s exhaust. If the operating value of P All new steam using equipment (vats. P In case of a base load operation. The life cycle cost (purchase and operating including the engine and alternator. explore the P Infrared heating could be a more efficient option. LPG/oil. which could be used for heat generation. are readily available in India. which provides combined efficiency higher. Solar collectors for applications using 90—95 oC Clean the air filters regularly to reduce the temperature. proper limit. Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 17 Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. product. namely flat plate and evacuated pressure drop across it collectors. at indirect heaters. blanchers. possibility of waste heat recovery for hot water In conventional heating. performance of DG sets. range of 60%–80% of the design capacity. P The performance of the DG set can be evaluated P Whenever new process equipment is bought it in terms of SEGR (specific energy generation ratio) should have better efficiency even if the cost is in kWh/litre.p65 17 23/09/2008. preferably outside the generator room with an average radiation of 4–5 kWh/m2/day. and process controller (with temperature P Consider the use of fuel oil additives in the DG indicators) to regulate steam flow based on the set after carefully evaluating the results. from dust. The biogas generated can be used in the boiler to replace fossil fuel for example. it is time to contact the manufacturer for insulation to minimize heat loss through surface overhauling. Sunlight Air intake to the DG set should be cool and free in India varies from 2300 to 3200 hours per year. Diesel generating sets Process DG sets in the food processing industry are generally Energy consumption in the processing of fruits and used to provide back up power during power cuts or vegetables can also be reduced by inducting more when there is no power. This temperature is enough to cater to many applications such as hot water/air generation in the food-processing cluster. is used to heat the product and surroundings. infrared radiation heats only the material that needs to be heated— The fuel consumption per unit of power not the surrounding air—and thus saves energy generation is lowest if the DG set is loaded in a compared to conventional methods. whereas in infrared drying. and so on ) should have proper optimum load and with all other parameters within steam seals to stop steam leakage. P Waste generated from the fruits and vegetables based industry can be used for biogas generation. Adopting measures given efficient process equipment or by adopting the latest below will keep the DG sets in good condition. cost) of a more efficient equipment is less P Conduct regular SEGR trials to monitor the compared to one with lesser efficiency. The techno-economic feasibility of plants of various capacities is given in Table 6. 2:59 PM . SEGR is less than 80% of the design value.

5 7. 3:00 PM . It is expected that by possible implementing the suggestions mentioned in this booklet.4 Conclusions P Optimize water usage and reduce water wastages P Make maximum use of day-lighting by using Energy is an important basic input in the manufacturing translucent sheets on roof and glass windows process and its saving will have direct impact on the P Replace exhaust fans with air circulators wherever profitability of the manufacturers. Table 6 Techno-economic feasibility for installing a biogas generation plant Quantity of the waste 100 kg/day 150 kg/day 250 kg/day Quantity of the biogas to be generated (m3/day) 6 9 15 LPG equivalent (kg/day) 3 4. equipment. factor above 0.p65 18 23/09/2008. P Avoid leakages of fuel oil plants can save about 5%–10% of their energy costs. if there is no movement 18 Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. and so on when efficiency motors not in use P Keep all lights off in cold storage to avoid additional P Replace old/inefficient equipment with the new and load on refrigeration system due to extra heat load more efficient ones of lighting fixture.9 P Regularly undertake energy audit P Replace all fused tubes at the earliest to avoid choke P Meter your energy consumption losses P Optimize the equipment usage P Whenever buying a new motor always opt for high P Switch off lights. motors.7 2. P Avoid power factor penalty by maintaining power are summarized below. which are applicable to a wide spectrum P Avoid compressed air for floor/personal cleaning of plants in Pune’s fruit and vegetable processing cluster.2 3.5 Savings due to replacement of LPG (Rs/day) (@ Rs 80/kg LPG) 240 360 600 Manure generation (kg/day) (@10% of the waste) 10 15 25 Savings due to manure (Rs/day) (@ Rs 3/kg) 30 45 75 Net revenue (Rs/day) 270 405 675 Net annual recovery (Rs/year) (@300 days operation per year) 81 000 121 500 202 500 Cost of plant (rupees) 430 000 450 000 480 000 Pay back period (year) 5. P Insulate the bare surfaces in the steam and chilled Some general guidelines for energy water system conservation.

which are commissioned by power requirements. the entire audit exercise can be divided into three end-use energy efficiency. solar The ministry has started a scheme ‘Biogas based power generation program’. The photovoltaic devices. wherein the scope of the audit detailed energy audit as explained below. Energy audit indicates the ways in which different forms of energy are being used and quantify energy use according to discrete functions. 1. dryers will be provided to commercial/industrial organizations.p65 19 24/09/2008. 9:47 AM . aero-generators scheme. and so on. The study involves detailed mass and energy balance of major energy-consuming equipment. Solar air heating systems and steam generators system. and Rs 1750 per square metre renewable energy projects. In a preliminary energy audit study. The schemes that are applicable for fruits and vegetable of collector area for FPC (flat plate collector)-based solar air heating systems/ processing industries are given below. in the range of 3 kW to 250 kW. providing a cost-benefit analysis in the plant. solar buildings. 2009. for industrial applications Above details given are the brief of the various schemes of MNRE. The study proposes specific projects/feasibility studies steps. after taking in account the power purchase rate (per kWh) ex-works cost of water pumping windmills.mnre. Step 2 identifies energy consumption at the department/process of the recommended measure. subject to a maximum of Rs 3500 per square Energy conservation measures in the fruit and vegetable processing sector 19 Energy-Efficiency form of 35% of the cost of system. INCENTIVE SCHEMES FOR USING RENEWABLE ENERGY MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) provides support for development metre of dish area for solar concentrating systems. the areas to be covered under the study. Energy audit Detailed energy audit does not provide the final answer to the problem. SOME GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Dos Don’ts P Undertake regular energy audits to identify energy saving potential P Do not be stagnant P Sensitize plant personnel on the benefits of energy conservation P Do not always believe in what you hear P Encourage people to provide ideas for energy savings and reward them P Do not look for only short-term benefits P Promote group activities for information sharing at cluster level P Do not be afraid of adopting new technologies P Search constantly for energy-efficient technological solutions P Do not always depend on in-house technical P Avail external expertise to develop and undertake technological upgradation capacity P Participate in workshops and training programs on energy efficiency P Do not think low-cost solutions are always improvements economical P Share success stories and discuss energy efficiency improvement strategies P Do not be apprehensive to approach banks for with co-entrepreneurs loans to invest in energy-efficient technologies ENERGY AUDIT wastage in major equipment/processes. Solar power projects Support for maximum of 50-MW grid interactive solar power project (this includes 5. and therefore. which up to 90% of the ex-works cost) and 50% to 75% of the cost of hybrid 3. (except for un-electrified inlands for provided by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission or utility for that project. water pumping windmills. 30 000 to 40000 per kW depending upon capacity of the power generating projects or 40% of the plant cost. and products such as street lights. Energy audit is broadly classified as: preliminary energy audit and scoping study or preliminary energy audit. 12 per kWh to the eligible projects. assignment is discussed in detail with the plant personnel. one basically relies on the data supplied by the unit or panel readings from meters installed What is energy audit? in the industry. Scheme for solar energy devices and systems Under this scheme financial assistance is provided by MNRE for promotion of 4. for more detail To promote solar air heating/steam generating systems. 2. financial support in the please visit the MNRE website www. Step 3 relates energy input to production (output). The ministry provides financial assistance up to 50% of the 31 where energy management efforts must and savings. which is also called a be directed. It is generally preceded by a plant visit. MNRE provides generation based incentives through IREDA of a and wind–solar hybrid systems are useful for meeting water pumping and small maximum of Rs. The duration of the audit is a function of the size level. whichever is lower. solar air heating systems. thereby highlighting energy and complexity of the plant. Biogas plants solar water heating systems. There are different levels central financial assistance for such projects will be limited to a maximum of Rs of incentives for the different devices. The Preliminary energy audit system efficiencies are evaluated and measures are identified for improving the In a preliminary energy audit. Small wind hybrid systems both solar photovoltaic and solar thermal power projects) is given under the Small wind energy systems namely. It identifies where the potential A detailed energy audit goes much beyond the quantitative estimates of cost for improvement lies. Step 1 identifies the quantity and cost of the various energy forms used for major retrofitting/replacement proposals.

to reduce the emission of hazardous substances.p65 20 23/09/2008.sidbi. P Various other schemes e. in order to encourage select industrial sectors in the MSME sector and Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) to adopt cleaner production measures. MSMEs may also avail the benefits of carbon credit due to reduced emission of CO2. SIDBI . (SMERA) Services Besides. working capital. SIDBI has country-wide network of 74 branches to service the MSME sector efficiently:- Agartala Baroda Ganktok Jamshedpur New Delhi Shillong Agra Bhopal Gurgaon Jodhpur Noida Surat Ahmedabad Bhubaneswar Guwahati Kanpur Okhla Thane Aizawl Chandigarh Hosur Kochi Panaji Tirupur Aligarh Chennai Hubli Kolhapur Patna Trichy Alwar Chinchwad Hyderabad Kolkata Peenya Vapi Ambattur Coimbatore Imphal Kozhikode Puducherry Varanasi Andheri Dehradun Indore Kundli Pune Vijaywada Aurangabad Dhanbad Itanagar Lucknow Raipur Visakhapatnam Baddi Dimapur Jaipur Ludhiana Rajkot Balanagar Erode Jalandhar Mumbai Ranchi Bandra-Kurla Complex Faridabad Jammu Nagpur Rourkela Bangalore Gandhidam Jamnagar Nashik Rudrapur For further details please contact nearest SIDBI branch Toll free number: 1800226753 Website: www. Promotion and Development of industries in the small scale sector and to coordinate the functions of other institutions engaged in similar activities. Assistance under the scheme will be provided on softer terms to install equipments. Direct finance schemes of SIDBI P Term Loan Assistance – For setting up of new projects & for technology Small Industries Development Bank of India SIDBI was established on April (SVCL) For Small Industries (CGTSI) Of India Ltd.techsmall.smera.smefdp. so as to reduce the severe pollution Website:.made schemes. 1990 under an Act passed by Indian Parliament as the Principal Financial Institution for Financing. (ISTSL) Website:.www. SIDBI has also setup following Associate Organisations to cater to specific needs of MSME sector:- SIDBI Venture Capital Credit Guarantee Fund Trust SME Rating Agency India SME Technology Ltd. Assistance is provided on softer terms for medium & long term investments in integrated measures-machinery & equipment.www. Germany.www. diversification. employment generation and balanced regional development.www. expansion etc." SIDBI has been supporting the MSME sector with various innovative schemes and has brought special products for addressing the requirements in the areas of cleaner production measures and also energy efficiency with the support of various multilateral agencies. Vendor Development Scheme & bill discounting facility etc. Inland Letter of Credit.KfW partnership:- A new scheme namely "SIDBI-KfW Scheme for Cleaner Production Measures for SSI/CETPs" was introduced in collaboration with KfW. Mission "To empower the Micro.cgtsi. SIDBI has been endeavouring to meet the diverse needs of the MSMEs through various tailor .Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) partnership:- SIDBI and JBIC have collaborated with an objective to promote energy saving projects in MSME sector by providing financial assistance through direct finance and refinance through select PLIs/NBFCs thereby contributing to environmental improvement and economic development in the country. Guarantee Scheme . for Service sector entities & infrastructure development & upgradation. changing the processes and directly associated activities with the installation as per the approved Equipment / Activity Website:. brief details of which are as under :- SIDBI . Equity Energy-Efficiency booklet-NEW. as well as to improve the profitability of the beneficiary units in the long run. Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector with a view to contributing to the process of economic growth. of existing MSMEs. 3:00 PM .