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EEA Technical report No 9/2009

EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory
guidebook 2009
Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories

ISSN 1725-2237

X

EEA Technical report No 9/2009 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories .

Copenhagen. Copyright notice © EEA.eea.europa.europa.eea.europa. 2009 Reproduction is authorised.eu Enquiries: www. 2009 ISBN 978-92-9213-034-3 ISSN 1725-2237 DOI 10. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Neither the European Environment Agency nor any person or company acting on behalf of the Agency is responsible for the use that may be made of the information contained in this report.eu/help/infocentre/enquiries .Cover design: EEA Layout: EEA Legal notice The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the official opinions of the European Commission or other institutions of the European Communities.: +45 33 36 71 00 Fax: +45 33 36 71 99 Web: www.eu).2800/23924 European Environment Agency Kongens Nytorv 6 1050 Copenhagen K Denmark Tel. Information about the European Union is available on the internet. provided the source is acknowledged. It can be accessed through the Europa server (www. save where otherwise stated.

EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 3 . As such. Foreword by the EEA Director and the EMEP Steering Body Chair Foreword by the EEA Director and the EMEP Steering Body Chair It gives us great pleasure to introduce this To a large degree. improve air quality modelling. the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory well designed air pollution and climate change guidebook. comparable and consistent air pollutant emissions inventory data in Europe. European Environment EMEP. Finally. Reflecting these transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP) close thematic links. The European Environment Agency mitigation strategies can deliver significant (EEA) and the Cooperative programme for co‑benefits in terms of improved air quality and monitoring and evaluation of the long-range reduced greenhouse gas emissions. have contributed to the preparation and review the guidebook today contains the most recognised of the updated guidebook over the past years. we would like to thank all the experts who Originally developed under the Corinair initiative. Prof. It has evolved over a long period (TFEIP) and the European Environment Information and is now an essential tool allowing compilation of and Observation Network (Eionet). assess compliance with national and international targets and assess the effectiveness of policy interventions in terms of protecting human health and the environment. the revised guidebook is also of the UNECE Long-range Transboundary Air now compatible with. publishing earlier versions of the guidebook. and complementary to. the Pollution Convention have together cooperated 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas in partnership for over 10 years in preparing and Inventories. Steering Body It helps to better shape and define environmental Agency UNECE LRTAP Convention priorities. air pollutants and greenhouse substantially updated and revised version of gases are emitted from the same sources. set of emission estimation methods used in air particularly those from the UNECE/EMEP Task pollution studies in Europe and the UNECE Force on Emission Inventories and Projections geographical area. Jacqueline McGlade Dr Sonja Vidič Access to high quality air pollutant emissions data is Executive Director Chair a key element in supporting sound policy-making.

guidebook a valuable reference document and will make use of it. designated emission experts EEA's website: of the Convention. In addition. EEA's Environment Information www. in conjunction with the UNECE Reporting Finally. As such it is the most influential set of emission estimation methods used in air pollution studies in Europe and elsewhere. the revised guidebook has Convention). The major restructuring and pollutant emissions reporting. and comments received during the review have been We hope that you will continue to find the considered and used to arrive at the current version. Aphrodite Mourelatou. The guidebook is published by the been closely harmonised with the IPCC Guidelines European Environment Agency (EEA). the guidebook Tier 1 and Tier 2 and was performed by TNO (lead organisation) and methods and emission factors have been revised and AEA Technology in close cooperation with — and updated where appropriate.eea.europa. Preface Preface Dear colleague Compared to the previous version of the EMEP/ Corinair guidebook. one used for reporting under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change The work on the original guidebook started in 1992 (UNFCCC). The guidebook TFEIP chairs European Environment therefore complements the IPCC Guidelines. to the LRTAP Convention and its protocols. by introducing the 'Tiers' approach and by providing decision trees to support the selection In 2006 a major restructuring and update of the of appropriate methodologies. of methodology information for preparing emission inventories of ozone precursors and of sulphur dioxide following the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel Kristin Rypdal. we would like to thank both the TFEIP and Guidelines. for use by parties reporting emissions the Eionet members for their work in preparing. and all the use by European Union Member States for reporting numerous experts who have provided comments under the National Emission Ceilings Directive. In such ways. In concerning the earlier drafts of this updated addition the guidebook is the recommended source guidebook. This guidebook is a restructured and Guidelines to the LRTAP Convention. The guidebook is intended as a general reference and. and Observation Network (Eionet) and industry. The Agency guidebook is also frequently used as a reference document by researchers. The NFR updated version of the EMEP/Corinair emission reporting nomenclature is consistent with the inventory guidebook. The link to the source nomenclature of the UNECE/EMEP Task Force on Emission Inventories previous guidebook — SNAP97 — is however still and Projections (TFEIP) under the Convention on included to ensure continuity for emission inventory Long‑range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP compilers. and for using and reviewing the material. the revised guidebook is It gives us great pleasure to introduce the now structured following the Nomenclature For EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory Reporting (NFR) as defined in the Reporting guidebook. on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Chris Dore Martin Adams Greenhouse Gas Inventories. In addition to the update was funded by the European Commission. expanded for particular sources of air and it has since been developed and updated by the pollution. restructuring. 4 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . The guidebook has undergone review by experts The guidebook is available in electronic form via the from the Task Force. additional support from — the TFEIP and the EEA.eu/emep-eea-guidebook. guidebook was initiated which resulted in the the guidebook contributes to the harmonisation current version being accepted by the EMEP of international and EU greenhouse gas and air Steering Body in 2009.

......................... 12 Guidebook structure............................................. 9 Introduction ................ 16 Additional information.....b............................. ............................................ 13 When to use the guidebook..............................1 Energy industries 1..................................b...............A.............................. ....................................... 4 Contents......................................................................... 14 Other reporting.............. ................ road surface wear 1............................................ 11 How to use the guidebook............................................... 10 Concepts ...................A.. 20 Point of enquiry ............... 14 Reporting to the European Union.....3...................vi.................................................................A......................... 17 The European Environment Agency........3....................a Aviation 1.................. 14 Guidebook management..............................b..............................2 Manufacturing industries and construction 1............................................. improvement and QA/QC 7 Spatial emissions mapping 8 Projections Part B: Technical chapters 1 Energy 1............................... 21 For the following chapters.......................................... ....................................................................................................A....................................................... 5 Part A: General guidance chapters 1 Guidebook introduction.......................... 16 Mandate of the sectoral expert panels of the TFEIP.............................................................................................................. please see separate files: 2 Key category analysis and methodological choice 3 Data collection 4 Time series consistency 5 Uncertainties 6 Inventory management.A Combustion 1.................................................. 13 Reporting under the Convention on Long‑range Transboundary Air Pollution......................... Contents Contents Foreword by the EEA Director and the EMEP Steering Body Chair................A......3........... 3 Preface.......v Gasoline evaporation 1... 12 Guidebook methodology....3.......A......................................................c Railways EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 5 ..................A...............3.......................................................................... 17 Historical context.................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Scope ...............................vii Road vehicle tyre and brake wear............................................................................i-iv Exhaust emissions from road transport 1...............................................

c Storage.2.5.B.a.B Fugitive emissions from fuels 1.i Pipeline compressors 1. Contents 1.7.a.d Navigation 1.C.1 Iron and steel production 2.1 Cement production 2.A.e.a.b Lead production 2.a.4 Non-road mobile sources and machinery 1.d Other mineral production 2.b Exploration.5.5.a Copper production 2.2.E Production of POPs 2. production.c Nickel production 2.1 Pulp and paper 2.A.E Production of POPs 2.A Mineral industry 2.G Other 2.v Distribution of oil products 1.A.d Zinc production 2.C.A. 1.1.A.A. handling and transport of metal products 2.a Quarrying and mining of minerals other than coal 2.6 Road paving with asphalt 2.4 Small combustion 1.2.D.C.4 Soda ash production and use 2.vi Geothermal energy extraction 1.B Chemical industry 2.2.1.1.B.c Venting and flaring 2 Industrial processes 2.F Consumption of POPs and heavy metals 2.B.iv Refining / storage 1.C.5.2.2.C.3.a Fugitive emissions from solid fuels : Coal mining and handling 1.A.3 Aluminium production 2.b Construction and demolition 2.5.3 Wood processing 2.F Consumption of POPs and heavy metals 2.C.5 Asphalt roofing 2.B.A.C.7.c Other fugitive emissions from solid fuels 1.A.B.3.A.B.5.B.e Other metal production 2.3 Limestone and dolomite use 2. transport of oil and natural gas 1.2 Ferroalloys production 2.B Chemical industry 2.A.D.2 Food and drink 2. handling and transport of mineral products 2.C.7.A.7.C.D Other production industry 2.f Storage.A.A.B.C Metal industry 2.b Fugitive emissions from solid fuels : Solid fuel transformation 1.D.i.2 Lime production 2.G Other industrial processes 6 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 .B.

C.c Municipal waste incineration 6.D Crop production and agricultural soils 4.e Small scale waste burning 6.B Wastewater handling 6.G Agriculture other 6 Waste 6.b Industrial waste incineration 6.2 Dry cleaning 3.D Agricultural soils 4.C.C.B.A Paint application 3.F Field burning of agricultural wastes 4.1 Printing 3.A Other EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 7 .A Solid waste disposal on land 6.C Chemical products 3.D.D Other 6.C.d Cremation 6.C Waste incineration 6.D.1 Degreasing 3.B Animal husbandry and manure management 4.2 Domestic solvent use including fungicides 3.B.B Degreasing and dry cleaning 3.A Paint application 3.B Manure management 4.a Clinical waste incineration 6.3 Other product use 4 Agriculture 4.D Other waste 7 Other 7.F Field burning 4. Contents 3 Product use 3.D Other product use 3.C Chemical products 3.A Other sources 7.C.G Other 4.D.A Solid waste disposal on land 6.B Wastewater handling 6.

A Volcanoes 11.B Forest fires 11.B Forest fires 11 Other natural sources Non-managed and managed forests Natural grassland and other vegetation Wetlands and waters Animals Geological seepage Lightening Forest and grassland soils Changes in forest and other woody biomass stock Forest and grassland conversion Abandonment of managed land CO2 emissions from or removal into soil Other 8 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 .A Volcanoes 11. Contents 11 Natural sources 11.

the LRTAP Reporting Guidelines and the associated annexes are available online from the EMEP Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) website http://www.11. The guidebook also follows the example of the IPCC provides concise guidance on how to compile an Guidelines in providing decision trees to assist atmospheric emissions inventory. In revising the guidebook. Air pollutant inventories and greenhouse gas The guidebook now provides a more complete (GHG) inventories are different in a number of coverage of emission sources and emission factors important ways. The guidebook has inventory compilers make the most appropriate been prepared by the Convention's Task Force on methodological choice. the gridding methodology has been updated Emission Data under the United Nations Economic and sections restructured to avoid double counting Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on emissions from combustion and industrial processes. This nomenclature it reproduces information from earlier editions closely resembles the IPCC source nomenclature only to the extent that this continues to be relevant developed for reporting under the UN Framework and introduces a tiered approach to determining emissions. The guidebook first developed in 2001–2002 by the Convention's is compatible with. which was edition replaces all earlier versions. (3) Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (the NEC Directive). Several general guidance sections have information is derived from facility reporting.5 emission guidebook). national emission inventories' (hereafter called the Work has been done to incorporate PM2. Guidebook introduction Guidebook introduction Lead author: Mike Woodfield. OJ L 309.2007. emphasis has been given to providing default procedures for all the 1 Introduction sources and pollutants that parties to the protocols to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary The joint EMEP(1)/EEA air pollutant emission Air Pollution (the LRTAP Convention — hereafter inventory guidebook 'Technical guidance to prepare called the Convention) have the obligation to report. been introduced on the principles of preparing (1) Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP) is a scientific body established under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (2) and the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (3).at/. (4) See Section 7 for more information on these bodies. and complementary to. in as well as for revised technology descriptions particular. and more of the emission‑related throughout. 22.emep-emissions. p. the 2006 TFEIP and further improved in 2006–2007 as part IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas of the revision of the Guidelines for Reporting Inventories (hereafter called the IPCC Guidelines). EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 9 . best advantage. inventories. detailed work by the Task Force's expert panels and the European Environment Agency (EEA) (4). these are intended to help users identify the areas where improvement would be most Contributing authors (including to earlier versions beneficial so that limited resources can be focused to of this chapter): Kristin Rypdal. Martin Adams. taking into account data Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP). The The present guidebook is structured according to guidebook is published by the EEA and the present the Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR). with availability and the importance of the source. though in many cases the detailed Note 1 methodology (now Tier 3) is largely unchanged. 27. air pollutant inventories.AIR/97. Emission Data under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (hereafter called the The present version has been substantially updated: LRTAP Reporting Guidelines). A number of known shortfalls have been addressed and the 'simple methodology' has been upgraded. (2) ECE/EB. need to take into account emission and there is greater methodological consistency abatement. following the Guidelines for Reporting factors.

Completeness. responsible for global warming and climate change included in the IPCC Guidelines. • to provide procedures to enable users to compile emission inventories that meet quality criteria • assessing the potential environmental impacts for Transparency. • monitoring the state of the environment to check The guidebook may be used for general reference that targets are being achieved. are implicated in: protocols and report on cases of non-compliance to the Executive Body of the Convention. obligations under the Convention and its protocols (5). or. (5) Parties must submit data annually to the EMEP Centre on Emission inventories and Projections (CEIP (http://www. (6) These substances are listed in the Annex I to the LRTAP Reporting Guidelines. in meeting their emission reporting having the desired effects.emep-emissions. • defining environmental priorities and 2 Scope identifying the activities responsible for the problems. committee and the public. The guidebook does not provide guidance on the estimation and reporting of emissions of gases responsible for stratospheric ozone depletion. Guidebook introduction Climate Change Convention. plans. • human and ecosystem exposure to hazardous substances. eutrophication. and photochemical pollution. • providing information to policymakers in UNECE countries and the Member States of the The structure of the guidebook has been chosen European Union. Cross-referencing Inventories prepared according to the guidebook are to the Selected Nomenclature for reporting of Air suitable for: Pollutants (SNAP) 97 developed by the EEA's European Topic Centre (ETC/AE) is included. by parties to the Convention to • monitoring policy action to ensure that it is assist them. of sophistication. Consistency. The guidebook does not provide guidance on the estimation and reporting of emissions of the gases • air quality degradation. It must also be used by the Member • ensuring that those responsible for States of the European Union to fulfil their emissions implementing policies make sure that their reporting requirements under the NEC Directive. in conjunction with the LRTAP Reporting Guidelines. if emitted Committee to effectively assess compliance by into the atmosphere as the result of human and parties with their emission obligations under the natural activity. Under the Convention. the Convention and to facilitate internet delivery and to enable more its parties. The guidebook has two key functions: • setting explicit objectives and constraints. the national The guidebook may be used to prepare emission emission inventories allow the Implementation inventories of the substances (6) which. and implications of different strategies and Comparability and Accuracy (TCCCA criteria). • to provide estimation methods and emission • evaluating the environmental costs and benefits factors for inventory compilers at various levels of different policies. the Convention's implementation efficient updating gained from new research. governments are complying with their obligations. at/ceip/)) and inform the UNECE secretariat of the contents of their data submission. • acidification. pollution then cross-referencing is provided in the most appropriate specific guidance. 10 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . the EEA. If substances are • damage and soiling of buildings and other implicated in both climate change and regional structures.

and in which uncertainties elaborated in Section IV of the LRTAP Reporting are reduced as far as practicable. Consistency Inventory reporting Consistency means that estimates for any different Inventory reporting consists of the submission inventory years. Inventory year and time series Completeness National inventories contain estimates for the Completeness means that estimates are reported for calendar year during which the emissions to the all pollutants. actions and procedures have been defined and Comparability means that the national inventory collectively referred to as good practice. methods such as averaging. do not contain double counting or omissions. compiler navigate through the guidance and select the appropriate tiered methodology for their Accuracy circumstances based on their assessment of key categories. by using the reporting templates and Guidelines refined the concept of good practice and through the use of the harmonised NFR. gases and source categories are of a set of standard reporting tables for specified made in such a way that differences in the results substances. and according to. Guidebook introduction 3 Concepts means that a year of the submitted inventory is used as a basis. as specified these are reflected in the guidebook. Inventory compliers rely on the key concepts outlined below to ensure that inventories are Decision trees comparable between countries. and that the time Decision trees. interpolation and Where numerical information on emissions under extrapolation.) in the annexes to the LRTAP Reporting Guidelines. provide standardised reporting tables. the appropriate estimates (e. Where suitable data to follow this years and for the entire territorial areas of parties principle are missing. the same data are reported under different international A key category is a source category of emissions reporting obligations. each year from 1990 to 2000) is called notation key defined in Annex I of the LRTAP a time series. A sequence of annual inventory any source category is not provided. countries should ensure the reporting template and their absence should be that a time series of estimates is as consistent as documented. For projections. In order to promote the development of high-quality Comparability inventories a collection of methodological principals. Given the importance of tracking Reporting Guidelines should be used when filling in emissions trends over time. Inventories and projection is reported in such a way that allows consistent with good practice are those that contain it to be compared with other parties. a country's obligations as resultant trends should reflect real fluctuations a signatory to individual Convention protocols. Annual emissions. all relevant source categories and all atmosphere occur. unless the systematically overestimated nor underestimated.g. for the requisite source. This can be neither overestimates nor underestimates. (NB The IPCC Guidelines. help the inventory series reflect actual changes in emissions. for a given between years and source categories reflect real reporting year. possible. The LRTAP Reporting Guidelines differences in emission estimates. emissions may be estimated covered by the reporting requirements set forth in using data from other years applying appropriate the provisions of the Convention and its protocols. Consistency also means Key category that. so achieved by using accepted methodologies as far as can be judged. for each category. it is good practice to use Accuracy means that emissions are neither higher tier methods for key categories. as far as can be judged. In general. resource requirements to do so are prohibitive. consistency that has a significant influence on a party's total EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 11 . should be calculated using the content of the tables and written report may vary same method and data sources for all years. in emissions and not the changes resulting from methodological differences. This implies that parties will endeavour to remove bias from the inventory Good practice estimates and minimise uncertainty. for example. but the as far as possible. as far as practicable and appropriate.

compliance with protocol requirements). The guidelines and annexes are available online Transparency from the CEIP website (www. heavy metals as defined in the LRTAP A tier represents a level of methodological Reporting Guidelines. understand how the inventory was compiled and be assured that it meets good practice requirements. Transparency means that parties should provide clear documentation and report at a level of Note 3 disaggregation that sufficiently allows individuals The European Community. A national total is calculated by the the trend in emissions over a given time period. and sources of the inventory and projection.emep-emissions. parties should be able to explain inventory trends for each • agriculture. and continuous improvement Sectors. Tiers 2 and 3 are sometimes referred to as higher tier Note 2 methods and are generally considered to be more Annex I of the LRTAP Reporting Guidelines (ECE/EB. Tier 2. transport) and subcategories (e. passenger 4. Generally. An example of a memo-item Pollutants includes the emissions caused by fuel combustion from international shipping. An exception is for so-called inventory development in that it helps to identify 'memo‑items'. but which are reported separately. there are existing emission reporting obligations. giving particular attention to outliers.5. provided there have been no • energy recalculations. 1 is the simple (most basic) method. and Tier 3. 4 How to use the guidebook Each sector comprises individual categories (e. Ultimately countries will construct an inventory from the subcategory (source) level The guidebook is structured to provide the user because this is the level at which data tends to be with general information on the basic principles of available and total emissions will be calculated by constructing an emissions inventory and the specific 12 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . should be sufficient to ensure transparency. plus primary emissions of PM2. quality assurance/quality control in national totals (which may be used to assess and reporting. Pollutant emissions estimates are divided into sectors — groupings of related processes and sources — these are: Note 4 The use of the same methods and data sources throughout. at/).g.g. is a party to the Convention and to most or the compiler of the inventory or projection to of its protocols. Tier pollutants (POPs) emitted as by-products. and persistent organic complexity.1 Guidebook structure vehicles). summation. The guidebook is designed to cover all the substances that parties to the Convention's protocols Tiers need to report. The transparency of reporting is fundamental to the effective use. Guidebook introduction emissions in terms of the absolute level of emissions. the intermediate. Parties should document any • industrial processes and product use recalculated estimates. and extreme trends. PM10. Usually three tiers are provided. or summation of emissions for each pollutant and the uncertainty in the estimates for that party. TSP. the most demanding in terms of complexity and data requirements. those sources which following priorities for resource allocation in data collection political agreement are not included in included and compilation. review. forestry and other land use category. The category as defined in the respective reporting concept of key categories is an important aspect in requirements. • waste • other. as with all EU Member or groups other than the designated emission expert States. categories. trend changes.AIR/97) lists all the substances for which accurate.

The textual information provides a source description • Tier 2 methods use the same or similar (including a general description about technologies activity data to Tier 1 methods. for General guidance is given on: example. abatement technologies. together. production statistics. Examples might include the use of PRTR data or data from emission It is impractical to measure emissions from all trading schemes for industrial emissions the sources that. some circumstances. Note 5 Each chapter follows a structure consistent with where the activity statistics are further split into the IPCC Guidelines supplemented with additional sub-activities with more or less homogenous guidance on gridded data. statistical information (energy statistics. to the SNAP process-based classification. are given for key categories. to accommodate the effects of additional. called emission factors (EF). be modified to include other estimation parameters than emission factors. Further information is given for advanced (Tier 3) approaches for key • uncertainties. population • projections.2 Guidebook methodology sophisticated models. between activity data and emission factors. • key category analysis and methodological choice. The default Tier 1 emission factors are chosen in way that they represent 'typical' or Specific guidance is ordered according to the 'averaged' process conditions — they tend to be NFR source categories and is cross-referenced technology independent. fuel qualities. More advanced (Tier 2) methods • time series consistency. developed. The basic equation can. sizes. guidance on apply country‑specific emission factors. In many cases these methods could also be applied at a higher level of detail. improvement and • Tier 1 methods apply a simple linear relation quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). for example. comprise an emissions or models like COPERT for road transport inventory. etc. these may include using facility level data and/or 4. Guidebook introduction estimation methods and emission factors to compile be an emission factor. The basic equation is therefore: 5 When to use the guidebook Emissions = AD x EF The guidebook is intended to assist parties to the In the energy sector. emissions factors and the activity statistics quoted. estimation approach is to combine information on the extent to which a human activity takes place Wherever possible. The activity data is derived from readily available • spatial emissions inventories. categories where suitable methods are available. process characteristics. • inventory management. abatement. but and abatement technologies in use). countries that have ratified Convention protocols need to report. methodological choice (including decision trees) and country‑specific emission factors need to be tier-based emission determination methods. Simple (Tier 1) methods are • data collection (including measurement given for all the sources and substances which the methodologies). traffic counts. secondary. The guidebook describes a tiered methodology for estimating emissions. in one. using country-specific information on process conditions. etc. • Tier 3 methods go beyond the above. Consequently.). an estimate has been made of (called activity data or AD) with coefficients that the uncertainty that can be associated with both the quantify the emissions or removals per unit activity. fuel consumption Convention in meeting their emission reporting would constitute activity data and mass of sulphur obligations under the Convention and its protocols dioxide emitted per unit of fuel consumed would and the Member States of the European Union to EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 13 . the most common emissions.

are required to annually report emissions and sink 14 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . emissions in 2010 of the four main substances responsible for acidification. all Member States to establish emission inventories using the methodologies agreed under the LRTAP (vii) the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to abate Convention and to use the guidebook in preparing acidification. In addition the guidebook may be used to report some pollutants of relevance to The NEC Directive sets upper limits for each the UN Framework Climate Change Convention Member State of the European Union for the total (UNFCCC) and to other international bodies. volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Consequently. meet the underpinning objectives of specific reporting requirements under the protocols the NEC Directive to protect human health and the under the Convention. VOCs. the parties comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by are requested to provide additional explanatory the Conference of the Parties'. Guidebook introduction fulfil their emissions reporting requirements under 5.eea. by 31 December transboundary fluxes. the NEC Directive specifies that fluxes. publish and emissions quantified.3 Other reporting The reporting requirements under these protocols are described in the LRTAP Reporting Guidelines. and NH3. each year.2 Reporting to the European Union the NEC Directive. As the substances Reporting of emission data is required in order concerned are transported in large quantities across to fulfil obligations regarding the general national boundaries. (i) the 1985 Helsinki Protocol on the reduction With regard to establishing and reporting emission of sulphur emissions or their transboundary inventory data.1 Reporting under the UNFCCC estimation practice and as a checklist to ensure All parties to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol that all relevant activities are considered and their shall 'develop. The guidebook may facilitate reporting under a number of other international agreements. Parties to the Convention may use the guidebook both as a reference book on good emission 5. (ii) the 1988 Sofia Protocol concerning the control NOX. eutrophication and ground-level these inventories and projections. and emission projections of emissions of nitrogen oxides or their for 2010.3. periodically update.1 Reporting under the Convention on ground-level ozone pollution: sulphur dioxide (SO2). year but one and provisional emissions for the previous year. Data reported by Member States (iv) the 1994 Oslo Protocol on further reduction of under the NEC Directive is compiled and made sulphur emissions.europa. available through the website of the EEA's Data Service (http://dataservice. in general. The protocols with reporting environment within their territory by national action requirements are: alone. To help ensure harmonised and consistent emission (vi) the 1998 Aarhus Protocol on persistent organic information is reported. 5. individual countries could requirements of the Convention and the more not. using If another methodology has been used. Member States shall. report to the Commission and European Environment Agency their national emission (iii) the 1991 Geneva Protocol on the control of inventories and emission projection for 2010. parties information. gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. countries shall prepare and annually update national emission totals for the pollutants SO2. the NEC Directive requires pollutants. final emissions of volatile organic compounds or emissions data should be submitted for the previous their transboundary fluxes. and ammonia (NH3). The guidebook indicates that make available to the Conference of the Parties … parties are requested to document in a transparent … national inventories of anthropogenic emissions manner in their inventory report where the by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse guidebook methodology has and has not been used.eu/). ozone. (v) the 1998 Aarhus Protocol on heavy metals. Long‑range Transboundary Air Pollution nitrogen oxides (NOX). eutrophication and 5.

Sections 7. for example. for the estimation of emissions of Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR). chemical plants. it does ensure that there is volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs).1 and 7. 5. Mechanism (7) is used to monitor all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions not controlled by the Under the protocol. used under other agreements and Emissions Register (EPER) and the European conventions. and Community level. nitrous oxide and transfers. nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)'.3. Volume 1.2 Reporting to the EU monitoring mechanism such information publicly available is expected to Within the European Community. Internationally. dioxide (SO2). p.g. 1. Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The guidebook may be of value to countries preparing source-oriented inventories that cover • accommodate available data on releases from emissions made to various media including diffuse sources (e. (7) Decision 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol. ammonia (NH3) and non‑methane from emitting sources. the Kiev IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Protocol (to the UNECE Aarhus Convention) on Inventories for estimating national inventories of pollutant release and transfer registers establishes anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals PRTR requirements for parties. OJ L 33. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 15 . hydrofluorocarbons commonly referred to as Pollutant Release and (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) using the Transfer Registers (PRTRs). the major point source (e. tropospheric precursors which may be used to supplement the reporting of emissions and UNECE Aarhus Convention: Kiev Protocol on removal of greenhouse gases for which methods pollutant release and transfer registers are provided here. PRTRs should: The Decision provides for the harmonisation and • be publicly accessible and searchable through reporting of emission projections at Member State the Internet. land) as well as transfers of waste and meeting greenhouse gas reduction commitments. It is also used to transpose should be based on a reporting scheme that is related requirements under the Kyoto Protocol into mandatory. mining and metallurgical industries. guidebook may be used. by extension. nationwide pollutant the purpose of estimating emissions of sulphur release and transfer registers (PRTRs)'. nitrogen oxides United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (NOX) and non-methane volatile organic compounds Chemicals.g.3. Having 5. Within the European Union. waste and wastewater treatment plants. wastewater.2. has also. transport and agriculture). 4. water and soil and/or waste releases carbon dioxide (CO2).2006. annual and covers multimedia releases EU legislation and to evaluate progress towards (air. the European exert a significant downward pressure on levels of Community Greenhouse Gas Monitoring pollution.3 Multimedia inventories paper and timber industries). water. Although dioxide (SO2). in close cooperation with the United Nations Parties should also provide information on Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO). refers inventory developers to the The Kiev Protocol has the objective 'to enhance EMEP/Corinair guidebook (now the EMEP/EEA public access to information through the Air Pollution Emission Inventory guidebook) for establishment of coherent. two such initiatives covering The IPCC Guidelines contain links to information multimedia releases are the European Pollutant on methods. thermal power stations. perfluorocarbons (PFCs). public access to information concerning the amount of pollution released from such sources. interested in establishing a PRTR. Article 3(1)(b) requires Member States to determine and report '… data on • cover releases and transfers of at least their emissions of carbon monoxide (CO). for a number of years. Guidebook introduction (and any recalculations that have occurred) of releases to air. PRTRs developed by parties Montreal Protocol. run a (NMVOCs) and are encouraged to provide PRTR programme providing guidance to countries information of emissions of sulphur oxides (SO2). sulphur 86 substances covered by the protocol. carbon monoxide (CO). Since no further • cover releases and transfers from certain types of guidance is given on how to do so. nitrogen the protocol does not directly regulate pollution oxides (NOX).2. Such multimedia inventories are (N2O). methane (CH4). The Organisation for by sinks of greenhouse gases.

(8) Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 January 2006 concerning the establishment of a European pollutant release and transfer register. to advance and improve the use of PRTR data and to identify. and transfer registers was established in 2000. The working group has the mandate of assisting parties to the E-PRTR is the European Community's European Aarhus Convention prepare for the protocol's pollutant release and transfer register. and links • Transport. Australia.2. was developed caused by accidents on-site. p. a working The European Pollutant Release and Transfer group on PRTRs was established to prepare for Register (E-PRTR) the entry into force of the protocol.PRTR. Based on the recommendation of a workshop held in Canberra. Useful products so far are TFEIP a resource centre created by Environment Canada and a PRTR portal (www. comprehensive scope than its predecessor EPER. (9) The task force has assigned the detailed work to its expert panels which report their results to the task force. The Guidance manual for governments. how should a this data was reported by the Member States in PRTR system be implemented. In 2005 the task force was Maintaining the guidebook is the responsibility of merged with the Inter-Organisation programme for the TFEIP (9).htm). enterprises. product or number of inhabitants. agriculture.1 Mandate of the sectoral expert panels of the coordination task force. implementation. it will also include transfers of national pollutant release and transfer register waste and wastewater from industrial facilities (PRTR).unece.eu/eper/gaps. to other locations as well as data on emissions published in 1996 (OCDE/GD(96)32). 1. etc.net) providing links The expert panels are ad hoc groups established by with international and national PRTR activities and the TFEIP. how should the data be disseminated. Following the adoption of the protocol. The E-PRTR has a wider and more the website (www. which in cooperation with the Member States and other is part of the OECD's Environment. domestic developing a PRTR: why should a country establish heating.) is included. analyse and 6 Guidebook management develop tools and provide guidance to promote PRTR establishment. shipping. • Agriculture and nature.asp). it goes beyond the requirements of the protocol. Guidebook introduction • allow for public participation in its development between emissions and statistical data like national and modification.2006. on Release Estimation To assist countries in preparing for the Techniques (RETs). OJ L 33. June 2009 and made available to the public by the European Commission and EEA later that year. languages (http://eper. One important further through a series of workshops which addressed difference is that data on releases from diffuse the key factors countries should consider when sources (such as road traffic. the sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) PRTR coordination group and is now called the PRTR 6. succeeds documents. OECD/PRTR covering more pollutants with stricter thresholds. by the preparation of guidance based on Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 (8). There are currently three sectoral expert information sources.europa. a task force on pollutant release implementation of the E-PRTR the Commission.wg. The first reporting year under the E-PRTR is 2007. to facilitate the sharing and comparing of PRTR data between countries.org/env/pp/prtr. Information is also provided panels: on quality control methods. The E-PRTR. It is published by the EEA. a PRTR. the OECD has supported water from industrial installations in 65 different countries who are considering establishing a sectors of activity. what are the goals/objectives of the system and which chemical substances should be reported. 4.ec. Health and stakeholders. the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) etc. It covers more than 91 substances released to air and For a number of years. has published a guidance document Safety programme. Documents related to the tasks being and fully implements the obligations of the UNECE undertaken by the working group are available from PRTR Protocol. 16 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . emissions from product use. methodology for estimating emissions from small and medium-sized • Combustion and industry. Its main tasks being to continue for implementation of the E-PRTR in a number of to improve RETs and make them widely available. sharing information and experiences.

methodologies and guidelines. p. Guidebook introduction In addition. methodology (emission estimates. • to identify the need for further research or study Subsequently.2 Corinair and the EEA task force Names and contact details for the respective Council Decision 85/338/EEC (10) established a expert panel leaders are provided through the work programme concerning an 'experimental expert panel link on the website of the TFEIP project for gathering. 14. appearance of new transmission of air pollutants and fluxes across technologies).1.g. activity statistics.1 Historical context TFEIP has defined the role of the sectoral panels as: 7. task force created Corinair. emission factors and inventory Air Pollution was adopted in 1979.1. coordinating and ensuring (http://tfeip-secretariat. established by the Executive Body to the processes driving emissions becomes available. boundaries. is a technical forum for the exchange of information • to update emission factors within the guidebook and the harmonisation of emission inventories — in the light of new emission measurements. the first international environment agreement to address the threat of air pollution to human health • to consider the significance of each source in and the environment. guidebook now contains the most influential set of emission estimation methods used in air pollution studies in Europe and the UNECE geographical area. 7. 6. as well as on • to update the guidebook to reflect developments the quantity and significance of the long-range within the sector (e. The panels. Convention with information on the deposition and concentration of air pollutants. later took over the coordination of this work. etc. was factors. OJ L 176. the need for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range to subdivide or merge source categories and to transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP) identify where new sources categories need to is responsible for providing the parties to the be added. the Corine (Co-oRdination d'Information Environnementale) work programme in 1985. an inventory of emissions of air pollutants in Europe. In providing this information EMEP is supported by various task forces.1 Overview • to collect and review available information The Convention on Long-range Transboundary on activities. the European Environment Agency to improve the methodology. there is one expert panel dealing with 7 Additional information cross-cutting issues. Maintenance of the technical content of the TFEIP is today responsible for the technical content guidebook is the responsibility of the TFEIP expert and EEA for hosting the EMEP EEA guidebook.org). • to gather feedback and answer queries concerning the guidebook from inventory The European Council of Ministers established compilers or from the Expert Panel on Review.1985. emission negotiated under the auspices of UNECE. the Agency's • to encourage the exchange of information European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change between experts. in 1991. Convention.7. The convention. the consistency of information on the state of the environment and natural resources in the (10) Council Decision 85/338/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the adoption of the Commission work programme concerning an experimental project for gathering. It has evolved over a long period and has become an essential tool for compiling air emissions inventories to be reported under the LRTAP Note 6 Convention protocols and the NEC Directive. the Task • to update the methodologies within the Force on Emission Inventories and Projections guidebook when new knowledge concerning the (TFEIP). Queries or offers of contributions to the technical work of the expert panels may be made by contacting the relevant expert panel leader. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 17 . 7. The Cooperative programme terms of its contribution to emissions.) within the sector. as the Task Force on Emissions. including emissions factors. the expert panel on projections. coordinating and ensuring the consistency of information on the state of the environment and natural resources in the Community.

Ireland. Hungary. road transportation. • agriculture. forms. 18 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . the Netherlands. and IPCC-OECD to assist in the preparation of inventories required under the LRTAP Convention • industrial combustion. • three Baltic States: Estonia. It was agreed in 1991 to produce an update to Corinair 1985 (Corinair 1990). Italy. This project started in 1986 with the objective of compiling a coordinated inventory of atmospheric This collaboration: emissions from the 12 Member States of the Community in 1985 (Corinair 1985). Pollution (SNAP) — for emission source sectors. institutional and residential was performed in cooperation with both EMEP combustion plants. cogeneration and district heating CEC. • increased awareness of Corinair and the need • a computer software package for data input and to produce an inventory within a reasonable the calculation of sectoral. • production processes. NOX. solvent evaporation.). The Corinair 1985 inventory was developed in The Corinair 1990 inventory recognised 11 main collaboration with the countries. Spain and the United Kingdom. Portugal. • produced a more developed nomenclature (source sector split) — SNAP90 — involving The Corinair 1985 inventory covered three over 260 activities grouped into a three level substances — SO2. and miscellaneous. • then five EFTA countries: Austria. Community in 1990: Belgium. • extended the availability of the Corinair system to 30 countries. • nature. • waste treatment and disposal. eight (SO2. researchers. community (policymakers. sub-sectors and activities. • a source sector nomenclature — Nomenclature for Air Pollution Socioeconomic Activity • recognised that an emission inventory needs to (NAPSEA) and Selected Nomenclature for Air be complete. and VOCs — and hierarchy of sub-sectors and 11 main sectors. Finland. regional and national timescale to serve the requirements of the user emission estimates. Croatia. oil refineries. NH3. see below): and LRTAP/EMEP. Latvia and Lithuania. industrial combustion. recognised eight main source sectors: combustion (including power plant but excluding other • extended the list of substances to be covered to industry). Sweden and Switzerland. The Corinair 1990 system was made available to the: • extraction and distribution of fossil fuels. and CO2). • then 12 Member States of the European • solvent use. • a default emission factor handbook. Slovakia and Slovenia. etc. CO. consistent and transparent. • other mobile sources and machinery. Romania. • public power. and the UN Framework Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) respectively. Denmark. CH4. The inventory was completed in 1990 and the results published (Eurostat. Greece. Luxembourg. • Russia. OECD source sectors (as agreed with EMEP. • road transport. NMVOC. France. 1995) and distributed in tabular and map plants. Germany. gather and organise information on emissions into the air relevant to acid deposition — Corinair. This update • commercial. Environnementale — and included a project to Poland. 1991. • extended the number of sources to be considered The project also developed: as point sources (there were over 1 400 large point sources in the Corinair 1985 inventory). Norway. name CORINE — CO-oRdination d'INformation Bulgaria. nature. Czech Republic. The work programme was given the • central and eastern European countries: Albania. Eurostat. NOX. N2O processes. Guidebook introduction Community'.

This was achieved by means of level (NUTS level 3)). sources were: distributed in 1998 and fully in line with the 1996 revised IPCC Guidelines. The guidance included a The goal of Corinair 1990 was to provide a complete. smaller or more Atmospheric Emission Inventory guidebook and diffuse sources. following the approval of the EMEP Steering European Topic Centre on Air Emissions Body. In September The Corinair Technical Unit. on an area basis (usually by reporting formats and the IPCC Guidelines and administrative boundary at the county. The expanded European air emission inventory for 1994 task force reported to the EMEP Steering Body and prepared by the EEA and its then European Topic was led by the United Kingdom with support from Centre on Air Emissions (ETC/AE). CH4. The sources provided as point the preparation by ETC/AE of the revised SNAP97. NOX or the guidance proposed by the workshop for VOC or ≥ 300 000 t/yr CO2. in 1997. Corinair 1990 was finalised and published by the EEA (see under Section 5) in 1996 and 1997. Convention) arranged a series of workshops on emission inventory techniques to develop guidance • integrated iron/steel with production capacity for estimation and reporting of emission data for > 3 Mt/yr. Malta. In 1995 the Germany and the European Community (including ETC/AE developed the Corinair 1994 methodology the EEA). worked closely with the IPCC. followed by the 2008. research and other purposes. • a task force on emission inventories should be established by the Executive Body of • large vehicle paint plants with production the Convention to review present emission capacity > 100 000 vehicles/yr. NOX. The Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air • sulphuric acid plants. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 19 . Data from inventory (see above). NH3 and CO under the Convention. Based on the submitted emission Between 2004 and 2008. NMVOCs. and to 13 central and eastern European countries in June 1996. and (LTO) cycles/yr.g. estimating and reporting to the Executive Body of the Convention. department reporting formats. OECD lead-country responsibilities for TFEIP (http://tfeip- and International Energy Agency (IEA) to ensure secretariat. the Executive Body agreed that and software. The 1991 workshop recommended that: • paper pulp plants with production capacity > 100 kt/yr. recommendation that emission data should be consistent and transparent air pollutant emission reported as totals and at least for the 11 major inventory for Europe in 1990 within a reasonable source categories agreed with the Corinair timescale to enable widespread use of the inventory project and other experts for the Corinair 1990 for policy. which were made available to the TFEI should be merged with the Task Force on 18 EEA member countries and other interested Emission Projections to form the Task Force on countries (e. TFEIP was led by Norway estimates from the countries. 7.3 EMEP and the Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP) • refineries.org). through the European Commission and the European Environment Agency (EEA). an Executive Body to the LRTAP Convention. a final report and its activities supported by the other parties to describing the assessment was published by EEA the Convention including the European Community. the United Kingdom again resumed the (ETC/AE). Switzerland) in January 1996 Emissions Inventories and Projections (TFEIP). SOX. pollutants in Europe (EMEP) (funded in part through the 1984 EMEP Protocol to the LRTAP • nitric acid plants. • the EMEP Steering Body should approve • other plants emitting ≥ 1 000 t/yr SO2. inventories and reporting procedures for the purpose of further improvement and • airports with > 100 000 landing and take-off harmonisation. • power plants with thermal input capacity ≥ 300 MW. The Task Force on Emission Inventories (TFEI) was established in December 1991 by agreement of the Corinair 1990 was followed by Corinair 1994. In 1995.1. Guidebook introduction Data were provided on large point sources on an compatibility between the joint EMEP/Corinair individual basis and on other.

especially in the scope of the made available to the public. Germany. (12) Council Regulation (EC) No 933/1999 of 29 April 1999. Regulation (EC) No 1210/90 (11) (updated in 1999 by Regulation (EC) No 933/1999 (12) and commenced The EEA works closely with the European operation in Copenhagen on 30 October 1993. Denmark. Luxembourg.eu/). 20 EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 . the Netherlands. exchange The geographical scope of the Agency's work information and harmonise emission inventories is not confined to the Member States of the EU. Italy. in the regulation is 'to provide the European It consists of the EEA itself.2 The European Environment Agency Western Balkans: Albania.5. Latvia. • provide a technical forum to discuss.199.eea. priority on air quality issues). 1. Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet). establish objective. to assess the emission reporting. Eionet is a network of the The overall objective of the Agency as specified EEA and its member and participating countries. by guiding the annual emissions review process and developing the guidebook. and in the analysis by strategy of the Agency is aligned with the sixth the Commission of progress towards the fulfilment environment action programme and describes the of commitments under international agreements. Important The European Environment Agency products of the EEA include its regular 'State of the (www. methodologies and membership is open to other countries that share the guidelines. The current 2009–2013 Community inventory system. Spain. OJ L 117. 1. five European (11) Council Regulation (EEC) No 1210/90 of 7 May 1990 on the establishment of the European Environment Agency and the European environment information and observation network. Romania. results of such measures and to ensure that the public is properly informed about the state of the The objectives of the TFEIP are therefore to: environment'. of harmonising methodologies and reporting Hungary. panels. with The strategy and annual work plans of the EEA are monitoring activities. Austria. country). including emission factors. For its • Iceland. France.eu/) was established by environment' reports published every five years. use and management of natural resources and waste. Serbia and the Former The European Environment Agency is an Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Norway and Switzerland detailed work it has established a number of expert (European Free Trade Area countries). Poland. Bosnia and Herzegovina.europa. Finland. The Agency currently has 32 member countries: • conduct in-depth evaluation of emission factors and methodologies in current operation. • cooperate with other international organisations Estonia. Agency's objectives across four major thematic areas: The inventory data reported annually by both the tackling climate change. Bulgaria. Slovenia. TFEIP meets these objectives through its one or two annual meetings (usually sponsored by a host • EU candidate country Turkey. tackling biodiversity member countries and the European Community is loss/understanding spatial change. Guidebook introduction The TFEIP provides a technical forum and expert Community and the member countries with network to harmonise emission factors. Portugal. Lithuania. Sweden and the United Kingdom.1990. independent agency of the European Union and assists the Commission.eea. p. Slovakia. as appropriate. protecting available through the Data service of the EEA human health and quality of life (including a (http://dataservice. Greece. OJ L 120. Croatia. and avoiding duplication of work.5. Malta. reliable and comparable information at methodologies for the evaluation of emission data European level enabling them to take the requisite and projections and identify problems related to measures to protect the environment. Czech Republic. Ireland. and • 27 European Union Member States — Belgium. working on emission inventories with the aim Cyprus. 11. requirements. Montenegro. EEA also cooperates with the countries of the 7. Kosovo.europa. concerns of the EU and the objectives of the Agency. p. 5. Liechtenstein.

org/) for contact individual countries (including a variety of official details of the current co-chairs. the to the co-chairs of the Task Force on Emission EEA coordinates the delivery of timely. Please refer to the TFEIP validated. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 21 . Through Eionet. This forms the basis of the integrated environmental assessments that are disseminated and made accessible through the EEA website.tfeip-secretariat. air emissions and air quality data). Guidebook introduction topic centres (ETCs) and a network of around 8 Point of enquiry 900 experts from 37 countries in over 300 national environment agencies and other bodies dealing with Enquiries concerning this chapter should be directed environmental information. high‑quality environmental data from website (www. nationally Inventories and Projections.

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7 cm ISBN 978-92-9213-034-3 EEA Technical report series: ISSN 1725-2237 DOI 10.European Environment Agency EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009 Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories 2009 — 21 pp.2800/23924 . — 21 x 29.

europa.eu/enquiries .2800/23924 TH-AK-09-012-EN-N European Environment Agency Kongens Nytorv 6 1050 Copenhagen K Denmark Tel.eu Enquiries: eea.: + 45 33 36 71 00 Fax: + 45 33 36 71 99 Web: eea. 10.europa.