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Everything You Always

Wanted to Know About
Sensor/Actuator Networks
But Were Afraid to Ask

Outline
• Introduction
• Applications of WSNs
• Challenges and Constraints
• One Step Ahead WSNs - WSANs
• SmartPark
• Research Activities
• Laboratory Facilities
• Conclusion

Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
● Definition: WSN is a computer network composed of
many, spatially distributed small devices that use sensors
to monitor environment at different locations.

Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks

. Hardware Types of sensors nodes: • Now: – Berkeley’s Motes – Shockfish's TinyNodes – Moteiv's Telos – UCLA’s iBadge – Berkeley Piconodes – Harvard's Pluto Motes – RFIDs – … • Future (10 years): – Smart dust – .. Price per sensor node • Now: ~ 100$ • Future (10 years): ~ <1 $ Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

vibration. What is inside? • Components: – Sensing Component: temperature. sound.sensor – Data Processing Component: CPU – Communicating Component: RF Chip – Power Supply: Battery Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . light. radiation .

What Can We Sense? • temperature • humidity • vehicular movement • lightning condition • pressure • soil makeup • noise levels • the presence or absence of certain kinds of objects • mechanical stress levels on attached objects • the current characteristics such as speed. and size of an object Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . direction.

Outline • Introduction • Applications of WSNs • Challenges and Constraints • One Step Ahead WSNs .WSANs • SmartPark • Research Activities • Laboratory Facilities • Conclusion Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Applications Environmental applications • Forest fire detection • Biocomplexity mapping of the environment • Flood detection • Precision agriculture Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Applications Health applications • Telemonitoring of human physiological data • Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital • Drug administration in hospitals Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Applications Home applications • Home automation • Smart environment Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Applications Other commercial applications • Environmental control in office buildings • Interactive museums • Managing inventory control • Vehicle tracking and detection • Detecting and monitoring car thefts Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Outline • Introduction • Applications of WSNs • Challenges and Constraints • One Step Ahead WSNs .WSANs • SmartPark • Research Activities • Laboratory Facilities • Conclusion Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

and memory. Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . computational capacities. Why WSNs Are So Special? • Sensor nodes are limited in power. • The WSN topology might change very rapidly • Sensor networks mainly use broadcast and peer- to-peer communication • Potentially large-scale networks comprising of thousands of sensor nodes • Distributed collaborative computing : In-Network Processing • Sensor nodes are prone to failures.

Surge Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Outline • Introduction • Applications of WSNs • Challenges and Constraints • One Step Ahead WSNs .WSANs • SmartPark • Research Activities • Laboratory Facilities • Conclusion Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Sensor + Actuator • Physical world has to be sensed and controlled • Sensors: Data Sources (reactive) Report the state of the Environment • Actuators: Data Sinks (reactive) Set the state of the Environment • Controllers: Data processing (active component) Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks (WSANs) • WSAN monitors and controls the environment • In case of WSAN the consumer of the information is inside the network • Example of an Application : any distributed control system supported by WSAN Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Outline • Introduction • Applications of WSNs • Challenges and Constraints • One Step Ahead WSNs .WSANs • SmartPark • Research Activities • Laboratory Facilities • Conclusion Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

SmartPark Motivation: • improve mobility in the urban area by finding free parking spots for drivers willing to park • decrease the risk of possible accidents and pollution • eliminate road rage Problem statement: • how to help drivers find parking spaces? • how to guide them with turn-by-turn instructions? Solution: • a distributed control system supported by WSAN • an open system which can evolve Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Nothing New? • SO/TC204 Transport Information and Control Systems (TICS) www.or.vics.bart.org/technicalcommittees/tc204.“Smart Parking “ www.sae.gov/guide/parking/ ● Vehicle Information and Communication System (VICS) www.htm • San Francisco Bay Area Rapid District .jp Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

actuate by guiding vehicles • Both might act as controllers. Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . SmartPark Architecture • Parking Sensors: – sense the parking state. actuate by guiding vehicles • Wireless Guidance Devices: – sense the vehicle state.

SmartPark Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

small form factor • No need for GPS. no licensing fees • No or minimal configuration for new nodes – Simple maintenance: • No need for repairs. – Robust: • Simple and cheap to over-provision for redundancy – Simple deployment: • Unlicensed spectrum: no red tape. etc. Advantages • SmartPark advantages: – Low cost: • Self-contained. map database. simply replace low-cost sensors • Sensor network auto-configures & adapts Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . infrastructure. self-powered.

WSANs • SmartPark • Research Activities • Laboratory Facilities • Conclusion Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . Outline • Introduction • Applications of WSNs • Challenges and Constraints • One Step Ahead WSNs .

. SmartPark – Open Issues • location and tracking • navigation • efficient event propagation • energy efficiency • cost • collision-free parking spot allocation • scalability.. Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . robustness and modularity • privacy and security • and many more .

Tracking • Why it is important? – The system has to know where the vehicle is in order to guide it efficiently to a given parking spot – Dynamic road topology discovery performed by parking sensors – Useful also for possible extensions of SmartPark e. accident warning. Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .g.

Tracking • Why it is challenging? – Radio propagation patterns are not like circles – Uncertainty due to the not precise location. Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

decentralized approach – Minimize the cost of communication (only V2S communication) and the cost of computation (no complex algorithms) Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks . Tracking • How to solve this problem? – No GPS – Centralized vs.

Tracking Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Outline • Introduction • Applications of WSNs • Challenges and Constraints • One Step Ahead WSNs .WSANs • SmartPark • Research Activities • Laboratory Facilities • Conclusion Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

simulators are (still) inaccurate. Testbed • Problem – Hardware is (still) expensive. Large-scale testing and evaluation is difficult • Solution Approach – Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor/Actuator network Laboratory (WASAL): • > 10 Mica2 motes • > 40 TinyNodes • > 10 Sensor boards • > 3 Base stations Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Testbed .Setup • The feedback channel for control purposes – all nodes connected to the server over Ethernet cabling • The real communication channel for research purposes – neighboring nodes connected together via wireless link • Current status – deployment Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

what makes the design of WSN a non-trivial problem. • New laboratory @ EPFL devoted to the development of such new applications. • New applications like SmartPark that leverage new networking techniques and both the public and the research environments can benefit from it. • New research area – Distributed Control Systems supported by WSANs. Conclusion • WSNs consist of networking wireless sensors that are lack of resources. Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

Clue-O-Meter: Did You Get The Point? Please use the Mica2 motes to answer .) Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .

sics.com/sys/communication/sensors.html • http://www.cecs.html • http://www.se/sensornets/ • http://ideal.research.missouri.epfl.net.edu/~mini/sensornetworks.org/comms/sn.sensornetworks.ibm.ece.wmich.edu/~sensit/ • http://www.topology.au/ • http://www.wisc.zigbee.net • http://sensorscope.zurich.edu/wsn/ • http://ceng.edu/~anrg/SensorNetBib.epfl.com/research/exploratory/wireless_sensors.html • http://www.html • http://www.intel.ch • http://tinyos. Useful Links • http://smartpark.htm • http://www.ch • http://www.org • http://www.usc.cs.rutgers.edu/ Michal Piorkowski EPFL I&C LCA4 Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks .